基于虚拟合成孔径理论的高分辨率光学成像方法及设备技术领域本发明涉及一种高分辨率光学成像方法及设备，具体涉及一种基于虚拟合成孔径理论的高分辨率光学成像方法及设备。 Based on the theory of high-resolution synthetic aperture virtual optical imaging method TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to a high-resolution optical imaging methods and apparatus, particularly relates to synthetic aperture based on the theory of virtual high-resolution optical imaging methods and apparatus. 背景技术高分辨率光学成像技术在军事侦査、天文观测以及显微成像等领域具有广泛应用的需求，目标图像的超高空间分辨率一直是人们所追求的重要指标之一， 它是军事目标发现、识别以掌握信息权，以及人类认识太空、研究宇宙的最主要手段。 BACKGROUND high-resolution optical imaging technology in the field of military reconnaissance, astronomical observations, and microscopic imaging needs of a wide range of applications, ultra-high spatial resolution of the target image has been one of the important indicators of much sought after, it is a military target We are finding, identifying the right to access to information, as well as human understanding of space, study the most important means of the universe. 在人们对获取超高分辨率影像的动力的推动下，高分辨率的空间光学遥感器发展很快，相关技术在各国都代表着空间遥感技术领域的制高点。 In the push to get people to ultra-high resolution images of power, high-resolution space optical remote sensor developed rapidly, related technologies in all countries on behalf of the commanding heights of space technology in the field of remote sensing. 然而其进一步的发展受到能量和衍射极限的限制，这两个方面均要求系统增大光学系统口径，但口径的增大必然导致仪器体积和重量非常大，研制、发射和运行等费用也相应变得非常昂贵。 However, further development is limited by the diffraction limit and energy, that both systems require a large optical system caliber, but the caliber must increase volume and weight of the instrument is very large, development, launch, and operation costs correspondingly very expensive. 伴随着光电探测器技术的发展，其探测灵敏度性能显著提高，特别是TDI模式探测器的出现后，通过增加探测器级数可基本解决了能量限制的瓶颈问题， 于是制约光学成像系统分辨率的焦点问题变成了系统口径决定的衍射极限，相应的制约关系式为：1.22A其中麵为仪器的角分辨率，A为探测器响应的波长，D是仪器的接收光孔径尺寸。 With the development of technology, the photodetector that detects the sensitivity performance significantly improved, especially after the emergence of TDI mode detector, the detector by increasing the number of stages can be substantially solved the problem of the bottleneck limiting energy, thus restricting the resolution optical imaging system focus diameter becomes the diffraction limit determined by the system, constraints corresponding relationship is: 1.22A wherein the surface is the angular resolution of the instrument, the wavelength detector response as a, D is the aperture size of the receiving equipment. 表l高分辨率成像系统的部分指标<table>table see original document page 4</column></row> <table>从上式可以看出，对于特定波段，增加口径D是提高空间光学遥感器角分辨率的唯一可行的办法，但口径的增大意味着遥感器体积、研制难度和制造成本的骤增。 Table l some indicators high resolution imaging system <table> table see original document page 4 </ column> </ row> <table> As can be seen from the above equation, for a particular band, diameter D is increased to improve the spatial optical remote sensor the only viable way angular resolution, but increasing the mean diameter of the volume of remote sensing, development and manufacturing costs surge difficulty. 如表1所示，美国的KH-12，在近地轨道（300km左右）达到O. lm分辨率， 为满足分辨率极限需求，主镜口径为3m左右，导致卫星整体重量达到17吨；另外在天文观察方面，Hubble太空天文望远镜达到O. 05角秒（以0.5pm)，主镜直径为2.4m，导致仅主镜组件就重达828kg。 As shown in Table 1, American KH-12, near (about 300km) reaches orbit O. lm resolution, the resolution limit in order to meet the demand, primary mirror diameter of about 3m, the overall weight to the satellite resulting in 17 tons; Further in terms of astronomical observation, Hubble space telescope angle reaches O. 05 seconds (0.5pm), the primary mirror diameter of 2.4m, resulting in only the main mirror assembly to weigh 828kg. 由于卫星发射的体积和重量所限，表l所述相机已达到星载光学遥感成像的极限，因此要进一步提高分辨率，采用传统的设计思想和制造工艺已基本是行不通的，必须研究新的技术途径以实现甚高分辨率的空间光学遥感成像。 Since the satellite launch limited volume and weight, the camera Table l has reached its limit spaceborne imaging optical remote sensing, and therefore further improve the resolution, the traditional design and manufacturing process basically does not work, must New the technical approach to achieve very high resolution imaging optical remote sensing space. 光学合成孔径技术是目前可望解决这个问题的技术之一，它利用几个分离的小孔径光学系统组合来实现大孔径的分辨极限。 The optical synthetic aperture technology is currently one of the technologies is expected to solve this problem, which uses several separate small aperture optical system to achieve a combination of large pore size resolution limit. 光学合成孔径技术从结构形式上可以分两类：共用子镜形式和多望远镜系统形式。 The optical synthetic aperture technique can be divided into two types from the structural form: the form of the common sub-mirror telescope systems and multi-form. 共用子镜形式如图la，取整块主镜上的若干部位组成子镜，以主镜排列方式组成主镜，其原理与单孔径成像系统相同。 FIG La submirror common form, a number of sites on the block to take the primary mirrors submirror to the main mirror arrangement consisting of the primary mirror, the principle and the same single aperture imaging system. 多望远镜系统结构如图l. b，其核心是将多个孔径压縮在一个小孔径的成像系统中成像来获得接近大孔径成像的分辨率效果，该结构形式获得的离散孔径多为非连续，又称为稀疏孔径技术。 Multi-system configuration as shown in FIG telescope l. B, the core is compressed in the plurality of apertures forming a small aperture imaging system to get close to the resolution of a large aperture imaging effect, of the structure obtained in the form of discrete non-continuous multi-aperture , also called sparse aperture technology. 这两种结构以实际的子镜或子望远镜为基础，通过真实子孔径的拼接实现大孔径的合成，没有从根本上解决由于尺寸和重量的限制，且复杂度大大增加。 Both the actual structure or sub-sub-mirror telescope basis, to achieve a large aperture synthesis by real subaperture stitching, not resolved due to size and weight, and complexity greatly increases radically. 基于以上事实，申请者提出一种设想，就是通过孔径分光强法得到若干子孔径，然后再拼接实现大孔径的合成成像，这是设想实际上没有增加子孔径， 申请者称之为虚拟合成孔径理论。 Based on the above facts, the applicants put forward a vision, it is to get a number of sub-aperture through the aperture spectral intensity method, and then spliced to achieve large aperture synthesis imaging, which is actually not envisage increase sub-aperture, the applicant called virtual synthesis aperture theory. 发明内容本发明的目的在于提供了一种基于虚拟合成孔径理论的高分辨率光学成像方法及设备，其解决了背景技术尺寸大、重量大以及复杂程度高的技术问题。 Object of the present invention to provide a synthetic aperture based on the theory of virtual high-resolution optical imaging method and apparatus which solve the background art size, heavy weight and high complexity of the technical issues. 本发明的技术解决方案是：一种基于虚拟合成孔径理论的高分辨率光学成像方法，其特殊之处在于： 该方法包括以下歩骤1) 由前置光学系统l将光束压缩，在实现保持原有空间频率信息不变的情况下实现大口径光束的縮放；2) 通过分光组件2将前置光学系统出射光束分为多个平行光束，并将其按方向一致，空间上错位的矩阵排列结构进行排列。 Technical solution of the invention is: A high-resolution optical imaging methods based on the synthetic aperture virtual theory, which is special in that: the method comprises the step ho 1) by the front beam optical system l compressed, maintained in achieving achieved without the original spatial frequency information scaling invariant large diameter beams; 2) by the spectral components of the optical system 2 front the exit beam into a plurality of parallel light beams, and uniform direction, displaced spatially arranged in a matrix structure arranged. 3) 相位补偿组件3对每个光束的波面的相位进行调整，使它们到达进入同一个成像系统4;4) 通过数字图像采集系统5调整多束光的波面在焦面的相位差，当其为零时，则将在焦面上得到增强的图像。 3) phase compensating assembly 3 phase wavefront of each beam is adjusted, so that they reach into the same imaging system 4; 4) by adjusting a multi-beam light wavefront digital image acquisition system 5 retardation in the focal plane, when it is is zero, then the focal plane of the enhanced image. 种实现基于虚拟合成孔径理论的高分辨率光学成像方法的设备，包括前置光学系统l，成像镜系统4;成像镜系统4包括成像光学系统以及光电转换器件， 还包括与成像镜系统4连接的数字图像采集系统5，其特殊之处在于：所述前置光学系统1与成像镜系统4之间依次设置有分光组件2和相位补偿组件3，所述前置光学系统l为望远镜系统或光阑。 Species Based on the theory of virtual high-resolution synthetic aperture imaging method of the optical device, an optical system includes a pre-L, the imaging lens system 4; imaging lens system 4 includes an imaging optical system and a photoelectric conversion element, further comprising an imaging lens system 4 is connected to the a digital image acquisition system 5, which is special in that: said front mirror imaging optical system 1 and system 2 are sequentially provided with a splitter assembly between 3 and phase compensation component 4, the front of the optical system or the telescopic system is l stop. 上述分光组件2具体为强度分光元件，该强度分光元件为Sagnac干涉仪或麦克尔逊干涉仪等各种分光干涉组件。 The spectroscopic spectral intensity component element 2 in particular, the intensity of the spectral element is a Sagnac interferometer or a Michelson interferometer, and other components of the spectral interference. 上述的相位补偿组件3为光学相位补偿板或液晶相位补偿器。 The above-described phase compensation assembly 3 is an optical phase compensation plate or a liquid crystal phase compensator. 本发明具有结构简单，尺寸小，重量小，基本不增加小口径光学系统尺寸的情况下实现衍射极限的突破的优点。 The present invention has the advantage breakthrough diffraction limit of a simple structure, small size, low weight, substantially increasing the size of the optical system of small-caliber cases. 附图说明图l为本发明结构原理图。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS Figure l is a structural schematic diagram of the invention. 图2为光学虚拟合成孔径原理示意图。 Figure 2 is a schematic view of an optical synthetic aperture virtual principle. 图3为现有技术合成孔径示意图，其中a为共用子镜形式，b为多望远系统形式。 3 is a schematic view of the prior art synthetic aperture, which is a common sub-mirror form, b is in the form of a multi-telescope system. 图4虚拟合成孔径干涉原理图，包括a图和b图。 FIG 4 Schematic virtual Interferometric Synthetic Aperture, comprising a and b in FIG. FIGS. 图5合成孔径焦面点扩散函数分布图。 5 Synthetic Aperture focal plane of FIG point spread function profile. 具体实施方式参见图l， 一种实现基于虚拟合成孔径理论的高分辨率光学成像方法的设备，包括前置光学系统l，成像镜系统4;成像镜系统4包括成像光学系统以及光电转换器件，还包括与成像镜系统4连接的数字图像采集系统5，前置光学系统l 与成像镜系统4之间依次设置有分光组件2和相位补偿组件3，前置光学系统l为望远镜系统或光阑；分光组件2具体为强度分光元件，该强度分光元件为Sagnac 干涉仪或麦克尔逊干涉仪等各种分光干涉组件；相位补偿组件3为光学相位补偿板或液晶相位补偿器。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring to FIG. L, an implementation based on a high resolution optical imaging apparatus theory virtual synthetic aperture method, an optical system includes a pre-L, the imaging lens system 4; imaging lens system 4 includes an imaging optical system and a photoelectric conversion element, and further comprising a digital image acquisition system connected to the imaging lens system 4 5, l front optical system and the imaging lens system 2 arranged in this order and the phase splitter assembly 43 between the compensation component, the pre-telescopic system of the optical system or a diaphragm for the l ; spectral intensity spectral component element 2 in particular, the intensity of the spectral element is a Sagnac interferometer or a Michelson interferometer, other interferometric spectral components; a phase compensation component 3 is an optical phase compensation plate or a liquid crystal phase compensator. 成像时，由前置光学系统l将光束压縮，在实现保持原有空间频率信息不变的情况下实现大口径光束的縮放；通过分光组件2将前置光学系统出射光束分为多个平行光束，并将其按方向一致，空间上错位的矩阵排列结构进行排列；相位补偿组件3对每个光束的波面的相位进行调整，使它们到达进入同一个成像系统4;通过数字图像采集系统5调整多束光的波面在焦面的相位差，当其为零时， 则将在焦面上得到增强的图像。 When the imaging optical system by the front beam compression l, to achieve large-diameter zoom beam achieved in the case of maintaining the original spatial frequency information unchanged; splitter assembly 2 through the front optical system is divided into a plurality of parallel outgoing beam beam, and according to the same direction, the spatial offset matrix arrangement arranged; assembly 3 phase compensation to adjust the phase of the wave surface of each beam, so that they reach into the same imaging system 4; 5 via digital image acquisition system adjustment of the wavefront phase difference of the multi-beam focal plane, when it is zero, will be enhanced in the focal plane of the image. 实施例，本实施例考虑以原理验证为主，尽量简化。 Example embodiment mainly consider proof of principle, the present embodiment as simple as possible. 在建立试验装置时， 我们简化了原理示意图的结构，前置光学系统用一个小的光阑代替，通过将一个孔径过来的光以强度分光元件将其分为两束，再将这两束的波面相位调整， 进入同一个成像系统，调整两束光的波面相位差，当其为零时，则将在焦面上得到增强的图像。 When TEST APPARATUS, we simplified schematic diagram of the principle structure of an optical system with a small front diaphragm is replaced by a light intensity over the aperture of the spectroscopic element divided into two beams, the two beams then wavefront phase adjustment, into the same imaging system, the two light beams adjusted wavefront retardation, when it is zero, then the enhanced image focal plane. 实施例可行性分析：1、干涉理论分析参见图4，假设一个直径为D的瞳面被分为两个相距d的瞳面01与02，如图所示，由于他们源于同一光束，因而在一定范围内相干。 Feasibility Analysis Example Embodiment: 1, see Fig. 4 Analysis interference theory, assuming a diameter D of the pupil plane is divided into two pupil plane distance d of 01 and 02, as shown, because they are derived from the same beam, thus coherence within a certain range. 设某一目标点在Ol与02处产生的光波为El-E2-fe-h则通过同一光学系统会聚后，其焦面上的此时，参见图5，系统的点扩散函数可以看作来自两个分离虚拟孔径的衍射斑相互叠加后与双光束干涉进行调制的结果，如图所示，垂直于基线d的方向系统孔径宽度没有改变，在该方向上点扩散函数的分布与单孔径的情况相同。 After setting a target point through the same optical system as converging El-E2-fe-h light waves generated in Ol and at 02, the point spread function At this time, referring to Figure 5, the system which can be regarded as the focal plane from after two separate virtual aperture diffraction spot superposed on each other with the two-beam interference result of the modulation, as shown, perpendicular to the base aperture width d in the direction of the system has not changed, in the direction of the point spread function of the aperture distribution of a single the same situation. 平行于基线的方向，由于干涉因子的调制中心亮斑的宽度变为拟d，中心最大强度是单孔径情况下的四倍。 Direction parallel to the base line, due to the interference of the modulation factor becomes the center of the width of the bright spots intended to d, the maximum intensity is four times the center in the case of a single aperture. 也就是说，由于发生了干涉而使中心亮斑变窄，整个系统的分辨率在平行基线方向得到了提高。 That is, the center of the interference due to the occurrence of hot spot is narrowed, the resolution of the system is improved in a direction parallel to the baseline. 2、信息获取机理在一个有限口径的仪器系统基础上，要突破衍射极限，这似乎是不可能的， 因为信息是不会增加的。 2, the mechanism of access to information in a limited caliber instrument system, based on to break the diffraction limit, which seems unlikely, because the information is not increased. 然而当事物存在规律时，通过信息外推理论，即由已知量或可测量来推测未知量，这是可行的。 However, when there is a law of things, by an outer push information theory, i.e., by a measurable amount, or to estimate a known unknowns, this is feasible. 本方法信息获取手段可以看作是通过有限的波面角谱信息外推较大的波面角谱信息，来达到提高成像系统的截止角谱的目的。 Information acquisition means of the present process can be seen as limited by the wavefront information is pushed outside the large angular spectrum wavefront angular spectrum information, to achieve the purpose of improving the cutoff angular spectrum of the imaging system. 对于一个成像系统的点目标而言，通过仪器可以探测的一定范围内的瞳面上的波面信息可外推得出较大瞳面上的波面信息，即系统入瞳的波面是满足信息外推理论条件的。 A target point for the imaging system, the pupil plane wavefront information within a certain range can be detected by the instrument may be extrapolated wavefront information derived larger pupil plane, i.e. the entrance pupil of the system is the wavefront information satisfying extrapolated theory conditions. 3、关键组件（分光及相位补偿装置）的考虑相位补偿器的设计是进行试验验证的非常重要的组件，对于不同视场角的相位补偿是一个非常难以突破的课题，然而对于本方案中，由于相位差与视场角的关系非常固定且明确，相对来讲，利用光学相位补偿板或液晶相位补偿器在一定范围内补偿是完全可行的。 3, consider the phase compensator key components (spectral and phase compensation means) is designed for experimental verification of important components, phase compensation for different viewing angles is very difficult to break through the problem, however, with the present embodiment, Since the relationship between the phase difference and the angle of view field of fixed and very clear, relatively speaking, the use of optical phase compensation plate or a liquid crystal phase compensator to compensate within a certain range is entirely feasible.