# CN101257337B - Method and apparatus for combine selecting transmitting and receiving antennas - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for combine selecting transmitting and receiving antennas Download PDF## Info

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用于发射接收天线联合选择的方法和装置 A method and apparatus for transmitting and receiving antennas jointly selected

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种无线通信技术领域的方法，特别是一种用于发射接收天线联合选择的方法和装置，适用于使用ΜΙΜ0(多输入多输出）技术的通信系统中。 [0001] The present invention relates to a technical field of wireless communication methods, particularly a method and apparatus for transmitting and receiving antennas for jointly selecting for use ΜΙΜ0 (Multiple Input Multiple Output) communication system technology.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] MIMO (Multi-in Multi-out)技术在越来越多的有线、无线通信领域得到应用，这主要是由于MMO技术具有许多优势：提供高信道容量、显著降低误码率、有效对抗信道衰落等。 [0002] MIMO (Multi-in Multi-out) technology has been applied in more and more wired, wireless communications, mainly due MMO technology has many advantages: to provide high channel capacity, significant reduction in the error rate, effective against like channel fading. 目前，MIMO 技术已被3GPP 组织（3rd GenerationPartnership Project :第三代移动通信伙伴计划）国际组织确定为EUTRA(Evolved Universal mobile telephony system Terrestrial Radio Access)和EUTRAN(Evolved Universal mobile telephony system Terrestrial RadioAccess Network)(或者称为Super 3G :超三代移动通信系统）中上下行链路的首选技术。 Currently, MIMO technology has been the organization 3GPP (3rd GenerationPartnership Project: Third Generation Partnership Project) international organizations identified as EUTRA (Evolved Universal mobile telephony system Terrestrial Radio Access) and EUTRAN (Evolved Universal mobile telephony system Terrestrial RadioAccess Network) (or the preferred technique for uplink and downlink ultra-generation mobile communication system): referred to as super 3G. 但是在MMO系统中，同时在收发两端布置多天线阵列需要相应的多套射频链路设备的支持，这显著增加了实现成本；而移动端手持设备的尺寸也限制了可配置的射频链路数目。 However MMO system, while multiple transceivers disposed at both ends of the antenna array requires a corresponding support multiple sets of RF link devices, which significantly increases the cost of implementation; end of the mobile handheld device also limits the size of the radio frequency link configurable number. MMO天线选择就是在这一背景中提出的、用来解决系统性能提升和实现成本之间冲突的技术。 MMO antenna selection is made in this context, the system used to solve the conflict between performance and achieve cost technologies. 其思想是仍然在收发两端布置多天线阵列，但只采用少量的射频设备，并通过多路开关、根据一定的准则选择较优的天线进行信号传输。 The idea is still disposed at both ends of the transceiver multi-antenna array, but only with a small amount of radio equipment, and through multiplexer selects the most robust signal transmission antenna according to certain criteria. 已有的研究成果表明，在一定条件下，使用天线选择的MIMO系统几乎可以达到与使用全部天线的MIMO系统相同的容量。 Existing research results show that under certain conditions, the use of MIMO antenna selection system can be achieved with almost all the antennas in MIMO systems of the same capacity.

[0003] 在一些文献中，基于MMO系统的天线选择技术主要有以下几种方法： [0003] In the literature, there are several methods based on the antenna selection technique MMO system mainly:

[0004] (I)最大范数方法：即认为信道传输矩阵的F范数间接地决定了信道增益。 [0004] (I) the maximum norm method: i.e., that the channel transfer matrix F norm indirectly determines the channel gains. 因此为了使接收端得到最大的信噪比，应选择具有最大F范数的子阵所对应的天线。 Therefore, in order to maximize the reception end signal to noise ratio should be selected with F subarray maximum norm corresponding antenna. 当此算法用于单独的发射天线选择或接收天线选择时，可简化为计算和比较各矢量的长度，复杂度较低° 参见文献：Sanayei S, Nosratinia A. Antennaselection in MIMO systems. IEEE Communication Magazine, 2004,42 (10) :68_73。 When this algorithm is used to separate transmitting antenna selection or receive antenna selection, the simplified computing and comparing the length of each vector, see lower complexity ° Document: Sanayei S, Nosratinia A. Antennaselection in MIMO systems IEEE Communication Magazine,. 2004, 42 (10): 68_73. （“ΜΜ0 系统中的天线选择”，IEEE 通信杂志） ( "ΜΜ0 antenna selection system", IEEE Communications Magazine)

[0005] (2)基于互信息量的方法：即认为天线对之间的互信息量间接地决定了系统容量。 [0005] (2) a method based on the mutual information: i.e. that mutual information between the antenna indirectly determined on the system capacity. 具有较小互信息量的天线对可承载的信息较多，有利于增大系统容量，应予以保留；而具有较大互信息量的天线对所承载的信息相似，对增大系统容量的贡献较小，应删除其中较差的天线。 An antenna having a smaller mutual information may carry information for more conducive to increase system capacity, should be retained; having a greater mutual information amount of information carried by the antenna similar contribution to increasing the system capacity small, poor antenna which should be deleted. 此方法综合考虑了信道增益和天线对之间的相关性，性能较最大范数方法有所提高。 This method takes into account the relevance, performance has been compared with the maximum number of methods to improve the range between the channel gain and antenna pairs. 参见文献：Molisch AF，WinM Z, Choi YS，Winters J H. Capacity of ΜΙΜΟ systems with antennaseIection. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2005,4(4) :1759-1772。 See Document: Molisch AF, WinM Z, Choi YS, Winters J H. Capacity of ΜΙΜΟ systems with antennaseIection IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2005,4 (4):. 1759-1772. （ “天线选择MMO系统的容量”，IEEE无线通信学报） ( "MMO antenna selection system capacity", IEEE Journal of wireless communication)

[0006] (3)迭代选择方法：此方法直接以优化系统容量为目标，采用递增型迭代或者递减型迭代方法顺次选出一组较优的天线子集。 [0006] (3) iterative selection methods: the direct method to optimize the system capacity for the target, using incremented or decremented type iterative type iteration sequentially selecting a subset of the set of superior antennas. 其性能非常接近于穷举选择，且有效地避免了穷举开销。 Its performance is very close to be exhaustive selection, and effectively avoiding exhaustive costs. 参见文献：Gorokhov A, Gore DA, PaulrajA J. Receive antenna selection for MIMO flat-fading channels ：theory andalgorithms[J]. IEEE Transactions onInformation theory, 2003,49 (10) :2687_2696。 See Document: Gorokhov A, Gore DA, PaulrajA J. Receive antenna selection for MIMO flat-fading channels: theory andalgorithms [J] IEEE Transactions onInformation theory, 2003,49 (10):. 2687_2696. （ “平衰落信道中的MMO 接收天线选择： 理论与算法”，IEEE信息论学报) ( "MMO receive antenna selection flat fading channels: Theory and Algorithms", IEEE Information Theory)

[0007] 方法（I)具有实现简单的优点，但在信道矩阵高度相关的情况下性能会急剧恶化。 [0007] Method (I) has the advantage of simple, but the performance will sharply deteriorate at a highly correlated channel matrix situation. 方法（2)性能优于方法（I)，但由于只考虑了两两天线对之间的相关性，性能仍然较差。 Method (2) is superior to method (I), but due to only consider the correlation between the two two antenna pairs, the performance is still poor. 方法（3)性能可逼近穷举选择，且采用迭代实现后有效地降低了算法的时间复杂度。 (3) performance can be selected to be exhaustive approach, and using the iterative implementation effectively reduces the time complexity of the algorithm. 但方法（3)在迭代过程中需进行大量的向量投影和矩阵乘法计算，在特定情况下计算量较大， 不利于减小算法的计算复杂度。 But the method (3) in an iterative process needs a large amount of calculation and the projection vector matrix multiplication to calculate a large amount in a particular case, is not conducive to reduce the computational complexity of the algorithm.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0008] 本发明的目的在于针对收发两端同时存在多套可选天线、穷举搜索计算复杂度较高的情况，提供一种用于发射接收天线联合选择的方法和装置。 [0008] The object of the present invention is the presence of multiple alternative sets of antennas to a transceiver for both ends, where high computational complexity of an exhaustive search, there is provided a method and apparatus for transmitting and receiving antennas jointly selected. 本发明发射接收天线联合选择被分解为独立的发射天线选择和接收天线选择。 The present invention transmit receive antenna selection is combined into separate transmit and receive antenna selection antenna selection. 在天线选择过程中，构造了基于前向更新和反向搜索的两阶段迭代方法，极大地降低了天线选择的计算复杂度，同时性能可很好地逼近天线选择MMO系统的容量上限。 In the antenna selection process, the two-stage configuration of an iterative method based on the front and reverse search to the update, which greatly reduces the computational complexity of antenna selection, while the performance can be well approximated maximum capacity antenna selection MMO system. 由于单独的发射天线选择或接收天线选择是发射接收天线联合选择的一种特例，因此本发明也适用于单独使用发射天线选择或接收天线选择的MMO系统。 Since separate transmitting antenna selection or receive antenna selection is a special case combined transmitting and receiving antenna selection, thus the present invention is also applicable to a single selected transmission antenna or reception antenna selection MMO system.

[0009] 本发明通过以下技术方案实现，具体包括如下步骤： [0009] The present invention is achieved by the following technical scheme includes the following steps:

[0010] 步骤一：发射端发射训练序列，接收端根据接收到的所述训练序列进行信道估计， 得到当前MMO信道的传输矩阵； [0010] Step a: a transmission side transmits a training sequence, the receiving side performs channel estimation training sequence according to the received obtain the current transmission matrix MMO channel;

[0011] 步骤二：接收端使用前向-反向递归方法，进行发射接收天线联合选择； [0011] Step two: the receiving end using the forward - backward recursion method for transmitting and receiving antennas selected jointly;

[0012] 步骤三：接收端通过映射反馈或者直接反馈将发射天线序号反馈给发射端。 [0012] Step three: by mapping the receiving end a feedback or direct feedback from the transmitting antenna number fed back to the transmitting end.

[0013] 以下对本发明技术方案作进一步说明： [0013] The following is further explanation of the technical solution of the present invention:

[0014] 步骤一：ΜΜ0信道估计 [0014] Step a: ΜΜ0 channel estimate

[0015] MIMO系统的信道估计已经是一项非常成熟的技术。 Channel [0015] MIMO systems is estimated to have a very mature technology. 在数据传输前，在发端通过发送一已知的训练序列即可在接收端进行极大似然或者最小二乘估计得到信道传输矩阵的估计值。 Before data transmission, the receiving side can be in the originating maximum likelihood by transmitting a known training sequence or a least squares estimation to obtain a channel estimation value of the transmission matrix. 但是当系统中使用天线选择时，发射端和接收端同时可用的射频链路设备有限，每次只能在Lt (Lr)根发射（接收）天线上传输数据。 However, when using the antenna selection system, while the transmitting and receiving ends of the limited available RF link device, can only transmit (receive) data transmission antenna Lt (Lr) root.

[0016] 因此，必须使用时分方式在所有的Nt (Nr)根发射（接收）天线上轮流发送（接收） 训练序列以获得完整的信道传输矩阵H(Nt为发射端天线总数，Lt为发射端选择天线数，Nr 为接收端天线总数，Lr为接收端选择天线数）。 [0016] Thus, it is necessary to use a time division manner in all Nt (Nr) th transmitting (receiving) in turn transmitted (received) training sequence of the antenna to obtain a full channel transfer matrix H (Nt is the total number of the antenna emission, Lt of a transmission side select the number of antennas, Nr is a total number of the receiving antenna terminal, Lr is the receiver to select the number of antennas).

[0017] 步骤二：发射接收天线联合选择 [0017] Step Two: transmitting and receiving antenna selected jointly

[0018] 根据不同的天线配置，接收端将发射接收天线联合选择分解为独立的发射天线选择和接收天线选择，并决定两者的执行次序。 [0018] The different antenna configurations, the receiver will transmit receive antenna selection combined into separate transmit and receive antenna selection antenna selection, and determines the execution order of both. 当满足Nt-Lt ( Nr-Lr (Nt为发射端天线总数， Lt为发射端选择天线数，Nr为接收端天线总数，Lr为接收端选择天线数）时，执行下述情况一中的步骤，即先利用前向-反向递归方法进行发射天线选择，然后根据选择的发射天线子集更新信道传输矩阵，最后仍然使用前向-反向递归方法进行接收天线选择。反之当满足Nt-Lt > Nr-Lr (Nt为发射端天线总数，Lt为发射端选择天线数，Nr为接收端天线总数，Lr 为接收端选择天线数）时，执行下述情况二中的步骤，即先进行接收天线选择，然后根据选择的接收天线子集更新信道传输矩阵后再进行发射天线选择。作为特例，如果系统中只有发射（接收）天线选择，则单独执行相应的发射（接收）天线选择方案即可。 When satisfied Nt-Lt (Nr-Lr (Nt, Lt is the total number of the antenna transmitter to select a transmission side antennas, Nr is a total number of antennas receiving side, the number Lr of choice is the receiver antenna), a step in the following cases , i.e. the first use of forward - backward recursion transmit antenna selection method, and then updated according to the transmission antenna subset selected channel transfer matrix, still before the final use to - receive antenna selection backward recursion method satisfies the contrary when Nt-Lt > steps (the total number Nt of antenna transmission end transmitting end Lt of selected antennas, Nr is a total number of the receiving antenna terminal, Lr of reception antennas is selected side) Nr-Lr, performs the following two cases, i.e., the first receiving antenna selection, antenna and transmit antenna subset selection according to the received update the channel transfer matrix then selected. as a special case, if only the transmitting system (receiving) antenna selection, then performs the corresponding individual transmission (reception) antenna selection scheme can be .

[0019]情况一 ：Nt-Lt < nr-Lr [0019] where a: Nt-Lt <nr-Lr

[0020] 当满足Nt-Lt ( Nr-Lr (Nt为发射端天线总数，Lt为发射端选择天线数，Nr为接收端天线总数，L为接收端选择天线数）时，先利用前向-反向递归方法进行发射天线选择，然后根据选择的发射天线子集更新信道传输矩阵，最后仍然使用前向-反向递归方法进行接收天线选择。 [0020] When the front satisfied Nt-Lt (when (Nt of the total number of antennas transmitting end, Lt of selected antennas to the transmitter, Nr receive the total number of antenna terminal, L select the number of antennas is the receiver), first using Nr-Lr to - backward recursion transmit antenna selection method, and then updated according to the transmission antenna subset selected channel transfer matrix, and still use the last forward - backward recursion for receive antenna selection method.

[0021] 假设已对发射天线进行编号，即大小为队XNt的信道传输矩阵H的第i列h(i)对应于发射端的第i根天线。 [0021] Suppose the number of transmit antennas, i.e., the size of the team XNt channel transfer matrix H i-th column h (i) corresponding to the i-th transmitter antenna. 对于不同的选择方案，总共有(；^种不同的组合，每一种组合扣夂，…，红}包含了Lt根对应序号的发射天线。所有的发射天线组合可以表示为集合St，含有C(S) = Cj个元素： For the different options, a total of (; ^ different combinations, each combination buckle Fan, ..., R} contains a number corresponding to the transmitting antenna Lt root all combinations of transmitting antennas may be represented as a set St, comprising C. (S) = Cj elements:

[0022] (I) [0022] (I)

[0023] 为了最大化MMO系统的容量，可顺次比较集合St中的CNtu个元素，并选择使信道容量最大的发射天线组。 [0023] In order to maximize the capacity of the MMO system, the comparison can be sequentially set in CNtu St elements, and selects the maximum channel capacity of the transmission antenna groups. 但是，当CNtu较大时此方法的复杂度极高，不利于实时应用。 However, when CNtu large complexity of this method is very high, it is not conducive to real-time applications. 本发明通过下述的2阶段迭代方法来完成快速发射天线选择，包括前向更新和反向搜索过程。 The present invention is accomplished by an iterative quickly transmit antenna selection method stage 2 described below, including forward and reverse search process updates.

[0024] •前向更新：迭代计算反向搜索所需的初始迭代阵A = (ZvZ)Olw, +HwH)'1。 To the update [0024] • before: iterative calculation of the initial search for the reverse iteration matrix A = (ZvZ) Olw, + HwH) '1. 具体步 Specific steps

骤为首先构造初始矩阵A = PA1JV,，其中P为接收端的信噪比，INt为NtXNt的单位矩阵。 First step is configured initial matrix A = PA1JV ,, where P is the receiver SNR, INt NtXNt a unit matrix. 令k = I，计算 So that k = I, calculate

[0025] a = Ahf ⑵ [0025] a = Ahf ⑵

[0026] A = Α-α a H/(l+hka ) (3) [0026] A = Α-α a H / (l + hka) (3)

[0027] 式中hk表示矩阵H的第k行，（)H表示Hermitian转置。 [0027] wherein hk represents the k-th row of the matrix H, () H denotes a Hermitian transpose. 令k = k+l，依次重复式 So that k = k + l, sequentially repeating formula

(2)和式（3)，经队步迭代得到更新后的迭代阵A。 (2) and (3), obtained by the team iteration step the updated iterative array A.

[0028] •反向搜索：根据迭代阵A计算各发射天线的度量，顺次删除具有最大度量的发射天线，并动态更新迭代阵A，直到余下Lt根较优的发射天线。 [0028] • Reverse Search: A metric is calculated according to the iteration of each array transmit antenna, transmit antennas sequentially deleted with the largest metric, and dynamically update the array A iteration, until the remaining root Lt superior transmit antennas. 具体步骤为首先构造集合It ={1,2,. ..,NJ表示所有的发射天线，在迭代过程中It用来指示当前的待选天线集合。 Specifically configured to first set of steps It = {1,2 ,. .., NJ represent all transmit antennas, in an iterative process is used to indicate the current It to be selected from the set of antennas. 令k = I,计算 So that k = I, calculate

[0029] metric'j =|®(Λ| Iajj » _；· = 1，2”“，JV,-灸+ 1 ⑷ [0029] metric'j = | ® (Λ | Iajj »_; · = 1,2" ", JV, - moxibustion + 1 ⑷

[0030] J = arg max Tnetric1j (5) [0030] J = arg max Tnetric1j (5)

λ+1 λ + 1

[0031] It = It-It(J) (6) [0031] It = It-It (J) (6)

[0032] 式中a(j)表示矩阵A的第j列，a」,」表示矩阵A的第j个对角线元素，It-It(J)表示从集合It中消去第J个元素。 [0032] where A (j) represents the j-th column of the matrix A, a is "" represents the j-th diagonal element of matrix A, It-It (J) represents erasing from the J-th element in the set of It. 如果k < Nt-Lt,则用下式更新A ： If k <Nt-Lt, the update by the following formula A:

[0033] A = G 厂gyg>" (7) [0033] A = G plant gyg> "(7)

[0034] 式中Gj表示矩阵A中删去第J行第J列后的子阵，gj表示从a(j)中删去第J个元素后得到的向量。 [0034] wherein A denotes the matrix Gj deleting J-th row sub-matrix after the J-th column, gj represents the deletion of the J-th vector element from a (j) are obtained. 令k = k+l，顺次重复式（4)〜式（7)的步骤直到经过Nt-Lt步迭代。 So that k = k + l, the step of sequentially repeating the formula (4) to (7) until the iteration step through Nt-Lt.

[0035] 经过前向更新和反向搜索后，集合It中的元素就是所选出的发射天线所对应的序号。 [0035] The forward and reverse search after the update, the set of elements It is the selected number corresponding to the transmitting antenna. 此时，需要根据所选出的发射天线更新信道传输矩阵H，即 In this case, the need to update the selected transmission antenna channel transfer matrix H, i.e.,

[0036] H = “·，Ιι(〜))，无,.e Ti, i = 1,2,...,Lt (8) [0036] H = "·, Ιι (~)), no, .e Ti, i = 1,2, ..., Lt (8)

[0037] 式中h(ki)表示矩阵H在更新之前的第Ici列，并进一步进行接收天线选择。 [0037] where h (ki) Ici represents the first column of matrix H before update, and further receive antenna selection.

[0038] 假设已对接收天线进行编号，即H的第i行h对应于接收端的第i根天线。 [0038] Suppose the number of receive antennas, i.e., h i-th row of H corresponds to the i-antenna receiver. 对于不同的选择方案，总共有Cn^种不同的组合，每一个组合巧={H··人丨包含了L,根对应序号的接收天线。 Different options for a total of Cn ^ different combinations, each combination of coincidence = {H ·· contains human Shu L, corresponding to the number of receive antennas. 所有的接收天线组合可以表示为集合&，含有= 个元素： All receive antenna may be expressed as a combination of a set of &, = element comprising:

[0039] Sr ={ΗΓω\1<ω< C(Sr)iHrm^ Hrn^m ^n] ⑶ [0039] Sr = {ΗΓω \ 1 <ω <C (Sr) iHrm ^ Hrn ^ m ^ n] ⑶

[0040] 为了最大化MMO系统的容量，可顺次比较集合Sr中的Cn^个元素，并选择使信道容量最大的接收天线组。 [0040] In order to maximize the capacity of the MMO system, the comparison can be sequentially set in the Cn ^ Sr elements and selecting the maximum channel capacity of the receiving antenna groups. 但是，当CNf较大时此算法的复杂度极高，不利于实时应用。 However, when CNf large complexity of this algorithm is very high, it is not conducive to real-time applications. 类似于发射天线选择，可通过下述的2阶段前向更新和反向搜索迭代方法来完成快速接收天线选择。 Similar to the transmit antenna selection, following the previous stage 2 to the update and reverse search to complete an iterative method by quickly receive antenna selection.

[0041] •前向更新：迭代计算反向搜索所需的初始迭代阵β^ζ,/ρΙα+ηηΥ。 [0041] • Forward Update: iterative calculation required for the initial iteration reverse lookup array β ^ ζ, / ρΙα + ηηΥ. 具体步 Specific steps

骤为首先构造初始矩阵® = ，其中P为接收端的信噪比，Ini•为队X队的单位矩阵。 First step is the initial matrix configuration ® =, where P is the receiver SNR, Ini • X team to team unit matrix.

令k = I，计算 So that k = I, calculate

[0042] β = Bh(k) (10) [0042] β = Bh (k) (10)

[0043] B = B-pr/(l + hft)p) (11) [0043] B = B-pr / (l + hft) p) (11)

[0044] 式中h(k)表示矩阵H的第k列。 [0044] where h (k) represents the k-th column of matrix H. 令k = k+Ι，依次重复式（10)和式（11)，经Lt步迭代得到更新后的迭代阵B。 So that k = k + Ι, sequentially repeating the formula (10) and (11), obtained by Lt iteration step the updated iterative array B.

[0045] •反向搜索：根据迭代阵B计算各接收天线的度量，顺次删除具有最大度量的接收天线，并动态更新迭代阵B，直到余下k根较优的接收天线。 [0045] • Reverse Search: computing a metric for each receiving antenna array in accordance with an iterative B, having receiving antennas sequentially remove the largest metric, and dynamically updates array B iterations, until the remaining receive antenna k superior root. 具体步骤为首先构造集合仁={I,2,...,NJ表示所有的接收天线，在迭代过程中L用来指示当前的待选天线集合。 First set of specific steps kernel configured = {I, 2, ..., NJ represents all receiving antennas, in an iterative process L which indicates the current candidate set of antennas. 令k = I,计算 So that k = I, calculate

[0046] [0046]

metriCj = IM2A" ' j = ^->Kk + l (12) metriCj = IM2A " 'j = ^ -> Kk + l (12)

rn J= arg max metric' (13) rn J = arg max metric '(13)

[0047] μΖ-,ν,-μ J [0047] μΖ-, ν, -μ J

[0048] Ir = Ir-Ir(J) (14) [0048] Ir = Ir-Ir (J) (14)

[0049] 式中b(j)表示矩阵B的第j列，b^.表示矩阵B的第j个对角线元素，Ir-Ir(J)表示从集合L中消去第J个元素。 [0049] wherein B (j) represents the j-th column of the matrix B, b ^. J-th diagonal element of matrix B, Ir-Ir (J) represents erasing from the J-th element of the set L. 如果k < Nr-Lr,则用下式更新B ： If k <Nr-Lr, the update by the following formula B:

[0050] B = Fj-Hh /b" (15) [0050] B = Fj-Hh / b "(15)

[0051] 式中Fj表示矩阵B中删去第J行第J列后的子阵，fj表示从b(j)中删去第J个元素后得到的向量。 [0051] where matrix B represents Fj J-th row sub-matrix by deleting the J-th column, fj represents the vector after deleting from the J-th element of b (j) is obtained. 令k = k+l，顺次重复式（12)〜式（15)的步骤直到经过队步迭代。 So that k = k + l, sequentially repeating the formula (12) Step to (15) of iteration steps until a team. 经过前向更新和反向搜索后，集合L中的元素就是所选出的接收天线所对应的序号。 Forward search and reverse after the update, the element L is set in the selected number corresponding to the receiving antenna.

[0052]情况二 ：Nt_Lt > Nr-Lr [0052] Case 2: Nt_Lt> Nr-Lr

[0053] 当满足Nt-Lt > Nr-Lr (Nt为发射端天线总数，Lt为发射端选择天线数，Nr为接收端天线总数，L为接收端选择天线数）时，先利用前向-反向递归方法进行接收天线选择，然 [0053] When the front satisfied Nt-Lt> when (Nt of the total number of the antenna transmitter, the transmitter select antennas Lt is, Nr receive the total number of antenna terminal, L select the number of antennas is the receiver), first using Nr-Lr to - backward recursion receive antenna selection method, then

8后根据选择的接收天线子集更新信道传输矩阵，最后仍然使用前向-反向递归方法进行发射天线选择。 Transmit antenna selection method of the backward recursion - 8 after the former selected receiving antenna subset to update the channel transfer matrix, and finally still used.

[0054] 假设已对接收天线进行编号，即大小为队XNt的H的第i行比对应于接收端的第i根天线。 [0054] Suppose the number of receive antennas, i.e., the i-th row of H XNt team size corresponding to the receiving end than the i-th antenna. 对于不同的选择方案，总共有Cn^种不同的组合，每一个组合冗={^…人}包含了L根对应序号的接收天线。 Different options for a total of Cn ^ different combinations, each combination of redundant ^ = {...} containing the human L reception antennas corresponding to the root number. 所有的接收天线组合可以表示为集合&，含有C(\) = C& 个元素： All receive antenna may be expressed as a set of & composition containing C (\) = C & element:

[0055] = {//^ 11 < <y < C(5r),//； ^Hrn η} (16) [0055] = {// ^ 11 <<y <C (5r), //; ^ Hrn η} (16)

[0056] 为了最大化MMO系统的容量，可顺次比较集合Sr中的Cn^个元素，并选择使信道容量最大的接收天线组。 [0056] In order to maximize the capacity of the MMO system, the comparison can be sequentially set in the Cn ^ Sr elements and selecting the maximum channel capacity of the receiving antenna groups. 但是，当CNf较大时此算法的复杂度极高，不利于实时应用。 However, when CNf large complexity of this algorithm is very high, it is not conducive to real-time applications. 类似于发射天线选择，可通过下述的2阶段前向更新和反向搜索迭代方法来完成快速接收天线选择。 Similar to the transmit antenna selection, following the previous stage 2 to the update and reverse search to complete an iterative method by quickly receive antenna selection.

[0057] •前向更新：迭代计算反向搜索所需的初始迭代阵+HHff)'1。 [0057] • Forward Update: iterative calculation required for the initial iteration reverse lookup array + HHff) '1. 具体步 Specific steps

骤为首先构造初始矩阵B = ，其中P为接收端的信噪比，Ini•为队X队的单位矩阵。 First step is configured as a unit matrix initial matrix B =, where P is the receiver SNR, Ini • X team to team.

令k = I，计算 So that k = I, calculate

[0058] β = Bh(k) (17) [0058] β = Bh (k) (17)

[0059] B = B-卯"/(l + W) (18) [0059] B = B- d "/ (l + W) (18)

[0060] 式中h(k)表示矩阵H的第k列。 [0060] where h (k) represents the k-th column of matrix H. 令k = k+Ι，依次重复式(17)和式(18)，经Nt步迭代得到更新后的迭代阵B。 So that k = k + Ι, sequentially repeating the formula (17) and (18), obtained by iteration of Iterative Nt updated B.

[0061] •反向搜索：根据迭代阵B计算各接收天线的度量，顺次删除具有最大度量的接收天线，并动态更新迭代阵B，直到余下k根较优的接收天线。 [0061] • Reverse Search: computing a metric for each receiving antenna array in accordance with an iterative B, having receiving antennas sequentially remove the largest metric, and dynamically updates array B iterations, until the remaining receive antenna k superior root. 具体步骤为首先构造集合仁={I,2,...,NJ表示所有的接收天线，在迭代过程中L用来指示当前的待选天线集合。 First set of specific steps kernel configured = {I, 2, ..., NJ represents all receiving antennas, in an iterative process L which indicates the current candidate set of antennas. 令k = I,计算 So that k = I, calculate

[0062] metriCj = \bU)f /bjj, j = 1,2,...,Nr-k + l (19) [0062] metriCj = \ bU) f / bjj, j = 1,2, ..., Nr-k + l (19)

[0063] J= arg max metric: .(20) [0063] J = arg max metric:. (20)

—A+l -A + l

[0064] Ir = Ir-Ir(J) (21) [0064] Ir = Ir-Ir (J) (21)

[0065] 式中表示矩阵B的第j列，b^.表示矩阵B的第j个对角线元素，Ir-Ir(J)表示从集合L中消去第J个元素。 [0065] wherein B represents a j-th column of the matrix, b ^. J-th diagonal element of matrix B, Ir-Ir (J) represents erasing from the J-th element of the set L. 如果k < Nr-Lr,则用下式更新B ： If k <Nr-Lr, the update by the following formula B:

[0066] B = Fj -fjff Ibj j (22) [0066] B = Fj -fjff Ibj j (22)

[0067] 式中Fj表示矩阵B中删去第J行第J列后的子阵，fj表示从b(j)中删去第J个元素后得到的向量。 [0067] where matrix B represents Fj J-th row sub-matrix by deleting the J-th column, fj represents the vector after deleting from the J-th element of b (j) is obtained. 令k = k+l，顺次重复式（19)〜式（22)的步骤直到经过队步迭代。 So that k = k + l, the step of sequentially repeating the formula (19) to (22) of iteration steps until a team.

[0068] 经过前向更新和反向搜索后，集合L中的元素就是所选出的接收天线所对应的序号。 [0068] The forward and reverse search after update, set L of the selected element is the sequence number corresponding receiving antenna. 此时，需要根据所选出的发射天线更新信道传输矩阵H，即 In this case, the need to update the selected transmission antenna channel transfer matrix H, i.e.,

[0069] H = IclElr, / = l,2,...sJLr (23) [0069] H = IclElr, / = l, 2, ... sJLr (23)

[0070] 式中hki表示矩阵H在更新之前的第ki行，并进一步进行发射天线选择。 [0070] wherein hki matrix H represents the ki th row before the update, and further transmit antenna selection. [0071] 假设已对发射天线进行编号，即信道传输矩阵H的第i列h(i)对应于发射端的第i 根天线。 [0071] Suppose the number of transmit antennas, i.e., the channel transfer matrix H i th column h (i) corresponding to the i-th transmitter antenna. 对于不同的选择方案，总共有CNtu种不同的组合，每一种组合冗，勾，…，^^包含了Lt根对应序号的发射天线。 For the different options, a total CNtu different combinations, each combination of redundancy, hook, ..., Lt ^^ includes a corresponding number of transmitting antennas. 所有的发射天线组合可以表示为集合St，含有C(S) = Cg 个元素： All combinations of transmit antennas may be expressed as a set St, comprising C (S) = Cg elements:

[0072] S, = {!O IS ω SC(S,)' HK O m 右η} (24) [0072] S, = {! O IS ω SC (S,) 'HK O m Right η} (24)

[0073] 为了最大化MMO系统的容量，可顺次比较集合St中的CNtu个元素，并选择使信道容量最大的发射天线组。 [0073] In order to maximize the capacity of the MMO system, the comparison can be sequentially set in CNtu St elements, and selects the maximum channel capacity of the transmission antenna groups. 但是，当CNtu较大时此方法的复杂度极高，不利于实时应用。 However, when CNtu large complexity of this method is very high, it is not conducive to real-time applications.

[0074] 本发明通过下述的2阶段迭代方法来完成快速发射天线选择，包括前向更新和反向搜索过程。 [0074] The present invention is accomplished quickly transmit antenna selection, including the front and reverse search to the update process by an iterative method stage 2 below.

[0075] •前向更新：迭代计算反向搜索所需的初始迭代阵A = (i,/plw, +HwH)-1。 [0075] • Forward Update: iterative calculation required to reverse the initial iteration search matrix A = (i, / plw, + HwH) -1.

[0076] 具体步骤为首先构造初始矩阵A = PZZv1AT,，其中P为接收端的信噪比，INt为NtXNt的单位矩阵。 [0076] Step specifically configured to first initial matrix A = PZZv1AT ,, where P is the receiver SNR, INt NtXNt a unit matrix. 令k = I,计算 So that k = I, calculate

[0077] a = Ahf (25) [0077] a = Ahf (25)

[0078] A = Α-α a H/(l+hka ) (26) [0078] A = Α-α a H / (l + hka) (26)

[0079] 式中hk表示矩阵H的第k行，（)H表示Hermitian (赫密特）转置。 [0079] wherein hk represents the k-th row of the matrix H, () H denotes the Hermitian (Hermite) transpose. 令k = k+l，依次重复式（25)和式（26)，经L步迭代得到更新后的迭代阵A。 So that k = k + l, sequentially repeating the formula (25) and (26), obtained by iteration of Iterative L updated A.

[0080] •反向搜索：根据迭代阵A计算各发射天线的度量，顺次删除具有最大度量的发射天线，并动态更新迭代阵A，直到余下Lt根较优的发射天线。 [0080] • Reverse Search: A metric is calculated according to the iteration of each array transmit antenna, transmit antennas sequentially deleted with the largest metric, and dynamically update the array A iteration, until the remaining root Lt superior transmit antennas. 具体步骤为首先构造集合It ={1,2,. ..,NJ表示所有的发射天线，在迭代过程中It用来指示当前的待选天线集合。 Specifically configured to first set of steps It = {1,2 ,. .., NJ represent all transmit antennas, in an iterative process is used to indicate the current It to be selected from the set of antennas. 令k = I,计算 So that k = I, calculate

[0081 ] metric'j = ||a0)||2丨Cijj , j = 1,2，…，Ν,-k+l (27) [0081] metric'j = || a0) || 2 Shu Cijj, j = 1,2, ..., Ν, -k + l (27)

「00821 J= arg max metric'j (28) "00821 J = arg max metric'j (28)

[0083] It = It-It(J) (29) [0083] It = It-It (J) (29)

[0084] 式中a(j)表示矩阵A的第j列，a」,」表示矩阵A的第j个对角线元素，It-It(J)表示从集合It中消去第J个元素。 [0084] where A (j) represents the j-th column of the matrix A, a is "" represents the j-th diagonal element of matrix A, It-It (J) represents erasing from the J-th element in the set of It. 如果k < Nt-Lt,则用下式更新A ： If k <Nt-Lt, the update by the following formula A:

[0085] A = GjU^a" (30) [0085] A = GjU ^ a "(30)

[0086] 式中Gj表示矩阵A中删去第J行第J列后的子阵，gj表示从a(j)中删去第J个元素后得到的向量。 [0086] wherein A denotes the matrix Gj deleting J-th row sub-matrix after the J-th column, gj represents the deletion of the J-th vector element from a (j) are obtained. 令k = k+l，顺次重复式（27)〜式（30)的步骤直到经过Nt-Lt步迭代。 So that k = k + l, the step of sequentially repeating the formula (27) to (30) until a Nt-Lt iteration. 经过前向更新和反向搜索后，集合It中的元素就是所选出的发射天线所对应的序号。 Forward search and reverse after the update, the set of elements It is the selected number corresponding to the transmitting antenna.

[0087] 步骤三：接收端向发射端反馈所选择的发射天线序号 [0087] Step Three: feedback from the receiver to the transmitting end of the selected transmit antenna number

[0088] 当系统中存在发射天线选择时，接收端需要将所选择的发射天线序号It反馈给发射端。 [0088] When present in the system transmit antenna selection, the receiving side needs to transmit the selected antenna number It feedback to the transmitting end. 这里反馈的方式有两种： There are two ways feedback here:

[0089] 一种是映射反馈，即为共CNtu种可能的发射天线组合分别分配一个「l0g2<^"j比特 [0089] A feedback is a mapping, i.e. a total CNtu possible combinations of transmit antennas are assigned a "l0g2 <^" j bits

的二进制标识，在收发两端都事先以表格形式存储这种映射关系，当接收端计算出最优的 The binary identification, at both ends of the transceiver are stored in advance in table form this mapping relationship when the receiving end calculates the optimal

发射天线集合后直接查表反馈回其所对应的二进制序列。 Direct lookup its corresponding binary sequence fed back after the set of transmission antennas. [0090] 另一种方法是直接反馈，即用Nt比特序列来指示所选择的天线集合，在各个位置上，用I表示启用此发射天线，O表示关闭此发射天线。 [0090] Another method is direct feedback, i.e. with Nt bit sequence indicating the selected antenna set, at each location, denoted by I enable transmission antenna, O for closing this transmit antenna. 当接收端完成天线选择后，可以将这个Nt比特序列中由集合It中的元素所指示的位置置I后反馈给发射端。 When the receiving end antenna selection is completed, the position may be set after this I Nt bit sequence by the set of elements indicated It feedback to the transmitting end.

[0091] 上述两种方法相比较，映射反馈方法的反馈比特数较少，但是因为收发两端都必须存储一张表征映射关系的表格，存储开销较大，复杂度为0(cNtu);而直接反馈方法不需要存储开销，但是需要反馈Nt个比特，反馈的开销较大。 [0091] The comparison of the two methods, fewer number of feedback bits mapped feedback method, but since both ends of the transceiver must store a mapping relationship table of characterizing, storing large overhead, complexity is 0 (cNtu); and the method does not require direct feedback overhead storage, but requires feedback Nt bits, large feedback overhead. 一般而言，当CNtu较小时可以使用映射反馈，而当CNtu较大时可以使用直接反馈。 In general, when the map can be used when small CNtu feedback, and can be used when a large CNtu direct feedback. 当满足关系2'-1 <C& S'时，两种反馈方式的反馈开销是相同的，此时由于直接反馈不需要额外的存储开销而更有优势。 When the relationship is satisfied 2'-1 <C & S ', two kinds of feedback overhead is the same feedback scheme, since direct feedback case no additional storage overhead advantage.

[0092] 本发明所涉及的使用上述方法的用于发射接收天线联合选择的装置，包括信道估计单元、发射接收天线联合选择单元和反馈单元。 [0092] The present invention relates to a method for using the transmit receive antenna selection joint, comprising a channel estimation unit, transmit and receive antenna selection unit combined feedback unit. 其中：所述信道估计单元负责接收发射端发射的训练序列，并根据接收到的所述训练序列进行信道估计，得到当前MMO信道的传输矩阵；所述发射接收天线联合选择单元根据从信道估计单元处得到的信道估计值，使用前向-反向递归方法，进行发射接收天线联合选择，得到所选出的发射和接收天线序号；所述反馈单元接收从发射接收天线联合选择单元处得到的发射天线序号，并通过映射反馈或者直接反馈将其反馈给发射端。 Wherein: the channel estimation unit responsible for receiving the training sequence end transmitted by the transmitter, and performs channel estimation based on the received training sequence, to obtain the transfer matrix of the current MMO channel; the transmitting and receiving antenna joint selection means according to the channel estimation unit at channel estimation value obtained using the forward - backward recursion method, transmit receive antenna selection combined to give the selected transmitting and receiving antenna number; the feedback unit receiving a selection from a combined transmit-receive antennas at a transmitting unit obtained antenna number, and by mapping the feedback or direct feedback to the feedback to the transmitting end.

[0093] 本发明的优点在于：针对使用发射天线选择、接收天线选择或者发射接收天线联合选择的MIMO系统，设计了一种低复杂度的快速迭代方法进行天线子集的选择，使系统获得近似于穷举选择的系统容量。 [0093] The advantage of the present invention is that: for the use of transmission antenna selection, transmit or receive antenna selection MIMO antenna system to receive a selected joint, a fast iterative design method of low complexity is selected subset of antennas, the system is approximated selection system capacity to be exhaustive. 本发明在迭代过程中只有少量的矩阵乘法开销，其计算复杂度为三次多项式阶，而已提出的迭代型天线选择方法的计算复杂度为四次多项式阶。 The present invention is only a small amount of overhead matrix multiplication in an iterative process, the computational complexity is cubic polynomial order, the computational complexity of the iterative type antenna selection method it is proposed quartic polynomial order. 因此，本发明的计算开销较小，具有非常大的实用价值。 Therefore, the calculation of the cost of the present invention is small, with a very great practical value.

附图说明 [0094] 图I为使用发射接收天线联合选择的MIMO系统示意图； [0095] 图2为本发明方法的详细流程图； [0096] 图3为当N t = Nr = 4, Lt = Lr = 2时本发明和其他方法的容量比较；[0097] 图4为当N t = 5, Lt = 3, Nr = 6, Lr = 3时本发明和其他方法的各星比较；[0098] 图5为Nr = =6, Nt = Lt = Lr = 2,4仅接收天线选择时本发明和其他方法的容量比较； [0099] 图6为实现本发明的装置框图。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION [0094] Figure I is a schematic diagram of a MIMO system using the transmitting and receiving antennas selected jointly; 2 is a detailed flowchart of the inventive method [0095] FIG; [0096] FIG. 3 that when N t = Nr = 4, Lt = Lr = the present invention the capacity compared with other methods, and 2; [0097] FIG. 4 that when N t = 5, Lt = 3, Nr = 6, Lr = 3 when the present invention and each star other methods of comparison; [0098] 5 is Nr = = 6, Nt = Lt = Lr = 2,4, the present inventors compared the capacity of the receiving antenna and other selection methods only; [0099] 6 is a block diagram of apparatus for implementing the present invention.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0100] 下面结合附图对本发明的实施例作详细说明：本实施例在以本发明技术方案为前提下进行实施，给出了详细的实施方式和具体的操作过程，但本发明的保护范围不限于下述的实施例。 [0100] The following embodiments in conjunction with the accompanying drawings of embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail: In the present embodiments of the present invention is a technical premise, given the specific operation and detailed embodiments, but the scope of the present invention It is not limited to the following examples.

[0101] 图I为所提出的包含发射接收天线联合选择的MIMO系统示意图。 [0101] Figure I is a schematic diagram of a MIMO system comprising a transmitting and receiving antenna of the proposed joint selection. 在发射端，输入的数字信号经过空时处理后，由射频设备转化为模拟信号并加载到发射天线上。 On the transmit side, the digital signal input through the space-time processing, conversion into an analog signal by the radio frequency device and loaded onto transmitting antenna. 在接收端， 从接收天线上收到的信号经射频设备后重新转化为数字信号，并由信号检测模块对输入数据作估计后输出。 At the receiving end, the received signal from the receive antenna after RF device back into a digital signal by the signal detection module outputs the input data for estimation. 在数据块传输之前，发射端通过发射训练序列使接收端得到全部子信道的传输矩阵，并由接收端进行发射/接收天线选择。 Before transmission of the data block, transmitting the reception side terminal sequence of all subchannels transfer matrix obtained by the receiving terminal to transmit / receive antenna selection by transmitting training. 随后，接收端通过开关切换接收天线，并将选中的发射天线序号反馈至发射端用于发射天线切换。 Subsequently, the receiving side switches the receiving antenna by the switch, and feeds back the selected number of transmit antennas for transmission to the transmitter antenna switching.

[0102] 下面给出一个具体的MMO系统参数配置，来阐述本发明的实现步骤。 [0102] The following presents a MMO system configuration parameters specific to implement the steps set forth in the present invention. 需要说明的是，下例中的参数并不影响本发明的一般性。 It should be noted that the following example does not affect the general parameters of the present invention.

[0103] [0103]

[0104] 图2是本发明方法的详细流程图，具体的实现步骤阐述如下： [0104] FIG. 2 is a detailed flowchart of the method of the present invention, the specific implementation set forth in the following steps:

[0105] (1)接收端进行信道估计 [0105] (1) the receiving terminal to perform channel estimation

[0106] 此步骤可以依赖于现有的技术完成。 [0106] This step may be dependent on the completion of the prior art. 通过发端发射训练序列，在接收端得到完整的MIMO信道估计值。 By the originating transmitting a training sequence, the receiving end of the complete MIMO channel estimation value. 不失一般性，假设得到的4X4信道传输矩阵H为： Without loss of generality, 4X4 channel transfer matrix H is assumed obtained:

[0107] [0107]

[0108] (2)发射接收天线联合选择 [0108] (2) transmit receive antenna selection joint

[0109] 此例中Nt-Lt = 2 = N1H^,在发射天线选择和接收天线选择时后向搜索所需的迭代次数相同，不失一般性可以先执行发射天线选择，然后基于更新后的信道传输矩阵进行接收天线选择。 [0109] In this example Nt-Lt = 2 = N1H ^, the number of iterations required to search the same time after the transmission antenna and the reception antenna selection to select, without loss of generality can first perform transmit antenna selection, and then based on the updated channel transfer matrix for receive antenna selection.

[0110] A.发射天线选择 [0110] A. transmission antenna selecting

[0111] •前向更新：计算初始迭代阵A = p/i,Iw, =1/214，并按照式⑵和式⑶进行4次 [0111] • Forward Update: iterative calculation of the initial matrix A = p / i, Iw, = 1/214, and in accordance with the formula ⑵ ⑶ 4 times and Formula

迭代后得到迭代阵A为 A matrix obtained iteration after iteration

[0112] [0112]

[0113] •反向搜索：构造集合It= {1，2，3，4}，并令k= I。 [0113] • Reverse Search: set configured It = {1,2,3,4}, and let k = I. 经第一次迭代后得到的度量为： After the first iteration of the resulting metric:

[0115] 由式（5)知J = 3,由式（6)更新It = It-It (3) = {1,2,4},而由式（7)更新矩阵A得:A = G3 -g3gf Iax,,其中G3表示删去迭代阵A中的第3行和第3列元素后得到的子阵， g3表示删去迭代阵A中第3列向量的第3个元素后所得到的列向量，即 [0115] Known by the formula (5) J = 3, the formula (6) Update It = It-It (3) = {1,2,4}, and by the formula (7) to obtain the update matrix A: A = G3 -g3gf Iax ,, wherein G3 represents a line obtained after the third iteration omitted in the array a and the three element subarray, g3 represents the third element of iterative a omitted in the third column vector obtained column vector, that is,

[0117] g3 = (-0. 0638+0. OlOli,O. 0246-0. 0402i,0. 3526，-O. 0306+0. 0982i)H [0117] g3 = (-0. 0638 + 0. OlOli, O. 0246-0. 0402i, 0. 3526, -O. 0306 + 0. 0982i) H

[0118] 故更新后的矩阵A为： [0118] Therefore, the updated matrix A is:

[0120] 令k = 2进行第二次迭代，由式⑷得 [0120] k = 2 to make a second iteration, obtained by the formula ⑷

[0122]由式（5)知J = I，由式（6)更新It = It_It ⑴={2，4}。 [0122] J = I know by the formula (5), by the formula (6) Update It = It_It ⑴ = {2,4}. 由于k = Nt_Lt = 2，后向搜索结束，所选出的是第2根和第4根发射天线。 Since k = Nt_Lt = 2, after the search, the selected first two and four transmit antennas. 此时无需再更新矩阵A，但为了进一步进行接收天线选择需要更新信道传输矩阵H，由式（8) In this case no longer need to update the matrices A, but in order to further receive antenna selection to update the channel transfer matrix H, by formula (8)

[0124] B.接收天线选择 [0124] B. Receive Antenna Selection

[0125] ·前向更新：计算初始迭代阵B =p/L1INr=1/2I4，并按照式（10)和式（n)进行2次迭代后得到迭代阵B为[0126] [0125] to a pre-update: calculating an initial iteration matrix B = p / L1INr = 1 / 2I4, and two iterations according to the formula (10) and (n) is obtained after iteration array B [0126]

[0127] •反向搜索：构造集合士= {1，2，3，4}，并令k= I。 [0127] • Reverse Search: Disabled configured set = {1,2,3,4}, and let k = I. 第一次迭代后得到的度量为： After the first iteration of the resulting metric:

[0128] [0128]

[0129]由式(13)知 J = 4,由式(14)更新Ir = Ir-Ir (3) = {I, 2, 3},而由式(15)更新矩阵B得： [0129] by formula (13) known J = 4, the formula (14) updates Ir = Ir-Ir (3) = {I, 2, 3}, is updated by the formula (15) obtained matrix B:

，其中F4表示删去迭代阵B中的第4行和第4列元素后得到的子阵，f4表示删去迭代阵B中第4列向量的第4个元素后所得到的列向量，即 Wherein the line obtained after iteration 4, the F4 represents omitted in array B and four element subarray, f4 represents the fourth element of Iterative B omitted in the fourth column vector obtained after column vector, i.e.,

[0130] [0130]

[0131] f4 = (-0. 0148+0. 0715i,0. 0395+0. 1156i,0. 0021+0. 0753i)H [0131] f4 = (-0. 0148 + 0. 0715i, 0. 0395 + 0. 1156i, 0. 0021 + 0. 0753i) H

[0132] 故更新后的矩阵B为： [0132] Therefore, the updated matrix B is:

[0133] [0133]

[0134] 令k = 2进行第二次迭代，由式⑷得 [0134] k = 2 to make a second iteration, obtained by the formula ⑷

[0135] [0135]

[0136]由式(13)知 J = I，由式(14)更新Ir = Ir_Ir (I) = {2，3}。 [0136] J = I know by the formula (13), by the formula (14) updates Ir = Ir_Ir (I) = {2,3}. 由于k = Nr_Lr = 2， 后向搜索结束，所选出的是第2根和第3根接收天线。 Since k = Nr_Lr = 2, after the search, the selected first two and three receiving antennas. 此时无需再更新矩阵B，也无需再更新信道传输矩阵H。 In this case no longer need to update matrices B, no longer need to update the channel transfer matrix H.

[0137] (3)接收端向发射端反馈所选择的天线序号 [0137] (3) feedback from the receiver to the antenna number of the selected transmitter

[0138] 在此例中，对于Nt = 4，Lt = 2的情况共有C42 = 6种可能的发射天线组合。 [0138] In this example, for the case of Nt = 4, Lt = 2 total C42 = 6 possible combinations of transmit antennas. 故若采用映射反馈时需要 Therefore, if using the mapping requires feedback

比特的信息，而采用直接反馈时所需的序列长度为Nt = 4比 Bits of information, and the sequence length required for direct feedback ratio Nt = 4

特，两种方法的反馈开销近似，因此可以使用存储开销较小的直接反馈，根据步骤一中得到的It= {2,4}知，应启用第2根和第4根发射天线，所以反馈的二进制比特序列为{0，1，0，[0139]另外，通过穷举=36种可能的发射接收天线组合后，可以验证当选择第2，4 根发射天线和第2，3根接收天线时可以得到最大的信道容量。 Patent, feedback overhead is approximately two methods, it is possible to use a smaller storage overhead direct feedback, in accordance with It is obtained in step a = {2,4} known, should enable the first two and the fourth transmit antenna, the feedback binary bit sequence {0,1,0, [0139] Further, after exhaustive = 36 possible combinations of transmit receive antenna may be verified when selecting the second and fourth transmission antenna and receiving antenna 3 you can get the maximum channel capacity. 因此，本发明通过一种低复杂度的迭代，渐进收敛到最大信道容量准则下的全局最优解，避免了穷举搜索时巨大的计算开销。 Accordingly, the present invention is a low-complexity iterative and asymptotic convergence to the global maximum channel capacity criteria optimal solution, to avoid large computational overhead exhaustive search. 同时，由于信道容量是系统性能的直接度量，所以在误码率固定的情况下，使用本发明进行天线选择后的MIMO系统将可以支持更高的数据传输率，具有非常高的实用价值。 Meanwhile, since the channel capacity is a direct measure of system performance, so that at a fixed bit error rate, the present invention is used for the antenna selection MIMO system will support a higher data transfer rate, it has a very high practical value.

[0140] 图3和图4是当发射天线和接收天线联合选择时本发明和其他方法的1%中断容量比较，系统参数为Nt = Nr = 4, Lt = Lr = 2以及Nt = 5, Lt = 3, Nr = 6, Lr = 3。 [0140] FIGS. 3 and 4 when 1% transmit and receive antennas combined selection of the present invention and other methods outage capacity comparing system parameters Nt = Nr = 4, Lt = Lr = 2 and Nt = 5, Lt = 3, Nr = 6, Lr = 3. 可以看到，在任何信噪比下，本发明中的迭代方法都可以获得近似于穷举搜索的性能，且其性能远远优于最大范数方法。 It can be seen at any SNR, the iterative method of the present invention can be obtained similar to exhaustive search performance, and its performance is far superior to the maximum norm method.

[0141] 图5是当系统中仅存在接收天线选择时本发明和其他方法的1%中断容量比较， 系统参数为队=6, Nt = Lt = Lr = 2,4。 [0141] FIG. 5 is a system when there is only 1% of the receive antenna selection method of the present invention and other comparative outage capacity, the system parameters for the team = 6, Nt = Lt = Lr = 2,4. 同样的,本发明的天线选择方法可以达到近似最优的系统容量。 Similarly, the antenna selection method of the present invention can achieve near optimal system capacity. 在lObit/s/Hz的中断容量时，本发明对最大范数方法具有4dB的信噪比优势，而对无天线选择的系统具有8dB的信噪比优势。 In lObit / s / Hz when the outage capacity, the present invention has the advantage of 4dB noise ratio of the maximum norm method, having advantages 8dB noise ratio of the system without antenna selection.

[0142] 如图6所示，使用上述方法的接收端装置包括信道估计单元、发射接收天线联合选择单元和反馈单元。 [0142] As shown in FIG. 6, the receiving-side apparatus using the above method includes a channel estimation unit, transmit and receive antenna selection unit combined feedback unit. 其中：信道估计单元负责接收发射端发射的训练序列，并根据接收到的所述训练序列进行信道估计，得到当前MMO信道的传输矩阵；发射接收天线联合选择单元根据从信道估计单元处得到的信道估计值，使用前向-反向递归方法，进行发射接收天线联合选择，得到所选出的发射和接收天线序号；反馈单元接收从发射接收天线联合选择单元处得到的发射天线序号，并通过映射反馈或者直接反馈将其反馈给发射端。 Wherein: a channel estimation unit is responsible for receiving the training sequence end transmitted by the transmitter, and performs channel estimation based on the received training sequence to obtain the transfer matrix of the current MMO channel; transmitting and receiving antennas jointly selecting unit channels obtained from the channel estimation unit at The estimate, using the forward - backward recursion method, transmit receive antenna selection combined to give the selected transmitting and receiving antenna number; feedback unit receiving a selection from a combined transmitting and receiving antenna at the transmit antenna element number obtained by mapping feedback or direct feedback to the feedback to the transmitting end.

[0143] 需要说明的是，本发明的上述具体实施方式只是用于阐述本发明的技术内容的示例。 [0143] Incidentally, the above-described embodiments of the present invention are set forth merely for exemplary techniques of the present invention. 本发明并不限于上述具体实施方式，不应对其进行狭义的解释。 The present invention is not limited to the above specific embodiments, it should not be interpreted narrowly. 在本发明的精神和权利要求的范围内，可进行各种变更来实施之。 Within the scope and spirit of the invention as claimed in the claims, various modifications may be made to the embodiments.

## Claims (2)

- 1.一种用于发射接收天线联合选择的方法，其特征在于，包括如下步骤：步骤一：发射端发射训练序列，接收端根据接收到的所述训练序列进行信道估计，得到当前MMO信道的传输矩阵；步骤二：接收端使用前向-反向递归方法，进行发射接收天线联合选择，具体为：设Nt 为发射端天线总数，Lt为发射端选择天线数，Nr为接收端天线总数，Lr为接收端选择天线数；当满足Nt-Lt ( Nr-Lr时，先进行发射天线选择，根据选择的发射天线子集更新信道传输矩阵后进行接收天线选择；所述发射天线选择的方法为，分别运行前向更新和后向搜索，对待选发射天线进行筛选，直到选出Lt根发射天线；对应所述前向更新为，在第k步迭代过程中，k= 1,2,...,队，利用公式 1. A method for transmit receive antenna selection for the joint, characterized by comprising the following steps: Step one: a transmission side transmits a training sequence, the receiving side performs channel estimation based on the received training sequence, obtain the channel current MMO transfer matrix; step two: the receiving end using the forward - backward recursion method for transmitting and receiving antennas selected jointly, in particular: the total number of transmit antennas is Nt set terminal transmitting end Lt of selected antennas, Nr is a total number of the receiving antenna terminal, Lr select the number of antennas to a receiving end; when satisfied Nt-Lt (Nr-Lr, first transmit antenna selection, receive antenna selection according to the transmission antenna subset to update the channel transfer matrix selected; method of the transmission antenna selection for , respectively, before running to the update and the backward search, screening treatment selected from the transmit antennas, transmitting antenna until the election Lt; updated to correspond to the forward, at iteration step k, k = 1,2, .. ., team, using the formula 更新矩阵A，其中hk为信道矩阵H的第k行，所述信道矩阵H大小^XNt，Nr为接收端天线总数，Nt为发射端天线总数，Oh表示Hermitian转置，A的初始值为A =/?/矣\，其中Lt为发射端选择天线数，P为接收端的信噪比，L,为NtXNt的单位矩阵，最终经过队步迭代得到用于后向搜索的初始迭代矩阵；对应所述后向搜索为，在第k步迭代过程中，k= 1,2,..., Nt-Lt,用公式 Update matrix A, where hk is the channel matrix H k-th row of the channel matrix H of size ^ XNt, Nr receive the total number of antenna terminal, Nt of to transmit the total number of the antenna, Oh denotes a Hermitian transpose, the original A is A ? = / / men \, wherein the matrix after the initial iteration number Lt selected transmitter antenna, P is the receiver SNR, L, of the unit matrix NtXNt, to give the final iteration for the team after the search; corresponding to the search to be described later, for the first iteration step k, k = 1,2, ..., Nt-Lt, with the formula 更新矩阵A和集合It，其中表示迭代矩阵A的第j列，Bj, j表示迭代矩阵A的第j个对角线元素，It-It(J)表示从集合It中消去第J个元素，Gj表示迭代矩阵A中删去第J行第J列后的子阵，gj表示从a(j)中删去第J个元素后得到的向量，A的初始值为经前向更新所得结果，最终经过Nt-Lt步迭代，选出发射天线集合It，并用It更新信道传输矩阵H = (1V1),1V2), ···,，其中K e It, i = 1,2, , Lt，h⑷表示矩阵H 在更新之前的第Ici列；所述接收天线选择的方法为，分别运行前向更新和后向搜索，对待选接收天线进行筛选，直到选出k根接收天线；对应所述前向更新为，在第k步迭代过程中，k = 1，2，. . .，Lt，利用公式 It set update matrices A and, where denotes the iteration j-th column of matrix A, of Bj, j denotes the j-th diagonal element of matrix A iterations, It-It (J) represents erasing from the J-th element of the set of It, Gj represents the iteration matrix a by deleting the first row sub-matrix J after the J-th column, the vector representing GJ omitted from the J-th element a (j) is obtained, before the initial value of a is obtained by the result of the update, after the final iteration Nt-Lt, we are selected set of transmission antennas, and use It updates the channel transfer matrix H = (1V1), 1V2), ··· ,, wherein K e It, i = 1,2,, Lt, h⑷ H represents a matrix before the update of Ici column; the method of receiving antennas is selected, respectively updates before running and backward search, the receiving antenna selected from the screening treatment, until the election k receiving antennas; corresponding to the forward update, at iteration step k, k = 1,2 ,..., Lt, using the formula 更新矩阵B，其中h(k)为后向搜索更新后的信道矩阵H的第k列，所述信道矩阵H大小NrXLt, Nr为接收端天线总数，Lt为发射端选择天线，Oh表示Hermitian转置，B的初始值^B = P/L1Ik，P为接收端的信噪比，Ijv,为队X队的单位矩阵，最终经过Lt步迭代得到用于后向搜索的初始迭代矩阵B;对应所述后向搜索为，在第k步迭代过程中，k= 1,2,...,队-Lp用公式 Update matrices B, where the h (k) is the channel matrix H after the search for the updated k-th column of the channel matrix H size NrXLt, Nr receive the total number of antenna terminal, Lt of selected antenna transmitter, Oh denotes a Hermitian transpose set the initial value of B ^ B = P / L1Ik, P is the receiver SNR, IJV, the team for the team X matrix, after the final iteration to obtain an initial iteration Lt matrix B for backward search; corresponding to the search to be described later, for the first iteration step k, k = 1,2, ..., -Lp team using the formula 更新矩阵B和集合Ip其中表示矩阵B的第j列，b,,,.表示矩阵B的第j个对角线元素，IfI JJ)表示从集合L中消去第J个元素，Fj表示矩阵B中删去第J行第J列后的子阵，fj表示从b(j)中删去第J个元素后得到的向量，B的初始值为经前向更新所得结果， 最终经过N1H^步迭代,选出接收天线集合I1^ ；当满足Nt-Lt > Nr-Lr时，先进行接收天线选择，根据选择的接收天线子集更新信道传输矩阵后再进行发射天线选择；当系统中只须发射天线选择，则单独执行发射天线选择，当系统中只须接收天线选择，则单独执行接收天线选择；所述接收天线选择的方法为，分别运行前向更新和后向搜索，对待选接收天线进行筛选，直到选出k根接收天线；对应所述前向更新为，在第k步迭代过程中，k = 1，2，. . .，Nt，利用公式β = Bh(k) Ip set update matrices, and wherein B represents the j-th column of the matrix B, b ,,,. J-th diagonal element of matrix B, IfI JJ) represents erasing from the J-th element in the set L, Fj denotes the matrix B deleting the J-th row subarray J-th column, the initial pre-FJ represents omitted from the J-th element of b (j) obtained in the vector, B value is updated by the result obtained, the final step after N1H ^ iteration, a set of receiving antennas is selected I1 ^; satisfied when Nt-Lt> Nr-Lr, first receive antenna selection, transmit antenna selection according to the received updated antenna subset selection and then the channel transfer matrix; and when only system transmit antenna selection is performed separately transmit antenna selection, the system only when the receive antenna selection, antenna selection is performed separately received; method for the selection of the receiving antenna, respectively, before running to the update and the backward search, the receiving antenna selected from the group treated screening, selecting k until the receive antenna;.. updated to correspond to the forward, at iteration step k, k = 1,2 ,., Nt, using the formula β = Bh (k) 更新矩阵B，其中h(k)为信道矩阵H的第k列，所述信道矩阵H大小队XNt，队为接收端天线总数，Nt为发射端天线总数，Oh表示Hermitian转置，B的初始值为 Update matrices B, where h (k) for the k-th column of the channel matrix H of the channel matrix H of size team XNT, team to receive a total number of antennas terminal, Nt of to transmit the total number of the antenna, Oh denotes a Hermitian transpose, the initial B, value P为接收端的信噪比，1^为队X队的单位矩阵，最终经过Nt步迭代得到用于后向搜索的初始迭代矩阵B ；对应所述后向搜索为，在第k步迭代过程中，k= 1,2,...,队-Lp用公式Ir = Ir_Ir (J)更新矩阵B和集合Ip其中表示矩阵B的第j列，bj, j表示矩阵B的第j个对角线元素，IfI JJ)表示从集合L中消去第J个元素，Fj表示矩阵B中删去第J行第J列后的子阵，fT表示从b(1)中删去第J个元素后得到的向量，B为所述接收天线选择中的前向更新所得结果，最终经过队-k步迭代，选出接收天线集合Iy并利用L更新信道传输矩阵所述发射天线选择的方法为，分别运行前向更新和后向搜索，对待选发射天线进行筛选，直到选出Lt根发射天线；对应所述前向更新为，在第k步迭代过程中，k= 1,2,..., Lp利用公式a = AhfA = A- α a H/ (l+hka ) P is the receiver SNR, for the team X ^ 1 team matrix, Nt after the final iteration to obtain an initial iteration matrix B for backward search; search as to the corresponding rear, at the k-th iteration step , k = 1,2, ..., -Lp team using the formula Ir = Ir_Ir (J) and a set of updated Ip wherein matrix B represents the j-th column of the matrix B, bj, j denotes the j-th diagonal of the matrix B elements, IfI JJ) represents erasing from the J-th element in the set L, Fj denotes matrix B J-th row sub-matrix by deleting the J-th column, fT represents the deletion of the J-th element from b (1) to give after vector, B is selected in the front of the antenna to receiving updated results obtained, after the final iteration -k team, is selected and using the receiving antenna set L Iy update the channel transfer matrix method is the transmit antenna selection, each running updating the forward and backward searching, filtering treatment selected from the transmit antennas, transmitting antenna until the election Lt; updated to correspond to the forward, at iteration step k, k = 1,2, ..., Lp using the formula a = AhfA = A- α a H / (l + hka) 其中ki e Ir，i = 1，2，...，1^，、表示矩阵^1在更新之前的第1^行；更新矩阵A，其中hk为后向搜索更新后的信道矩阵H的第k行，所述信道矩阵H大小LrXNt, Lr为接收端选择天线,Nt为发射端天线总数，O η表示Hermitian转置,A的初始值为Α = /?/ΖΛν,，其中Lt为发射端选择天线数，P为接收端的信噪比，I,为NtXNt的单位矩阵， 最终经过L步迭代得到用于后向搜索的初始迭代矩阵A ；对应所述后向搜索为，在第k步迭代过程中，k= 1,2,..., Nt-Lt,利用公式 Wherein ki e Ir, i = 1,2, ..., 1 ^ ,, ^ 1 denotes a matrix before update in the first row ^; update matrix A, wherein the first channel matrix H is updated after the search is hk k rows, the size of the channel matrix H LrXNt, Lr is the receiver selects an antenna, to transmit the total number Nt of antenna terminal, O η denotes a Hermitian transpose, the initial value of a Α = /? / ΖΛν ,, where Lt is the transmitting end select the number of antennas, P is the receiver SNR, I, the matrix is NtXNt final iteration through L obtained for the initial iteration of the search matrix a; corresponding to the backward search is in k-th iteration step process, k = 1,2, ..., Nt-Lt, using the formula 更新矩阵A和集合It，其中表示迭代矩阵A的第j列，Bj, j表示迭代矩阵A的第j 个对角线元素，It-It(J)表示从集合It中消去第J个元素，Gj表示迭代矩阵A中删去第J行第J列后的子阵，gj表示从a(j)中删去第J个元素后得到的向量，A的初始值为经前向更新所得结果，最终经过Nt-Nt步迭代，选出发射天线集合It ；步骤三：接收端通过映射反馈或者直接反馈将发射天线序号反馈给发射端。 It set update matrices A and, where denotes the iteration j-th column of matrix A, of Bj, j denotes the j-th diagonal element of matrix A iterations, It-It (J) represents erasing from the J-th element of the set of It, Gj represents the iteration matrix a by deleting the first row sub-matrix J after the J-th column, the vector representing GJ omitted from the J-th element a (j) is obtained, before the initial value of a is obtained by the result of the update, after the final iteration Nt-Nt, he is selected set of transmission antennas; step three: by mapping the receiving end a feedback or direct feedback from the transmitting antenna number fed back to the transmitting end.
- 2.一种根据权利要求I所述方法的实现装置，其特征在于，包括：信道估计单元、发射接收天线联合选择单元、反馈单元，其中：所述信道估计单元接收发射端发射的训练序列，根据接收到的所述训练序列进行信道估计，得到当前M頂O信道的传输矩阵；所述发射接收天线联合选择单元根据从信道估计单元处得到的信道传输矩阵估计，使用前向-反向递归方法，进行发射接收天线联合选择，得到所选出的发射和接收天线序号； 所述反馈单元根据从发射接收天线联合选择单元处得到的发射天线序号，通过映射反馈或者直接反馈将其反馈回发射端。 An apparatus for implementing the method according to claim I, characterized in that, comprising: a channel estimation unit, the joint selection means transmit the receiving antenna, the feedback unit, wherein: the channel estimating unit receives the transmission side transmits a training sequence, according to the received training sequence to the channel estimation to obtain the current M top O channel transfer matrix; the transmitting and receiving antenna joint selection unit estimates according to a channel transmission matrix obtained from the channel estimation unit, using the forward - recurrent back method, combined transmit receive antenna selection, to obtain the selected number of transmit and receive antennas; means according to the feedback from the combined transmit receive antenna selection unit obtained at a number of transmit antennas, feedback or direct feedback by mapping it back to the transmitter feedback end.

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EP1227539A1 (en) | 2001-01-17 | 2002-07-31 | Lucent Technologies Inc. | Structure for multiple antenna configurations |

US7006810B1 (en) | 2002-12-19 | 2006-02-28 | At&T Corp. | Method of selecting receive antennas for MIMO systems |

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