CN101242283A - 串行智能单元的局域网 - Google Patents

串行智能单元的局域网 Download PDF

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CN101242283A
CN101242283A CN 200810081421 CN200810081421A CN101242283A CN 101242283 A CN101242283 A CN 101242283A CN 200810081421 CN200810081421 CN 200810081421 CN 200810081421 A CN200810081421 A CN 200810081421A CN 101242283 A CN101242283 A CN 101242283A
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叶胡达·宾德
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塞尔科尼特有限公司
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/14Two-way operation using the same type of signal, i.e. duplex
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B3/00Line transmission systems
    • H04B3/54Systems for transmission via power distribution lines
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B3/00Line transmission systems
    • H04B3/54Systems for transmission via power distribution lines
    • H04B3/542Systems for transmission via power distribution lines the information being in digital form
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/28Data switching networks characterised by path configuration, e.g. local area networks [LAN], wide area networks [WAN]
    • H04L12/2801Broadband local area networks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/28Data switching networks characterised by path configuration, e.g. local area networks [LAN], wide area networks [WAN]
    • H04L12/2803Home automation networks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/28Data switching networks characterised by path configuration, e.g. local area networks [LAN], wide area networks [WAN]
    • H04L12/2803Home automation networks
    • H04L12/2838Distribution of signals within a home automation network, e.g. involving splitting/multiplexing signals to/from different paths
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L29/00Arrangements, apparatus, circuits or systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04L1/00 - H04L27/00 contains provisionally no documents
    • H04L29/02Communication control; Communication processing contains provisionally no documents
    • H04L29/06Communication control; Communication processing contains provisionally no documents characterised by a protocol
    • H04L29/0602Protocols characterised by their application
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L43/00Arrangements for monitoring or testing packet switching networks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04MTELEPHONIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04M19/00Current supply arrangements for telephone systems
    • H04M19/02Current supply arrangements for telephone systems providing ringing current or supervisory tones, e.g. dialling tone, busy tone
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B2203/00Indexing scheme relating to line transmission systems
    • H04B2203/54Aspects of powerline communications not already covered by H04B3/54 and its subgroups
    • H04B2203/5429Applications for powerline communications
    • H04B2203/5437Wired telephone
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B2203/00Indexing scheme relating to line transmission systems
    • H04B2203/54Aspects of powerline communications not already covered by H04B3/54 and its subgroups
    • H04B2203/5429Applications for powerline communications
    • H04B2203/5445Local network
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B2203/00Indexing scheme relating to line transmission systems
    • H04B2203/54Aspects of powerline communications not already covered by H04B3/54 and its subgroups
    • H04B2203/5429Applications for powerline communications
    • H04B2203/545Audio/video application, e.g. interphone
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B2203/00Indexing scheme relating to line transmission systems
    • H04B2203/54Aspects of powerline communications not already covered by H04B3/54 and its subgroups
    • H04B2203/5429Applications for powerline communications
    • H04B2203/5458Monitor sensor; Alarm systems
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/28Data switching networks characterised by path configuration, e.g. local area networks [LAN], wide area networks [WAN]
    • H04L12/2803Home automation networks
    • H04L2012/284Home automation networks characterised by the type of medium used
    • H04L2012/2843Mains power line
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/28Data switching networks characterised by path configuration, e.g. local area networks [LAN], wide area networks [WAN]
    • H04L12/2803Home automation networks
    • H04L2012/284Home automation networks characterised by the type of medium used
    • H04L2012/2845Telephone line
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S370/00Multiplex communications
    • Y10S370/908Local area network

Abstract

使用电传导媒介的一个串行智能单元(SIC)和用于局域网的连接拓扑结构。局域网可以从互连的多个SIC进行配置,因此两个邻近的SIC之间的所有的通信是点对点和双向的。每个SIC可以连接到一个或者多个其它SIC以便允许冗余的通信路径。SIC网络的不同的区域中的通信彼此无关,因此不象当前的总线拓扑结构和星形拓扑结构,对SIC网络的容量或者范围没有基本的限制。每个SIC可以任选地连接到一个或者多个数据终端,计算机,电话机,传感器,激励器等等,以便促进这样的设备中的互连性。根据本发明的网络可配置用于多种的应用,包括市内电话系统,远程计算机总线扩展器,复用器,PABX/PBX功能,安全系统和本地广播业务。该网络可以使用专用的接线,以及现有的接线作为内部电话机或者电接线。

Description

串行智能单元的局域网本申请是2001年2月24日进入中国的专利申请号为99810085.4, 国际申请日为1999年7月12日、国际申请号为PCT/US99/15644的 专利申请的分案申请。技术领域本发明涉及局域网,特别地涉及基于串行智能单元的局域网拓朴 结构。背景技术 总线拓朴结构:大多数的现有技术局域网(LAN)使用在图1中以例子表示的总线 拓朴结构。通信媒介102是基于两个导体(通常扭绞线对或者同轴电 缆),数据终端设备(DTE)单元104,106,108, 110和112通过各自的网 络适配器114,116, 118, 120和122连接到该通信媒介。网络适配器 可以是独立的或者装在各自的DTE内。这个现有技术总线拓朴结构有下列缺陷:1. 从数据通信的观点,该媒介可能随着不同的设施显著地不同, 因此不能总是获得对该媒介的适当的适配。2. 该总线拓朴结构对于通信不是最佳的,因此:a) 媒介的最大长度是有限的;b) 可能连接到该总线的单元的最大的数量是有限的;c) 在网络适配器中的收发信机中包含复杂的电路;d) 数据速率是有限的。3. 在媒介的通常要求终端负载,因此安装复杂了。4. 在任何给予时间在该总线上仅仅一个DTE可以发射,而且所 有的其它的DTE被限定为收听者。5. 需要复杂的判断技术确定哪一个DTE能,在该总线上发送。6. 在总线短路的情况下,整个总线故障,而且很难定位该短路。7. 地址应该独立地与任何网络适配器相关,而且以总线拓朴结构 这是难以达到的。星形拓朴结构:许多现有技术网络设备和在下面概述的互连利用星形拓朴结构。复用器是在局域网和广域网(WAN)通信中使用的设备的通用的部 件。使用它以便提供到数据通信骨干的通路或者允许分享多个站之间 的带宽。正如在图2中表示的,复用器202的一侧通常连接到单个高 数据速率连接204("高速信息通路"),但是还可以使用一些这样的连 接。复用器202另一侧具有多个低数据速率连接206, 208, 210, 212 和214。省略号...表示可以进行另外的连接。每个低数据速率连接使用 由该高数据速率连接提供的带宽的一部分。这些低数据速率连接可以 是相同的类型或者不同的类型,并且可以具有不同的或者相同的数据 速率。最通常使用的多路复用技术是时域多路复用(TDM)。但是,也 使用频域多路复用(FDM)。正在使用的普及的复用器是话音复用器,表示在图3中。处理2.048 每秒兆比特、包括30个64千比特/秒信道的脉码调制(PCM )总线304 连接到PABX/PBX 302的一侧,并且多达30个电话接口 308,312和 316通过连接306, 310和314连接到另一侧。省略号...表示可以进行 另外的连接。在这个配置中,PCM总线中的每个信道可以转换或者固 定地专用于特定的电话线。这样的系统的一个例子在授予Blakeslee 的美国专利No. 3,924,077中公开了 。正如在图4中表示的,广泛使用(通常在办公室或者企业环境)类似 的小的专用小交换机(PABX/PBX),在此一些外部线路403, 404和405 连接到PABX/PBX 402的一侧,并且多个电话机408, 412和416分 别地通过线路406,410和414连接到另 一侧。省略号…表示可以进行另 外的连接。该PABX/PBX连接外部线路到一个请求或者被要求的电话 机,并且允许在该房屋的电话机之间连接。在上面叙述的配置中,使用星形拓朴结构以便连接这些单元到该 复用器,它起网络集线器的作用。星形拓朴结构的缺点包括如下:1. 要求在每个单元和该网络集线器之间连接,并且这个连接要求 的接线可能包括长的路程。因此,当增加新的单元时,必须增加新的 单元和该网络集线器之间的附加的、可能长的连接。2. 不提供故障保护:任何短路或者开路将中断到被影响单元的业务。3. 该复用器可能广的空间和功率要求。 计算机接口:建立各种的接口标准,以便允许PC(个人计算机)或者工作站和它 的不同的连接单元之间的互操作性。这些标准通常涉及机械的和电的 接口,并且包括工业标准结构(ISA),扩展的工业标准结构(EISA),个 人计算机存储器卡工业协会(PCMCIA),智能驱动电子学(IDE),小的 计算机系统接口 (SCSI)和其它。每个增加的硬件单元通常利用 一个特 定的软件驱动程序用于与特定的平台的互操作性。这些协议仅仅适用 于小距离,并且允许单元装在PC内部或者在PC附近或者工作站周 围。例如,装备用于视频捕获的PC可能包括装在母板上的PC内部 的一个插入ISA卡,连接到该卡的摄影机和一个软件驱动程序。这个 配置不允许远程视频监视。使用相同的导线对或者用于电源和数据通信两者的线对是熟知 的,并且广泛的在电信中使用,从"普通老式电话业务"("POTS") 到综合业务数字网(ISDN)和包括其它数字用户线(xDSL)技术的局部 环中的宽带业务。这样的概念例如在授予Marcel的美国专利4,825,349 中叙述了,描述使用用于这样的方案的两个线对。叙述了用于这样的 DC馈电的DC—DC变换器,例如在授予Yamano等人的美国专利 4,507,721中。电力线通信(PLC)的概念也是广泛知道的。但是,在大多数情 况下该连接类似于局域网环境,其中单个发送器占用整个的媒介。这 样的4支术的例子包括X- 10和用户电子总线(CEBus,在EIA- 600标准 中叙述)。许多这种技术使用复杂的扩频技术,以便适应有问题的媒介 (特征在于噪声和千扰的数量高)。但是即使对于这样的改进的技术, 获得的数据速率是相对地低的。在这个领域中的现有技术包括授予Ratner的美国专利5,684,826, 授予Sargeant等人的美国专利5,491,463。授予Daggett等人的US专 利5,504,454,授予Abraham的美国专利5,351,272,授予Lee等人的 美国专利5,404,127,授予Howard的美国专利5,065,133 ,授予Spriester 等人的美国专利5,581,801,授予Reyes的美国专利4,772,870和授予 Lechner等人的美国专利4,782,322。在美国分类340/310(子分类A/R 和其它)和国际分类H04M 11/04中可以找到其它专利。使用也用于数据通信的现有的电话接线的概念是首先在授予 Goodman等人的美国专利5,010,399中公开的,4吏用叠加在电话信号 上的视频信号。但是,使用的方案是总线类型的并且具有那种拓朴结 构的缺陷。类似地,使用更高的频带通过公共电话交换网(PSTN)的 数据传输想法广泛地在xDSL系统中使用,正如授予Litteral等人的 美国专利5,247,347中公开的。该专利公开一个不对称的数字用户线路 (ADSL)系统。但是,仅仅叙述通过本地的环路的单个点对点传输,而 不讨论现有的内部接线,因此这个现有技术没有公开如何配置完整的 多点网络。多路复用xDSL数据和POTS/ISDN数据使用FDM原理, 基于POTS/ISDN业务占用该频谱的较低部分,xDSL系统使用更高的 带宽。使用专用的接线的家用总线网在Kubo等人的美国专利4,896,349 中公开了,和基于电力线控制器(PLC)的家庭自动化网络在授予Mun 的美国专利5,579,221中公开了。授予Roberts等人的美国专利 4,714,912首先建议通过电力线而不在总线拓朴结构中传送数据,但是 作为'中断和嵌入,。但是,仅仅使用单个导体,并且该接收器都再 使用总线拓朴结构连接。另外,本发明人的美国专利申请No. 08/734,921,以色列专利申请 No.l 19454,和PCT专利申请No. PCT/IL97/00195公开了在网络拓朴 中用于检测和控制的供电线路模块的分布串行控制系统。但是这些文 件没有公开用于数据通信的局域网。上面提到的现有技术文件是在该领域中的代表性的例子。 一些应 用由一个以上的发行专利覆盖。因此广泛地认可需要有实现用于数据通信的一种局域网,它不受 当前的方法固有的限制,而且是非常有利的。这个目标由本发明满足 了。发明内容本发明是用于数据通信,检测和基于连续地连接的模块进行控制的一种局域网,该模块称为"串行智能单元"(SIC)。根据本发明的这 样的设备的局域网的一个例子表示在图7中,现在简略参考。在这个 例子中,SIC 700,702,704,706和708由一个或者多个导电的导线对(诸 如扭绞线对710)连接。这允许链接诸如SIC 700至SIC 702到SIC 704。 但是,位于末端的SIC 700, SIC 706和SIC 708具有单个连接。SIC 704 具有三个连接,并且甚至更多连接是可能的。 一个SIC可能接口至一 个或者多个DTE,正如由接口至SIC 700的DTE 714和由接口至SIC 704的DTE 716与718表示的。但是SIC不需要具有接口 ,正如由SIC 706和SIC 702表示的。虽然SIC 702作为一个中继器,连接SIC 700 和SIC 704。应该指出,根据本发明的网络利用导电的媒介互连SIC。 每个导电的媒介连接恰好两个SIC到SIC的通信对,这些SIC双向地 通信并且与局域网中的其它通信对无关。电传导媒介是从一点到另一 点通过传导电流或者通过传播电位发送信号的媒介。电传导媒介包括 但是不限制为导线,扭绞线对和同轴电缆。但是电传导媒介不包括诸 如光纤线路,波导,微波,无线电和红外通信媒介。正如在上面指出的,通信对中的SIC双向地通信。例如,SIC 704 可以启动通信(作为发送器)给SIC 702(作为接收器),但是SIC 704同 样可以启动同时的通信(作为发送器)至SIC 700(作为接收器)。双向通 信可以同时地进行,在此处相当于"全双工通信"。另外,正如在上 面指出的,通信对的SIC之间的通信与任何其它通信对的SIC之间的 通信无关,这些通信既不以任何方式阻止又不彼此影响。此外,SIC 之间的每个通信是"点对点通信",在此处术语表示发生在恰好一个 发送器和恰好一个接收器之间的通信。这是与基于总线的通信相反, 其中有许多(潜在的)接收器和许多(潜在的)发送器。因此,在根据本发 明的拓朴结构中,在连接的每端(SIC)在物理层自动地终止,两者简化了安装和确保更可靠的通信。根据本发明的拓朴结构在下列方面优越于现有技术总线拓朴结构:1. 对可以安装在该网络中的SIC的数量没有实际的限制,因此对 在该网络中的DTE的数量没有实际的限制。2. 点对点通信允许在更大的距离有更高的数据速率。3. 点对点通信要求比总线电路较不复杂的电路。4. 几个SIC可以同时地发送和接收。例如,SIC 700可以与SIC 702通信,同时SIC704同时地与SIC 706通信。5. 不需要判断,允许更有效的利用该网络。此外,优先权可以分 配给每个SIC或者作为选择分配给每个特定的消息以便允许该数据路 由选择考虑优先权。6. 地址可以通过该网络指定。7. 在任何导体或者SIC故障的情况下,该网络可以立即检测故障, 并且容易地获得该故障的具体的位置(直到特定的SIC对)。因此,根据本发明提供用于数据通信、检测和控制的一个局域网, 包括由传导媒介专门地互连为至少一个通信对的多个串行智能单元, 其中:(a)每一个传导媒介互连不多于两个串行智能单元;(b)每一个通 信对包括一个传导媒介和准确地两个串行智能单元;(c)每一个通信对 从事于通过传导媒介独占地通信;和(d)每一个通信对从事于双向通信 和与任何其它通信对通信无关。附图说明在此处仅仅利用例子参见附图叙述本发明,其中:图1表示通常的现有技术LAN总线拓朴结构。图2表示典型的现有技术的复用器。图3表示现有技术的话音复用器(星形拓朴结构)。图4表示现有技术的话音交换机配置(星形拓朴结构)。图5是根据本发明的数据通信的SIC方框图。图6是根据本发明的控制应用的SIC方框图。图7表示利用本发明设备的LAN拓朴结构。图8表示利用本发明的设备的另一种LAN拓朴结构。图9表示根据本发明基于SIC的复用器一PABX/PBX。图IO表示根据本发明使用作为计算机总线扩展器的局域网。具体实施方式理和操作。图5是在控制应用中使用的代表性的SIC 500的方框图。第一线 路接口 502是用于连接前面的SIC以便接收通过电传导媒介503输入 的电源和局域网数据的第一端口,电传导媒介503可以随意地连接到 输电线501,因此SIC 500可以从输电线501供电。线路接口 502可 以包括连接器、保险丝、避雷器和其它保护,诸如噪声滤波器等等。 输入的电源/数据信号馈送给第 一电源/数据分离器/组合器504,它从电 源去耦合(高频率交流电)数据信号。这样的电源/数据分离器/组合器 504(在图5中表示为"F/Ds/c")可以通过本专业熟知的方法实现,诸 如使用中心抽头变压器或者作为选择使用具有有源的部件。数据信号 馈送给允许双向通信的第一调制解调器506,同时电源馈送给电源供 给520。上面的方案假定电源和数据是通过相同的网络导线(供电的线 路)传送的。图5说明SIC是通过交流电(例如通过输电线)线路供电的 情况,在此情况下电源/数据分离器/組合器504是一个交流电源/数据 分离器/组合器,它从更高的频率数据信号中分离低频交流电电源。否 则,在SIC是由直流线供电的情况下,电源/数据分离器/组合器504 是一个直流电源/数据分离器/组合器,它从该数据信号中分离直流电 源。在一些情况下不使用线路供电的方法。例如,电源可以通过与该 数据接线一起发送的专用线传送。作为选择,该SIC可以是由本地的 电源在本地供电。在两者情况下,不需要电源/数据分离器/组合器,并 且输电线是直接地连接到SIC电源,同时该数据直接地连接到该调制 解调器。SIC部分任选地装在插座524内,因此到局域网以及到输电 线的连接可以从插座524进行。来自插座524的电源可以馈送给任意 的电的装置525。另外,SIC 500包括一个任选的输电线馈送505,它 还可以供电电气装置或者其它设备。电源供给520提供用于SIC和有用负荷操作要求的电压,并且还 输出该电源到第二电源/数据分离器/组合器510,用于耦合到下一个 SIC。与下一个(馈送的)SIC通信是通过电话/数据分离器/组合器610 连接到第二线路接口 614的第二调制解调器612执行的,电话/数据分 离器/组合器610类似于先前叙述的电话/数据分离器/组合器604。线路 接口 614连接到电传导媒介615,它连接到下一个SIC。调制解调器 606和612可以是标准RS- 485, RS- 232或者任何简单的相似的数据 接口收发信机。作为选择,可以使用复杂的收发信机用于获得长距离 的或者高速操作。CPU和包含在控制块622中的固件控制和监视该单 元操作和通信,以及通过与有效负荷609接口的有效负荷接口 608控 制该有效负荷,它可以包括传感器和激励器。例如,接口 608可以实 现4-20ma标准接口。 SIC 600还包括一个任选的电源/电话接口 624, 例如包含在电话插座625中,以及一个或者多个通信接口,诸如连接 到一个DTE的一个通信接口 626。在直流线路馈电的情况下,电源供给可以具有线路反向作用(例如一个基于二极管的桥)以便适应可能的导线反向。 一 注意,SIC可以作为具有包含在一个外壳内的所有的组成的部分 的单个设备实现,但是不是必须那么实现。在用于数据通信或者控制 应用的SIC的情况下,该硬件可以在SIC模块和DTE/有效负荷单元 之间任选地分开。在用于电话应用的SIC的情况下,该硬件可以任选 地在SIC, DTE有效负荷单元电话出口诸如电话出口 625之间分开, 它允许连接到电话业务(诸如通过电话机623)和局域网(通过DTE 628) 二者。电话机出口 625可以是一个墙上插座或者塞孔。所有的或者部 分的SIC可以装在电话机出口诸如电话机出口 625内,如果要求的话。 此外,对于仅仅使用作为中继器的SIC,有效负荷接口不是必需的。 电源/数据分离器/组合器510(图5)可以使用在本技术中已知的各种的 技术。耦合例如可以正如在授予Gajjar的美国专利4,745,391中公开 的那样实现。电源供给520(图5)可以是使用专用的适配器或者通过具 体的S1C连接到该网络。有效负荷还可以使用标准的以太网或者其它局域网接口连接,因此使用该SIC仿真该网络。这个配置使用标准接口,但是以比常规的局域网更高的通过量和数据速率操作。SIC寻址:一个SIC可以包括一个地址。在该网络的SIC的地址可以由局域 网本身通过本技术中已知的算法通过自动分配指定,例如在授予 Smith等人的美国专利5,535,336中公开的。地址还可以通过人工分配 指定,诸如通过在SIC单元机械的转换的设置。地址还可以通过连接 到SIC的DTE,或者正如在大多数的局域网系统所进行的、利用更高 层,或者物理地是到SIC连接的装置(诸如通过地址线路)。SIC电源:SIC可以通过位于接近该SIC的电源在本地接收电源。但是,一 个电源可能使用专用的输电线用来供电在局域网中的一些或者所有的 SIC。这些线路可以以数据通信导线选择路由作为选择,相同的传导 媒介(数据通信导线)可利用在本技术中熟知的技术用于传送电源和局 域网数据到该SIC,例如在电话系统中。在这样的情况下,要求一个 单元用于耦合电源供给到该局域网。这可以使用SIC(诸如图7中的 SIC 706)或者在一个具体的专用的模块中。因为电源典型地分布在低 频(例如60赫兹),而局域网数据典型地是在更高的频率,电源可以使 用频域多路复用与局域网数据组合。因此SIC可以从输电线供电,并 且还可以输送电源,正如在图5中表示的和在此处详述的输电线501, 因此SIC 500可以从输电线501供电。连接到该SIC的DTE、传感器和激励器还可以在本地从该SIC供 电的,或者可以通过与该SIC相同的信道使用相同的资源。部分或者 所有的SIC可以装在插座内,因此该插座允许到局域网以及到电源的 连接。控制:虽然主要地使用作为通信网络,根据本发明的系统还可以使用作 为一个平台以便实现检测,控制和自动系统。这是通过增加到传感器 或者激励器的一个或者多个SIC接口实现的。由该传感器接收的信号通过包含在SIC或者在DTE中的逻辑在该网络上发送,于是它操作 有关的激励器。这个自动功能可以由一个或者多个DTE监视。控制的操作可以与在该网络上通信的数据相关(例如检测电源对 DTE的有效性)或者可以与它无关,允许在本地进行控制判定。DTE接口:DTE接口可以是一个专有的接口或者任何标准的串行或并行接 口,诸如ITU-TV.35, ITU-TV.24等等。另外,可以使用电话机接 口(POTS)或者ISDN。这可以适合对讲通信或PBX应用。故障保护:在上面叙述的SIC拓朴结构可以修改以便允许单个故障校正。在 这样的情况下,SIC连接在具有冗余的路径的网络中,诸如在图8表 示的圆形的拓朴结构。在这个例子中,SIC 800连接到SIC 802,它又 连接到SIC 804, SIC 804又连接到SIC 806, SIC 806又连接到SIC 800。当以这样的配置连接时,在任何导体诸如在导体对810中的任何 单个故障将不影响系统操作,因为可以通过遇回路径实现数据从任何 SIC发送到任何其它SIC。在此处术语"循环的拓朴结构"表示根据本 发明的SIC的任何局域网的拓朴结构,它包括在两个不同的SIC之间 的至少两个通信路径。例如,在图8中,从SIC 800到SIC 804有两 个通信路径: 一个通信路径是从SIC 800到SIC 802到SIC 804,而另 一路径是从SIC 800到SIC 806到SIC 804。循环的拓朴结构提供冗余 的通信路径,增加局域网抗通信故障能力。应该指出,正如在图中表 示的,根据本发明的循环的拓朴结构显著地不同于现有技术的"令牌环 拓朴结构",正如后面讨论的。虽然正如在此处定义的循环的拓朴结构可能表面上类似于令牌环 拓朴结构,但是它们之间有主要的差别。 一个差别是在数据成帧。令 牌环在该网络中的所有的通信链路使用相同的帧结构,和这要求相同 的成帧必须由该网络中的所有的单元识别。但是,在根据本发明的SIC 网络中,每个通信链路(在任何两个连接的SIC之间)是与所有的其 它网络通信完全的独立的。因此,第一SIC可以使用一个类型的帧结构和协议与笫二 SIC通信,同时相同的第一 SIC可以使用不同类型的 帧结构和协议与第三SIC通信。另外,在令牌环网络中,在任何给定的时间从单个发送器到一个 或者多个接收器存在单个方向的数据流,并且通常该方向的数据流是常数。但是根据本发明的SIC网络不对在任何通信链路中的数据流强加任何限制。全双工、半双工或者单方向的通信是可能的,并且甚至可以在该网络中不同的链路是变化的。这允许SIC网络同时地支持两 个独立的通信路由,假定使用不同的段。例如在图8中,SIC 800可 以与SIC 802通信,而SIC 804同时地传送具有SIC 806的不同的数 据。这个能力是不被任何其它网络配置支持的。例如上面的差别影响各自的网络对故障的易损性。在该媒介中的 任意位置的单个中断或者短路的情况下,令牌环网络将瘫痪,禁止该 系统中的任何另外的通信。作为另一个例子,在授予Markkula等人 的美国专利No. 4,918,6卯中公开的网络(以下称为Markkula)中, 这个故障通过禁止媒介信号传送能力影响该物理层。令牌环网络将根 本不起作用,因为不支持基于数据层功能的单向传输。但是相反,根 据本发明的SIC网络将继续完全地起作用,除了具体的有故障的链路 本身。所有的其它链路正常地继续起作用。此外,定位故障的能力在 令牌环网络或者在Markkula网络中是不容易执行的。但是在根据本 发明的SIC网络中,它是简单的和直接的追踪该故障到影响的链路。在电源线路上的数据分配:根据本发明的网络的重要的配置使用建筑物的电力布线作为通信 媒介。例如这可以用于实现便宜的家庭的局域网。典型的家庭市电电 源具有到很多分配点和出口的单个馈线器的连接。根据本发明的原理 说明一个SIC位于每个出口内并且在每个分配点。这允许基于SIC的 通信网络,在经过该接线连接的每对SIC之间进行通信。在这样的情 况下,还期望市电电源还用于供电SIC。除使用相同的接线媒介以夕卜, 电的分配和共享相同的市电电源可以完全地去耦合。另一个配置包括增加SIC到在不同于市电电源出口的点的市电电源接线。但是,优选的实施例包括使用电源和DTE连接点二者的出口 点。这包括以具有电的连接和通信塞孔的'灵巧的,出口替换所有的插 座和分配点。另外,这样的单元可以包括可视指示器(例如LED)以便 表示通信状态,并且可以还包括交换机或者其它装置以便确定该出口 地址。这样的通信系统可以用于与配电相关的应用,至于控制连接到 具体的插座的负荷,用于装置的远程接通/关断操作,操作的定时,延 时的开始,在预设置时间周期之后切断等等。这样的通信系统还可以 用于监视由具体的插座消耗的电源,诸如用于要求侧管理(DSM)或者 自动仪表读数(AMR),允许遥测表读出。上面叙述的拓朴结构还可能应用于现有的接线。 一个通常的例子 可以是电力布线到位于不同位置的用户。这样的接线典型地依赖于具 有抽头的总线拓朴结构。为了使用SIC技术,接线必须中断,并且一 个SIC安装在两端之间。在类似的方式中,可以实现采用车辆和船的电力布线的通信网络, 诸如用于航空器,船舶,火车,公共汽车,汽车等等。使用SIC实现本地通信/电话系统:在这种应用中,使用现有的电话接线(或者POTS或者ISDN)作为 局域网的电传导媒介,和用于局域网数据通信和用于电话二者。在此 处"电话,,表示任何电话或者电话的通信,二者包括话音(POTS )和数据 (ISDN)。电话机出口通常连接在点对点拓朴结构中而没有分配点。为 了建立网络,每个出口替换基于SIC的出口。如果有分配点,则这些 分配点还必须装备SIC。这个配置导致在该电话机出口之间的高性能 的局域网除共享相同的媒介之外,局域网可以从该电话系统去耦合。 作为选择,该局域网和电话系统可以组合,使得电话数字地集成入该 局域网数据。外部电话业务可以根据下列替换选项之一对待:l..没有电话机支持。在这个配置中,到该网络(通常到公共网络) 的连接被切断,而且该网络完全是内部的,没有外部的电话业务。2..电话机作为有效负荷。在这个配置中,保持该电话机能力,并且电话数据可以集成入局域网的数据通信中。SIC之一(通常最靠近乂^ 用电话网接口的一个SIC)或者其它专用的模块互连(例如通过通信接 口)到该网络接口(NI)。这个单元仿真到该NI的电话接口,因此公共 网操作是透明的并且继续正常执行。但是,与该电话接口相关的信号 或者话音本身和控制/信令(挂机/摘机,振铃等)被数字化并且在该网络 中作为数据流发送,作为在该网络中进行的通信的一部分。在到电话机的SIC接口中,这些信号变换回到模拟(或者任何原始的形式),因 此可以与标准的电话机一起使用。在这种情况下,电话机功能完全地 保持。但是,通信网络中的故障可能导致电话业务的丢失。这可以利 用一个系统改进,该系统切断SIC电路和恢复原始的接线路由选择(这 可以由继电器容易地实现,当故障探测,人工千预或者其它相关的场 合时旁路该SIC)。3.通过POTS或者ISDN通信。在这个方法中,互连SIC的传导 媒介是建筑物的电话接线。这个方法包括目前在结合xDSL技术使用 的已知的机制'POTS分离,。这要求一个滤波器,它从频谱的高频率的 部分(用于通信)中分离频谱的低频部分(通常传送POTS相关的信号和 电源)。在这样的应用中,SIC中的AC/DC单元以这样的POTS分离 器模块替换。低频频带(POTS相关的)透明地通过(类似于电源通过), 和分支到电话塞孔。高频率的频带用于SIC之间的通信。在相同的传 导媒介高频率局域网通信与低频电话数据的组合是频域多路复用的形 式。在较后的两个选择中,每个内壁电话出口以具有电话塞孔和一个 (或者多个)通信塞孔的基于SIC的出口代替。 计算机总线扩展器:SIC网络可以使用作为计算机总线扩展器,诸如ISA总线扩展器, 正如在图10中表示的。在这个配置中,SIC 1006具有计算机总线连 接器1004,它例如连接到计算机1002中的ISA总线时隙之一,以便 在局域网和计算机1002之间传送数据。远地放置的另一个SIC 1010 也具有计算机总线连接器1012,诸如ISA总线扩展器。这允许透明的ISA总线能力,在此ISA总线数据通过电传导媒介1008在两个方向中 传送。省略号(..,)表示在SIC 1006和SIC 1010之间的局域网中可能出 现附加的SIC和电传导媒介。正如例子表示的,图像帧抓取器卡1014 插入计算机总线连接器1012,而摄影机1016连接到图像帧抓取器卡 1014。正常地,图像帧抓取器卡1014是直接地插入ISA总线槽,诸 如计算机1002中。但是,在这里局域网起总线扩展器的作用,因此图 像帧抓取器1014和摄影机1016可以离开计算机1002远地放置。可以 使用在计算机1002中的ISA总线槽的正常的软件驱动程序,因为计 算机1002不知道仅仅进行ISA仿真。这样,具有一般的远程PC部件 和外围设备的能力可以容易地实现。这个配置带有上面叙述的优点, 并且这种方法可用于获得各种的目标,诸如故障保护。类似地,这种 方法可用于使用该计算机中的不同的端口远地连接几个单元到 一 台计 算机。实现复用器和PABX/PBX功能:SIC的网络可能用来实现复用器或者PABX/PBX功能,正如在图 9中表示的。在这个例子中,SIC 900连接到高数据速率连接,诸如 PCM总线916,而SIC 902和SIC 906连接到电话机908, 910和912。 在这个例子中SIC 904起中继器的作用。在这个例子中,局域网起着复用器的作用,其中高数据速率连接 (PCM总线916)带宽通过SIC卯0多路复用到SIC 902和SIC卯6,每个 SIC可以使用高数据速率连接(PCM总线916)的带宽的不同的部分。此 夕卜,增加电话机卯8, 910和912,图9的局域网起着话音复用器的作用。本发明的其它应用:本发明的许多应用已经在上面讨论了 。另外的应用包括但是不限 制为:对讲通信,PABX/PBX,安全系统,视频监视,娱乐广播业务, 时间(时钟)分配和音频/视频信号分配。由本发明实现的网络可以在单 个建筑物内或者通过邻近在本地延伸。虽然已经相对于有限数量的实 施例和应用叙述了本发明,但是应该理解,可以进行本发明的许多变 化,修改和其它应用。

Claims (17)

1. 一种用于将数据终端设备单元耦合到由建筑物中的布线承载的数据信号的设备,所述建筑物中的布线在承载所述数据信号的同时承载电源信号,所述设备包括: 布线连接器,用于将所述设备连接到所述布线; 耦合到所述布线连接器的数据耦合器,具有用于仅使数据信号通过的数据信号端口; 耦合到所述数据信号端口的调制解调器,用于与所述布线进行全双工数据信号通信; 耦合到所述调制解调器的数据接口连接器,用于连接到所述数据终端设备单元; 耦合到所述布线连接器的电源耦合器,具有用于仅使电源信号通过的电源信号端口;以及 耦合到所述电源信号端口和所述调制解调器的电源,所述电源被来自所述布线的所述电源信号加电并且用于对所述调制解调器加电。
2、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,进一步包括用于将所述设备安装 到墙上的装置。
3、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中所述设备包括在插座中。
4、 根据权利要求3所述的设备,其中所述插座是电话插座和电源 插座中的一个。
5、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中所述电源信号是直流信号。
6、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中所述电源信号是交流信号。
7、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中承载所述电源信号的所述布 线是特殊/专用布线。
8、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中所述电源信号和所述数据信 号在所述布线上被频率复用,并且所述耦合器中的至少一个进一步包 括滤波器。
9、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中所述设备是能够设定地址的。
10、 根据权利要求9所述的设备,其中所述设备具有手动分配的 地址。
11、 根据权利要求9所述的设备,其中所述设备具有自动分配的 地址。
12、 根据权利要求9所述的设备,其中所述设备通过耦合到所述 设备的所述数据终端设备单元而具有地址。
13、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中所述耦合器中的至少一个 包括中心抽头变压器。
14、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中所述设备的至少一部分容 纳在所述数据终端设备单元的外壳内。
15、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中所述数据信号包括数字化 的电话信号。
16、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,还能够连接到电话单元。
17、 根据权利要求1所述的设备,进一步包括耦合到所述电源信 号端口的电源连接器,所述电源连接器用于对连接到其的耗电设备加 电。
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