CN101205662A - Robot sewing system for three-dimensional composite material perform - Google Patents

Robot sewing system for three-dimensional composite material perform Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101205662A
CN101205662A CNA2007101503652A CN200710150365A CN101205662A CN 101205662 A CN101205662 A CN 101205662A CN A2007101503652 A CNA2007101503652 A CN A2007101503652A CN 200710150365 A CN200710150365 A CN 200710150365A CN 101205662 A CN101205662 A CN 101205662A
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sewing
robot
image
laser
video camera
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CNA2007101503652A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101205662B (en
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李亮玉
岳建锋
姜海珍
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天津工业大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a 3D composite material prefabrication piece robot sewing system, which comprises a robot, a single-face sewing machine, a structured light vision sensor and an image processing unit; the single-face sewing machine is connected with a shell of the structure light vision sensor and fixed at the tail end of an arm of the robot; the structured light vision sensor comprises a laser and a CCD video camera which are respectively fixed inside an shell of the structured light vision sensor, the included angle of a light axis centerline of the CCD video camera and a laser structure light surface of the laser is 30 to 60 degrees, which is perpendicular with the work-piece surface of a sewing material; the image processing unit comprises an image acquisition card, a PC machine and an image processing program library, the image processing program library comprises a sewing material type identification module, an image pre-processing module, an image post-processing module and a control capacity output module; the CCD video camera is connected with the image acquisition card through an video data line, the image acquisition card is arranged inside a main board slot of the PC machine, the PC machine is connected with the robot through a serial port.

Description

Three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component robot sewing system
Technical field
The present invention relates to three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component manufacturing technology, be specially a kind of three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component robot sewing system, international monopoly Main classification number plan is Int.Cl.A61B 17/00 (2006.01).
Background technology
Composite has characteristics such as light weight, intensity height, anti-ablation, leading-edge fields such as Aeronautics and Astronautics, military project have been widely used in, and expand to aspects such as automobile, building, the energy, environmental protection, biologic medical and sports apparatus, become countries in the world and competitively heavily support the research field that drops into.But composite prefabricated component manufacturing cost costliness, production efficiency is very low.Therefore, how under the prerequisite that guarantees the three-dimensional composite material performance advantage, to realize the automation and the flexibility of preform production, shorten the production cycle, reduce production costs, become the crux problem that composite needs to be resolved hurrily of using.
The composite suturing skill is easy to realize the automation and the mechanization of preform production process because of it, and the production efficiency height has become the focus of composite research field.Good composite suturing skill can improve prefabricated component and pass performances such as thickness direction interlayer faults toughness, the tired toughness of interlayer and intensity; Combine with technology such as braiding and can make some baroque or huge prefabricated components of structure more convenient, and bonding strength is preferably arranged, and can replace methods of attachment such as splicing and metal riveting, be used for the manufacture process of composites such as space shuttle, rocket and airship.This technology has obtained application in fields such as Aeronautics and Astronautics, has all obtained application in the project of NASA (NASA), USAF and Airbus France.But, present composite suturing skill is to use industrial sewing machine to carry out on the little plane of two dimensional surface or flexibility more, angle and the flexibility sewed up are very restricted, and particularly are difficult to complex-shaped three-dimensional prefab is carried out sew application.
The six-shaft industrial robot free degree is big, and high efficiency has obtained extensive use in manufacturing industry.In order to improve the automation and the mechanization degree of composite prefabricated component manufacturing technology, enhance productivity, reduce production costs, enlarge the range of application of composite, people have invented robot single face suturing skill.It finishes sew application by means of industrial robot guiding single face Sewing machines, the automaticity height, processing performance is good, can improve the various mechanical properties that the composite prefabricated component passes thickness direction, wait other manufacturing technologies to combine with braiding and can produce complex-shaped prefabricated component, be easy to realize the automation and the mechanization of preform production process, the production efficiency height, to reducing composite preform production cost, the production efficiency that improves the complicated shape prefabricated component is significant.Composite sewing system based on industrial robot and single face Sewing machines is succeeded in developing by the KSL company of Germany, and obtained extensive use at aspects such as auto industry, aerospaces, its technology has been used to produce parts such as wing, baffle plate in Airbus France, greatly reduce the manufacturing cost of aircraft.
But present weaving three-dimensional composite material quilting machine people mostly is the playback robot, and programming is complicated, efficient is low, and very flexible can only be sewed up according to the track of prior setting, and is strong to the precision dependence of frock and positioner.When being sewed up, the workpiece of difformity and size must change frock and positioner.In addition, in sewing process, some sizes are big, the workpiece (as aircraft wing and tub etc.) of poor rigidity is subjected to the effect of suture needle easily to produce distortion, or because large piece interface uniformity is bad, may makes actual seam depart from teaching track in advance.Therefore the teaching robot to sew up error in the case big, quality is difficult to guarantee.
Machine vision has high efficiency and untouchable feature.Its application in textile detection is more and more wider, and the machine vision tracking system can overcome teaching robot's shortcoming, improves quilting machine people's flexibility and intelligent greatly.In the scope of applicant's searching document, concrete technology of three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component robot sewing system and technology are not seen disclosure always, do not see the report of relevant seam robot vision tracking technique yet.
Summary of the invention
Situation at prior art, the technical problem to be solved in the present invention is, design a kind of three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component robot sewing system, this sewing system has from motion tracking seam and the automatic intellectuality of adjusting movement locus sews up function, characteristics such as stable performance, sensitivity and accuracy height, the intellectuality and the automation of the three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component sewing process of can realizing weaving.
The technical scheme that the present invention solve the technical problem is: design a kind of three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component robot sewing system, this sewing system comprises robot, single face Sewing machines, structured light vision sensor and graphics processing unit; The shell of described single face Sewing machines and structured light vision sensor links together, and is fixed on the end of robot arm; Described structured light vision sensor comprises laser instrument and ccd video camera, be separately fixed in the structured light vision sensor shell, the optical axis center line of described ccd video camera becomes 30 ° of-60 ° of angles with the laser structure light face of laser instrument, and vertical with the surface of the work of sutures; Described graphics processing unit comprises image pick-up card, PC and image processing program storehouse, and described image processing program storehouse comprises sutures type identification module, image pretreatment module, post processing of image module and controlled quentity controlled variable output module; Described ccd video camera links to each other with image pick-up card by video data line, and image pick-up card is installed in the C machine host slot, and PC links to each other with robot by serial ports.
Compared with prior art, sewing system of the present invention has overcome that existing teaching robot's sewing system very flexible, error are big, quality is difficult to shortcomings such as assurance, adopted composite prefabricated component image processing method unlike the prior art, mainly show: 1. adopt the structured light visual sensing technology, utilize laser as structured light, image characteristic point detects and characteristic parameter extraction is carried out at laser rays, but not whole composite sutures image, it is few to have strong, the pending data volume of anti-veiling glare interference performance, the characteristics that processing speed is fast; 2. image processing module adopts the technology that contrast enhancing, binaryzation, medium filtering and methods such as expansion, corrosion and skeletal extraction combine, solved the composite material for weaving surface irregularity effectively, there are a large amount of flower joints and burr, laser stripe is discontinuous, problems such as thickness differs, and picture noise is many; 3. adopt ordinate comparison method fast detecting characteristic point, the precision height, fast several times, real-time is good.Sewing system of the present invention has been realized the automation and intelligent stitching of three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component, can use by industrializing implementation.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of a kind of embodiment of sewing system of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the structural principle schematic diagram of a kind of embodiment of sewing system of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is the image processing program library module block diagram of a kind of embodiment of sewing system of the present invention.
Fig. 4 (a) is the stitching lap side seam laser image of a kind of carbon fiber three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component of collecting of a kind of embodiment of sewing system of the present invention.
Fig. 4 (b) is the stitching lap side seam laser image of a kind of carbon fiber three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component of the direct binaryzation of a kind of embodiment of sewing system of the present invention.
Fig. 4 (c) is the stitching lap side seam laser image of a kind of a kind of carbon fiber three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component after handle in the image processing program storehouse of sewing system of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is a kind of embodiment image processing program of sewing system of the present invention library structure figure.
The specific embodiment
Further narrate the present invention below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing thereof, but embodiment does not limit claim of the present invention.
The three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component robot sewing system of the present invention's design (being called for short sewing system) referring to Fig. 1-3, this sewing system comprises robot 10, single face Sewing machines 4, structured light vision sensor and shell 2 and graphics processing unit; Described single face Sewing machines 4 links together with the shell 2 of structured light vision sensor, and is fixed on the arm end of robot 10; Described structured light vision sensor comprises laser instrument 3 and ccd video camera 1, is separately fixed in the structured light vision sensor shell 2; Described graphics processing unit comprises image pick-up card 9, PC 8 and image processing program storehouse, and the image processing program storehouse comprises sutures type identification module, image pretreatment module, post processing of image module and controlled quentity controlled variable output module; Described ccd video camera 1 links to each other with image pick-up card 9 by video data line, and image pick-up card 9 is installed in the host slot of PC 8, and PC 8 links to each other with robot 10 by serial ports.
Sewing system based on robot 10 and single face Sewing machines 4 has bibliographical information (referring to Zhao Nuoping, breathe out. such, the west. hertz Bai Er. use the textile material prefabricated component preparation of Sewing machines and the bending property of woven glass fibre sutures. The Nonferrous Metals Society of China's proceedings (English edition) .2005.4 (15) .ZHAONuo-ping, H.R  del, but this technology does not relate to the structure light vision automatic tracking system C.Herzber.Preparation of textile preform withsewing machines and bending properties of stitched woven glassfibre fabrics.Trans.Nonferrous Met.Soc.China.2005.4 (15)).The outstanding feature of sewing system of the present invention is that structured light vision sensor and shell 2 thereof and graphics processing unit are applied in the three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component robot sewing system, image processing techniques by uniqueness realized seam from motion tracking, improved stability, sensitivity and the accuracy of sewing system.
The described ccd video camera of sewing system of the present invention (abbreviation video camera) 1 and laser instrument 3 are fixed in the structured light sensor shell (abbreviation sensor outer housing) 2,5 one-tenth 30-60 of laser structure light face ° angle of the optical axis center line of video camera 1 and laser instrument 3, embodiment has adopted 45, and vertical with the surface of the work of sutures (being the three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component) 6; Single face Sewing machines 4 is connected with sensor outer housing 2 and is fixed on the arm end of robot 10; Laser structure light face 5 projects sutures 6 joint surfaces and forms laser stripe, and video camera 1 can be gathered the laser stripe image of this seam at any time.
Among a kind of embodiment of sewing system of the present invention, described robot adopts KUKA six degree of freedom industrial robot, the maximum 150kg of load; The single face Sewing machines adopts RS530 2-Needle Sewing machines; Video camera adopts the WAT-250D industrial camera, and resolution ratio is 352 * 288; Laser instrument adopts semiconductor laser, and power 10mw, wavelength are 635nm; Image pick-up card adopts the Haikang prestige to look DH-4000 series capture card; Computer adopts PC, is configured to CPU Intel Pentium (R) 4, internal memory (256M), hard disk (40GB).The stitching embodiment of sewing system of the present invention at be the overlap joint workpiece of typical carbon fiber three-dimensional braid composite.
(referring to Fig. 1,2) is as follows for the course of work of sewing system of the present invention: sutures 6 is positioned on the workbench 7, video camera 1 is gathered the laser stripe image of sutures 6, deliver in the PC 8 by image pick-up card 9, PC 8 calls respective modules in the image processing program storehouse of sutures 6 to carry out the seam laser image and handles.Image after the processing shows on the display screen of PC 8, and the characteristic point coordinate of extraction laser rays, determine position, the seam left and right sides and height parameter, change into control signal through algorithm and give robot 10, and the arm of control robot 10 drives single face Sewing machines 4 and moves along seam, finishes the sew application to sutures 6 seams.
Modularized design is adopted in the described image processing program of sewing system of the present invention storehouse, comprises sutures type identification module, image pretreatment module, post processing of image module and controlled quentity controlled variable output module (referring to Fig. 3).Wherein sutures type identification module adopts the gray-scale statistical method to judge the sutures type, and different sutures are adopted different binary-state thresholds; The image pretreatment module adopts window treatments, contrast enhancing, binaryzation, medium filtering, expansion and erosion operation that image is carried out preliminary treatment respectively; The post processing of image module adopts framework extraction method to obtain the center line (laser rays) of laser stripe, detected characteristics point coordinates; The controlled quentity controlled variable output module calculates the side-play amount of single face Sewing machines 4, to robot 10 output controlled quentity controlled variables.Image processing program of the present invention storehouse is applicable to handles the image of dissimilar sutures, for example is applicable to the image processing of typical carbon fiber preform prefabricated component (black) and fiberglass braided thing prefabricated component (white) etc.
The software principle block diagram of sewing system of the present invention as shown in Figure 5.At the characteristics of sutures 6, those skilled in the art are not difficult to provide the specific procedure of this software according to described principle/computational methods and technological requirement.Methods such as window treatments of the present invention, contrast enhancing, binaryzation are the image processing field general-purpose algorithms, itself be prior art, but do not see have the described processing method of employing to be applied to robot sewing system in applicant's range of search.
As the laser stripe image of the carbon fiber three-dimensional braid composite precast-products lapping seam of a typical Application Example of sewing system of the present invention shown in Fig. 4 (a).Because the surface irregularity of the three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component sutures of braiding, fiber such as woven exists flower joint and burr, the image laser striped thickness after the binaryzation differs, and is discontinuous, noise many (referring to Fig. 4 (b)), and signal is untrue.Therefore at these characteristics, the image pretreatment module of the present invention's design has adopted medium filtering and mathematical morphology processing method that laser image is handled, and has got rid of interference of noise effectively.Because the sutures flower saves and the influence of burr, and laser rays is tortuous and discontinuous, and conventional slope analysis waits one method no longer suitable, post processing of image module of the present invention has adopted a kind of new feature point detection algorithm---ordinate method of comparison in addition.Compare with his detection algorithm of tool, this algorithm is when detecting sutures laser rays characteristic point, and speed is fast, and the accuracy height satisfies the requirement of system real time.Laser rays behind the embodiment of the invention feature point for calibration (center line) image is shown in Fig. 4 (c).
Characteristic point described in the sewing system of the present invention is the datum mark that is used for calculating single face Sewing machines 4 side-play amounts, according to the horizontal stroke of described characteristic point, the side-play amount that the ordinate variable quantity is tried to achieve single face Sewing machines 4, and further calculates the output controlled quentity controlled variable.In conjunction with the characteristics of overlapping the slot compound 6 laser images, the intersection point that described characteristic point is chosen a sutures of laser stripe center line and overlapping the slot compound top is a characteristic point.Because the picture element (being two breakpoint places about laser rays) at two sutures overlapping the slot edges is compared with other picture element, the ordinate of two breakpoint picture elements differs greatly, and therefore adopts the ordinate method of comparison to come the detected characteristics point.Described ordinate method of comparison specific algorithm is as follows:
If f (m) is the ordinate that laser rays m lists picture element, f (n) is a n row picture element ordinate, and then 2 ordinate variable quantity K is:
K=f(n)-f(m)
When satisfying following four conditions, m and n row two picture elements are exactly breakpoint, and m row picture element is the characteristic point of asking:
1) m and n row picture element gray value non-zero;
2) the picture element gray value between m and the n row is zero;
3)K=(2.5-3.5)s;
4)f(m)<f(n) ,
Wherein: s is the one-tenth-value thickness 1/10 (mm) of sutures, and thickness is big more, and the K value is big more.The thickness of the sutures 6 of embodiment is 5mm, and the k value gets 15.
The present invention does not address part and is applicable to existing technology.
The present invention be directed to of the active demand of current field of compound material, effectively utilize the structured light visual sensing technology novel manufacturing equipment, and (weaving) composite three dimensional prefabricated component robot sewing system of developing of fusing digital images treatment technology.The structured light that this system adopts laser instrument to send project the sutures table as fill-in light and, use contactless vision sensor ccd video camera to gather the seam laser image, handle through image again, extract the laser rays characteristic parameter, change into robot motion's control signal, make robot guiding single face Sewing machines finish the stitching of three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component, can finish carbon fiber, the tracking of composite material for weaving three-dimensional structure composite prefabricated component seams such as glass fibre, the full-automation of realization sewing process is applicable to the automatical stitching (single face stitching) of various complicated shape composite prefabricated components, precision height not only, and reliable.

Claims (4)

1. three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component robot sewing system, this sewing system comprises robot, single face Sewing machines, structured light vision sensor and graphics processing unit; The shell of described single face Sewing machines and structured light vision sensor links together, and is fixed on the end of robot arm; Described structured light vision sensor comprises laser instrument and ccd video camera, be separately fixed in the structured light vision sensor shell, the optical axis center line of described ccd video camera becomes 30-60 ° of angle with the laser structure light face of laser instrument, and vertical with the surface of the work of sutures; Described graphics processing unit comprises image pick-up card, PC and image processing program storehouse, and described image processing program storehouse comprises sutures type identification module, image pretreatment module, post processing of image module and controlled quentity controlled variable output module; Described ccd video camera links to each other with image pick-up card by video data line, and image pick-up card is installed in the PC host slot, and PC links to each other with robot by serial ports.
2. three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component robot sewing system according to claim 1 is characterized in that the laser structure light face angle at 45 of the optical axis center line and the laser instrument of described ccd video camera.
3. three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component robot sewing system according to claim 1 is characterized in that the artificial six degree of freedom industrial robot of described machine, the maximum 150kg of load; The single face Sewing machines is the 2-Needle Sewing machines; Video camera is an industrial camera, and resolution ratio is 352 * 288; Laser instrument is a semiconductor laser, and power 10mw, wavelength are 635nm; Image pick-up card is looked DH-4000 series capture card for the Haikang prestige; PC is configured to CPU Intel Pentium (R) 4,256 MB of memory, 40GB hard disk.
4. according to each described three-dimensional composite material prefabricated component robot sewing system of claim 1-4, it is characterized in that described post processing of image module adopts ordinate method of comparison detected characteristics point, described characteristic point is the intersection point at a sutures edge of laser rays (laser stripe center line) and overlapping the slot compound top, and specific algorithm is as follows:
If f (m) is the ordinate that laser rays m lists picture element, f (n) is a n row picture element ordinate, and then 2 ordinate variable quantity K is:
K=f(n)-f(m)
When satisfying following four conditions, m and n row two picture elements are exactly breakpoint, and m row picture element is the characteristic point of asking:
1) m and n row picture element gray value non-zero;
2) the picture element gray value between m and the n row is zero;
3)K=(2.5-3.5)s;
4)f(m)<f(n),
Wherein: s is the one-tenth-value thickness 1/10 (mm) of sutures.
CN2007101503652A 2007-11-26 2007-11-26 Robot sewing system for three-dimensional composite material perform CN101205662B (en)

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