CN101180935B - Flavescent sophora root growth and processing technology - Google Patents

Flavescent sophora root growth and processing technology Download PDF

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CN101180935B
CN101180935B CN2007101854396A CN200710185439A CN101180935B CN 101180935 B CN101180935 B CN 101180935B CN 2007101854396 A CN2007101854396 A CN 2007101854396A CN 200710185439 A CN200710185439 A CN 200710185439A CN 101180935 B CN101180935 B CN 101180935B
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kuh
seng
seedling
seed
sowing
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CN101180935A (en
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李安平
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Shandong Zhendong Pharmaceutical Co Ltd
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Shandong Zhendong Pharmaceutical Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a cultivation and processing technique of sophora flavescens, characterized in that the technique is fulfilled by the following steps: (1) seed treatment, (2) direct seeding, (3) thinning shallow hoeing, (4) top dressing and deep application, (5) plucking flowers and top pruning, (6) weeding and seeds removing; (7) pest control; (8) seed collection, (9) drying and dehydration, water washing and classification, slicing, drying, dust removal and bagging after screening. The invention is characterized by improved technique, high and stable yield, good ingredients quality,standardized operation, etc.

Description

Kuh-seng plantation and process technology
Technical field: the present invention relates to Chinese herbal medicine plantation and process technology, relate in particular to kuh-seng plantation and process technology.
Background technology: kuh-seng (sophora flavescens Ait), the dry root of genus cassia leguminous plant.Mainly be distributed in northern China and southwestern each province.Stronger to weather, soil suitability, kuh-seng is dark root system crop, and the capillary root and given birth to the silver gray root nodule, has good (medicinal) crop that land used is increased soil fertility.Should select the soil body thick, the dark 50cm of cubsoil, loosing soil is fertile, the plantation of well-drained soil, and be good with reddish yellow, brown, brown soil.Its property of medicine bitter cold, major function is a heat-clearing and damp-drying drug, desinsection, diuresis.To hot dysentery, have blood in stool, jaundice renal shutdown, leukorrhea with reddish discharge, swelling of vulva pruritus vulvae, pruitus, mange leprosy, trichomonas vaginitis (controlling outward) etc. be effective in cure.Because people constantly increase such pharmaceutical requirements, and wild resource is not enough, therefore, taking the method cultivation processing kuh-seng of artificial planting is a kind of effective way.The kuh-seng artificial planting can not only be protected wild plant resource, also helps the standardization that promotes kuh-seng and standardization, industrialized development.
Summary of the invention: the objective of the invention is the continuous growth to kuh-seng class pharmaceutical requirements, and wild resource is not enough at people, and the technology of a kind of artificial planting that proposes and processing kuh-seng.
The specific embodiment of the present invention is as follows:
1, wholely:
1.1 choosing ground: kuh-seng is a prennical root class medicinal material, should select soil layer thick, and cubsoil is dark, and draining is good, buttress ground, the loose fertile mountain ridge; Before stubble with gramineous crop, tuber crops for well; The wasteland plantation is planted after can lying prostrate and ploughing weed eradication again.
Turn up soil 1.2 autumn ploughing is strong: selecting will be in conjunction with autumn ploughing behind the ground, every mu applies 100 kilograms of organic compound mixing fertilizers or through the agricultural fertile 2000-2500 kilogram of harmless treatment, plough deeply 25cm-30cm, harrow a kind of farm tools after ploughing thereupon and abolish clod, with the elimination worm's ovum of surviving the winter, activate nutrient, improve the physicochemical character of soil, reach the purpose of strong upturned soil.
1.3 the whole ground of three land measures equal to fifteen mu in most parts of the Northeast: promptly early plough is stepped on the land measure equal to fifteen mu in most parts of the Northeast, rake a kind of farm tools is carried the land measure equal to fifteen mu in most parts of the Northeast.
2, sowing:
2.1 seed is selected: kuh-seng is planted by the wild family that becomes, and at first should follow and fit the principle of planting suitablely, sets up the seminal propagation field with the breeding of locality.Continuous introduced variety in producing exploitation is through testing the new varieties of selecting suitable local ecotope again.
2.2 seed treatment:
Concentrated sulfuric acid seed soaking: seed germination experiment is soaked seed with 98% the concentrated sulfuric acid, and every hectogram kuh-seng seed adds concentrated sulfuric acid 49ml, soaks seed 60 minutes, and flushing with clean water is carried out germination test after drying thereupon.
Concentrated sulfuric acid seed dressing: the concentrated sulfuric acid seed dressing with 95%, promptly every hectogram kuh-seng seed add the concentrated sulfuric acid of 5~8ml95% dresses seed, and after stirring, piles vexed 2.5~4 hours, and clear water drip washing is dried and made preparations for sowing.
2.3 the sowing time:
Spring sowing is long vegetative period, easily forms strong sprout, and except that the seed that is untreated carries out generally should promoting spring sowing the winter sowing, to the strong ground of turning up soil of autumn ploughing, spring cake a kind of farm tools is no-tillage.Can early plough the land measure equal to fifteen mu in most parts of the Northeast that collapses to the fertilizer applied in the spring season field.The sowing time late March is last to April, the middle ten days, and once full stand is caught in sowing.
Summer sowing arid in spring is seriously affected sowing adversely and can be sowed by means of losing no time in sowing while there is sufficient moisture in the soil behind the rain in summer, adopts and consumes earth backing, in case rainfall ponding hardens.
The strong property of winter sowing kuh-seng thing seed can adopt winter sowing as not carrying out seed treatment, sows before promptly freeze-up bigly, and can emerge about 28% the first tenday period of a month May in next year.
2.4 seeding method:
Drilling generally should be adopted machine sowing an animal-drawn seed plough drilling for increasing work efficiency.Line-spacing 40cm, sowing depth 3~5cm, the mu amount of broadcasting 1.5~2.0kg broadcasts the back suppression soil and seed is combined closely, in order to germination and emergence.
Bunch planting also can manually be dug the bunch planting kind as no an animal-drawn seed plough, and 40cm paddles by line-spacing, and strain (cave) is dug the cave apart from 26cm~30cm, 4~6 of every cave point seeds, and earthing 3~5cm is and consumes shape, in order to avoid harden behind the rain.
Intercut to the soil moisture conservation feelings, accomplish to begin sowing in good time, can adopt the peach type to intercut by the emperor himself, as intercutting soybean, 4~6 of every cave point seeds.Row, spacing in the rows are respectively 40cm and 26~30cm.
3, field management:
3.1 shallow hoe seedling thinning
Kuh-seng seed seedling is very thin, and seedling is afraid of the farmland running to weeds, when growing 4~5 compound leaves, carries out seedling thinning during plant height 6~8cm, and 13~15cm stays seedling by spacing in the rows.112 stay seedling: i.e. 1 strain, 1 strain, 2 strains; Stay two strains of 30%.Pull out ridge heart weeds, the shallow hoe ridge back of the body 5~8cm carefully closes lightly and loosens the soil.But to 2 years and 3 years living kuh-seng top in early spring icepro cake a kind of farm tools, cut hollow billet and close lightly the crack, keep and return pulp-water.
3.2 intertillage final singling
When kuh-seng grows 6~7 compound leaves, 60% plant occurs five when going out compound leaf, and seedling enters vigorous period, carries out intertillage second time, intertills the degree of depth 10~15cm.Be short of seedling in conjunction with intertilling to look into,, go a final singling every one stopping under the preliminary seedling situation of transplanting.Intertill and clean tillage is carried out in biennial production field when the high 8~10cm of the stem eye that turns green.
The deep placement 3.3 topdress
After kuh-seng carried out second time intertillage, seedling entered vigorous period, needed fertilely for satisfying its growth, and the every mu of urea that topdresses (or diammonium phosphate) 7~10kg opens the ditch of 8~10cm, and the fertilising earth backing is to protect fertilizer efficiency.Can carry out foliage spray (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) to 2,3 years living kuh-sengs.
3.4 defloration is pinched
Kuh-seng promptly had 40% stem eye to blossom and have seeds in 1 year, and the stem eye in the 3rd year 90% is a bud.In order to reduce nutrient consumption, increase the root nutrient accumulation, the production land for growing field crops should take defloration to play the measure of item, and taked manual removal measure to July 10 June 10 time, increases the root nutrient accumulation.
Mend 3.5 transplant seedlings and to plant
Kuh-seng individual plant root heavily is 200~400g; Average 300g, the disconnected ridge of being short of seedling is very big to yield effect.For this reason, we can in conjunction with intertillage for the second time or do well after autumn the land for growing field crops on the spot lifting mend and plant work, the full stand rate is reached about 95%.
The seed 3.6 weeding is gone out
In order to eliminate the grass-seed source, in the beginning of autumn to the Limit of Heat kuh-seng Tian Dacao is carried out uprooting weed, reduce the grass-seed source, alleviate weeds harm.
4, the extermination of disease and insect pest
The kuh-seng pest control measure is based on agricultural, biological, mechanical, physical measure, auxilliary chemical measure.When the chemistry measure is used, should select the pesticide species of efficient, low toxicity, low-residual, strict dosage and the administration time grasped taked minimum effective dose, and the protection natural enemy is kept ecological balance.
4.1 agricultural measures
4.1.1 cultivate the general efficient composite organic fertilizer of executing in strong sprout, enrich phosphorus, potash fertilizer, promote the robust plant growth, improve premunition.
Take half to plough the method for partly cutting off autumn 4.1.2 eliminate pathogeny, promptly plough bottom of trench, stay the ridge back of the body, eliminate the sick leaf of stubble, in conjunction with intertill and clean tillage.Pull out diseased plant.
4.1.2 breeding resistant variety is selected disease-resistant variety and is applied to land for growing field crops production from variety trial.
4.2 biological control measure
4.2.1 control aphid kuh-seng in autumn ground in case the aphid damage blade takes place with wooden dipper, at first take to control the measure of aphid with wooden dipper, remove not applying pesticides of special circumstances.
4.2.2 plant and to plant the castor-oil plant castor bean leaf smaller velvety chafer adult is had toxic action, kuh-seng edge of a field plantation castor-oil plant one can desinsection, two can prevent that livestock from trampleing on with advancing.
4.3 physical measure
Black light lamp trapping kuh-seng snout moth's larva adult is installed in the field.
4.4 chemical measure
Underground worm can be sprayed with 1000 times of liquid of 90% chlorophos solid; The kuh-seng snout moth's larva is with 2000 times of sprayings of 40% dimethoate emulsifiable concentrate.
5 processing of gathering
5.1 gather:
The growth of time limit kuh-seng is 3 years 5.1.1 gather, and its total alkali content can reach the quality standard of the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, and kuh-seng was excavated on the 3rd year.
5.1.2 excavate at the beginning of autumn end the 3rd year period, winter, promptly September 29 was to November 5.
5.1.3 the method for excavating is opened the trench that 20cm is wide, 30cm is dark on one side at the plantation row, laterally digging takes full root as far as possible again.
5.2 place of production preliminary working:
Tremble clean earth, cut off terrestrial stem, choose and cut weeds.
5.3 processing
5.3.1 the wet Qie Yilian cutter of airing dehydration kuh-seng need be threshing ground airing 5-7 days, 30% left and right sides of dewatering is anti-, epiblem shrinkage, root bar softness;
5.3.2 want clear water to wash bar before the section of washing whole piece kuh-seng, with stem excision in the ground on the reed head, main root and supporting root downcut respectively behind the water that dries in the air, it is to be cut to classify;
The root bar that will clean arrangement 5.3.3 cut into slices is placed in to revolve on the cutter slicer cuts into slices;
5.3.4 airing was extremely done the sophora film that cuts out in 3-4 days in the threshing ground airing;
5.3.5 dedusting windmill selection by winnowing is removed the dust in the section;
Sieve removes chip 5.3.6 sieve;
5.3.3 packing anti-dandruff back and sophora film packs after check, sampling are qualified.
Beneficial effect: compare with known technology, the present invention has the following advantages:
1, the present invention comprehensively systematically with regard to kuh-seng from seed treatment, sowing, fertilising, the extermination of disease and insect pest, field management to the processing of gathering, formed the perfect planting technology of a cover, each link all has detailed research and has abundant technology to include.
2, stable high yield, through years of researches and practice, this technology can obtain 3 years living kuh-seng 1 500-1800 kilogram per unit area yields.
3, medical material quanlity is good, the total alkali content of kuh-seng of the present invention's plantation is more than 1.8%, impurity content is below 1.5%, and persticide residue is low, reaches industry standard WM2-2001 " medicinal plant and preparation the export green industry standard " requirement of economic foreign trade Cooperation Dept of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
4, standardization and standardization, the some key techniques in the kuh-seng planting process that this technology is clear and definite can be realized normalizing operation.
Embodiment:
In April, 2004, the kuh-seng seed had sulfuric acid to dress seed with 95% 86 mu of planting base, the village, Xi'an plantation kuh-sengs, by every mu of seeding quantity 1kg sowing, the two weeks emergence rate reaches more than 65%, seedling grew 4~5 compound leaves in after planting one month, and plant height 6~8cm carries out seedling thinning, weeding, loosens the soil.The appearance five in back 60 days of emerging goes out compound leaf, and seedling enters vigorous period.When seedling grows 6~7 compound leaves, occur five and go out to such an extent that carry out the intertill and clean tillage final singling second time during leaf.Early July trench digging deep placement urea is executed 10kg for every mu.Early August is carried out intertill and clean tillage.Carry out weeding after turning green the first tenday period of a month in May, second, carries out a defloration 10-July 10 June every about 10 days and pinch, and early August is taked artificial uprooting weed, and grass-seed is eliminated.Late October, cauline leaf was withered.Turn green the first tenday period of a month in May, the 3rd, carries out a defloration 10-July 10 June every about 10 days and pinch, and early August takes artificial dialling to remove big grass.Be radix sophorae bar picking time 29-November 5 September, the per mu yield kuh-seng average 1459kg of root bar that wets, the total alkali content of kuh-seng is more than 1.8%, reach the quality standard of the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, impurity content is below 1.5%, persticide residue is low, reaches industry standard WM2-2001 " medicinal plant and preparation the export green industry standard " requirement of economic foreign trade Cooperation Dept of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Claims (1)

1. kuh-seng kind method for planting is characterized in that being finished by following steps: (1) choosing ground, and select soil layer thick, cubsoil is dark, and draining is good, buttress ground, the loose fertile mountain ridge, preceding crop requires to be gramineous crop, tuber crops; (2) seed treatment, every hectogram kuh-seng seed add the concentrated sulfuric acid seed dressing of 5~8ml95%, after stirring, pile vexed 2.5~4 hours, and clear water drip washing is dried and made preparations for sowing; (3) the seed sowing mode is adopted in the breeding of kuh-seng; The spring sowing time promptly begins planting early enough at late March in advance, and once full stand is caught in sowing; (4) shallow hoe seedling thinning when growing 4~5 compound leaves, is carried out seedling thinning during plant height 6~8cm, 13~15cm stays seedling by spacing in the rows; The intertillage final singling, when kuh-seng grows 6~7 compound leaves, 60% plant occurs five when going out compound leaf, and seedling enters vigorous period, carries out intertillage second time, and the intertillage degree of depth 10~15cm is short of seedling in conjunction with intertilling to look into, and stopping under the preliminary seedling situation of transplanting, goes a final singling every one; (5) after the deep placement that topdresses, kuh-seng carried out the intertillage second time, seedling entered vigorous period, needed fertilely for satisfying its growth, and every mu of topdress urea or diammonium phosphate 7~10kg open the ditch of 8~10cm, and the fertilising earth backing is to protect fertilizer efficiency; (6) defloration is pinched, kuh-seng promptly had 40% stem eye to blossom and have seeds in 1 year, the stem eye in the 3rd year 90% is a bud, in order to reduce nutrient consumption, increase the root nutrient accumulation, the measure that the production land for growing field crops should take defloration to pinch, June 10 time is to July 10, once takes manual removal's measure in per ten days; (7) the weeding seed that goes out; (8) extermination of disease and insect pest; (9) gather, be to gather during November 5 September 29 in the 3rd year picking time.
CN2007101854396A 2007-12-12 2007-12-12 Flavescent sophora root growth and processing technology Active CN101180935B (en)

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CN103288520A (en) * 2013-06-14 2013-09-11 贵州仙龙药业有限公司 Special fertilizer for seedling promotion of radix sophorae flavescentis
CN103288521A (en) * 2013-06-14 2013-09-11 贵州仙龙药业有限公司 Special fertilizer for root strengthening of radix sophorae flavescentis
CN103623888B (en) * 2013-11-26 2015-10-07 山西振东道地药材开发有限公司 A kind of processing method of kuh-seng seed
CN103907429A (en) * 2014-04-29 2014-07-09 道真仡佬族苗族自治县谷森科技农业开发有限责任公司 No-tillage mulching sowing method of angelica root
CN106068988A (en) * 2016-06-08 2016-11-09 贵州恒霸药业有限责任公司 A kind of implantation methods of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis
CN106068766A (en) * 2016-06-25 2016-11-09 杨文平 Processing method before Radix Sophorae Flavescentis planting seed
CN106069072A (en) * 2016-06-25 2016-11-09 杨文平 The artificial method for planting of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis
CN106105620A (en) * 2016-06-25 2016-11-16 杨文平 The asexual reproduction method of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis
CN106305073A (en) * 2016-08-19 2017-01-11 湖南德宇农林发展有限公司 Producing method for selenium-enriched bitter rape
CN106420906B (en) * 2016-09-30 2019-11-19 道真自治县华树药业有限责任公司 The processing technology of kuh-seng
CN109418123A (en) * 2017-07-14 2019-03-05 桂阳县绿之源生态农业发展有限公司 A kind of artificial method for planting of kuh-seng
CN107409730A (en) * 2017-08-31 2017-12-01 西畴百汇药材林果种植有限公司 A kind of kuh-seng strong seedling cultivation method
CN109463230A (en) * 2018-09-17 2019-03-15 陇西县农业技术推广中心 A method of breeding high-quality kuh-seng seed
CN109729946A (en) * 2018-11-29 2019-05-10 毕节市七星关区科技办公室(毕节市七星关区知识产权局) A kind of wild domestication growth temperature adjusting method of kuh-seng

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