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CN101165866A - 一种集成电路封装体及其制造方法 - Google Patents

一种集成电路封装体及其制造方法 Download PDF

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CN101165866A
CN101165866A CN 200710167856 CN200710167856A CN101165866A CN 101165866 A CN101165866 A CN 101165866A CN 200710167856 CN200710167856 CN 200710167856 CN 200710167856 A CN200710167856 A CN 200710167856A CN 101165866 A CN101165866 A CN 101165866A
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integrated
circuit
package
method
making
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CN 200710167856
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CN101165866B (zh )
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埃德华·劳
萨姆·齐昆·赵
雷泽厄·拉曼·卡恩
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美国博通公司
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Abstract

本发明涉及一种芯片向上外露芯片集成电路(IC)封装体及其制造方法。该IC封装体包括:基板,其上开设有中心开口;IC芯片,位于基板的开口内。焊线将IC芯片上表面的多个键合焊盘与基板上表面的多个键合指相连接。密封材料至少将IC芯片和焊线密封住,并使芯片的下表面外露。密封材料悬挂IC芯片,并至少使芯片的一部分保持在基板的开口内。

Description

一种集成电路封装体及其制造方法技术领域本发明涉及集成电路(IC)封装技术,更具体地说,涉及一种具有改进热和/或电性能的球栅阵列(BGA)封装。 背景技术芯片向上型的树脂球栅阵列封装是由Motorola公司首先提出的,称为模 压塑胶密封凸点阵列载体(OMPAC)。有关这类封装的细节可以参见Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE, 第 176-182 页,1991, Overmolded Plastic Pad Array Carriers(0MPAC): " A Low Cost, High Interconnect Density IC Packaging Solution for Consumer and Industrial Electronics",本发明参考引用其全部内容。塑胶球栅阵列封装一般简称为 PBGA,其通常采用由双马来酰亚胺三嗪(BT)树脂或FR4材料作为塑胶电路板 (基板)。图1所示为现有技术的PBGA封装100。如图1所示,PBGA封装100具有 如下特征:a) 集成电路(IC)半导体芯片118直接贴装在印刷电路基板102的上 表面;b) IC芯片118的键合焊盘(bondpads) 112通过焊线(wirebonds) 104 与基板102上的印刷电路电连接;c) 焊球110矩阵贴装在基板102的下表面;d) 塑封材料(plastic molding compound) 108将IC芯片118和焊线104 密封住,并覆盖了基板102的部分上表面,以保护IC芯片免受外界环境的影 响。塑封材料108外围的基片102外表面暴露在外(未被塑封材料108覆盖)。e) 采用芯片粘贴材料106将IC芯片118贴装在基板102上。

传统BGA封装(如图1所示)具有(l)封装体外形高、(2)热性能差、(3)IC 芯片与封装体的外部引脚之间的电连接路径长,以及其它缺陷。因此,有必 要对BGA封装进行改进,以改善热性能、电性能、降低装配产量损失及提高 可靠性。发明内容本发明涉及对集成电路封装的改进,包括装置、方法及系统。本发明的 多个实施例对集成电路(IC)封装进行了热、电和/或机械性能的改进。在本发明的一方面,提供一种集成电路封装体,包括平面基板(planar substrate),该平面基板上表面具有多个接触焊盘(contact pads)。接触焊 盘通过基板电连接到位于基板下表面的多个焊球焊盘上。基板的开口处安装 有IC半导体芯片。IC芯片的下表面设计为可粘贴到电路板上,诸如印刷电路 板(PCB)或印刷线路板(PWB)。一方面,IC芯片不直接与基板接触。IC芯片与基板开口之间围绕IC芯 片设有间隙。另一方面,采用焊线将IC芯片上的键合焊盘(bond pad)连接到基板的接 触焊盘。再一方面,封装材料将芯片、焊线密封住,其至少覆盖了基板的部分上 表面,且充满所述间隙。再一方面,在基板开口的外围,封装材料部分覆盖 基板的下表面。又一方面,多个焊球贴装在基板下表面的悍球焊盘上,以使封装体被安 装到电路板上时能与电路板相接触。如上所提及,IC芯片外露的下表面贴装在电路板上。 一方面,当封装体 安装到电路板上时,IC芯片的下表面是直接与电路板连接。另一方面,IC芯 片的下表面可贴装第二组多个焊球,以使IC芯片被安装到电路板上时能与电 路板相连接。在本发明的另一方面,提供一种装配球栅阵列封装体的方法。包括:将 覆盖膜叠压到基板上,并使一开口穿过覆盖膜和基板。将载体膜叠压到覆盖 膜上。将IC芯片穿过基板和覆盖膜上的开口贴装到载体膜上。将IC芯片上 的键合悍盘连接到基板上的接触焊盘。采用贯穿晶圆的通孔(through-wafer-via)将接地/电源焊盘连接到IC芯片上。密封IC芯片、焊 线及基板上的开口。去除覆盖膜和载体膜。将焊球矩阵贴装在基板的下表面。 根据本发明的一方面, 一种制造芯片向上外露芯片集成电路(IC)封装体 的方法,包括:(1) 在基板的第一表面粘贴一层覆盖膜,该基板的第一表面设有多个接触 焊盘,所述多个接触焊盘通过基板电连接到基板第二表面的第一组多个键合 焊盘,其中覆盖膜及基板上设置有各自的中心开口;(2) 在所述覆盖膜的第一表面粘贴一层载体膜;(3) 将IC芯片贴装在位于覆盖膜和基板的中心开口内的载体膜的第一表面上;(4) 采用多条焊线将IC芯片第一表面上的第二组多个键合焊盘与基板第 二表面的第一组多个键合焊盘相连接;(5) 用密封材料将载体膜第一表面上的芯片及基板第二表面上的焊线密封起来;(6) 去除载体膜和覆盖膜使IC芯片的第二表面外露。 作为优选,步骤(3)包括:使用粘合剂将IC芯片安装到载体膜的第一表面上。作为优选,所述第一组多个接触焊盘为焊球焊盘,进一步包括:在多个焊球接触焊盘上形成多个焊球。作为优选,所述方法还包括:在基板的第一表面上的第一组多个接触焊盘上连接多个导电引脚。 作为优选,步骤(4)还包括:在所述IC芯片的第二表面形成第二组多个接触焊盘,并在所述第二组多 个接触焊盘上形成第二组多个焊球。 作为优选,所述方法还包括:在所述IC芯片的第二表面形成第二组多个接触焊盘,并在所述第二组多

个接触焊盘上形成第二组多个焊球,其中所述第二组多个焊球的直径小于所 述第一组多个焊球的直径。作为优选,所述方法还包括:在IC芯片的第二表面形成金属化层。作为优选,步骤(5)包括:使用围堰填充(dam-and-f ill)工艺将载体膜第一表面上的芯片和基板第 二表面上的焊线密封起来。 作为优选,步骤(5)包括:使用塑模帽注入成型(mold cap injection molding)工艺将载体膜第一 表面上的芯片和基板第二表面上的焊线密封起来。 作为优选,步骤(5)包括:使用板条上成型(strip or panel over-molding)工艺将载体膜第一表面 上的芯片和基板第二表面上的焊线密封起来。 作为优选,步骤(l)包括:使用叠压(lamination)工艺将覆盖膜粘贴到基板的第一表面上。 作为优选,步骤(2)包括:使用叠压工艺将载体膜粘贴到覆盖膜的第一表面上。 作为优选,步骤(5)包括:密封载体膜第一表面上的芯片和基板第二表面上的焊线,并使IC芯片第 三表面部分外露。作为优选,步骤(5)包括:密封载体膜第一表面上的芯片,仅使ic芯片第二表面外露。作为优选,步骤(4)包括:用金属焊盘覆盖ic芯片第二表面的选择区域。作为优选,步骤(4)包括:用金属合金焊盘覆盖ic芯片第二表面的选择区域。根据本发明的另一方面,提供一种芯片向上外露芯片集成电路(ic)封装体,包括: 具有相反设置的第一表面和第二表面的基板,其中基板第一表面上的多 个接触焊盘与基板第二表面上的多个焊线焊盘电连接,其中基板上设置有中 心开口,其开设在基板的第一表面和第二表面;具有相反设置的第一表面和第二表面的IC芯片;至少一条焊线,其将ic芯片第一表面上的至少一个键合焊盘与基板第二表面上的至少一个键合焊盘相连接;以及密封材料,其将IC芯片和至少一条焊线密封起来并使IC芯片的第二表面外露,其中密封材料将IC芯片悬挂(suspend)在所述开口中。作为优选,所述多个接触焊盘是多个焊球焊盘,进一步包括:安装在所述焊球焊盘上的多个焊球。作为优选,所述封装体还包括:连接在所述基板第一表面上的多个接触 焊盘上的多个导电引脚。作为优选,IC芯片第二表面上设置有第二组多个接触焊盘,进一步包括: 安装在所述第二组多个接触焊盘上的多个焊球。作为优选,IC芯片第二表面上设置有第二组多个接触焊盘,进一步包括: 位于所述第二组多个接触焊盘上的第二组多个焊球,其中所述第二组多个焊 球的直径小于所述第一组多个焊球的直径。作为优选,所述ic芯片的第三表面部分外露。作为优选,所述IC芯片除第二表面外露之外,其余部分完全由密封材料 覆盖。作为优选,所述密封材密覆盖住基板第一表面的部分区域。 作为优选,所述基板是柔性载带基板。 作为优选,所述基板是陶瓷基板。作为优选,所述基板包括FR4。作为优选,在IC芯片的第二表面形成有金属化层。从以下的描述和附图中,可以得到对本发明的各种优点、各个方面、创 新特征、及其实施例细节的更深入的理解。需注意的是发明内容和摘要部分 只介绍了本发明的一个或多个实施例,而不是全部实施例。

附图说明图1是传统树脂球栅阵列(PBGA)封装的结构示意图;图2是基板上带有直通腔(through-cavity)开口(用于安装外露芯片)的 BGA封装的结-示意图;图3是热电性能增强型芯片向上BGA的结-示意图,带有补强条/互边导 电物(stiffener /interposer)和热/电连接器;图4是根据本发明一实施例的BGA封装体的结-示意图,其中集成电路 (IC)芯片支撑在封装体基板的中心窗口中;图5A和图5B是根据本发明一实施例的IC芯片支撑在中心窗口中的BGA 封装体的结-示意图,其中IC芯片的侧壁分别被全部或部分覆盖;图6是根据本发明一实施例的IC芯片的背面贴装有小型焊球矩阵的BGA 封装体的结-示意图;图7是根据本发明一实施例的BGA封装体装配步骤的流程图;图8A-8D是根据本发明一实施例的装配过程的不同阶段中BGA封装体的 示意图;以下将参照附图结合实施例对本发明进行详细描述。附图中,同一个附 图标记在各幅附图中用于表示相同的部件或功能相似的部件。另外,附图标 记最左边的数字用于标识该附图标记首次出现的那幅附图的编号。具体实施方式引言本说明书中出现的"一个实施例"、"实施例"、"示例实施例"等术语, 指的是本说明书描述的实施例可包括有特定的特征、结_或特性,但是并非 每个实施例都必须包括有这些特定特征、结-或特性。此外,该术语也并非 必须指同一个实施例。当结合一个实施例介绍特定特征、结_或特性时,可 以认为本领域的技术人员能够将该特征、结_或特性结合到其它实施例中,

不管本说明书中是否有明确的描述。本说明书公开了结合有本发明特征的一个或多个实施例。所公开的实施 例仅仅是对本发明的举例,本发明的范围不局限于所公开的实施例,而由本 申请的权利要求来定义。此外,需要理解的是,本说明书中所使用的与空间方位有关的描述(例 如"上面"、"下面"、"左边"、"右边"、"向上"、"向下"、"顶部"、"底部" 等)仅仅是出于举例解释的目的,本说明书中所介绍的结-的实际实现可以 具有各种不同的方位或方式。概述此处所描述的本发明的实施例中,通过基板中心区域的窗口使IC芯片的 下表面外露,从而改进了焊线键合式芯片向上阵列封装(BGA、 PGA、 LGA等) 的热、电和机械性能。本发明适用于所有类型的BGA基板,包括陶瓷、塑胶 和载带(柔性)BGA封装。本发明中描述了多个实施例。例如,在一个实施例中,IC芯片悬挂或支 撑在IC封装体基板的中心窗口中。芯片的下表面位于基板上表面的下方。由 于芯片支撑在窗口内,通过降低芯片上表面的高度,塑封厚度得以减小。例 如,可以将芯片悬挂起来使芯片的下表面突出到基板下表面的下方。另外, 可使IC芯片的下表面与其上安装有封装体的电路板(如印刷线路板(PWB)或印 刷电路板(PCB))热接触。IC芯片背面与电路板上表面的直接热接触为IC芯片 与电路板之间提供了用于散热的导热路径。由于IC芯片上表面的高度降低到 更接近基板的上表面,芯片和基板之间连接的焊线的长度也可缩短。在本发明的一实施例中,基板上设置有开口。半导体芯片至少部分地密 封在密封材料中。该密封材料还至少密封了基板上表面的部分区域。在基板 的顶边和底边部分密封材料外露。基板的下表面设置有多个焊球,围绕着外 露出基板中心区域的密封材料部分。芯片的下表面外露,以便与将要安装封 装体的电路板热接触。外露的IC芯片下表面可以进一步由金属或金属合金覆 盖,以助于直接焊接到电路板上。10 由于IC芯片被支撑在基板的窗口内,基板上方的塑封厚度减小,封装体的整体高度得以降低。通过将ic芯片下表面与安装封装体的电路板相粘接(或 焊接),封装体的结-板(junction-to-board)热阻也可降低。由于IC芯片被 放置在基板的窗口内,使得IC芯片的键合焊盘与基板键合指之间的空间距离 縮短,从而焊线的长度也縮短。集成电路封装技术球栅阵列(BGA)封装用于封装和连接IC芯片与印刷电路板(PCB)。 BGA封 装可用于各种类型的IC芯片,尤其适应于高速IC。在BGA封装中,焊料焊盘 不只是围绕在封装体的外围,如片内载体型(in chip carrier)的封装体,而 是以阵列形式覆盖于底封装表面。BGA封装也称为焊盘阵列载体(PAC)、焊盘 阵列、平面栅格阵列及焊盘栅格阵列封装。在以下段落中将进一步描述BGA 封装类型。有关BGA封装的其它说明可参见Lau, J. H. , Ball Grid Array Technology, McGraw-Hill, New York, (1995),本文参考引用其全部内容。BGA封装有芯片向上配置和芯片向下配置。在芯片向上的BGA封装中,IC 芯片以背离PCB的方向安装在基板或补强条的上表面。在芯片向下的BGA封 装中,IC芯片以朝向PCB板的方向安装在基板或补强条的下表面。BGA封装基板有多种类型,包括陶瓷、塑胶(PBGA)和载带(也称为"柔 性")。不同BGA封装类型的例子,可参见Hayden, T. F. , et al. , Thermal & Electrical Performance and Reliability Results for Cavity - Up Enhanced BGAs, Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE, pp. 638-644(1999),本文参考引用其全部内容。本节其它部分描述了少数几 个传统BGA封装的例子。例如,图2所示的BGA封装体200包括基板102上的直通腔开口 248,用 于容纳半导体芯片118。有关封装体200的更多细节可参见美国专利US 5696666, 名称为"Low Profile Exposed Die Chip Carrier Package", 本 文参考引用其全部内容。图2所示的封装体200降低了封装高度,并且改善 了对湿气的敏感度。开口 248的边界与芯片118的边界在形状和大小上相似。 矩形开口 248近似位于基板102的中心部位,且完全穿透基板102。芯片118 设置于开口 248中,且IC芯片118的下表面与基板102的下表面基本共面。 这样,通常情况下的芯片与基板的界面(如图1所示芯片118安装在基板102 上的表面)不存在了,而IC芯片118的下表面暴露在外。传递模塑或可塑性顶部材料108将IC芯片118的上表面和基板102的部 分上表面密封住。由于直通腔开口 248的边界与IC芯片118的边界之间的直 接或紧邻接触,且由于密封材料与芯片的粘结,IC芯片118被支撑在其所在 位置处。IC芯片118的上表面与基板102的上表面高度近似相等。因为IC芯 片118的下表面与基板102的下表面处于同一平面,外露的IC芯片不能将热 量直接传送到电路板246(封装体将安装在其上)中。此外,基板102的内侧壁 直接与IC芯片118的边界相接触。基板102和芯片118之间热膨胀系数的差 异将在接触界面产生热应力,并可能造成IC芯片118开裂及界面处出现分层。另一种传统的芯片向上BGA设计(未示出)采用载带基板,其中IC芯片的 下表面暴露在载带基板的下表面,且IC芯片的下表面与载带基板的下表面基 本共面。有关这种封装的更多细节,可参见美国专利US 5506756,名称为"Tape BGA Package Die-Up/Die-Down",本文参考引用其全部内容。外露IC芯片的 下表面贴装有焊球,以在IC芯片与PWB之间提供额外互连。在另一实施方式 中,IC芯片的工作表面朝下(g卩"芯片向下"),IC芯片的下表面外露,以便 从封装体的上部将外部散热器贴装到芯片上。因为载带基板的厚度比IC芯片 的厚度薄,当IC芯片的下表面与载带基板的下表面平齐时,IC芯片的上表面 处于基板上表面的上方,封装体高度的降低不明显。由于IC芯片与载带基板 的热膨胀系数的差异及载带基板的相对柔软性,在封装体装配过程中,由于 热膨胀或收縮,基板容易变形。这种情形还可能引起基板歪曲,并在IC芯片 边界的接触面处产生应力。另外,界面处还可能产生开裂和分层,并有可能 沿着工C芯片的边界增长。上述封装体中,树脂基板和塑胶模塑材料都具有低的热传导值(对于BT 或FR4类型的基板约0. 19-0. 3W/m°C,对于模塑材料为0. 2-0. 9W/m°C)。由于 IC芯片被导热性能差的材料完全包围住,IC芯片所产生的热量无法散发到 PBGA封装体外部。IC芯片的温度必然升高到高于环境温度,以便释放热量。 图3所示为采用铜质补强条/互边导电物314的芯片向上球栅阵列(BGA) 封装体300的结-示意图。有关封装体300的更多细节,参见美国专利申请(公 开号为2002/0079562),本文参考引用其全部内容。在封装体300中,IC芯片 118的下表面(上表面对着集成电路)直接贴装到平坦补强条314。补强条314 的另一面贴装在基板102上,图3中基板由有机材料诸如聚酰亚胺载带或环 氧树脂基板(例如BT)制成。补强条314(可以是铜材料)的表面积比IC芯片的 表面积大,有利于将热量散发到周围材料中。将IC芯片118的接地焊盘连接 到补强条314上可进一步降低封装体-地之间的电感。导热体320透过基板102上的窗口 248贴装到补强条314上。导热体320 提供了一条从IC芯片118的下表面到PWB(通过补强条314)的散热路径,封 装体300安装在PWB上。但是,由于需要将IC芯片直接贴装在补强条/互边 导电物314(其堆叠在封装体基板102上)上,因而封装体的高度或厚度增大。 本发明的实施例克服了上述缺陷。以下对本发明的实施例进行详细描述。本发明的实施例以下几节对本发明IC封装体的详细结-及操作实施例进行详细说明。描 述这些结-及操作实施例的目的是举例说明本发明,本发明不局限于此。例 如,本文中描述的本发明可以在其它类型的IC封装中实施,包括平面栅格阵 列(LGA)和引脚栅格阵列(PGA)封装,包括以上所述的各种封装类型。此外, 以下描述的实施例可用于载带基板BGA封装、塑胶基板BGA封装、陶瓷基板 BGA封装,以及其它类型的基板。本领域技术人员从本文的教导中可以知悉, 以下描述的实施例适用于这类或其它类型的封装体。本领域技术人员从本文的教导中还可以知悉,以下描述的每一实施例的 特征可以单独应用到IC封装体中,也可以任何方式与本文所描述的其它特征 相结合应用。图4是根据本发明一实施例的芯片向上BGA封装体400的结-示意图。 封装体400包括带有开口 248的基板102、 IC芯片118、多个焊球110。密封 材料108、接触焊盘420和多条焊线104。在实施例中,IC芯片118的工作 (active)集成电路在IC芯片118的上表面,并由密封材料108密封住。基板102可以由有机材料(BT、 FR4等)、陶瓷、玻璃、载带和/或由其它 绝缘材料制成。此外,基板102可以有一个或多个导电层,包括诸如接触焊 盘、键合指、键合线、导电面等结-,用于传导电信号、贴装焊线、焊球等, 以加强电源/接地面上电零件的安装。可使用转接或其它导电结-来连接穿过 基板102的导体结-。基板102的上、下表面开设有开口 248。根据本发明的一实施例,IC芯 片118由密封材料108支撑在开口 248中。IC芯片118的下表面402外露(未 被密封材料108覆盖)。下表面402可以覆盖一金属化层404(如金属或合金 等),以加强到电路板246的连接。电路板246可以是印刷电路板(PCB)、印 刷线路板(PWB)或任何其它类型的电路板。在一实施例中,当将封装体安装到 电路板上时,通过使用金属化层404将下表面402直接连接到电路板246的 表面,使得IC芯片118与电路板246之间产生直接的热通道,有利于散热。芯片118的下表面402与电路板246的表面之间的距离可称为离板高度 406。 IC芯片118的离板高度406的设计使得在悍球110下垂(collapse)(在 表面回流装配过程中)到基板102上之后,下表面402能够与电路板246相接 触。离板高度是基于所使用的焊球尺寸而配置的。例如,对于焊球初始直径(贴 装到封装体基板102之前)为0. 6mm的封装体,典型的离板高度406介于0. 05mm 到O. 3mm之间。对于0.6mm焊球直径的封装体,离板高度406可以稍微超出 上述范围。但是,如果离板高度406太小,在回流表面装配之后,可能会有 一个或多个焊球110不能接触到电路板246上的焊盘,造成连接断开。如果 离板高度406太大,在表面回流装配过程中,由于超过焊球110可下垂的距 离,下表面402可能无法接触到电路板246。芯片118由密封材料108支撑定位。密封材料108密封住基板102中的 开口 248,并覆盖住芯片118和焊线104以保护环境及结构完整性。此外,密 封材料108还覆盖住基板102下表面410在开口 248周围的一部分区域。.密 封材料108可以是任何类型的密封材料,诸如模塑材料、环氧等。 在一些实施例中,IC芯片118不直接与基板102接触,而是由间隙408 间隔开。当IC芯片118整体不与基板102接触时,基板102下表面410留有 容纳焊球的空间。此外,前述不想要的"界面三倍线(interface triple-lines)"也得以减少或消除。还有,下表面402为散热提供了足够的 热通道。图5A是根据本发明另 一实施例的芯片向上BGA封装体500的结-示意图。 封装体500基本与图4中的封装体400相似,只有如下一些差异。封装体500 包括支撑在开口 248中的IC芯片118,这与封装体400相同,但是密封材料 108具有与基板102的下表面410齐平的下表面504。在该实施例中,IC芯片 118的下表面402外露,而IC芯片118的其余表面都被密封材料108覆盖。图5B是图5A所示BGA封装体500另一种配置下的封装体502的结-示 意图。封装体502基本上与图5A所示的封装体500相似,只是作为对仅下表 面402外露的替代,在封装体502中IC芯片118周边的一部分506也没有被 密封材料108覆盖。此外,在封装体502中,密封材料108还覆盖住基板102 下表面410在开口 248周围的一部分区域。图6是根据本发明又一实施例的BGA封装体600的结-示意图。封装体 600基本上与图5A所示的封装体500相似,只有如下一些差异。封装体600 在芯片118的下表面402上贴装有多个小型焊球614。在一些实施例中,小型 焊球614用于IC芯片118与安装封装体600的电路板之间的接地或电源连接。 小型焊球614中的每一个小型焊球的直径都小于贴装在基板102下表面410 上的焊球110的直径。小型焊球还提供了从IC芯片118到电路板的热传导通 道。在一个实施例中,小型焊球614中的每一个焊球(其与电路板相连)的底 部与焊球110中的每一个焊球(其与电路板相连)的底部共面。在另一实施例 中,由于焊球110的下垂通常大于小型悍球614的下垂,小型焊球614的底 部-成面(sitting plane)604相比起焊球110的底部-成面602稍微更接近 IC芯片118 —些,这样可降低小型焊球614,使得在表面装配的回流过程中 小型焊球614能够接触到电路板。例如,在一些实施例中,小型焊球614的底部-成面604可以在焊球110 的底部-成面602之上0. 3mm,因为焊球110的直径为0. 6mm或更大。只要在 表面装配的回流过程中,小型焊球614下垂之后,焊球110能够与电路板上 的焊球焊盘有足够的接触,小型焊球614的底部-成面相比起焊球110的底 部-成面可以离IC芯片118稍微更远一些。在一些实施例中,小型焊球614贴装在下表面402的由选择性的金属覆 盖层所确定的多个接触点上。IC芯片118上的金属覆盖层有利于焊料浸润, 并有助于确定IC芯片118上小型焊球614的位置。图7是根据本发明一实施例的芯片向上型BGA封装体装配步骤的流程 700。例如,流程700可用于装配上述图4、 5A、 5B和6所示的封装体。图8A-8D 是根据流程700装配芯片向上的IC封装体过程中的几个装配阶段的示意图, 以下结合流程700 —起描述。本领域技术人员应当理解,装配过程也可不完 全按照流程图中的顺序进行。流程700开始于步骤702。步骤702中,在基板的下表面叠压覆盖膜。例 如,如图8A所示的部分封装体800中,基板102的下表面410叠压有覆盖膜 802。覆盖膜802还具有中心开口 804,其尺寸可以大于、小于或等于基板102 中的开口 248的尺寸。覆盖膜802的开口 804与基板102上的开口 248相重 叠。覆盖膜802在封装体装配的密封过程中帮助基板102下方进行密封。步骤704中,在覆盖膜上叠压载体膜。例如,如图8B所示的部分封装体 806中,载体膜808叠压到覆盖膜802下方。载体膜808掩盖了覆盖膜802中 的开口 804。载体膜808可在使用密封材料进行密封的过程中,密封住覆盖膜 802下表面的窗口 804。载体膜808还可以在焊线键合过程中为IC芯片提供 支撑及定位。为达到此目的,载体膜808的顶部可涂敷粘合剂涂层,用于在 焊线键合和模塑密封过程中将散热器(在有的情况下)和/或IC芯片固定在适 当的位置。此外,载体膜808可以是平坦的(如图8B所示)、或有中心下陷或 突出部分以根据需要降低或抬高芯片118(如步骤706中当贴装在载体膜上 时)。以改变芯片118相对于基板102的高度。步骤706中,穿过基板及覆盖膜中的开口,将IC芯片的底面贴装在载体 膜上。例如,如图8C所示的部分封装体810中,IC芯片118穿过基板102和

覆盖膜802中的开口 248和804贴装到载体膜808的表面。步骤708中,使用一条或多条焊线将IC芯片上的键合焊盘与基板上表面 的接触焊盘相连接。例如,如图8C所示的部分封装体810中,使用焊线104 将IC芯片118上的键合焊盘112连接到基板102顶部的接触焊盘420。步骤710中,将IC芯片、焊线和开口密封在基板上。例如,如图8C所 示的封装体810中,IC芯片118、焊线104及开口 248都被密封材料108密 封住。芯片118被密封在载体膜808上的开口 248和804中。在焊线键合过 程中,使用刚性平台支撑载体膜808。作为选择,可以将可重复使用的刚性支 撑板贴装到载体膜808的下表面,以在焊线键合过程中支撑IC芯片118和基 板102。在一实施例中,采用模塑工艺将焊线104和IC芯片118的工作表面 密封住,与外界环境隔开。步骤712中,去除载体膜和覆盖膜。例如,如图8D所示的部分封装体812 中,载体膜808和覆盖膜802均被去除,留下IC芯片118被密封材料108悬 挂在基板102的开口 248中。此外,芯片118的下表面402暴露在外。步骤714中,将多个焊球贴装到封装体的基板上。例如,如图8D所示的 部分封装体812中,多个焊球110贴装到封装体的基板102上。步骤716中(例如对于图6所示的封装体600而言),将多个小型焊球贴 装到IC芯片上。例如,如图8D所示的部分封装体812中,多个小型焊球614 被贴装到IC芯片118上。小型焊球614可用于将芯片118连接到安装封装体 812的电路板上。作为选择,芯片118的表面402可是平面的和非平面的,并 且芯片118的表面402可以直接贴装到安装封装体812的电路板上。优点举例相对于传统BGA封装(包括参照图1-3中所描述的那些)而言,本发明 的实施例具有许多优点。以下对其中一些优点进行说明。以下所述的每一个 优点并不是每一个实施例都必然具备。此外,本发明的实施例所具有的优点 并不局限于以下的描述。(l)将IC芯片放置在基板的开口中,从而縮短了将IC芯片连接到基板所 需焊线的长度、降低了封装体外形的高度、并提高了封装体整体的可靠性。(2) 传统芯片向上BGA封装体装配过程的芯片贴装步骤不再需要。因而, 不存在传统IC封装(如BGA或导线架型)中与芯片贴装界面有关的潜在的可靠 性问题。例如,常温时吸收的潮气在表面回流装配过程中的高温下破裂,通 常会产生不希望的"爆米花现象",以释放增大的蒸汽压力。当芯片下方没有 覆盖足够的芯片贴装环氧树脂时,芯片下方会捕获潮气及其它外部物质,通 常也会产生爆米花现象。众所周知,IC封装体装配中广泛应用的芯片贴装环 氧树脂和有机材料基板是吸湿的。它们很容易吸收大气中的潮气。所吸收的 潮气将渗透到IC芯片和基板之间的芯片贴装界面。当在回流焊过程中暴露在 高温下,所吸收的潮气膨胀,在芯片贴装界面产生高压。如果有足够多的潮 气,芯片贴装界面将破裂,某些情况下会发出像爆米花一样的爆裂声。在一 些实施例中,通过使用金属或合金焊接封装体的IC芯片及其它部件来代替芯 片贴装环氧树脂和有机材料基板,可以避免爆米花现象。(3) IC芯片的外周边缘与基板中心窗口的内壁之间没有直接接触,两者之 间有一间隙。该间隙中填充有密封材料,如模塑材料,在制造或应用中,这 些密封材料可以在IC芯片与基板之间提供一个热应力和机械应力互作用的缓 冲区。由于不存在传统IC芯片与基板之间的接触界面,封装体的装配、制造 生产和现场应用的可靠性将得到改善。(4) 密封材料覆盖基板的上表面,且可沿基板开口的周边部分覆盖基板的 下表面。这种结-使得密封材料凝固(如注塑固化)之后基板与密封材料之间 的结合更紧密。相比传统的密封材料仅覆盖平坦基板上表面的模塑结-来说, 本发明的实施例中,密封材料与基板之间的结合强度得到改进。在封装过程 中,会产生机械应力。通常由于基板和/或模塑材料(mold)上遭受机械应力, 会引起模塑材料分层。模塑材料与基板之间的结合性能的改进可以减少模塑 材料/基板界面的模塑材料的分层,提高产量。(5) 对于芯片向上焊线键合封装体,直接将外露的芯片焊接到的电路板 上,可以改进封装体的散热能力,并使IC芯片的背面与电路板电连接。在表 面安装过程中,使用直接将IC芯片焊接到应用板,封装体的结-板热阻得以

减小。在同一工艺步骤中,外露芯片的平坦区域可以沉积焊料糊。使用贯穿晶圆的通孔(throughiafer-vias), IC芯片的背面可作为连接到接地或电源 线的接地面或电源面。由于从IC芯片前侧到电路板上接地面或电源面的电路 径距离短,可以减小电流阻抗,改善IC电路的供电性能。(6) 贴装在IC芯片的外露背面的小型焊球与贴装在封装体基板上的焊球 (围绕着小型焊球)的大小可以不同,球间距可以不同。(7) 封装体可使用传统类型的基板(即有机材料、载带、陶瓷等),也可以 使用高级基板(高密度基板、内建基板、特氟纶基板等)。可以使用单层基板 或两层或多层基板。(8) 可以使用各种不同的芯片密封工艺,包括围堰填充(可塑性顶部)、 注射成型(二次成型(over-mold),单切模封(saw-singulated molding)), 等等,以满足不同应用的需求,提供各种形式和特点的封装体。(9) 可以使用膜叠压工艺,使芯片凹进,直接与系统板接触。器件与系统 板之间的散热界面简单。结论尽管以上介绍了本发明的各种实施例,但是可以理解的是,以上仅仅是 示例,并非对本发明的限制。本领域的技术人员显然知道,可以对本发明进 行各种形式和细节上的改变而不脱离本发明的精神实质和范围。因此,本发 明的保护范围不限于任何上述的实施例,而是由权利要求及其等效替换来定 义。

Claims (10)

1、一种制造集成电路封装体的方法,其特征在于,包括: (1)在基板的第一表面粘贴一层覆盖膜,该基板的第一表面设有多个接触焊盘,所述多个接触焊盘通过基板电连接到基板第二表面的第一组多个键合焊盘,其中覆盖膜及基板上设置有各自的中心开口; (2)在所述覆盖膜的第一表面粘贴一层载体膜; (3)将集成电路芯片贴装在位于覆盖膜和基板的中心开口内的载体膜的第一表面上; (4)采用多条焊线将集成电路芯片第一表面上的第二组多个键合焊盘与基板第二表面的第一组多个键合焊盘相连接; (5)用密封材料将载体膜第一表面上的芯片及基板第二表面上的焊线密封起来; (6)去除载体膜和覆盖膜使集成电路芯片的第二表面外露。
2、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述步骤(3)包括: 使用粘合剂将集成电路芯片安装到载体膜的第一表面上。
3、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述第一组多个接触焊盘 为焊球焊盘,所述方法包括:在多个焊球接触焊盘上形成多个焊球。
4、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,包括:在基板的第一表面上的第一组多个接触焊盘上连接多个导电引脚。
5、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述步骤(4)包括:在所述集成电路芯片的第二表面形成第二组多个接触焊盘,并在所述第 二组多个接触焊盘上形成第二组多个焊球。
6、 根据权利要求3所述的方法,其特征在于,包括:在所述集成电路芯片的第二表面形成第二组多个接触焊盘,并在所述第 二组多个接触焊盘上形成第二组多个焊球,其中所述第二组多个焊球的直径 小于所述第一组多个焊球的直径。
7、 一种集成电路封装体,其特征在于,包括:具有相反设置的第一表面和第二表面的基板,其中基板第一表面上的多 个接触焊盘与基板第二表面上的多个焊线焊盘电连接,其中基板上设置有中 心开口,其开设在基板的第一表面和第二表面;具有相反设置的第一表面和第二表面的集成电路芯片;至少一条焊线,其将集成电路芯片第一表面上的至少一个键合焊盘与基 板第二表面上的至少一个键合焊盘相连接;以及密封材料,其将集成电路芯片和至少一条焊线密封起来并使集成电路芯 片的第二表面外露,其中密封材料将集成电路芯片悬挂在所述开口中。
8、 根据权利要求7所述的封装体,其特征在于,所述多个接触焊盘是多 个焊球焊盘,所述封装体包括:安装在所述多个焊球焊盘上的多个焊球。
9、 根据权利要求7所述的封装体,其特征在于,包括:连接在所述基板 第一表面上的多个接触焊盘上的多个导电引脚。
10、 根据权利要求7所述的封装体,其特征在于,所述集成电路芯片第二表面上设置有第二组多个接触焊盘,还包括:安装在所述第二组多个接触 焊盘上的多个焊球。
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US20080096312A1 (en) 2008-04-24 application
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US8169067B2 (en) 2012-05-01 grant
KR100903063B1 (ko) 2009-06-18 grant
CN101165866B (zh) 2010-09-01 grant

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