CN101159253A - Metallic layer structure under projection, crystal round structure and forming method of the same - Google Patents

Metallic layer structure under projection, crystal round structure and forming method of the same Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101159253A
CN101159253A CN 200710167276 CN200710167276A CN101159253A CN 101159253 A CN101159253 A CN 101159253A CN 200710167276 CN200710167276 CN 200710167276 CN 200710167276 A CN200710167276 A CN 200710167276A CN 101159253 A CN101159253 A CN 101159253A
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China
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layer
wafer
wetting
material
bump
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CN 200710167276
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Chinese (zh)
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余瑞益
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日月光半导体制造股份有限公司
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Publication of CN101159253A publication Critical patent/CN101159253A/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/0001Technical content checked by a classifier
    • H01L2924/0002Not covered by any one of groups H01L24/00, H01L24/00 and H01L2224/00

Abstract

The invention discloses an under-projection metal layer structure and a wafer structure and a forming method of the wafer structure. The under-projection metal layer comprises an adhesion layer, an obstruction layer, and a moistening layer. The adhesion layer is equipped on a connection pad of the wafer, the obstruction layer is equipped on the adhesion layer, and the moistening layer is equipped on the obstruction layer. The adhesion layer is made of boron-containing nickel, the obstruction layer is made of cobalt, and the moistening layer is made of gold.

Description

第l/7页凸块下金属层结构、晶圆结构与该晶圆结构的形成方法【技术领域】本发明是有关于一种凸块下金属层结构、晶圓结构以及该晶圓结构的形成方法,且特别是有关于一种利用无电电镀技术形成的凸块下金属层结构、晶圓结构以及该晶圓结构的形成方法。 Of l / method under bump metallization layer structure, the structure of the wafer and the wafer structure 7 is formed TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to a metal bump layer structure, the structure of the wafer and the wafer structure forming method, and more particularly to a method of forming a metal layer structure, the structure of the wafer and the wafer structure relates to a bump is formed by electroless plating technique. 【背景技术】在半导体封装技术中,常见的芯片连接技术包括倒装接合(flip chip )、打线接合(wire bonding)以及巻带自动接合(tape automated bonding )等方式,以将芯片与基板电性连接。 BACKGROUND In the semiconductor packaging technology, it is common chip connection technique comprises flip-chip bonding (flip chip), wire bonding (wire bonding) and Volume tape automated bonding (tape automated bonding), etc., to the chip and the substrate is electrically connection. 其中倒装接合技术利用焊料凸块(solder bump ) 作为芯片与基板间电性连接的媒介,相较于打线接合以及巻带自动接合的方式,倒装接合技术具有较短的电性连接路径,并且具有较佳的电性连接品质, 使得凸块愈来愈广泛地应用在半导体封装政术中。 Wherein the flip-chip bonding technology using solder bumps (solder bump) as an intermediary between the chip and the substrate are electrically connected, as compared to the wire bonding and tape Volume embodiment of automated bonding, flip-chip bonding technique has a short electrical connection path and it has a better electrical connection quality, so that the bump more widely used in the semiconductor package political surgery. 传统的凸块形成方法中,将一凸块下金属层(Under Bump Metallurgy , UBM)形成在芯片表面上,并且覆盖芯片表面的铜焊垫上, 一般利用溅镀(sputtering )或电镀(electroplating )的方式形成凸块下金属层。 Conventional bump forming method, a bump metal layer (Under Bump Metallurgy, UBM) formed on the chip surface and covers the chip surface of the braze pad, typically by sputtering (sputtering) or electroplating (of Electroless) of the under bump metal is formed layer. 4妻着进4亍涂布光阻层、黄光蚀刻等步骤,使得凸块下金属层的尺寸大约对应于铜焊垫的尺寸。 4 wife the right foot into the coating a photoresist layer 4, yellow etching step, so that the size of the bump metal layer corresponds approximately to the size of the copper pad. 而后,将光阻层剥离,并且在凸块下金属层上印刷锡膏。 Then, the photoresist layer is peeled off, and the printing paste on the metal bump layer. 最后,回焊锡膏,使得锡膏内的锡颗粒熔化成锡汤,并冷却固化成凸块。 Finally, back to the solder paste, the solder paste such that the tin particles of tin soup melted, cooled and solidified into a bump. 传统凸块的形成方法具有繁复的制程步骤,无法有效地降低制程成本, 因此业界发展出一种不需进行黄光蚀刻的凸块形成方法。 The method of forming bumps having a conventional complicated process steps, can not effectively reduce the manufacturing cost, so the industry developed a yellow etching without performing bump forming method. 这种不需黄光蚀刻步骤地凸块形成方法,包括在铜焊垫上无电电镀(electroless plating)镍(nickel)层,以及在镍层上无电电镀钯(palladium )层的步骤,并且接着形成例如是金材料的湿润层。 This etching step need not be yellow bump forming method, comprising pad electroless plating (electroless plating) a nickel brazing (Nickel) layer, and electroless plating on the nickel layer of palladium (Palladium) Step layer, and then for example, a wetting layer is formed of gold material. 而后,通过印刷及回焊的步骤形成凸块。 Then, the bump formed by printing and reflow steps. 无电镀 Electroless

镍是一种化学还原反应,利用溶液中的还原剂(如次磷酸钠)将镍离子还原沉积在催化表面上。 Nickel is a chemical reduction reaction, using a solution of a reducing agent (sodium hypophosphite) reducing the nickel ions is deposited on the catalytic surface. 在界面反应方面,由于无电镀镍对于铜的扩散阻绝效果良好,因此被广泛采用于电子封装中,以在焊锡凸块中扮演一个扩散屏障的角色。 The reaction at the interface, since the electroless nickel plating for a good effect hinders the diffusion of copper, it is widely employed in the electronics package to play in the solder bumps in the role of a diffusion barrier. 在无电电镀镍层的步骤中, 一般将晶圓(wafer)浸入镀液中,镀液中由硫酸镍(NiS04 )提供镍离子,并且由次磷酸钠(NaH2P02 )作为还原剂以使镍离子还原为镍金属,并且以镍金属做为催化剂进行自催化反应(autocatalytic reaction),从而在铝或铜焊垫上析镀一含磷的镍层(Ni-P )。 In step electroless nickel plating layer, typically the wafer (the wafer) was immersed in the plating solution, nickel ions provided by a bath of nickel sulfate (NiS04), and a sodium hypophosphite (NaH2P02) as a reducing agent to nickel ions reduced to nickel metal and nickel as the metal catalyst from the catalytic reaction (autocatalytic reaction), so that analysis of nickel layer pad (Ni-P) plating or a phosphorus-containing aluminum brazing. 这种无电电镀的方式具有镀层厚度均匀、孔隙率低、结晶细致、硬度高、可焊性良好等优点。 This way of electroless plating having a uniform thickness and a low porosity, fine crystal, high hardness, good weldability and the like. 然而,由于这种无电电镀制程受到镀液组成成分及其浓度、 操作温度以及酸碱值等参数条件影响,当进行例如回焊锡膏等高温制程步骤时,容易因为高温影响,在锡膏以及镍层间的接口形成一富磷的结晶状介金属相(Inter-Metallic Compound, IMC )。 However, since such an electroless plating bath composition by the process and their concentration, temperature, and operating parameters such as pH conditions, as for example, when high temperature processes such as solder paste back step, is easy because the high temperatures in the solder paste and the interface between the nickel layer is formed of a phosphorus-rich crystalline intermetallic phase (inter-metallic Compound, IMC). 在无电电镀的置换反应中,当一个尺寸较小的镍原子溶走(氧化)的同时,会有两个相对尺寸很大的金原子沉积(还原),这样在晶格成长时会造成全面推挤性的差排(Misalignment), 因而使得镍与金的界面中出现很多的空隙疏孔,甚至藏有溶液等,容易造成镍层的继续钝化及氧化,使得界面品质受到影响。 In the displacement reaction of electroless plating, while when a smaller size of the nickel atoms was dissolved away (oxidation), there will be a relatively large size of the two gold atoms are deposited (reduced), so that when the growth of the lattice will cause full pushing of dislocations (Misalignment), thus allowing many voids appear clean the aperture in the interface of nickel and gold, or even possession solution or the like, and is likely to cause continued passivating nickel oxide layer, such that the interface quality is affected. 此外,当镍层中磷量较高时,容易造成焊性降低,因此一般的作法是将含磷量控制在7~9%之间。 Further, when a higher phosphorus content in the nickel layer, likely to cause decreases weldability, so the general practice to control the phosphorus content between 7-9%. 以下以凸块与含磷的镍层的接口为例来进行说明,请同时图1及图4,图l绘示传统的凸块与无电电镀镍层之间接口的示意图,图4是图l的电子扫瞄摄影照片。 The following nickel layer at the interface with the bump described as an example of phosphorous, a schematic view of an interface between the press and 4, Figure l illustrates a conventional bump and electroless nickel plating layer 1 and FIG. 4 is a diagram l electronic scanning photographs. 通过电子扫瞄4聂影(Scanning Electron Microscopy, SEM)以及成分分析可知,凸块103以及含磷镍层101间形成富磷的结晶状介金属相102。 By scanning electron Movies 4 Nie (Scanning Electron Microscopy, SEM), and component analysis, the bumps 103 are formed between the nickel phosphorous layer 101 and the phosphorus-rich crystalline intermetallic phase 102. 由于富磷的结晶状介金属相102具有易脆的特性,使得凸块103与芯片间接点强度降低。 Since the crystalline intermetallic phase 102 having a phosphorus-rich brittle characteristics, such indirect spot intensity decreased bumps 103 of the chip. 当进行芯片焊接、封胶或者产品测试时,容易在此结晶状介金属相102发生断裂,降低了产品的良率以及可靠度。 When the die bonding, the sealant or product testing, this crystalline easily broken intermetallic phase 102, reduces the product yield and reliability. 【发明内容】 [SUMMARY]

本发明的主要目的在于提出一种凸块下金属层结构、晶圆结构及该晶圓结构的形成方法,其可提高接点强度,进一步提升产品的可靠度以及品质。 The main object of the present invention is to provide a method for forming a metal layer structure, a wafer structure and the lower block projection wafer structure, which can improve joint strength, to further enhance the product reliability and quality. 为达成本发明的前述目的,本发明提出一种凸块下金属层结构,包括一黏附层、 一阻障层以及一湿润层。 To achieve the above object of the present invention, the layer structure of the present invention proposes one kind of metal bumps, an adhesive layer comprising a barrier layer and a wetting layer. 黏附层设置在一晶圓的一接垫上,翁附层的材料为含硼的镍。 Adhesive layer provided a contact pad of a wafer, the material layer is attached Weng nickel boron. 阻障层设置在黏附层上,阻障层的材料为钴。 Barrier layer disposed on the adhesive layer, barrier layer material is cobalt. 湿润层设置在阻障层上,湿润层的材料为金。 Wetting layer disposed on the barrier layer, the material of the wetting layer is gold. 本发明还提出一种晶圓结构,包括一晶圆、 一接垫、 一钝化层以及一凸块下金属层。 The present invention also provides a wafer structure comprising a wafer, a pad, a passivation layer, and an under bump metallurgy layer. 接垫设置在晶圆上,钝化层覆盖晶圆并且暴露出部分接垫。 Pads provided on the wafer, a passivation layer covers the wafer and the pad portion is exposed. 凸块下金属层包括一祐附层、 一阻障层及一湿润层。 Under bump metal layer comprises a layer attached to Yu, a barrier layer and a wetting layer. 黏附层设置在接垫上,教附层的材料为含硼的镍。 Adhesive layer provided on the pads, the material layer is attached to teach a nickel boron. 阻障层设置在黏附层上,阻障层的材料为钴。 Barrier layer disposed on the adhesive layer, barrier layer material is cobalt. 湿润层设置在阻障层上,湿润层的材料为金。 Wetting layer disposed on the barrier layer, the material of the wetting layer is gold. 本发明再提出一种晶圓结构的形成方法。 The present invention further provides a method to form a wafer structure. 首先,提供一晶圓,晶圆的表面设置有一接垫并且覆盖有一钝化层,钝化层暴露出部分接垫。 First, a wafer surface of the wafer is provided with a pad and covered with a passivation layer, the passivation layer to expose part of the pad. 其次,在接垫上无电电镀一黏附层,黏附层的材料为含硼的镍。 Next, a bonding pad electroless plating adhesive layer, adhesive material is a boron-containing nickel layer. 然后,在黏附层上无电电镀一阻障层,阻障层的材料为钴。 Then, electroless plating a barrier layer over the adhesive layer, barrier layer material is cobalt. 然后,在阻障层上形成一湿润层,湿润层的材料为金。 Then, a wetting layer is formed on the barrier layer, the material of the wetting layer is gold. 相较于现有技术,本发明凸块下金属层结构、晶圆结构以及该晶圆结构的形成方法分别利用含硼的镍、钴以及金作为黏附层、阻障层以及湿润层的材料,使得凸块以及晶圆的接垫间经过热循环的步骤后,不会生成易脆的介金属相,提升了接点的机械强度,进一步改善了产品的可靠性。 Compared to the prior art, the present invention under bump structure and methods of forming the structure wafer metal layer of the wafer structure, respectively, using a boron-containing nickel, cobalt, and gold as a material of an adhesion layer, barrier layer and the wetting layer, after the step of the thermal cycle such that the bump pad between wafer and without generating brittle intermetallic compound, to enhance the mechanical strength of the contacts, to further improve the reliability of the product. 其次,由于黏附层、阻障层以及湿润层是以无电电镀的方式形成,可减少制程步骤,还节省了制造成本。 Second, since the adhesive layer, barrier layer and the wetting layer is formed electroless plating manner, process steps may be reduced, but also saves manufacturing costs. 再者,利用钴作为阻障层的材料,相较于传统利用钯作为阻障层材料的方式,可降低成本并且提高电性表现。 Furthermore, the use of cobalt as the barrier layer material, by using palladium as compared to conventional manner the barrier layer material to reduce costs and improve electrical performance. 为让本发明的上述内容能更明显易懂,下文特举较佳的实施例,并配合所附图式,作详细说明如下: In order to make the above-described present invention can be more fully understood, preferred embodiments Hereinafter Laid For Example, and the accompanying figures, described in detail below:

【附图说明】图l绘示传统的凸块与无电电镀镍层之间接口的示意图; 图2A绘示依照本发明较佳实施例在一硅晶圆(silicon wafer )表面上设置接垫以及钝化层的示意图;图2B绘示在图2A的晶圓上形成私附层的示意图; 图2C绘示在图2B的恭附层上形成阻障层的示意图; 图2D绘示在图2C的阻障层上形成湿润层的示意图; 图2E绘示在图2D的湿润层上形成焊料层的示意图; 图3绘示依照本发明较佳实施例的晶圆结构的示意图; 图4是图1的电子扫瞄摄影照片;以及图5是依照本发明较佳实施例的凸块下金属层与凸块间接口的电子扫瞄摄影照片。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION schematic Figure l the interface between the bumps and the conventional electroless nickel plating layer is shown; FIG. 2A shows a silicon wafer disposed on a (silicon wafer) surface in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention the pads and a schematic diagram of the passivation layer; FIG. 2B is a schematic private attached form a layer on the wafer shown in FIG. 2A; FIG. 2C is a schematic view of a barrier layer formed on the attachment layer Christine FIG. 2B illustrates; in FIG 2D shows FIG. a schematic view of the wet layer 2C is formed on the barrier layer; FIG. 2E shows a schematic diagram of the solder layer is formed on the wetting layer of FIG. 2D; FIG. 3 shows a schematic diagram of the preferred embodiment of the wafer structure embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 4 is scanning electron photographs of FIG. 1; and FIG. 5 is a preferred embodiment in accordance with the present invention, the bumps of an electronic scanning photographs of the intermetallic layer and the bump interface. 【具体实施方式】依照本发明较佳实施例的晶圓结构包括一晶圆、 一接垫、 一钝化层以及一凸块下金属层。 [DETAILED DESCRIPTION wafer structure in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention comprises a wafer, a pad, a passivation layer, and an under bump metallurgy layer. 本实施例中接垫设置在晶圓的表面,钝化层覆盖在晶圆表面并且暴露部分的接垫。 The present embodiment is provided on the pad surface of the wafer, a passivation layer covering the surface of the wafer and the pad portion is exposed. 凸块下金属层设置在接垫上,并且包括一翻附层、 一阻障层及一湿润层。 Under bump metal layer disposed on the pads, and includes an attached doubled layer, a barrier layer and a wetting layer. 依照本实施例的晶圆结构的形成方法详述如下。 Wafer structure forming method according to the present embodiment is described in detail below. 请同时参照图2A至图2E,图2A绘示依照本发明较佳实施例的晶圆的示意图;图2B绘示在图2A的晶圆上形成勒附层的示意图;图2C绘示在图2B的黏附层上形成阻障层的示意图;图2D绘示在图2C的阻障层上形成湿润层的示意图;图2E绘示在图2D的湿润层上形成焊料层的示意图。 Referring to FIGS. 2A to 2E, the wafer in accordance with FIG. 2A is a schematic of the preferred embodiment of the present invention is shown; FIG. 2B is a schematic Le attachment layer formed on the wafer shown in FIG. 2A; FIG. 2C shown in FIG. a schematic view of the barrier layer is formed of the adhesive layer 2B; FIG. 2D is a schematic view of the wetting layer is formed on the barrier layer of FIG. 2C shows; FIG. 2E is a schematic view of a solder layer formed on the wetting layer shown in FIG. 2D. 依照本发明较佳实施例的晶圓结构的形成方法,首先提供一晶圆12,如图2A所示。 The method according to the preferred embodiment of the wafer structure formed embodiment of the present invention, a wafer 12 is first provided, shown in Figure 2A. 本实施例中晶圆12丰i佳地是一^圭晶圆(silicon wafer),其表面"i殳置有一4矣垫14以及一4屯化层(passivation layer) 16。 4妻垫14的才才料例如是铜(copper) 或是铝(aluminum),作为晶圆12上的电性接点。钝化层16覆盖在晶圆上,并且具有一接触窗(contact windows) 16a,以暴露部分的接垫14。其次,在接垫14上无电电镀(electroless plating ) —勦附层22。在无电电镀黏附层22之前,较佳地将接垫14进行表面处理。将接垫14表面的氧化物(例如氧化铜)及有机、无机物质移除,并且利用例如锌(zinc )或钴(cobalt) 等材料进行接垫14的表面活化(activation),而后将晶圆12浸入镍硼的镀液中,以进行黏附层22的无电电镀。本实施例中,在无电电镀的镀浴中,利用镍金属的自催化反应,在活化后的接垫14表面析镀含硼的镍(Ni-B)。此处所形成的镍硼材料层即为黏附层22,且其形成的厚度大约为1 Examples wafer 12 to be a good abundance i ^ Kyu wafer (silicon wafer) of the present embodiment, the surface "i facing Shu carry a pad 14, and a 4 4 Tun layer (passivation layer) 16. 4 wife pad 14 it was expected, for example, copper (copper) or aluminum (aluminum), as the electrical contacts 12 on the wafer passivation layer 16 overlying the wafer, and having a contact window (contact windows) 16a, to expose a portion the pad 14. Next, pad 14 on the electroless plating (electroless plating) - attached to destroy layer 22. before the electroless plating adhesive layer 22, the pad 14 is preferably subjected to a surface treatment to the surface of pad 14. oxides (e.g. copper oxide) and organic, inorganic substance is removed, and using, for example zinc (zinc) or cobalt (cobalt) and other materials for the pad surface activation (activation) 14, and after the wafer 12 is immersed in a nickel boron plating solution for electroless plating adhesive layer 22. in this embodiment, in the electroless plating bath electroplating, autocatalytic reaction using nickel metal in the activated connection pads 14 nickel-boron plating surface analysis the thickness (Ni-B). nickel-boron material layer formed herein is the adhesive layer 22, and formed of about 1 ~ 15微米(um )。接着,如图2C所示,在黏附层22上无电电镀一阻障层24,用以阻挡私附层22的镍金属向外扩散。本实施例中阻障层24的厚度大约为0.15-7.5 微米,并且较佳地以钴(Co)作为阻障层24的材料,相较于利用4巴作为阻障层24的材料,钴材料的阻障层24具有较低的材料成本,并且可提高后续制程形成的凸块与接垫14间的电性接触特性。如图2D所示,在阻障层24上接着形成一湿润层26。润湿层26用以防止阻障层24被氧化,同时改善对于凸块的湿润性。本实施例中,湿润层26 的材料为金(Au),且较佳地以无电电镀的方式形成在阻障层24上,其厚度大约为0.05 ~ 0.15微米。然湿润层26也可以例如是利用浸镀(immersion plating)的方式形成在阻障层24上。形成湿润层26之后,黏附层22、阻障层24及湿润层26构成一凸块下金属层(Under Bump Metallurgy, UBM ) 20。再来,形成一焊料层30 ~ 15 microns (UM). Next, as shown in Figure 2C, in the electroless plating adhesive layer 22 a barrier layer 24, is attached to the barrier layer private diffusion of nickel metal 22 outwardly barrier layer embodiment of the present embodiment 0.15-7.5 thickness of about 24 microns, and preferably of cobalt (Co) as a material of the barrier layer 24, as compared to the use of 4 bar material of the barrier layer 24, barrier layer 24 of a material having a relatively cobalt low material cost, and can improve electrical contact bumps characteristics pad 14 formed in a subsequent process shown in Figure 2D, a wetting layer is then formed on the wetting layer 26. the barrier layer 24 to 26 barrier layer 24 to prevent oxidation, while improving the wettability for the bump. in this embodiment, the material of the wetting layer 26 is gold (Au), and preferably to electroless plating is formed on the barrier layer 24 having a thickness of about 0.05 to 0.15 microns. However wetting layer 26 may be, for example, using a dip (immersion plating) are formed on the barrier layer 24 is formed after wetting layer 26, adhesive layer 22, barrier layer 24 and a wetting layer 26 constituting the under bump metal layer (under bump Metallurgy, UBM) 20. again, a solder layer 30 is formed 湿润层上,如图2E所示。在本实施例中,焊料层30印刷(printing)在湿润层26上,且其材料较佳地为金,然焊料层30 的材料也可以是锡(Sn)、铅(Pb)、镍、金、银(Ag)、铜或其组合。本实施例的晶圓结构的形成方法接下来进行回焊焊料层30的步骤,焊料层30经过回焊后形成一凸块。 The wetting layer, shown in Figure 2E. In the present embodiment, the solder layer 30 print (Printing) on ​​a wet layer 26, and which material is preferably gold, and then the solder layer 30 material may be tin (Sn ), lead (Pb), nickel, gold, silver (Ag), copper or a combination thereof. the present method of forming a wafer structure of an embodiment of step 30 is performed next reflowing solder layer, the solder layer 30 is formed after reflowing a bump. 本发明所属技术领域的技术人员,可了解形成凸块的方式不限制于上述利用印刷及回焊的方式,凸块也可以利用直接植球的方式形成在凸块下金属层上。 Skilled in the art in the art of the present invention, can be appreciated form the bump embodiment is not limited to the use of the printing and reflow manner, the bump can also be used directly in the solder ball is formed on the under bump metal layers. 植球的步骤可例如是利用植球机台或机械手臂来进行,其直接将凸块对应放置在凸块下金属层上,并且利用助焊剂将凸块接合在凸块下金属层上。 Bumping step may, for example, using a machine or bumping mechanical arm to which a corresponding bump disposed directly on the lower layer metal bump, and the bump bonding using a flux in the bump on the metal layer. 或者,也可利用网板进行凸块的对位,将凸块对应放置于凸块下金属层上,然后同样利用助焊剂将凸块接合在凸块下金属层上。 Alternatively, the screen can also be used for alignment bumps, bumps corresponding to the bumps is placed on the metal layer, and then using the same flux at the bump bonding bump on the metal layer. 然而,其它在此领域中所常用的将凸块接合在凸块下金属层上的方法均可应用于jt匕。 However, other commonly used in this field will bump bonding method under bump metal layer can be applied on jt dagger. 形成凸块后完成依照本发明较佳实施例的晶圆结构。 After the completion of forming a bump wafer structure according to the preferred embodiment according to the present invention. 请参照图3,其绘示依照本发明较佳实施例的晶圆结构的示意图。 Referring to FIG. 3, a schematic diagram of the preferred embodiment of the wafer structure in accordance with the present invention which illustrates. 晶圆结构100包括晶圆12、 接垫14、钝化层16、凸块下金属层20以及凸块30,。 Wafer structure 100 includes a wafer 12, pad 14, passivation layer 16, under bump metal layer 20 and the bumps 30 ,. 凸块下金属层20包括黏附层22、阻障层24及湿润层26。 UBM layer 20 includes an adhesion layer 22, barrier layer 26 and a wetting layer 24. 本实施例中,教附层22、阻障层24及湿润层26均为无电电镀层,在镀液中进行凸块下金属层20各材料层的无电电镀时,这些材料层具有大约相同的宽度。 When the electroless plating, the material layers according to the present embodiment, the attachment layer 22 taught, barrier layer 24 and the layer 26 are wet electroless plating, for each material 20 under bump metal layer in the plating bath having approximately the same width. 当凸块下金属层20形成之后,不需再进行涂布光阻、黄光以及蚀刻的步骤。 After the bump metal layer 20, without further photoresist coating, etching step and yellow. 另外,凸块下金属层20中黏附层22的材料是含硼的镍,当晶圆结构100进行热处理相关的制程步骤时,例如回焊焊料层30以形成凸块30,时, 可避免在凸块30,以及接点14之间形成富磷的结晶状介金属相。 Furthermore, under bump metal layer 20, adhesive layer 22 is a boron-containing material of nickel, when heat-treated wafer structure 100 related process steps such as reflowing of the solder layer 30 to form the bumps 30, when can be avoided bumps 30, and forming a contact 14 between the phosphorus-rich intermetallic compound crystals. 请同时参照图5,其为依照本发明较佳实施例的凸块下金属层与凸块间接口的电子扫瞄摄影照片。 Referring to FIG. 5, the scanning electron photographs of the intermetallic layer and the bump to the bump interface of the preferred embodiment according to the present invention. 通过实验以及成分分析结果得知,凸块下金属层20与凸块30,间并没有生成易脆的富磷结晶状介金属相,且接面结构平整,使得凸块下金属层20与凸块30,间具有良好的接合性质,进一步提升了凸块30,与接垫14接合的稳定性。 Result that, under the bumps 20 and the bumps 30 of the metal layer, does not generate between the phosphorus-rich crystals brittle intermetallic phases, and the flat surface structure, so that the bump and the metal layer 20 projecting through experiments and composition analysis block 30, has good bonding properties between the further enhance the bumps 30, 14 in engagement with pad stability. 此外,本实施例中阻障层24的材料为钴,相较于传统利用钯作为阻障层的材料,具有较低的材料成本。 Further, the present embodiment of the embodiment the barrier material layer 24 is cobalt, the use of palladium as compared to conventional barrier layer material, a material having a relatively low cost. 再者,通过实验测量结果得知,传统镍/钇/ 金结构的凸块下金属层的薄层电阻值,相较于镍/钴/金结构的凸块下金属层 Further, the experimental results that, the sheet resistance value of the metal layer bump conventional nickel / yttrium oxide / gold structure, compared to a nickel / cobalt / gold bump structure of a lower metal layer

大约增加8.6%。 An increase of about 8.6%. 因此,相较于传统钯材料的阻障层,本实施例中钴材料的阻障层24更具有较佳的电性表现。 Thus, compared to conventional barrier layer materials of palladium, cobalt barrier layer material according to the present embodiment more preferred embodiment 24 of electrical performance. 另一方面,上述依照本发明较佳实施例的晶圆结构的形成方法中,是以一个接垫14以及对应形成一个凸块下金属层20为例做说明。 On the other hand, the above-described method of forming a wafer structure in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention, is a pad 14 and a bump is formed corresponding to the metal layer 20 be described as an example. 然而,在实际应用中,晶圓12的表面较佳地具有多个数组排列的接垫14,并且在晶圓12 进行切单(wafer sawing )前,利用晶圆等级(wafer level)的制程在接垫14 上对应形成多个凸块下金属层20。 However, in practical applications, the surface of the wafer 12 preferably has a plurality of contact pads arranged in an array 14, and pre-cut single (wafer sawing) wafer 12 using the wafer level (wafer level) in the manufacturing process pad 14 is formed corresponding to the plurality of under bump metallization layer 20. 更进一步来说,依照本发明较佳实施例的晶圆结构的形成方法,例如应用于晶圆级芯片封装(Wafer Level Chip Size Package, WLCSP )技术以及倒装芯片封装(flip chip package )技术中。 Still further, in accordance with the method of forming a wafer structure of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, for example, it is applied to a wafer level chip scale package (Wafer Level Chip Size Package, WLCSP) technology and flip-chip packages (flip chip package) technology . 上述依照本发明较佳实施例的凸块下金属层结构、晶圓结构以及该晶圓结构的形成方法,分别利用含硼的镍、钴以及金作为黏附层、阻障层以及湿润层的材料,使得凸块以及晶圓的接垫间经过热循环的步骤后,不会生成易脆的介金属相,提升了接点的机械强度,进一步改善了产品的可靠性。 Material of the preferred embodiment of the present invention in accordance with the embodiment of the bump structure, a wafer structure and methods of forming a metal layer of the wafer structure, respectively, using a boron-containing nickel, cobalt, and gold is used as an adhesion layer, barrier layer and the wetting layer, , so that the bumps and the step between the wafer through the pad after thermal cycling, without generating brittle intermetallic compound, to enhance the mechanical strength of the contacts, to further improve the reliability of the product. 其次, 由于黏附层、阻障层以及湿润层是以无电电镀的方式形成,可减少制程步骤, 还节省了制造成本。 Second, since the adhesive layer, barrier layer and the wetting layer is formed electroless plating manner, process steps may be reduced, but also saves manufacturing costs. 再者,利用钴作为阻障层的材料,相较于传统利用钯作为阻障层材料的方式,可降低成本并且提高电性表现。 Furthermore, the use of cobalt as the barrier layer material, by using palladium as compared to conventional manner the barrier layer material to reduce costs and improve electrical performance.

Claims (10)

1.一种凸块下金属层结构,包括:一黏附层、一阻障层以及一湿润层,其中黏附层设置在一晶圆的一接垫上,阻障层设置在该黏附层上,以及湿润层设置在该阻障层上,其特征在于:该黏附层的材料为含硼的镍(Ni-B),该阻障层材料为钴(Co),该湿润层的材料为金(Au)。 An under bump metallization layer structure, comprising: an adhesive layer, a barrier layer and a wetting layer, wherein the adhesive layer is provided on a bonding pad of a wafer, a barrier layer disposed on the adhesive layer, and wetting layer disposed on the barrier layer, wherein: a material of the adhesive layer is a nickel-boron (Ni-B), the barrier layer material is a cobalt (Co), the material of the wetting layer is a gold (Au ).
2. 如权利要求1所述的凸块下金属层结构,其特征在于:该li附层是无电电镀层(electroless plating layer ),其厚度大约为1 ~ 15微米(um ),该阻障层是无电电镀层,其厚度大约为0.15-7.5微米,该湿润层是无电电镀层或浸镀层(immersion plating layer ),其厚度大约为0.05 ~ 0.15微米。 The barrier layer is attached to the li electroless plating layer (electroless plating layer), a thickness of about 1 to 15 microns (um),: 2. bump as claimed in claim 1, wherein the metal layer structure, characterized in that electroless plating layer is a layer having a thickness of about 0.15-7.5 microns, the wetting layer is an electroless plating, or dip coating (immersion plating layer), a thickness of approximately 0.05 to 0.15 microns.
3. —种晶圓结构,包括: 一晶圓、 一接垫、 一钝化层以及一凸块下金属层,其中该接垫设置在该晶圆上,该钝化层覆盖该晶圆并且暴露出部分的接垫,该凸块下金属层包括: 一祐附层、 一阻障层以及一湿润层,其中该黏附层设置在该接垫上,阻障层设置在该黏附层上,湿润层设置在该阻障层上, 其特征在于:该黏附层的材料为含硼的镍,该阻障层的材料为钴,该湿润层的材料为金。 3. - species wafer structure, comprising: a wafer, a pad, a passivation layer, and a bump metal layer, wherein the pad is provided on the wafer, the wafer and the passivation layer covering the exposing a portion of the pad, the under bump metal layer comprises: a layer attached to Yu, a barrier layer and a wetting layer, wherein the adhesive layer is provided on the connection pad, a barrier layer disposed on the adhesive layer, wetting layer disposed on the barrier layer, wherein: a material of the adhesive layer is a nickel-boron-containing material of the barrier layer is cobalt, the material of the wetting layer is gold.
4. 如权利要求3所述的晶圓结构,其特征在于:该黏附层为无电电镀层, 厚度大约为1~15微米,该阻障层为无电电镀层,厚度大约为0.15 ~ 7.5微米,该湿润层为无电电镀层或浸镀层,厚度大约为0.05 ~ 0.15微米。 4. A wafer structure according to claim 3, wherein: the adhesive layer is an electroless plating layer with a thickness of about 1 to 15 micrometers, the barrier layer is an electroless plating layer with a thickness of about 0.15 to 7.5 m, the wetting layer is an electroless plating or immersion plating thickness of about 0.05 to 0.15 microns.
5. 如权利要求3所述的晶圓结构,其特征在于:该结构还包括: 一设置在该湿润层上的凸块(bump),该凸块的材料为锡(Sn)、铅(Pb)、镍、金、 银(Ag)、铜或其组合。 5. A wafer structure according to claim 3, wherein: the structure further comprises: a wetting layer disposed on the bumps (Bump), the material of the bump is tin (Sn), lead (Pb ), nickel, gold, silver (Ag), copper or a combination thereof.
6. —种晶圆结构的形成方法,包括:提供一晶圆,该晶圆的表面设置有一接垫并且覆盖有一钝化层,该钝化层暴露出部分接垫;在该接垫上无电电镀(electroless plating ) —翁附层;在该黏附层上无电电镀一阻障层;以及在该阻障层上形成一湿润层,其特征在于:该黏附层的材料为含硼的镍(Ni-B), 该阻障层的材料为钴(Co),该湿润层的材料为金(Au)。 6. - The method of forming the seed wafer structure, comprising: providing a wafer, the wafer surface is provided with a pad and covered with a passivation layer, the passivation layer exposing a portion of the pad; electroless the contact pad plating (electroless plating) - Weng attachment layer; electroless plating on the adhesive layer a barrier layer; and forming a wetting layer on the barrier layer, wherein: a material of the adhesive layer is a boron-containing nickel ( ni-B), the material of the barrier layer is cobalt (Co), the material of the wetting layer is a gold (Au).
7. 如权利要求6所述的晶圓结构的形成方法,其特征在于:该祐附层的厚度大约为1~15微米,该阻障层的厚度大约为0.15 ~ 7.5微米,该湿润层的厚度大约为0.05 ~ 0.15微米。 7. A method for forming a wafer structure as claimed in claim 6, wherein: the attachment woo layer thickness of about 1 to 15 microns and the thickness of the barrier layer is about 0.15 to 7.5 microns, the wetting layer thickness of about 0.05 to 0.15 microns.
8. 如权利要求6所述的晶圓结构的形成方法,其特征在于:在形成该湿润层的步骤中,该湿润层是无电电镀或浸镀(immersion plating )在该阻障层上。 8. A method for forming a wafer structure as claimed in claim 6, wherein: the step of forming the wetting layer, the wetting layer is immersion plating or electroless plating (immersion plating) on ​​the barrier layer.
9. 如权利要求6所述的晶圓结构的形成方法,其特征在于:该方法还包括:在该湿润层上印刷一焊料层;及回焊该焊料层以形成一凸块。 6. The method of forming a wafer structure as claimed in claim 9, wherein: the method further comprises: a printed layer on the solder wetting layer; and reflowing the solder layer to form a bump.
10. 如权利要求6所述的晶圓结构的形成方法,其特征在于:该方法还包括:利用直接植球的方式将一凸块设置在该湿润层上。 10. A method for forming a wafer structure as claimed in claim 6, wherein: the method further comprises: using a direct manner a solder ball bump arranged on the wetting layer.
CN 200710167276 2007-10-31 2007-10-31 Metallic layer structure under projection, crystal round structure and forming method of the same CN101159253A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102132383A (en) * 2008-08-29 2011-07-20 应用材料股份有限公司 Cobalt deposition on barrier surfaces
US8563424B2 (en) 2001-07-25 2013-10-22 Applied Materials, Inc. Process for forming cobalt and cobalt silicide materials in tungsten contact applications
US8815724B2 (en) 2001-07-25 2014-08-26 Applied Materials, Inc. Process for forming cobalt-containing materials
CN108538735A (en) * 2017-03-02 2018-09-14 中芯国际集成电路制造(上海)有限公司 Metal coupling device and its manufacturing method

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8563424B2 (en) 2001-07-25 2013-10-22 Applied Materials, Inc. Process for forming cobalt and cobalt silicide materials in tungsten contact applications
US8815724B2 (en) 2001-07-25 2014-08-26 Applied Materials, Inc. Process for forming cobalt-containing materials
US9051641B2 (en) 2001-07-25 2015-06-09 Applied Materials, Inc. Cobalt deposition on barrier surfaces
US9209074B2 (en) 2001-07-25 2015-12-08 Applied Materials, Inc. Cobalt deposition on barrier surfaces
CN102132383A (en) * 2008-08-29 2011-07-20 应用材料股份有限公司 Cobalt deposition on barrier surfaces
CN108538735A (en) * 2017-03-02 2018-09-14 中芯国际集成电路制造(上海)有限公司 Metal coupling device and its manufacturing method

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