CN101065201A - Process for casting a semi-solid metal alloy - Google Patents

Process for casting a semi-solid metal alloy Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101065201A
CN101065201A CN 200480035784 CN200480035784A CN101065201A CN 101065201 A CN101065201 A CN 101065201A CN 200480035784 CN200480035784 CN 200480035784 CN 200480035784 A CN200480035784 A CN 200480035784A CN 101065201 A CN101065201 A CN 101065201A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
semi
solid
metal alloy
slurry
solid metal
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CN 200480035784
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
J·A·尤尔科
M·C·弗莱明斯
R·A·马丁内斯
R·W·布劳尔
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BuhlerPrince Inc
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IdraPrince Inc
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Priority to US52703003P priority Critical
Priority to US60/527,030 priority
Priority to US11/003,632 priority
Application filed by IdraPrince Inc filed Critical IdraPrince Inc
Publication of CN101065201A publication Critical patent/CN101065201A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Abstract

A method of forming a metal part includes heating a metal alloy composition to form a liquid that is substantially free of metal solids. The liquid is cooled to form a semi-solid metal alloy slurry having a low weight percentage of substantially non-dendritic solids. The semi-solid metal alloy slurry is transferred to a mold at a low pressure and is cooled to cast a substantially solid part.

Description

Be used to cast the method for semi-solid metal alloy
The cross reference of related application
The application has required the benefit of priority of the U.S. Provisional Application No.60/527030 of submission on December 4th, 2003, and its full content is cited as a reference.
Technical field
The present invention relates to the Industrial Metal moulding, more specifically to the method that is used for forming metal parts by non-dendrite semi-solid-state metal slurries.
Background technology
Many known, when molten metal alloy being transferred in the mould when forming parts, this metal stands from liquid state to solid-state phase transformation.Density metal changes in this phase transition process, thereby causes Volume Changes.For most of metals, density increases at solidificating period, thereby causes volume to reduce.In casting, this volume reduces to produce the casting flaw that is called as contraction.Mold is designed to these parts solidifies according to the mode of orientation, this makes motlten metal can be filled in the hole that reduces to produce owing to volume.The step of this compensate for shrinkage is called as " feeding ".
Even motlten metal also will continue to flow after beginning to solidify.Under normal solidification conditions, solid phase will have the form that is called as dendrite.Dendrite means that this solid phase has dendritic structure, and the branch of solid and side arm extend in the liquid.Dendrite has bigger surface area-to-volume ratio.Along with metal freezing, dendrite occupies bigger percent by volume in alloy, and at some some places, these dendrite have formed the network that hinders partly solidified alloy flow.In this case, partly solidified alloy can not compensate for shrinkage.Stop mobile and adapt to the amount that is present in the solid in the alloy when shrinking being called as cohesion part solid (coherency fractionsolid) at metal.This cohesion part solid occurs in the time of will changing the part solid in the form according to solidified superalloy.This cohesion part solid is less relatively, is typically about 0.20 part solid; Therefore, common casting process has adopted the overheated molten alloy that for example is higher than 100 ℃ of liquidus temperatures.This additional heat makes alloy can keep fusion to allow compensate for shrinkage for more time.Be used for alloy is heated to the energy of higher temperature, increase the circulation timei that additional heat cause being correlated with owing to must be during forming parts remove by casting process, and die life since the increase of the thermal shock on instrument reduce.
Existing semi-solid casting process relies on the control to the solid phase form, makes solid phase have sphere, near-spherical or ellipsoidal shape.Specifically, have been found that, can realize various processing and physical property advantages by with casting of non-dendrite semi-solid-state metal slurries or forming metal otherwise.Because prevented the formation dendritic network, so this makes solid phase easier motion when it solidifies.Compare the viscosity that for given solid-state ratio, has the essence reduction with the semi-solid metal alloy component that includes the dendrite particle at the non-dendrite metallic particles in the semi-solid slurry.The difference of viscosity often is several magnitude.The spherical non-dendritic morphology of the easier adaptation of shrinkage-compensating.Up to now, big portion counts the semisolid method and has used high pressure injection system to enter in the relevant mould to force semi-solid alloy.
When molten alloy being remained on just in time to liquidus temperature or high slightly temperature place, along with metal transfer to mould, in fused mass, form a large amount of nucleation of solid particle.The very little and dispersion fine of resulting solid particle, thereby along with metal solidifies in mould, so this metal is because the round usually continuation of dendrite is mobile and feeding.Strengthened shrinkage-compensating by this process.
Adopt this method to have some defectives.For example, because the furnace fluctuation, so see that from industrial point of view it is a challenge that molten alloy is remained on the temperature that just in time is higher than liquidus curve.Stove is full of motlten metal by central feed system or from the molten bath definition usually.This molten alloy crossed be heated above liquidus temperature, to prevent that metal from beginning to solidify in metal transfer system.New metal is being joined when keeping stove, resulting metal temperature is usually above liquidus temperature, thereby can not utilize said method.In addition, solid particle is very little and be dispersed in the liquid, but their shape remains dendritic crystalline.Forming circular granular from fine dendrites needs the time to allow the surface area of these particles reduce.The fine dendrites that is produced by low temperature casting is compared with the liquid cast method and has been strengthened feeding, but realizes adopting spherical particle advantage in the cards fully in existing method.
Method has more recently adopted uses " grain refiner " improved motlten metal.Grain refiner is joined in the motlten metal promoting a large amount of nucleation of solid phase, thereby form becomes non-dendritic crystalline and spherical at short notice.Allow the dendrite alligatoring be to make the required time of circular granular in industrial process, to be difficult to use grain refiner.In industrial process, melt need cool off and remain on and allow the temperature that these solid granulates can the circular particle of alligatoring.
Solid is than being higher than about 0.4 non-dendrite semi-solid slurry, i.e. solid slurry at high proportion, because the cause with the viscosity of shearing variation of these slurries, in non-shearing condition, has class solid performance (for example, these slurries can support the weight of himself in the limited time).By slurries being injected in the mould by high die casting machine with the injection force that reduces slurries viscosity and can fill die cavity with being enough to produce enough shearing forces.Usually, high-voltage main has adopted the power greater than 1000psi, and at least greater than 500psi.Because it is mobile to need shearing force to start, be higher than about 0.4 semi-solid slurry so adopted the pouring-in casting machine of high pressure (injection-mould casting, die casting or die casting machine) to cast to have its solids ratios.
The semi-solid slurry of solids ratios lower (approximately less than 0.20) does not have enough viscosity or intensity to support himself weight, up to now, and owing to the low fraction solid slurry of many reasons all extensively is not used in the high pressure industry casting so far.At first, it is believed that, low fraction solid slurry is transferred in the colder relatively container (for example, mould or cold chamber) can be made the microstructure of slurries turn back to the dendrite state.Therefore slurry stream progressive die tool can stop under the solids ratios more much lower than high proportions of solids slurries.The second, low fraction solid slurry has more heat than high proportions of solids slurries, therefore can not realize using semisolid to be better than whole benefits of liquid cast.At last, existing semisolid method is not designed to form the low fraction solid slurry that is applicable to casting.Equipment is designed to handle the material of similar solid, rather than more low viscous low fraction solid slurry.
Demonstrate these slurries in the nearest work aspect the low ratio semi-solid slurry and in the entire die filling process, kept non-basically dendrite during the high pressure diecasting.The casting at present of high pressure diecasting machine is hanged down fraction solid slurry and has been realized the benefit of many semi-solid processing, and for example reduce circulation timei, improve die life and the foundry machinery performance strengthens.In addition, Casting Equipment uses the main challenge of high proportions of solids slurries no longer to exist.
Many existing liquid alloys (that is, not having solid) casting method does not adopt high pressure to inject.These low pressure event comprise sand casting, gravity or low pressure permanent mold, model casting and lost foam casting (lost foam casting).These methods have special advantage aspect gradually producing some respectively for high-pressure casting method.Can produce complicated shape with sand casting and lost-foam casting method because the mould that is associated with these methods aspect the geometry without limits.Die manufacturing cost lower and make small volume components casting more economically.Casting Equipment is compared more not expensive with high-pressure casting method.The auto parts that these methods of current usefulness are produced comprise and close cabin formula internal combustion engine, inlet manifold, piston and wheel.In these methods, the motlten metal filling speed than high-pressure casting method slowly many.Therefore, in order to fill entire die, the wall thickness of the cast component high die casting than suitable usually is thicker, can not solidify before this alloy is in flowing to wall guaranteeing.But there are some shortcomings in the low pressure casting technology.For example, remove the required time of heat correspondingly than longer the high pressure method from motlten metal.
Use low pressure method to produce foundry goods and be restricted, because it is the cycle is longer relatively, especially longer with respect to high-pressure casting method " dwell time ".
Another problem of low-pressure casting method is that compare the mechanical strength of these foundry goods with high die casting lower.The mechanical strength of given alloy is inversely proportional to the crystallite dimension of solidifying foundry goods.Crystallite dimension is directly related with the metal cooling velocity in foundry goods.
Summary of the invention
One aspect of the present invention is a kind of method that forms metal parts.This method comprises that the heating of metal alloy is to form the liquid that does not have metal solid basically.Forming solid weight percentage in about 1% semi-solid metal alloy slurry to about 30% the scope, and wherein these slurries do not have dendritic solids basically with this liquid cools.Under low pressure this semi-solid metal alloy slurry is transferred in the mould, and this metal alloy slurry will be used for casting the part that is essentially solid.
Another aspect of the present invention is a kind of method of cast metallic parts.This method comprises that formation comprises the semi-solid metal alloy slurry of globular solids.This semi-solid metal alloy slurry does not have dendritic solids basically.This metal alloy slurry is transferred in the mould with the cast gate that is connected with die cavity and running channel, and this metal alloy slurry passes cast gate and running channel flows in the die cavity.This metal alloy cools off in die cavity so that metal alloy solidifies and form part basically.In the cooling period of metal alloy, in die cavity, metal alloy is being pressurizeed under 100 pounds or the littler pressure approximately per square inch.
Another aspect of the present invention is a kind of system that makes cast metallic parts.This system comprises having the stove that is applicable to the heating container of preserving liquid metal alloy.This system also comprises semi-solid slurry production machine, and this equipment has movable agitating member, and it is configured to stir metal alloy is about 1% to about 20% semi-solid metal alloy slurry with the percentage by weight of producing non-dendritic solids.This system also comprises the mould that enters running channel and passage that has die cavity and be connected with this die cavity.The metal grass-hopper is transferred to mould with semi-solid metal alloy slurry from semi-solid slurry production machine.
Those of ordinary skills are by will be further understood that with reference to following specification, claims and accompanying drawing and understanding these and other feature of the present invention, advantage and purpose.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is for being used to make the schematic top plan view of the system of cast metallic parts according to one aspect of the invention; And
Fig. 2 is the partial schematic diagram of mould of the system of Fig. 1.
The specific embodiment
For the explanation here, term " on ", D score, " right side ", " left side ", " back ", " preceding ", " vertically ", " level " with and the term that derives from should relate to the present invention as in Fig. 1 and 2, being orientated.But, it being understood that the present invention can take various optional orientations and sequence of steps, except clear and definite opposite regulations.What it is also understood that is, only is the exemplary of the present invention's design of limiting in shown in these accompanying drawings and below concrete device described in the specification and process in described claim.Therefore, the concrete size relevant with disclosed here embodiment and other physical features should not be considered to limit, except claim spells out in addition.
The benefit of non-dendrite semisolid moulding comprises the forming parts, high-speed continuous casting of more speed, lower mold erosion, lower energy consumption, better mould is filled, thereby oxide reduces the machinable that has improved final metal parts, thereby and gas still less be mingled with and reduced porosity.Other advantage of casting or otherwise form metal parts with semi-solid slurry be included in shrink between the shaping period of metal parts littler, it is near net shape casting, the hole at formed metal parts end still less and porosity lower, gross segregation still less, susceptibility to hot tear crack is littler, and mechanical performance (for example, intensity) is more even.During casting or other forming technique, can also adopt non-dendrite semi-solid alloy component to form complicated parts more.For example, can form part with thinner wall and strength character raising.
The invention provides a kind of percent solids slurries that will hang down and be used in improving one's methods in the non-Hpdc process.More particularly, the invention provides and a kind ofly will hang down the method that the percent solids slurries are used for non-high-pressure casting process, this causes process to reduce about 50% cycle time.Also have, the heat of the semi-solid slurry in low pressure casting process reduces, the mechanical performance that this has reduced crystallite dimension and has improved foundry goods.
As here used, low percent solids slurries refer to the enough low semi-solid slurry of percentage by weight of its non-dendritic solids, thereby this semi-solid slurry is less or do not apply under the situation of shear stress mobile according to the mode of viscosity at shear stress easily.On the contrary, high percent solids slurries need restriction and apply shear stress to start viscous flow.Along with time lapse, high percent solids slurries will not apply the situation current downflow of shear stress (that is, owing to himself the reason of weight); But need the relatively long duration to realize viscous flow, and the viscosity flow of realizing after long duration can be ignored.In addition, realize that the required long duration of viscous flow is obviously bigger than cycle time desired in Industrial Metal casting and forming process.The same as will be described in more detail below, low percent solids slurries can and be realized viscous flow in the duration that is applicable to Industrial Metal casting and forming process under the situation that does not apply any shear stress, and can strengthen this viscous flow by applying lower pressure.The suitable percentage by weight of non-dendritic solids will depend on these variablees: for example alloy compositions, mould structure and other these state-variables.In general, the preferred weight percent of non-dendritic solids will be in about scope of 1 to 20, and more preferably in about scope of 5 to 15.But, in some purposes, can adopt to reach 30% or 35% higher solid weight percentage.At " the Formation and Processing of RheocastMicrostructures " that deliver in September, 2004 by co-inventor Raul A.Martinez-Ayers, RhD Thesis, provided the explanation that forms and process the rheocasting structure among the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, its full content is cited as a reference.The percentage by weight of the solid in low percent solids slurries is enough to allow to utilize non-Hpdc method (low-pressure casting method) to cast, and it has utilized than significantly lower pressure such as die castings.
The example of low-pressure casting method comprises sand casting, gravity or low pressure permanent mold, model casting and lost foam casting.But, for special-purpose, also can adopt other low pressure method.These low-pressure casting methods have adopted usually at the pressure of atmospheric pressure to the scope of 100 pounds (psi) approximately per square inch, but can adopt high pressure to 500psi according to the demand of special-purpose, perhaps are low to moderate the pressure of 0.1psi.
To hang down the percent solids slurries according to the method for one aspect of the invention and be used for the low pressure die casting process.Fig. 1 is the partial schematic plane of casting system 1 according to a further aspect of the present invention.Stove 2 is preserved the molten metal alloy 4 that is under the temperature that is higher than its liquidus temperature.Stove 2 is commercially available device, and it comprises the container 5 that has formed the following open caisson that the passage that leads to molten metal alloy 4 is provided.Robot 10 or other commercially available grass-hopper comprise movable container 11 etc., are used for molten metal alloy 4 is transferred to semi-solid slurry production machine 3 from stove 2.Various slurry production machines and method have been developed.An example of semi-solid slurry production machine and method is the sort of disclosed in the U.S. Patent No. 6645323, and its full content is cited as a reference.In semi-solid slurry production machine 3, stir and cool off this metal alloy and have slurries near the non-dendritic solids of chondritic with production.Robot 10 transfers to mould 13 with slurries 12.When slurries 12 were transferred to mould 13, the solids content percentage by weight of these slurries 12 was preferably about 1% to about 20%, and more preferably about 5% to about 10%.A plurality of moulds 13 can be installed on the rotary table 14 can fill simultaneously, cool off and part is taken out from mould 13.Though demonstrate four moulds 13, should be understood that this workbench 14 can comprise the mould (for example, six) of any amount.
This mould 13 comprises the low pressure mould, described low pressure mould have adopted pressure be lower than 500psi, more preferably less than 100psi and further preferably be lower than the low-pressure casting method of 14.7psi (atmospheric pressure).With further reference to Fig. 2, shown exemplary mold 13 comprises pouring basin 15, cast gate 16 and casting nozzle 17, and they are communicated with die cavity 18 fluids.Passage 19 also is communicated with die cavity 18 fluids.It being understood that this mould 13 can comprise the further feature that a plurality of die cavities, running channel or special-purpose are required.Die cavity 18 can have the shape of relative complex, and it forms final on foundry goods or near final surface, thereby makes extra machined etc. minimize or eliminate.Also have,, can apply vacuum to promote flowing of slurries 12, perhaps can for example in pouring basin 15, apply mechanical force to slurries 12 by applying air rammer to die cavity 18 if special-purpose is required.Employing vacuum or mechanical force have increased the pressure differential between the vent side of pouring basin side and slurries 12, thereby have increased the viscous fluid flow rate of slurries 12.
Because the solid weight percentage in slurries 12 is relatively low, so the slurries 12 in mould 13 must be with relatively slow speed cooling to prevent forming dendritic solid particles in slurries.Admissible cooling velocity depends on the alloy that is used for special-purpose.Also have, this cooling velocity will be subjected to the geometric influence of mold materials and the part that will cast.For example, if the part that will cast comprises the thin-walled portion of cooling off with fast speeds easily, then die cavity 18 can be designed to provide the container part that begins to be filled with slurries.Slurries in this container will cool off with relatively slow speed, thereby formed solid is non-dendrite.After the percentage of solid increases to the degree of the higher cooling velocity of permission, these slurries can be imported in the thin-walled portion of progressive die tool.
The application can adopt various suitable cast metals.For example, can adopt aluminium, magnesium, copper, zinc and ferroalloy.
In the explanation in front, what those of ordinary skills were readily appreciated that is can make many modification to the present invention under the situation that does not break away from disclosed design here.These modification are believed to comprise in below the claim, unless these claims spell out in addition by its language.

Claims (24)

1. method that forms metal parts, this method comprises:
The heating of metal alloy compositions is to form the liquid that does not have metal solid basically;
Cool off this liquid forming semi-solid metal alloy slurry, the solid weight percentage of described semi-solid metal alloy slurry about 1% to about 30% scope and do not have dendritic solids basically;
Semi-solid metal alloy slurry is transferred in the mould;
The semi-solid metal alloy slurry of cooling in mould under 100 pounds or littler pressure approximately per square inch is to cast out the part that is essentially solid.
2. the method for claim 1, wherein: in 15 pounds or the littler described semi-solid metal alloy slurry of casting under pressure approximately per square inch.
3. the method for claim 1, wherein: under atmospheric pressure cast described semi-solid metal alloy slurry.
4. the method for claim 1, wherein: the described part that is essentially solid is to adopt the casting of sand casting method.
5. the method for claim 1, wherein: the described part that is essentially solid is to adopt the lost-foam casting method casting.
6. the method for claim 1, wherein: the solid weight percentage of described semi-solid metal alloy slurry is about 1% to about 20%.
7. the method for claim 1, wherein: the solid weight percentage of described semi-solid metal alloy slurry is about 5% to about 10%.
8. the method for claim 1, wherein: the solid in semi-solid metal alloy slurry comprises the particle that is essentially spherical.
9. the method for claim 1, wherein: described metal alloy comprises aluminium.
10. the method for claim 1, wherein: described metal alloy comprises titanium alloy.
11. the method for a cast metallic parts, this method comprises:
Form semi-solid metal alloy slurry, the solid weight percentage of described semi-solid metal alloy slurry is about 30% or littler, and described semi-solid metal alloy slurry does not have dendritic solids basically;
Semi-solid metal alloy slurry is transferred in the mould with die cavity, thereby this semi-solid metal alloy slurry flows in this die cavity;
The semi-solid metal alloy slurry of cooling in die cavity is so that part is solidified and formed to semi-solid metal alloy slurry basically;
When metal alloy cools off, the semi-solid metal alloy slurry in the die cavity is pressurizeed with low pressure.
12. method as claimed in claim 11, wherein: in about 100 pounds or the littler described semi-solid metal alloy slurry of casting under pressure per square inch.
13. method as claimed in claim 11, wherein: described semi-solid metal alloy slurry comprises spherical solid.
14. method as claimed in claim 11, wherein: described mould also comprises the pouring basin of upwards opening that links to each other with running channel and with cast gate with the cast gate of die cavity fluid connection; And
Described semi-solid metal alloy slurry is then poured in the pouring basin.
15. method as claimed in claim 11, wherein: described semi-solid metal alloy slurry comprises aluminium.
16. method as claimed in claim 11, wherein: described mould comprises sand mold.
17. method as claimed in claim 11, wherein: described mould is by constituting with the Wax-coated material of mud.
18. method as claimed in claim 11, wherein: apply vacuum to die cavity, so that semi-solid metal alloy slurry is drawn in the die cavity.
19. a system that makes cast metallic parts, this system comprises:
Stove, described stove has the heating container that is used to preserve liquid metal alloy;
Semi-solid slurry production machine, being used to produce does not have the solid-state semi-solid metal alloy slurry of the low percentage of dendritic solids basically;
Mould, described mould has the die cavity that is used under low pressure receiving semi-solid metal alloy slurry; And
The metal transfer device is applicable to from semi-solid slurry production machine semi-solid metal alloy slurry is transferred to the described mould.
20. system as claimed in claim 19, wherein: described metal transfer device is a robot.
21. system as claimed in claim 19, wherein: described semi-solid slurry production machine comprises the agitating member that is configured to stir liquid metal alloy.
22. system as claimed in claim 21, wherein: described agitating member is rotating.
23. system as claimed in claim 20, wherein: described semi-solid metal alloy slurry comprises that percentage by weight is about 1% to about 20% solid.
24. system as claimed in claim 20, wherein: described die cavity is approximately receiving semi-solid metal alloy slurry under the atmospheric pressure.
CN 200480035784 2003-12-04 2004-12-06 Process for casting a semi-solid metal alloy Pending CN101065201A (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US52703003P true 2003-12-04 2003-12-04
US60/527,030 2003-12-04
US11/003,632 2004-12-03

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN101065201A true CN101065201A (en) 2007-10-31

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103128248A (en) * 2013-02-01 2013-06-05 武达兼 Semisolid centrifugal separating casting ball grinding process, process device and ball casting machine
CN104942259A (en) * 2015-05-20 2015-09-30 江苏凯特汽车部件有限公司 Semi-solid forming visualization technology for automobile aluminum alloy wheel

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103128248A (en) * 2013-02-01 2013-06-05 武达兼 Semisolid centrifugal separating casting ball grinding process, process device and ball casting machine
CN103128248B (en) * 2013-02-01 2015-06-03 武达兼 Semisolid centrifugal separating casting ball grinding process, process device and ball casting machine
CN104942259A (en) * 2015-05-20 2015-09-30 江苏凯特汽车部件有限公司 Semi-solid forming visualization technology for automobile aluminum alloy wheel
CN104942259B (en) * 2015-05-20 2017-03-22 江苏凯特汽车部件有限公司 Semi-solid rheological forming visualization method for automobile aluminum alloy wheel

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