CN101064780B - Method and apparatus for improving image joint accuracy using lens distortion correction - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for improving image joint accuracy using lens distortion correction Download PDF

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CN101064780B
CN101064780B CN 200610077324 CN200610077324A CN101064780B CN 101064780 B CN101064780 B CN 101064780B CN 200610077324 CN200610077324 CN 200610077324 CN 200610077324 A CN200610077324 A CN 200610077324A CN 101064780 B CN101064780 B CN 101064780B
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image
coordinate
mapping
lens
distortion correction
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CN 200610077324
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CN101064780A (en
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光下辰己
林旭婷
潘积桂
郭恕铭
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台湾新力国际股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention provides an image switching accuracy improving method and device which is used for multi-camera system which can produce wide-angle image. The distortion of lens will make the overlap area photographed by multi-camera not accord with the characteristics, so, the gap of combined wide-angle images can be seen. The image switching accuracy improving method and device provided by the invention proofreads the distortion of lens, and makes the characteristics in overlap area accord with it and jointing engine can produce the seamless wide-angle image easily.

Description

利用透镜失真校正的影像接合准确度改善方法及装置 By the lens distortion correction image joining apparatus and method for improving the accuracy of

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及改善从多眼相机系统产生广角影像的接合准确度。 [0001] The present invention relates to improving the accuracy of engagement of the wide-angle image generated from the multi-eye camera system. 背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 如公知的从多眼相机系统产生广角影像的美国专利公开第2003/0235344A1及2005/0025313A1号中,公开了以影像接合技术产生无缝隙广角影像的系统;然而,其中并未提及由透镜失真所产生的影像接合问题。 [0002] The U.S. Pat known wide-angle image generated from the multi-eye camera system Publication No. 2003 / 0235344A1 and 2005 / 0025313A1, discloses a system for generating a seamless image joining technique wide-angle video; however, not mentioned in which image distortion produced by the lens bonding problems. 该广角影像系统利用影像重叠区域中的特征来搜寻接合点以及计算影像转换参数。 The wide-angle imaging system and calculating a joint search image by using the transformation parameters characteristic image in the overlap area. 由于透镜失真的缘故,重叠区域中的特征会发生变形而无法与邻接的影像吻合。 Since the lens distortion reason, overlapping area can not be deformed features consistent with the adjacent image. 在接合后的广角影像中,此不吻合会造成缝隙且无法轻易被校正。 In the wide-angle image after bonding, this agreement will not result in gaps and can not easily be corrected.

[0003] 参照图1,其表示公知的多眼相机系统100,该多眼相机系统100包含相机阵列101 及影像接合引擎102。 [0003] Referring to Figure 1, which represents known multi-eye camera system 100, the multi-eye camera system 100 comprises a camera array 101 and image engine 102 engage. 影像接合引擎102是自相机阵列101取得多重影像,并将这些影像转换至一共同平面且加以混合,以产生无缝广角影像。 Image engine 102 is engaged from the camera array 101 to obtain multiple images, and convert the image to a common plane and mixed to produce a seamless wide-angle image. 相机阵列101的每一个相机都经由控制总线连接至光圈控制器103。 Each camera the camera array 101 is connected to the aperture controller 103 via the control bus. 影像接合引擎102可根据所取得的影像数据亮度而对光圈控制器103发出曝光控制信号以进行反馈控制。 Engaging image exposure engine 102 may issue control signals to the controller performs feedback control of the diaphragm 103 based on the image data of the acquired luminance.

[0004] 由相机阵列输入的影像会有重叠区域,其用于混合、接合点搜寻以及影像转换参数计算。 [0004] The image from the camera have an overlapping area of ​​the input array, for mixing, and a joint search image conversion parameter calculation. 一般来说,公知的多眼相机系统是在重叠区域中利用区块匹配而找出对应的接合 In general, known multi-eye camera system is using and find the corresponding engagement block matching in the overlap region

点ο Point ο

[0005] 相机的透镜具有桶形或枕形失真,这会对影像的接合产生不良影响,例如:搜寻到的接合点的不准确、影像转换不准确等等。 [0005] camera having a lens barrel or pincushion distortion, this will adversely affect the image of the engagement, for example: find the junction inaccurate, inaccurate image conversion like. 图2是表示透镜失真的范例。 FIG 2 is a diagram showing examples of lens distortion. 当应用针对接合点搜寻的区块吻合法时,影像重叠区域中的失真特征会使搜寻到的接合点产生偏差。 When the stapling process for the joint search block, the distortion characteristic image in the overlap area will find a junction bias.

[0006] 当图1的相机阵列101中的相机转动时,所取得的影像必须被转换至一参考平面以供接合。 [0006] When the camera array 101 is rotated in the camera of FIG. 1, the obtained image must be converted to a reference plane for engagement. 转换矩阵可经由在参考平面上给定四个坐标以及在将转换的转动平面上给定四个坐标加以计算。 Via conversion matrix at the reference plane and to be given four calculated coordinate on the plane of rotation given four converted coordinates.

[0007] 参照图3,其表示了因透镜失真而从理想坐标位置偏离的四个点。 [0007] Referring to Figure 3, which represents the four points due to distortion of the lens deviates from the desired coordinate position.

[0008] 此偏离造成由失真的点所计算而得的转换矩阵不准确,转动平面因而无法准确地转换至参考平面,因此在重叠区域中转换影像的特征无法与参考影像的特征吻合。 [0008] The distortion caused by this departing point calculated transformation matrix obtained is not accurate, the plane of rotation and therefore can not accurately converted to the reference plane, thus converting the image in the overlapping area can not be consistent with the characteristic features of the reference image. 此不吻合很难加以补偿修改。 This modification does not fit very difficult to compensate.

[0009] 鉴于上述问题,本发明提出针对该系统的透镜失真校正方法,以解决多重影像的重叠区域中特征无法吻合的问题,并改善广角影像接合的准确度,以产生无缝隙的广角影像。 [0009] In view of the above problems, the present invention provides a distortion for the lens system correction method to address the overlapping area of ​​multiple images of the feature can not be consistent, and improve the accuracy of the wide-angle images are stitched to produce a wide-angle image seamless.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0010] 本发明的一个目的是提供一种影像接合准确度改善装置,其包含:相机阵列、影像接合引擎、选用的光圈控制器、以及透镜失真校正机构。 [0010] An object of the present invention is to provide an improved image accuracy engaging device, comprising: an array of cameras, images are stitched engine, choice of aperture controller, and a lens distortion correction means. 本发明还提供一种影像接合准确度改善方法,其通过在接合影像之前校正透镜失真,使得重叠区域中的特征得以吻合且接合引擎可易于产生无缝广角影像。 The present invention also provides a method for improving the accuracy of engagement image, the correction lens distortion by the image before bonding, characterized in that the overlapping area is consistent and can be easily produced seamlessly joined engine wide-angle image.

[0011] 本发明的其他目的及优点将在下文中有更详细的描述。 [0011] Other objects and advantages of the present invention will be described in more detail hereinafter. 附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0012] 图1是公知的多眼相机系统的示意图。 [0012] FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a known multi-eye camera system.

[0013] 图2表示透镜失真的范例。 [0013] FIG. 2 shows the example of the distortion of the lens.

[0014] 图3表示透镜失真所导致的影像转换不准确的范例。 [0014] FIG. 3 shows the image conversion lens distortion caused by inaccurate example.

[0015] 图4是根据本发明一实施例的多眼相机系统的示意图。 [0015] FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a multi-eye camera system according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0016] 图5表示经由本发明的多眼相机系统校正失真影像的范例。 [0016] FIG. 5 shows the example of a multi-eye image distortion correction system of the present invention via the camera.

[0017] 图6表示利用透镜失真校正改善影像转换准确度的范例。 [0017] FIG. 6 shows a sample using a lens distortion correction to improve the image conversion accuracy.

[0018] 图7表示图4的透镜失真校正机构与影像接合引擎的细节。 [0018] FIG. 7 shows the lens distortion correction means 4 and the image details engagement of the engine.

[0019] 图8是根据本发明另一实施例的最优化的多眼相机系统示意图。 [0019] FIG. 8 is a schematic view of a multi-eye camera system optimized to another embodiment of the present invention.

[0020] 符号说明 [0020] Description of Symbols

[0021] 100、400、800 :多眼相机系统 [0021] 100,400,800: multi-eye camera system

[0022] 101,401 :相机阵列 [0022] 101, 401: camera array

[0023] 102、402 :影像接合引擎 [0023] 102, 402: Image Engine engagement

[0024] 103 :光圈控制器 [0024] 103: The aperture controller

[0025] 403:选用的光圈控制器 [0025] 403: selected aperture controller

[0026] 404 :透镜失真校正机构 [0026] 404: lens distortion correction means

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0027] 以下将结合附图和具体实施例来详细说明本发明。 [0027] The present invention will be described in detail in conjunction with accompanying drawings and specific embodiments. 其中,为了不使公知的细节混淆本发明的技术特征,以下叙述中不再赘述某些特定细节。 Wherein, in order not to obscure the details of well-known features of the present invention, the following description specific details are not repeated.

[0028] 参照图4,其表示根据本发明的多眼相机系统400。 [0028] Referring to Figure 4, which shows a multi-eye camera system 400 according to the present invention. 该多眼相机系统400包含相机阵列401、影像接合引擎402、选用的光圈控制器403以及透镜失真校正机构404,其中,该透镜失真校正机构404可使用任何可用的透镜失真校正运算法。 The multi-eye camera system 400 includes an array of camera 401, the image joining engine 402, the aperture controller 403 and the selected lens distortion correction means 404, wherein the lens distortion correction means 404 can use any available lens distortion correction algorithms. 以多项式法为例,是计算多项式的系数以符合透镜数据的曲线。 Polynomial method as an example, a coefficient calculating polynomial curve fit to the data of the lens. 这些系数被储存为透镜参数,且失真校正是通过将多项式应用于每个像素而将各像素映射至未失真的位置。 These coefficients are stored as the lens parameters, and the distortion correction is applied by the polynomial maps each pixel to each pixel position undistorted. 将各像素的校正位置储存于映射表中的映射表法可适用于所有的透镜失真校正运算法。 The corrected position of each pixel is stored in a mapping table mapping table method is applicable to all lens distortion correction algorithms. 该映射表是根据应用数学公式加以计算。 The map is to be calculated according to a mathematical formula. 在该映射表法中,透镜参数是用于该映射表的数据,且校正后的映射坐标可为小数。 In this method, the mapping table, the parameter is the lens data for the mapping table, and the mapping of coordinates after correction can be fractional. 可根据系统的成本及品质需求而使用不同的内插法来计算各像素的影像数据。 It may be calculated for each pixel of the image data using different interpolation methods according to cost and quality requirements of the system.

[0029] 若多眼相机系统400不包含光圈控制器403,也就是说,相机阵列401中的相机具有固定光圈,则透镜参数不受影像亮度影响而保持恒定。 [0029] When the multi-eye camera system controller 400 does not include the aperture 403, that is, a camera in the camera array 401 having a fixed aperture, the imaging lens parameter is not affected by luminance remains constant. 反之,若多眼相机系统400包含光圈控制器403,也就是说,相机阵列401中的相机具有可调整的光圈,则影像接合引擎402会根据影像亮度而对光圈控制器403发出曝光控制信号,以对相机阵列401中的相机光圈进行反馈控制。 Conversely, when the multi-eye camera system controller 400 includes an aperture 403, i.e., the camera array 401 of the camera having an adjustable aperture, the image engine 402 will engage the exposure control signal 403 sent to the controller in accordance with the iris image brightness, to perform feedback control of the camera array 401 of the camera aperture. 透镜失真校正所使用的透镜参数会随着相机光圈的直径而改变,因此这些透镜参数是根据光圈控制加以计算。 Lens distortion correction parameters of the lens may be used as the diameter of the camera aperture is changed, these parameters are to be calculated based on the lens aperture control.

[0030] 相对于图2所示的桶形失真范例,图5是表示经由本发明的多眼相机系统校正枕形失真影像的范例。 [0030] with respect to the barrel distortion of the example shown in FIG. 2, FIG. 5 shows examples of image distortion via a multi-eye camera system of the present invention pincushion correction. 如图所示,影像重叠区域中的特征是被校正而与邻接影像中的特征吻口O As shown, the image in the overlapping region wherein the adjacent corrected image features kiss O port

[0031] 图6是利用透镜失真校正改善影像转换准确度的示意图,其中,因失真的点被校正,转换矩阵可根据未失真的点而准确地加以计算,所以由转动的相机所取得的影像可被准确地转换至参考平面。 [0031] FIG 6 is the use of a lens distortion schematic image conversion accuracy correction improvement wherein, due to the distortion point is corrected, the conversion matrix may be calculated according to the undistorted point accurately, the image by the rotation of the camera acquired can be accurately converted to the reference plane.

[0032] 图7表示图4的透镜失真校正机构404与影像接合引擎402的详细处理方式,其中影像接合引擎402包含“影像转换”及“影像混合及接合”两个主要处理模块。 [0032] FIG 7 shows a lens distortion correction mechanism 404 detailed handling engine 402 and the engaging image, wherein the image engine 402 engaging with "image conversion" and two main modules of the "video mix and engagement." 在“影像转换”的处理模块中是根据转换参数计算转换的坐标,该计算的坐标可为小数。 In the "image conversion" processing modules is calculated based on the conversion coordinate conversion parameters, the calculated coordinates may be fractional. 接着再以内插法计算影像数据。 Followed by interpolation within the image data is calculated. 某些转换(例如:平面转换)会使影像扩张,而某些转换则会压缩影像并在影像边界留下黑色的部分。 Some conversion (e.g.: in-plane switching) causes expansion of the image, and some will be converted and compressed video image in a black portion left border. 这些黑色的部分及转换所产生的多余部分是经由裁剪而从转换的影像加以移除。 The excess portion of the black portion and a conversion and to be produced is removed from the converted image by cropping. “影像混合及接合”的处理模块则会根据从“影像转换”的处理模块所得到的影像数据产生广角影像。 "Imaging and mixed bonded" will be generated in the wide-angle image processing module based on the image data from the "image conversion" in the processing module obtained.

[0033] 另外,透镜失真校正机构404是根据透镜参数计算校正的坐标。 [0033] Further, the lens distortion correction means 404 is corrected coordinate calculation according to the parameters of the lens. 如先前所述,在透镜失真校正需使用内插法,因此,在本发明的多眼相机系统400中应设有额外的影像缓冲器,以储存透镜失真校正后的影像数据。 As previously described, in the lens distortion correction for an interpolation method used, therefore, in the multi-eye camera system 400 of the present invention to be provided with an additional video buffer for storing video data of the lens distortion correction. 当使用软件进行影像接合时,这些额外的影像缓冲器并不会造成问题;但对硬件而言,这些额外的影像缓冲器会需要更多的存储体。 When software images are stitched, these additional video buffer does not cause a problem; but for hardware, these additional video buffer will require more memory banks. 对高分辨率及高帧率视频的多眼相机系统而言,存储体存取频宽与存储体密度都非常高,因此,这些额外的影像缓冲器可能会超出存储体存取频宽的限制。 For multi-eye camera system High resolution and high frame rate video, access bandwidth and storage density memory banks are very high, and therefore, these additional video buffer may exceed the bandwidth limit access memory banks . 有鉴于此,本发明进一步提出另一包含透镜失真校正的最优化的多眼相机系统,其是将透镜失真校正机构与影像转换结合, 以省去额外的影像缓冲器。 Accordingly, the present invention further proposes further comprising a lens distortion optimization of multi-eye camera system calibration, which is the lens distortion correction means converts the combined image, to omit the additional video buffer.

[0034] 参照图8,其表示本发明另一实施例的具有透镜失真校正的最优化多眼相机系统800。 [0034] Referring to FIG. 8, which represent a lens according to another embodiment of the present invention, the distortion correction optimized multi-eye camera system 800. 如上所述,多眼相机系统800中,透镜失真校正机构是与影像转换结合。 As described above, the multi-eye camera system 800, the lens distortion correction means is combined with the image conversion. 如图所示,透镜失真校正后的坐标是输入“影像转换”的处理模块中,以进一步根据转换参数进行坐标映射。 As shown, the lens distortion correction coordinates input "image conversion" processing module, for further conversion parameters according to the coordinate mapping. 之后,仅执行内插法一次,以计算最终的影像数据。 Thereafter, the interpolation is performed only once, in order to calculate the final image data. 因此,多眼相机系统800中不需要额外的影像缓冲器,且影像品质不会因透镜失真校正所多出的内插而降低。 Thus, the multi-eye camera system does not require additional video buffer 800, and the image quality is not reduced due to lens distortion correction extra interpolation.

[0035] 本发明是以优选实施例的方式加以说明,并使其更易为人所了解,但所述实施例并非用以限定本发明,且任何熟知此项技术者,在不脱离本发明的精神和范围内,应当可对本发明进行修改与变更。 [0035] The embodiment of the present invention will be described based on the preferred embodiments, and leaves human understood, the embodiments are not intended to limit the present invention, and any of those well known in the art, without departing from the spirit of the invention and the range, modifications and alterations may be made should the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. 一种影像接合准确度改善装置,包含: 相机阵列,由多个相机所组成,用以取得影像; 透镜失真校正机构,用以校正透镜失真;影像接合引擎,用以对取得的影像执行影像转换以及将转换的影像接合为无缝隙广角影像;以及多个选用的光圈控制器,其中,这些光圈控制器分别连接至各相机,且从所述影像接合引擎接收根据取得的影像的亮度而发出的曝光控制信号,以控制这些相机的光圈,所述透镜失真校正机构包含第一坐标映射单元,该第一坐标映射单元根据透镜参数而针对取得的影像计算校正的坐标,且这些透镜参数随着这些相机的光圈而改变, 所述影像接合引擎包含影像转换机构、以及影像混合及接合机构, 所述影像转换机构包含第二坐标映射单元、以及内插及裁剪单元,所述第二坐标映射单元根据转换参数计算转换的坐标,所述透镜失 An image improvement means engaged accuracy, comprising: a camera array composed of a plurality of cameras, for obtaining an image; lens distortion correction means for correcting the distortion of the lens; images are stitched engine to perform image acquisition of and converting the image into an image to engage seamless angle image; and a plurality of controller selection aperture, wherein the aperture controller connected to each of the camera and the image from the engagement receiving engine according to the brightness of the image obtained exposure control signal sent to control the camera aperture, the lens distortion correction means comprises a first coordinate mapping unit, the mapping unit according to a first coordinate for the imaging lens parameter correction calculation to obtain the coordinates and parameters with the lenses the camera aperture and the change, the video image conversion engine includes engaging means, and an image mixing means and engagement, the image coordinate converting means includes a second mapping unit, and an interpolation and cropping unit, the second coordinate mapping the conversion parameter calculation unit converts the coordinates of the lens out 真校正机构与所述影像转换机构直接结合,在所述第一坐标映射单元被透镜失真校正后的坐标直接输入到所述第二坐标映射单元中,以进一步根据转换参数进行坐标映射,之后,输入到所述内插及裁剪单元,执行所述内插,以计算最终的影像数据。 True correction mechanism directly bonded to the image converting means, the lens distortion correction coordinates in the first coordinate directly input to the mapping unit mapping the second coordinate unit to further coordinate conversion parameters according to the mapping, then, the input to the interpolation and cropping unit performs the interpolation to calculate the final image data.
2.如权利要求1所述的装置,其中所述透镜失真校正机构使用多项式运算法,且这些透镜参数为多项式的系数或这些校正的坐标的映射表。 2. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the lens distortion correction means using polynomial algorithms and parameters of the lenses mapping table or the coefficients of a polynomial calibration coordinates.
3. 一种影像接合准确度改善方法,包含: 通过相机阵列取得影像;校正透镜失真;对取得的影像执行影像转换并将转换的影像接合为无缝隙广角影像;以及根据取得的影像的亮度而对连接至所述相机阵列中的相机的光圈控制器发出曝光控制信号,以控制这些相机的光圈,所述透镜失真的校正包含第一坐标映射,该第一坐标映射根据透镜参数而针对取得的影像计算校正的坐标,且这些透镜参数随着这些相机的光圈而改变,所述影像转换包含第二坐标映射、以及内插及裁剪,且所述第二坐标映射根据转换参数计算转换的坐标,所述透镜失真的校正与所述影像转换直接结合,经所述第一坐标映射被透镜失真校正后的坐标直接输入到所述第二坐标映射,以进一步根据转换参数进行坐标映射,之后,输入到所述内插及裁剪,执行所述内插,以计算最终的影像 3. A method for improving the accuracy of engagement image, comprising: image acquisition by the camera array; correction lens distortion; performs image conversion on the image and converts the acquired image seamless joining of wide-angle image; and an image according to the luminance acquired and exposure control signal sent to control the camera aperture, the lens distortion correction comprises a first coordinate mapping camera connected to the camera aperture array controller, according to the first coordinate mapping parameters for the lens obtained calculates a corrected image coordinates and parameters such as the lens aperture to change the camera, the image converter comprises a second coordinate mapping, and an interpolation and cropping, and the second coordinate transformation mapping calculated coordinate conversion parameters, the lens distortion correction conversion directly bonded to the image, mapping the first coordinate through a lens distortion correction coordinates is directly input to the second coordinate mapping, the mapping according to further coordinate conversion parameters after the input and cutting into the interpolation, the interpolation performed to calculate the final image 数据。 data.
4.如权利要求3所述的方法,其中该透镜失真的校正使用多项式运算法,且这些透镜参数为多项式的系数或这些校正的坐标的映射表。 4. The method according to claim 3, wherein the lens distortion correction using polynomial algorithms and parameters of the lenses of these calibration coefficients of a polynomial or map coordinates.
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