CN101063610B - Automatic monitoring system for engineering project deformation - Google Patents

Automatic monitoring system for engineering project deformation Download PDF

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CN101063610B
CN101063610B CN 200710074717 CN200710074717A CN101063610B CN 101063610 B CN101063610 B CN 101063610B CN 200710074717 CN200710074717 CN 200710074717 CN 200710074717 A CN200710074717 A CN 200710074717A CN 101063610 B CN101063610 B CN 101063610B
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system
laser
servo
axis
sensor
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CN 200710074717
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CN101063610A (en
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Jin Lianhe
Zhang Lipin
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Jin Lianhe
Zhang Lipin
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Abstract

This invention relates to one engineer automatic monitor system for one monitor system based on laser calibration, which comprises light emission system, light receive position system, test calibration position system, self-searching laser distance and position MCU control and CPU control, energy system and environment sustaining system, wherein the engineer part both ends are fixed with emissionsystem and receive position system to establish one level calibration laser axis to determine laser axis space line equation by use of engineer circle deformation and laser test and positioning system; the calibration position system is distributed on monitor points to be tested along laser axis for cross and level displacement; when rain fall on sensor, CPU sends signal to each sub system to close its sub system cover.

Description

工程变形自动监测系统 Deformation automatic monitoring system project

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及了一种工程上使用的自动监测系统,特别适用于一种基于激光准直的用于大型工程体的全自动形变监测系统。 [0001] The present invention relates to an automatic monitoring system for use on a construction, especially for laser alignment based automatic deformation monitoring system for large engineering body.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 目前的水坝、水库、桥梁等工程体的安全性评估主要依赖于形变监测数据,如水平位移、垂直位移、挠度、倾斜、表面接缝及裂缝等;水平位移的监测方法主要有:活动觇标法、小角度法、正倒垂线、引张线、真空激光准直法、前方交会法和导线法等。 [0002] Current safety assessment engineered dams, reservoirs, bridges, etc. depends on the deformation monitoring data, such as horizontal displacements, vertical displacements, deflections, inclined surface joints and cracks and the like; horizontal displacement monitoring method are: activities target plate method, small angle method, n-down vertical, tensile wire, a laser collimation in vacuo, and the wire forward intersection method or the like method. 垂直位移的监测方法主要有:精密水准、静力水准、三角高程、连通管真空激光准直法等。 Vertical displacement monitoring method are: the precise leveling, hydrostatic leveling, triangle elevation communication pipe vacuum laser alignment method or the like. 这些方法最初均采用光学仪器人工测量,随着自动化技术的发展,到目前为止,已实现了垂线、引张线、静力水准、真空激光准直的自动化,并且出现了GPS、全站仪及光纤监测系统。 These methods are used in optical instruments initially measured manually, with the development of automation technology, so far, has achieved vertical, tensile wire, hydrostatic leveling, vacuum laser alignment automation, and the emergence of GPS, Total Station and optical monitoring system.

[0003] 真空激光准直系统需要冷却设备,还要保持一定的真空度,施工安装困难,且波带板的复位精度、灵敏度和管内真空度长时间较难保证,且一块波带板翻转不成功即会影响到其它测点的测量,冷却水、真空泵工作长期协调难度大,如果系统出现漏气、波带板复位失效问题,维修工程量较大。 [0003] Vacuum laser alignment devices require cooling, but also to maintain a certain degree of vacuum, the construction is difficult to install, and the reset of the zone plate precision, sensitivity, and a long inner tube more difficult to guarantee a degree of vacuum, and a zone plate is not inverted That success will affect the measurement of other measuring point, the cooling water pump to work long-term coordination is difficult, if the system leaks, reset failures zone plate, a large amount of maintenance work. GPS自动化系统投资费用较高,隔河岩系统总经费超过600万元,除去软件,由于每个变形测点需配备天线及GPS接收机,单点费用也在20万元以上,其测量精度受位置和测量时间影响较大,如廊道内就无法进行观测,要得到测点的精确测值, 测量时间较长,更重要的因GPS卫星是美国政府用于军事目的而发射的,从战略意义上讲, 一个国家的水库、大坝、桥梁的监测是不能依赖这种方法的。 Automation System GPS high investment costs, the overall system requirements GEHEYAN over $ 6 million, the software is removed, since each measuring point the deformation and the antenna to be equipped with a GPS receiver, a single point costs are more than 20 million, the measurement accuracy by location and time measuring greater impact, such as within the corridor will not be able to observe, to get an accurate measure of the value of the measuring points, measuring time is longer, more importantly, the US government because of the GPS satellite for military purposes is emitted from a strategic sense speaking, a national monitoring reservoir, dams, bridges that can not rely on this approach.

[0004] 本发明所要解决的技术问题在于,提供一种无人值守全自动大型工程体的形变监测系统,该系统可用于直线分布的大型工程体,如水坝、水库桥梁防洪大提等,对线性分布于工程体上的敏感点进行连续的或间歇的无线寻检,除采集各点的水平位移、垂直位移、 挠度、倾斜、温度、湿度等数据外,还可于大屏幕IXD上显示工程体的中轴线的三维动态曲线。 [0004] The present invention solves the technical problem is to provide an unmanned fully automatic system of large engineering deformation monitoring body, the system may for linear distribution of large engineered, such as dams, bridges and the like to mention the large reservoir flood of Engineering linear distributed wireless display sensitive points on the engineered continuous or intermittent spider, in addition to the points collected horizontal displacement, vertical displacement, deflection, inclination, temperature, humidity, and other data, also on a large screen IXD dynamic curve in three-dimensional axis of the body.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0005] 本发明的目的是通过如下技术方案来实现的:为解决上述技术问题,本发明由光发射系统、光接收定位系统、测点准直定位系统、自寻的激光测距与定位系统MCU控制及CPU控制、能源系统、环境维持系统组成,在工程体的两端分别安置光发射系统和光接收定位系统,由这两个系统建立一根水平的准直激光轴,利用工程体周边的形变控制网、自寻的激光测距与定位系统跟踪激光轴的空间位置,确定激光轴的空间直线方程;多个测点准直定位系统沿激光轴分布于工程体的待监测点上,并检测出待监测点与激光轴正交的水平向及垂直向的相对于激光轴的位移,当落雨传感器、风速传感器、沙尘传感器任一个的信号输出达到一定的限值时,CPU将向各子系统发出信号,关闭其子系统护罩。 [0005] The object of the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions: In order to solve the above technical problem, the present invention consists of an optical transmission system, a light receiving positioning system, the positioning system collimating the measuring point, homing laser ranging and positioning system MCU control and CPU control, energy systems, system components maintaining the environment, respectively disposed at both ends of the light emitting system and a light receiving body engineering positioning system, a collimated laser establish a horizontal axis by the two systems by the periphery of the engineered deformation control network, homing laser ranging and positioning system to track a spatial position of the laser axis, the linear equation to determine the spatial laser shaft; a plurality of measuring points along the laser collimator axis positioning system monitoring points to be distributed over the body engineering, and detecting the horizontal and the vertical direction relative to points to be monitored and perpendicular to the axis of the laser beam for the laser displacement axis, when the rain sensor, wind speed sensor, a dust sensor according to the output signal reaches a certain limit, the CPU will each signaling subsystem, subsystem close its cover.

[0006] 本发明所述每个测点准直定位系统都带有独立的基于MCU的检测与控制系统,其通过无线数传与光发射系统中的CPU作数据交流,MCU与光电器件控制自寻的激光测距的护罩在水平方向旋转。 [0006] The present invention is positioned for each point of the collimating system has a separate MCU and control system based on a detection, for which the data through the wireless transmission system of the light exchanges CPU, MCU control from the photovoltaic device homing laser ranging shield is rotated in a horizontal direction. 测点相对于准直激光轴的正交水平及垂直向的位置移动。 Measuring point with respect to the axis of the collimated laser orthogonal to the horizontal position and the vertical direction.

[0007] 所述测点准直定位系统的能源由光发射系统中的充电与测距激光器通过大功率激光充电来提供。 [0007] The positioning system collimating the measuring point of the light energy emitted by the charging system and the charging is provided by the laser distance measuring laser power. 所述测点准直定位系统的伺服平台位于待监测点的测墩之上,待监测点的空间倾斜可由伺服平台上的高精度双轴倾斜传感器检测,并由伺服马达调整伺服平台。 The collimating the measuring point of the servo positioning system located on the platform to be measured pier monitoring points, the space to be monitored points may be accurately detected tilt inclination sensor on the servo platform biaxially, by a servo motor to adjust the servo internet.

[0008] 本发明所述光发射系统包括高性能准直激光器、大功率充电及测距激光器、伺服平台、稳压电源、水平定位传感器、MCU控制电路、CPU数据处理电路,所述高性能准直激光器固定于伺服平台上,伺服平台采用三螺杆支撑马达伺服式或双自由度重力惯性伺服式或双旋转面马达伺服式。 [0008] The present invention includes a high performance light emitting collimated laser system, the laser ranging and charging power, servo platform, power supply, sensors positioned horizontally, the MCU control circuit, the CPU data processing circuit, a quasi-high performance linear servo laser is fixed on the platform, the platform servo motor using three screw support or servo-DOF inertial gravity or double-rotation servo motor servo surface. 所述三螺杆支撑马达伺服平台包括底座、支撑螺杆、带减速箱伺服马达、位移传感器、双轴倾斜传感器、磁偏角传感器、微步进马达,所述底座由三个垂直于底座且等角度分布的支撑螺杆支撑,支撑螺杆的旋转可控制底座俯仰,两个带减速箱的伺服马达分别伺服其中两个支撑螺杆以控制底座沿两个方向俯仰。 The three-screw servo motor support includes a base platform, a support of the screw, a servo motor with a gear box, a displacement sensor, a biaxial inclination sensor, magnetic declination sensors, micro-stepping motor, the base and perpendicular to the base by a three equiangularly a support supporting the screw profile, the rotating support base may control the pitch of the screw, two servo motors are servo gearbox with two of the base support in order to control the pitch of the screw in both directions. 所述双轴倾斜传感器固定于底座上,其输出信号将控制伺服马达动作以保持底座始终处于水平状态,底座的倾斜修正量由两个位移传感器检测。 The biaxial inclination sensor fixed to the base, its output signal to control the operation of the servomotor is always maintained in a horizontal state of the base, the inclined base correction amount detected by the two displacement sensors. 所述双轴倾斜传感器采用绝对式旋转编码器,其与所述伺服马达一起固定于减速箱上,检测支撑螺杆的绝对旋转量。 The dual-axis tilt sensor absolute rotary encoder, together with said servomotor is fixed to the gear box, the absolute amount detecting rotation of the screw is supported. 所述磁偏角传感器可检测底座的空间水平向的扭转,当此扭转超出限值时,所述MCU控制电路将控制所述微步进马达动作以修正激光器光轴的方向。 The magnetic sensor may detect the torsional angle of space to the horizontal base, when this torsion limit is exceeded, the control circuit controls the MCU micro-stepper motor operates in the correction direction of the optical axis of the laser.

[0009] 本发明所述光发射系统、光接收定位系统、自寻的激光测距定位系统与测点准直定位系统一样,均有伺服平台提供水平伺服,各伺服平台上还设置有磁偏传感器,借助于磁偏角传感器,不仅所有系统在安装运行中有了方向基准,而且可检测出工程体两端及所有待监测点的水平向的扭转。 [0009] The optical transmission system of the present invention, the light receiving positioning system, laser range finder as homing and positioning system positioning system collimating the measuring point, the servo level are servo platform, provided with a magnetic bias on each servo platform sensors, sensor means of magnetic declination, not only in all directions with the reference system in the installation operation, but also to detect the level of both ends of the twisted engineered and all points to be monitored. 所述自寻的激光测距的测距仪自动对难形变控制点上的反射镜,反射镜上有保护罩,保护罩上开合窗口由MCU及光敏器件控制。 The homing laser rangefinder ranging AF protective cover, the protective cover opening and closing windows and controlled by the MCU on the mirror on the light-sensing device difficult deformation control point, a mirror.

[0010] 本发明与现有技术相比具有自动化程度高、通用性好、精度高、工作可靠、结构筒单等多种优点。 [0010] The present invention as compared with the prior art with a high degree of automation, versatility, high precision, reliability, a single tube structure, and other advantages.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0011] 图1是本发明的全自动形变监测系统结构示意图。 [0011] FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of automatic deformation monitoring system configuration of the present invention.

[0012] 图2a、2b是本发明光发射系统结构示意图。 [0012] Figures 2a, 2b is a schematic diagram of an optical transmission system configuration of the present invention.

[0013] 图3是本发明伺服平台结构示意图。 [0013] FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the present invention the servo architecture platform.

[0014] 图4a、图4b是本发明测点准直激光器结构示意图。 [0014] Figures 4a, 4b is a schematic view of a collimated laser structure of the present invention, the measuring point.

[0015] 图5a、图5b、图5c是本发明光接收定位系统结构图。 [0015] FIG. 5a, FIG. 5b, FIG. 5c is a positioning system of the present invention is a configuration diagram of an optical receiver.

[0016] 图6是本发明金属保护罩结构示意图。 [0016] FIG. 6 is a schematic view of the structure of the present invention the metallic protective cover.

[0017] 具体实施例 [0017] Specific embodiments

[0018] 下面结合附图说明对本发明作进一步详细的描述:如图1所示,本发明提供一种基于激光准直的用于大型工程体的全自动形变监测系统,该系统由光发射系统、光接收定位系统、测点准直定位系统、自寻的激光测距与定位系统MCU控制及CPU控制、能源系统、环境维持系统组成,在工程体的两端分别安置光发射系统和光接收定位系统,由这两个系统建立一根水平的准直激光轴,利用大型工程体周边的形变控制网(该控制网通常是由更高一级的控制网控制的),自寻的激光测距与定位系统可以跟踪激光轴的空间位置,亦即可以确定任一检测时刻的激光轴的空间直线方程;多个测点准直定位系统沿激光轴分布于工程体的待监测点上,并以亚毫米级精度快速检测出待监测点与激光轴正交的水平向及垂直向的相对于激光轴的位移,每个测点准直定位系统都 BRIEF DESCRIPTION [0018] Hereinafter, in conjunction with the present invention will be further described in detail: 1, based on the present invention provides a laser alignment system for automatic monitoring of large deformation body engineering, the system consists of a light emitting system light receiving positioning system, the positioning system collimating the measuring point, homing laser ranging and positioning system MCU control CPU control, energy systems, system components maintaining the environment, respectively disposed at both ends of the light emitting system and the light receiving engineered targeting system, the establishment of a collimated laser axis horizontal by the two systems, the use of large deformation engineered peripheral control network (the network is typically controlled by a higher-level control of network control), homing laser rangefinder and positioning system may track the spatial position of the laser axis, i.e., the space can be determined according to any one of the linear equations of the laser detection time axis; a plurality of measuring points along the laser collimator axis positioning system monitoring points to be distributed over the body engineering, and to submillimeter accuracy quickly detect the horizontal and the vertical direction relative to points to be monitored and perpendicular to the axis of the laser displacement laser axis, for each point of the collimator positioning systems 有独立的基于MCU (单片机)的检测与控制系统,其通过无线数传与光发射系统中的CPU作数据交流,在环境较恶劣的地区,测点准直定位系统的能源可由光发射系统中的充电与测距激光器通过大功率激光充电来提供, 测点准直定位系统的伺服平台位于待监测点的测墩之上,待监测点的空间倾斜可由伺服平台上的高精度双轴倾斜传感器检测,经由MCU驱动伺服机构控制平台保持水平,同时MCU可通过伺服机构上联动的绝对式位移传感器检测出待监测点空间倾斜轨迹,光发射系统光接收定位系统自寻的激光测距与定位系统与测点准直定位系统一样,均有伺服平台提供水平伺服,各伺服平台上还设置有磁偏角传感器,借助于磁偏角传感器,不仅所有系统在安装运行中有了方向基准,而且可检测出工程体两端及所有待监测点的水平向的扭转。 A separate MCU (microcontroller) a detection and control system based on which the CPU for data exchange of wireless data transmission and the light emitting system, the environment worse area, the measuring point collimator positioning system energy by the light emitting system the charging is provided by the laser distance measuring laser power charging system measuring point is collimated servo positioning platform is located on the pier measuring points to be monitored, the high-precision servo-axis tilt sensor platform the space to be inclined by a monitoring point detecting, via a driving servomechanism control MCU platform remains horizontal while the absolute displacement sensor MCU may be linked by a servo mechanism that detects a point in space to be monitored slant tracks, the light-receiving optical system emitting laser ranging and positioning system positioning system homing as with the collimator measurement point positioning system, the level of both the servo platform servo, a magnetic angle sensor is also provided on each of the servo platform by means of magnetic declination sensor, not only in all directions with the reference system in the installation operation, but also the ends of the horizontal torsion engineered detected and all the points to be monitored.

[0019] 所有这些子系统构成一个野外基站,基站的控制中心基于一高性能的CPU及相关的软件、控制电路、无线收发电路、电源电路等,其集成于光发射系统中,在无人值守的状态下工作时,基站的能源由一台风能发电机及一架自跟踪太阳能电池板提供,当然,如果条件允许,也可使用有线电源。 [0019] All subsystems which constitute a field station, the base station control center based on a high-performance CPU and associated software, control circuitry, wireless transceiver circuitry, power supply circuit, which is integrated in the optical transmission system, the unattended when working in a state, the base station by a wind energy generator and an energy self-tracking solar panels provided, of course, if possible, can also use a wired power source. 野外基站与内地总控制中心的通信可采用多种方式,如:借助已有的GSM网络通信,利用GPRS短信通信,租借专用卫星通道通信、单边带通信等,基站内CPU与各子系统之间的通信采用目前较成熟的无线数传模块,由CPU统一控制各子系统的动作,各子系统均有坚固的护罩保护,并由各自的MCU控制;当连接于CPU的落雨传感器、风速传感器、沙尘传感器任一个的信号输出达到一定的限值时,CPU将向各子系统发出信号关闭其护罩;各子系统均有双可充电电池组,各子系统的MCU可控制切换,当使用的一组电压过低时,MCU可自动切换到另一组,并向基站控制中心的CPU发出充电请求信号,CPU将在空闲时对其充电; The total field communication base station and the control center may employ a variety of ways Mainland, such as: existing GSM network by means of communication using SMS GPRS communication lease dedicated satellite communication channel, SSB communication, the base station with the CPU subsystems currently employed communication between mature wireless module, collectively controls the operation of various subsystems of a CPU, a strong shield subsystems are protected by a respective control MCU; when the rain sensor is connected to the CPU, when the wind speed sensor, a dust sensor according to the output signal reaches a certain value, the CPU subsystem sends a signal to close its respective shroud; are each double subsystem rechargeable battery pack, the MCU may control the switching of each subsystem when a group of low voltage is used, the MCU can automatically switch to another group, and sends a charging request signal to the base station control center CPU, CPU idle time which will be charging;

[0020] 对工程体上各待监测点形变及温度湿度等数据的采集,是由CPU的软件控制的, 有连续寻检、间歇寻检、定时寻检,远程总控制中心可控制其采集方式,自寻的激光测距与定位系统的的起动可由CPU根据对其所测数据的分析而决定其间歇周期,也可由远程总控制中心控制;CPU除将所有采集的数据备份以外,要向远程总控制中心即时发送,每次数据的发送与接收都有校验,以确保数据无漏无错。 [0020] collected for each of the monitoring points strain and temperature and humidity data such as engineering body is controlled by the CPU software, continuous spiders, intermittent spider, the timing spiders, remote overall control center can control the acquisition mode , laser ranging and positioning system homing start is determined by the CPU intermittent period according to which the measured data is analyzed, the total remote control center may also be controlled; CPU other than all the acquired data backup, remote to total control center for real time transmission, each transmitted and received data with a checksum to ensure error-free data is seamless. 如附图2a、图2b所示,光发射系统被安置于工程体的较开阔且交通相对较便利的一端。 The figures 2a, 2b, the light transmission system is disposed in the body works more open and relatively convenient transportation end. 所述光发射系统包括高性能准直激光器1、 大功率充电及测距激光器2、伺服平台、稳压电源、水平定位传感器3MCU控制电路、CPU数据处理电路,所述高性能准直激光器1固定于伺服平台上,伺服平台有多种结构:三螺杆支撑马达伺服式、双自由度重力惯性伺服式、双旋转面马达伺服式。 The system includes a high performance light emitting collimated laser 1, the laser ranging and power charge 2, servo platform, power supply, control circuit 3MCU horizontal positioning sensor, the CPU data processing circuit, the high-performance laser collimator fixed on the platform servo, servo platform has a variety of structures: three supporting screw servo motor, servo-DOF inertial gravity, twin rotary motor servo surface. 本实施例采用结构较简单且便于安装,如图3所示的三螺杆支撑马达伺服式,该伺服平台包括底座5、支撑螺杆4、带减速箱伺服马达6、位移传感器7、双轴倾斜传感器8、磁扁角传感器9、微步进马达10,所述底座5由三个垂直于底座且等角度分布的支撑螺杆4支撑,支撑螺杆4的旋转可控制底座5 俯仰,两个带减速箱的伺服马达6分别伺服其中两个支撑螺杆4以控制底座5沿两个方向俯仰,所述双轴倾斜传感器8固定于底座5上,其输出信号将控制伺服马达6动作以保持底座5始终处于水平状态,底座5的倾斜修正量由两个位移传感器检测7,本实施例使用的是绝对式旋转编码器,其与所述伺服马达6—起固定于减速箱上,可检测支撑螺杆4的绝对旋转量,所述磁偏角传感器9可检测底座5的空间水平向的扭转,当此扭转超出限值时,所述MCU控制电路将控制所述微步进马达10 This embodiment employs a simpler structure and easy to install, three-screw support servo motor shown in Figure 3, the servo includes a base platform 5, a support screw 4, 6 with deceleration, the displacement sensor 7, the servo motor axis tilt sensor box 8, flat magnetic angle sensor 9, a micro stepping motor 10, the support base 5 by a screw perpendicular to the base and three equiangularly distributed support 4, the support 4 may control the rotation of the screw pitch base 5, with two gearbox servomotor 6 wherein each servo control two supporting screws 4 to 5 base pitch in both directions, said axis tilt sensor 8 is fixed to the base 5, which outputs the control signal to maintain the operation of the servo motor 6 is always in the base 5 a horizontal state, the correction amount of the base 5 is inclined by the two displacement detecting sensors 7, the present embodiment uses an absolute rotary encoder, which is fixed to the servomotor from 6- to the gear box, the screw 4 of the support can be detected the absolute amount of rotation of the magnetic sensor 9 may detect the torsional angle of space to level the base 5, the limit is exceeded when this torsion, the MCU control circuit 10 controls the micro stepping motor 作以修正激光器光轴的方向,此项修正须参考所述光接收定位系统的反馈信息。 For correcting laser optical axis direction, correction shall make reference to this information the light receiving feedback positioning system.

[0021] 所述高性能准直激光器将提供一束功率稳定的激光,其光斑呈圆形,光强分布均勻,或光强分布一定,光柱不抖动;所述大功率充电及测距激光器除给所述的测点准直定位系统提供能源外,CPU还可通过充电时反射回的激光测出相应的待监测点沿光轴向的精确距离,从而可由光轴的空间直线方程归算出该待监测点的起始坐标和瞬时坐标。 [0021] The high performance bundle of collimated laser will provide a stable power of the laser, which is a circular spot, uniform light intensity distribution, the intensity distribution or constant, no jitter beam; a laser distance measurement and other high-power charging to the collimation point measured energy to provide an outer positioning system, the CPU may be reflected back by charging the precise distance laser measuring respective monitoring point to be along the optical axis, so that the space can be calculated from the normalized line equation to the optical axis instantaneous start coordinate and the coordinate point to be monitored.

[0022] 如附图4a、图4b所示,该系统被安置于工程体的待监测点(工程体的形变敏感点)上,其伺服底座的结构及工作原理与如上所述的光发射系统中的伺服底座基本相同, 此处不再赘述;图中示出的精密导轨11水平固定于伺服底座5上,精密导轨11的一端与一沿精密导轨11平动的精密滑块12正交且刚性联结,精密滑块12通过精密丝杠副13与精密导轨11联结,精密滑块12在精密导轨11中的运动是由伺服马达6经减速箱14驱动精密丝杠13旋转而实现的,精密滑块12相对精密导轨11的移动矢量可由位移传感器7检测, 本实施例采用的是由与减速箱14联动的绝对式旋转编码器15检测的;安装系统时,使精密导轨11的丝杠13与准直激光器1的光轴正交,这个工序可借助磁偏传感器9来完成; [0022] The figures 4a, as shown, is positioned on the system engineering point of the body to be monitored (the engineered strain sensitive points), its structure and working principle of the light emission of the base of the servo system of Figure 4b as described above substantially identical to a servo base is not repeated here; shown in FIG precision guide 11 horizontally fixed to the base 5 of the servo, 12 perpendicular to one end 11 with a precision guide rail 11 along the translational precision of the slider and precision rigidly connected, through a precision slide 12 and precision precision Ball screw 13 coupled to rail 11, the slider 12 in the precision of the precision guide rail 11 is a servo gear box 6 via precision lead screw drive 14 to achieve rotation of a motor 13, precision the slider 12 relative precision guide 11 may be a motion vector detecting a displacement sensor 7, the present embodiment is used to detect linkage 14 absolute rotary encoders of the gearbox 15; installation of the system, so that the precision guide screw 11 13 with the optical axis of the collimated laser 1, this step can be accomplished by means of the biasing magnetic sensor 9;

[0023] 精密滑块12上固定了一个光轴定位传感器16,该传感器由四块精密刻划的光伏器件组成一圆环结构,四块精密刻划的光伏器件对称地分布于圆环的四个象限,其内圆直径略小于所述准直激光器1的光轴的直径,对称的上下两块接一差动放大器,其输出驱动精密导轨11上的伺服马达,对称的左右两块接另一差动放大器,其输出驱动精密导轨11上的伺服马达6,安装时使内圆的轴线与准直激光器1的光轴重合,这样当工程体上的待监测点发生位移时,将导致内圆的轴线偏离准直激光器的光轴,此时所述的两个差动放大器均将有输出,从而驱动各自的伺服马达6动作,直至所述光伏器件内圆的轴线与所述准直激光器1的光轴重合即所述的两个差动放大器均没有输出;设计上使沿所述准直激光器1的光轴延伸方向排列的所有所述测点准直定位系统的光伏器件的内 Fixed [0023] Precision optical axis of the slider 12 a positioning sensor 16, the sensor ring structure consisting of a photovoltaic device composed of four scoring precision, precision four scribe photovoltaic devices are distributed symmetrically four ring quadrant, which is slightly smaller than the inner diameter of the optical axis of the collimating the diameter of the laser 1, connected to an upper and lower two symmetric differential amplifier whose output drives a servo motor 11 on the precision guide, then the other two right and left symmetrical a differential amplifier whose output drives a servo motor 6 precision guide 11 on the axis of the collimated laser within the circle coincides with the optical axis 1 of the installation, so that when the monitoring points to be displaced on the body construction, will result in the circle offset from the axis of the collimated laser optical axis, the two differential amplifiers are at this time will be output, so that the driving operation of each servomotor 6, until the inner circle of the photovoltaic device axis collimated laser 1, i.e., the optical axis coincides with said two differential amplifier outputs are not; the inner photovoltaic device all the measuring points of the collimating system positioned along the optical axis extending in the direction of collimated laser 1 is arranged on the design of 直径呈等差排列,亦即后一个光伏器件的内圆直径比前一个小一常数,本实施例设计为0. 2mm,这样的设计就可以保证当所述准直激光器1的光柱穿过任何一个光伏器件时,落在其上的光斑直径都会大于该光伏器件的内圆直径,加之所述准直激光器1的光柱在传播过程中均勻发散的部分,将会有足够的光强使所述光伏器件产生信号输出给与其相连的差动放大器以驱动伺服马达6 动作。 Arithmetic diameter was arranged, i.e. the inner circle a diameter of a photovoltaic device smaller than the previous constant a, the present embodiment is designed to 0. 2mm, this design can ensure that when the collimated laser beam 1 passing through any embodiment when inner diameter a photovoltaic device, which falls on the spot diameter will be larger than the photovoltaic device, coupled with the laser beam 1 is collimated in the communication process uniformly diverging section, there will be enough of the light oblige differential amplifier signal to produce a photovoltaic device connected thereto to drive the servo motor 6 is activated.

[0024] 所述光伏器件朝向所述准直激光器1的一面设计为曲面,其内圆的边缘呈刀刃状,这样既不会有沿所述准直激光器的光柱反射的光干扰所述准直激光器的工作,同时,所述准直激光器的光柱穿过所述光伏器件后,投射于下个光伏器件表面的光斑的边缘仍可保持圆滑,从而保证所述光伏器件对工程体上的待监测点发生的微小位移即有灵敏的响应。 [0024] The photovoltaic device toward the collimating side of the laser 1 is designed as a curved surface, an inner blade-like edges are rounded, so that neither will interfere with the light beam reflected along the collimation of the collimated laser operation of the laser, while, after the collimated laser beam passes through the photovoltaic device, the spot projected on the edges of the next photovoltaic device surface can remain smooth, thus ensuring the body to be monitored on the construction of the photovoltaic device small displacement point occurs that is sensitive response. 所述测点准直系统被密封于一个坚固的非磁性的金属保护罩中,保护罩的内侧壁连接有可收放光伏器件,可由内部一马达驱动收放,当所述光发射系统发出指令对所述测点准直系统进行充电时,所述测点准直系统的MCU将控制其放出,充电结束立即由收放窗口收回,用软性材料将其与内部系统隔离;另外,所述测点准直系统的光轴定位传感器也使用软性材料与内部系统隔离,系统内部采用隔热材料并由半导体制冷器件调温及除湿。 The measuring point alignment system is sealed in a non-magnetic metal sturdy protective cover, the protective cover is connected to the side walls retractable photovoltaic device, a motor driven by internal retractable, when the light transmission system issues a command when the measuring point alignment system is charged, the measuring point of the collimating system MCU control its release, recovered immediately by a retractable charging end window, with a soft material to isolate the internal system; Further, the sENSOR positioning axis collimation system also uses a soft material isolated from the internal system, the internal insulation material by the system using the semiconductor device cooling dehumidifying and temperature adjustment.

[0025] 所述光接收定位系统,被安置于工程体的另一端,该系统可分为光轴定位系统和激光测距定位系统两部分,如图5a、5b、5c所示,光轴定位系统的结构及工作原理与上述的测点准直定位系统基本相同,所不同的是测点准直系统中所述的光轴定位传感器被附图5a中的光伏器件18与CMOS或CCD图像器件17的组合所代替,另就是多了一个附图5a示出的安置于竖直向精密导轨11顶端的CMOS或CXD图像传感器17,光伏器件18的结构及工作原理与上述的测点准直定位系统中的光轴定位传感器基本相同,所不同的是尺寸大了一些,中间嵌入了一个图像传感器17,该器件可跟踪上述准直激光器1的光柱的中心,结合所述的激光测距定位系统即可确定准直激光轴末端的空间坐标。 [0025] The positioning of the light receiving system, is disposed at the other end of the body project, the system can be divided into two parts and the optical axis of laser ranging positioning system positioning system, as shown in FIG 5a, 5b, as shown, positioning the optical axis 5c structure and working principle described above is substantially the same measuring point collimated positioning system, except that the measuring points of the collimating system in the optical axis sensor is positioned in figures 5a photovoltaic device 18 with CMOS or CCD image device 17 is replaced by a combination of the other is disposed a plurality of figures 5a shown in 17, the structure and working principle of the photovoltaic device 18 vertically to the top of the precision guide 11 CXD CMOS image sensor or a linear measurement point is positioned above the registration positioning the optical axis of the sensor system are substantially the same, except that a number of large size, a middle embedded image sensor 17, the device can track the center of the above-described laser beam collimator 1, in combination with the positioning system of the laser rangefinder to determine the spatial coordinates collimation laser shaft end.

[0026] 如附图5c所示,所述自寻的激光测距与定位系统由市购的高精度激光测距仪22、 微型近距离激光测距仪19、竖直平面内旋转驱动20水平面内旋转驱动21、伺服平台5组成,伺服平台5的结构及工作原理与上述的伺服平台5相同,此处不再赘述。 [0026] As shown in precision laser, the homing laser ranging and positioning system from a commercially available reference 5c rangefinder 22, the micro laser rangefinder 19 close, in a vertical plane horizontal rotary drive 20 rotary drive 21, composed of 5 servo platform, the platform structure and working principle of servo 5 and the above-described servo platform 5 are the same, is not repeated here. 借助竖直平面内旋转驱动20和水平面内旋转驱动21,高精度激光测距仪22可在MCU的控制下根据坐标备份自动依次寻找工程体周边形变控制网中的各控制点,并且MCU会通过对反射光强的判断精确地照准控制点上安置的反射镜,而后控制所述高精度激光测距仪22进行测距,数据同时以无线或有线方式传送给基站CPU作平差处理; Rotary drive means 20 in a vertical plane within the horizontal plane and the rotary drive 21, high-precision laser range finder 22 may be backed up automatically sequentially Looking coordinates of the control points outside the network engineered strain control in accordance with, and under the control of the MCU via the MCU Analyzing the light intensity of the reflected accurately disposed sighting mirror control point, and then controlling the laser range finder 22 for ranging with high precision, while data wireless or wired manner to the base station CPU for adjustment process;

[0027] 所述微型近距离激光测距仪19的激光束法向伺服平台5,并投射到附图5a中示出的CMOS或CXD图像器件(定位传感器)17上,可快速精确地测出伺服平台5到所述图像器件17的距离,同时所述图像器件17也将检测出所述激光束投影的水平坐标。 The [0027] Micro-beam method proximity laser rangefinder 19 to the servo platform 5, and projected onto the CMOS image device or CXD (registration sensor) shown in Fig. 5a 17, can be quickly and accurately measure 17 from platform 5 to the servo device of the image, while the image device 17 also will detect the coordinates of the projection of the laser beam level. [0028] 所述自寻的激光测距与定位系统也配有一个坚固的非磁性的金属保护罩,如附图6所示,护罩23的内部装有光敏器件24,MCU通过它将检测到附图5C所示,半导体激光25 发出的光束的移动,并控制护罩水平旋转驱动马达26动作,使所述金属保护罩23对激光测距仪22的水平向的旋转保持跟随;附图所示的可自动开合窗口27,当激光测距仪22工作时,如遇下雨下雪或风沙天气将在MCU的控制下自动闭合。 [0028] The homing laser ranging and positioning system is also equipped with a rigid non-magnetic metal shield, as shown in FIG. 6, the inner shroud 23 is provided with a photosensitive device 24, MCU will detect by BRIEF moved to 5C, a light beam emitted from the semiconductor laser 25 and controls the rotation of the horizontal drive motor shroud 26 operation, rotation of the metal shield 22 of the horizontal laser range finder holder 23 to follow; drawings as shown in the window can be automatically opened and closed 27, when the laser rangefinder 22 operates, in case of rain or snow weather sand closed automatically under control of the MCU.

Claims (10)

  1. 一种工程变形自动监测系统,由光发射系统、光接收定位系统、测点准直定位系统、自寻的激光测距与定位系统、MCU控制电路及CPU控制、能源系统、环境维持系统组成,其特征在于在工程体的两端分别安置光发射系统和光接收定位系统,由这两个系统建立一根水平的准直激光轴,利用工程体周边的形变控制网、自寻的激光测距与定位系统跟踪激光轴的空间位置,确定激光轴的空间直线方程;多个测点准直定位系统沿激光轴分布于工程体的待监测点上,并检测出待监测点与激光轴正交的水平向及垂直向的相对于激光轴的位移;当落雨传感器、风速传感器、沙尘传感器任一个的信号输出达到一定的限值时,CPU将向各子系统发出信号,关闭其子系统护罩。 An engineered modification automatic monitoring system, the optical transmission system, a light receiving positioning system, the positioning system collimating the measuring point, homing laser ranging and positioning system, and a CPU control circuit controls the MCU, the energy system, the environment to maintain system components, wherein each disposed at both ends of the light emitting system and a light receiving body engineering positioning system, a collimated laser establish a horizontal axis by the two systems, the use of engineered control network peripheral deformation, the laser ranging and homing GPS tracking the spatial location of the laser axis, to determine the spatial straight line equation of the laser axis; a plurality of measuring points along the collimated laser positioning system monitoring points distributed over the axis to be engineered, and the detected point to be monitored and perpendicular to the laser axis horizontal and vertical displacement relative to the laser axis; when rain sensor, wind speed sensor, a dust sensor according to the output signal reaches a certain limit, the CPU will send a signal to each subsystem, the subsystem which shield off .
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的工程变形自动监测系统,其特征在于所述每个测点准直定位系统都带有独立的基于MCU的检测与控制系统,其通过无线数传与光发射系统中的CPU作数据交流,MCU与光电器件控制自寻的激光测距的护罩在水平方向旋转。 The engineering modification of the automatic monitoring system as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that said positioning each point of the collimating system has a separate MCU detection and control system based on wireless data transmission by the light transmission system for data exchange in the CPU, MCU control photovoltaic device with the shroud laser ranging homing rotated in a horizontal direction.
  3. 3.根据权利要求2所述的工程变形自动监测系统,其特征在于所述测点相对于准直激光轴的正交水平及垂直向的位置移动;准直定位系统的能源由光发射系统中的充电与测距激光器通过大功率激光充电来提供。 The engineering modification of the automatic monitoring system as claimed in claim 2, characterized in that the measuring point with respect to the axis of the collimated laser orthogonal to the horizontal direction and the vertical position; targeting system collimating the light energy emitted by the system to provide charging power and is charged by the laser distance measuring laser.
  4. 4.根据权利要求3所述的工程变形自动监测系统,其特征在于所述测点准直定位系统的伺服平台位于待监测点的测墩之上,待监测点的空间倾斜由伺服平台上的高精度双轴倾斜传感器检测,并由伺服马达进行调整。 The engineering modification of the automatic monitoring system as claimed in claim 3, characterized in that the measuring point on the internet servo positioning system measurement collimating pier monitoring points to be located, the space to be inclined by a monitoring point on the platform servo axis tilt sensor detecting precision, and the servo motor adjustment.
  5. 5.根据权利要求1所述的工程变形自动监测系统,其特征在于所述光发射系统包括高性能准直激光器、大功率充电及测距激光器、伺服平台、稳压电源、水平定位传感器、MCU控制电路、CPU数据处理电路,所述高性能准直激光器固定于伺服平台上,伺服平台采用三螺杆支撑马达伺服式或双自由度重力惯性伺服式或双旋转面马达伺服式。 The engineering modification of the automatic monitoring system as claimed in claim 1, wherein said light emitting collimated laser system includes a high performance, high-power charging, and laser distance measurement, servo platform, power supply, sensors positioned horizontally, the MCU a control circuit, the CPU data processing circuit, the high-performance laser collimator is fixed to the platform servo, servo motor support platform with three screw or servo-DOF inertial gravity or double-rotation servo motor servo surface.
  6. 6.根据权利要求5所述的工程变形自动监测系统,其特征在于所述三螺杆支撑马达伺服平台包括底座、支撑螺杆、带减速箱伺服马达、位移传感器、双轴倾斜传感器、磁偏角传感器、微步进马达,所述底座由三个垂直于底座且等角度分布的支撑螺杆支撑,支撑螺杆的旋转控制底座俯仰,两个带减速箱的伺服马达分别伺服其中两个支撑螺杆以控制底座沿两个方向俯仰。 The automatic monitoring system engineering modification according to claim 5, wherein said three screw servo motor support includes a base platform, a support of the screw, a servo motor with a gear box, a displacement sensor, a biaxial inclination sensor, a magnetic sensor declination , micro stepper motor, supported by the screw rod supporting the base perpendicular to the base and three equiangularly distributed, supporting the screw base pitch rotation control, with two servo motors respectively gearbox servo control wherein two support screws to the base the pitch in both directions.
  7. 7.根据权利要求6所述的工程变形自动监测系统,其特征在于所述双轴倾斜传感器固定于底座上,其输出信号将控制伺服马达动作以保持底座始终处于水平状态,底座的倾斜修正量由两个位移传感器检测。 The engineering modification of the automatic monitoring system as claimed in claim 6, wherein said axis tilt sensor is fixed to the base, its output signal to control the operation of the servomotor is always maintained in a horizontal state of the base, the inclination correction amount base detected by the two displacement sensors.
  8. 8.根据权利要求7所述的工程变形自动监测系统,其特征在于所述双轴倾斜传感器采用绝对式旋转编码器,其与所述伺服马达一起固定于减速箱上,检测支撑螺杆的绝对旋转量。 8. The automatic monitoring system engineering modification according to claim 7, wherein said axis tilt sensor is an absolute rotary encoder, together with said servomotor is fixed to the gear box, the absolute detection of the rotation of the screw support the amount.
  9. 9.根据权利要求6所述的工程变形自动监测系统,其特征在于所述磁偏角传感器能够检测底座的空间水平向的扭转,当此扭转超出限值时所述MCU控制电路将控制所述微步进马达动作以修正高性能准直激光器光轴的方向。 9. The automatic monitoring system engineering modification according to claim 6, wherein said magnetic sensor capable of detecting the angle of twist of the base level of the space, when this value exceeds the torsional MCU controls the control circuit correcting high-performance micro-stepping motor operating collimated laser optical axis direction.
  10. 10.根据权利要求1所述的工程变形自动监测系统,其特征在于所述光发射系统、光接收定位系统、自寻的激光测距与定位系统和测点准直定位系统一样,均为伺服平台提供水平伺服,各伺服平台上还设置有地磁传感器,借助于地磁传感器,不仅所有系统在安装运行中有了方向基准,而且能够检测出工程体两端及所有待监测点的水平向的扭转;所述自寻的激光测距与定位系统的测距仪自动对准形变控制点上的反射镜,反射镜上有保护罩,保护罩上开合窗口由MCU及光敏器件控制。 10. DISPLACEMENT automatic monitoring system according to claim 1, wherein said optical transmission system, an optical positioning system receiver, as homing laser ranging and positioning system and a positioning system collimating the measuring point, both servo servo horizontal platform, provided on each of the servo geomagnetic sensor platform by means of a geomagnetic sensor, the system has not only all the reference directions in the installation operation, the horizontal and twisting of the body can be detected and ends project all points to be monitored ; the homing rangefinder laser ranging and positioning system is self-aligned on the deformation of the mirror control point on the mirror with a protective cover, the protective cover to open and close the window control by the MCU and the photosensitive device.
CN 200710074717 2007-05-28 2007-05-28 Automatic monitoring system for engineering project deformation CN101063610B (en)

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