CN101059152A - Rolling bearing lubricating method and device - Google Patents

Rolling bearing lubricating method and device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101059152A
CN101059152A CN 200610167303 CN200610167303A CN101059152A CN 101059152 A CN101059152 A CN 101059152A CN 200610167303 CN200610167303 CN 200610167303 CN 200610167303 A CN200610167303 A CN 200610167303A CN 101059152 A CN101059152 A CN 101059152A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
bearing
oil
rolling
lubricant oil
ring
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CN 200610167303
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
小杉太
森正继
植田敬一
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NTN Corp
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NTN Corp
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Priority to JP2002059349A priority Critical patent/JP2003278773A/en
Priority to JP2002059349 priority
Priority to JP2002234481 priority
Application filed by NTN Corp filed Critical NTN Corp
Publication of CN101059152A publication Critical patent/CN101059152A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Abstract

There is provided a lubricating method for a rolling bearing assembly capable of achieving a reliable lubrication and exhibiting a stable temperature rise. The method is for supplying a lubricant oil to the rolling bearing assembly during the operation thereof, in which in order to keep the temperature of a rolling bearing assembly ( 103 ) within a predetermined tolerance, the amount of the lubricant oil to be supplied during the operation is automatically or manually adjusted by means of a supply adjusting unit ( 102 ). Supply of the lubricant oil is performed in the form of an air/oil mixture by the use of a lubricant supply unit ( 101 ).

Description

Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method and lubricating fitting
The application of this part is dividing an application of Chinese invention patent application 03805213.X number " Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method and the lubricating fitting " submitted on March 3rd, 2003.
Technical field
The present invention relates to working machine main shaft supporting portion, the Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method that snap bolt support etc. is adopted, lubricating fitting and air oil lubrication structure, and the spindle part that adopts this air oil lubrication structure.
Background technique
The purpose of Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing is to form thin oil film on rolling surface and slip surface, prevents metal Internal and external cycle and the situation that metal rolling element directly contacts, and obtains following such effect.
1. reduce friction and abrasion;
2. discharge frictional heat;
3. prolong the life-span of bearing;
4. prevent to get rusty;
5. prevent the intrusion of foreign matter.
For by lubricated, bring into play these effects, must adopt the lubricating method of the service condition that is fit to bearing, and selected good oiling agent, and, the sealing configuration that design is fit to.In order to remove dust in the oiling agent, to prevent that foreign matter from invading from the outside, and prevent the leakage of oiling agent, must suitably design sealing configuration.
Generally, in the rolling bearing that working machine adopts with the supporting of main shaft, the heating for the stirring that reduces lubricant oil as much as possible causes is limited in very little degree with the lubricants capacity that is adopted.Fig. 7 represents the use lubricants capacity of such rolling bearing, and the relation between frictional loss and the bearing temperature.In the figure, the zone of lubricants capacity is to represent according to the mode that is divided into I~V.The minimum oil mass area I I of temperature rising in the figure adopts the air oil lubrication.
In this air oil lubrication,, adopt the case 134, the pump 135 that have liquid-level switch as shown in the system example of Fig. 8, and the solenoid valve 140 that passes through timer 141 controls, at each bearing 133, correctly lubricant oil is measured, according to suitable spacing it is sent.Have following structures, wherein, with it after the air mixing of the end of fuel supply line 136 and air supply passage 138, by nozzle 156, it is blowed to lubricated essential portion towards bearing 133.Therefore, be widely used for being fit to the speed up processing of working machine main shaft, the lubricating method that low temperature rises.
But, when high speed rotating, because the bearing temperature rising, so the oil film of lubricant oil forms ability drop.In addition, owing to the air of the rotary part periphery of bearing 133 continuously the air curtain that forms of revolution also increase, so the lubricating condition strictness during high speed rotating etc. also is difficult to enter bearing inside from the lubricant oil of nozzle 156 supplies.Thus, the delivery volume of the lubricant oil of air oil lubrication is according to the time guaranteeing that in the highest rotation the mode of enough reliabilities determines.
In the air oil lubrication, as above-mentioned, suppose the occasion of high rotation that lubricating condition is tighter, determine the delivery volume of lubricant oil.
On the other hand, when low speed rotation, bearing temperature is lower, and the formation ability that hinders lubricant oil to feed to the air curtain of bearing inside also reduces.Therefore, when not resembling high speed rotating the lubricating condition strictness, lubricants capacity also needn't be more.That is, if the mode when being fit to high speed rotating is determined the lubricants capacity of bearing 133 then when low speed rotation, to be in the too much state of lubricant oil.The air oil lubrication is equivalent to the minimum oil mass area I I of temperature variation of Fig. 7, if as aforementioned, lubricant oil is too much, then follows the stirring resistance, and bearing temperature rises.
In addition, the rising of the temperature of bearing also is the reason of following such other.
An example as air oil fuel feeding, the inventor has attempted following lubricating structure, wherein, on the outer diametric plane of the inner ring of rolling bearing, the continuous inclined plane part of rolling surface with this inner ring is set, and be provided with according to the jet element that keeps the mode of prescribed distance to extend with this inclined plane part, from the air oil spurts mouth of facing with the above-mentioned inclined plane part of jet element, injection air oil.Rolling bearing adopts angular contact ball bearing etc.
If adopt such air oil lubrication structure, then, it is sent into the inclined plane part of inner ring and the gap between the jet element as spraying with the air oil of the lubricant oil that transports air mixing air oil spurts mouth from jet element.By when the bearing operation, vacuum suction effect in the gap location generation, the air oil that is sent to this gap is directed to bearing inside, in addition, by being attached to the lubricated oil surface tension on the inner ring inclined plane part, with the inclined plane part of centrifugal force component than larger diameter side, it is sent to the rolling surface of bearing inside, or the aperture surface of retainer.
Because like this, air oil is fed to the inclined plane part of inner ring, directly to the rolling path injection air oil of rolling element, so do not produce the friction sound of the wind that the revolution of rolling element causes, the noise reduction.In addition, owing to be not to supply with,, the air oil that supplies to the inclined plane part of inner ring is sent to the inside of bearing,, makes the use amount minimizing so that the air that is adopted is transported to oil the function of inclined plane part of inner ring is good by the rotation of inner ring by the oil of air jet.Thus, also can be by the reduction of air quantity, the expectation energy-saving effect.
But, in the example of the scheme of Ti Chuing, specifically do not provide the angle of inclination that is fit to of the inner ring inclined plane part of rolling bearing in the above.Know, in such air oil lubrication structure, the occasion that designs at the angle of inclination of not considering the inner ring inclined plane part, there is the problem of leaving in the air oil that is attached to inclined plane part from the way of inclined plane part because of action of centrifugal force.As the result who from the way of inclined plane part, leaves, has air oil does not arrive bearing with good efficiency rolling element, the danger that produces the lubricant oil deficiency.In this occasion, perhaps increase air quantity, the oil mass of air oil, may avoid the deficiency of lubricating, still, if increase oil mass, then have the increase of stirring resistance, the danger that temperature rises.The bearing that forms this air oil lubrication structure such as, be used for the occasion of spindle part, the temperature of bearing rises and makes the temperature variation of main shaft, and its precision is impacted.So, need carry out oil mass try one's best few, that efficient is good is lubricated and avoid temperature rising necessary degree more than.In addition, the increase of air quantity not only increases energy consumption, and compressor is caused burden, and noise is increased.
In addition, be used for the occasion of such cylindrical roller bearing 41 shown in Figure 24 equally in above-mentioned air oil lubrication structure,, then produce problem same as described above if the angle of inclination of the inclined plane part 42b of inner ring 42 is not suitable for.That is, shown in the arrow A among this figure like that, spray to lubricant oil that inclined plane part 42b is close to rolling surface 42a side along this inclined plane part 42b resemble move to inclined plane part 42b than after the large-diameter portion, pass through centrifugal force, 42b leaves with inclined plane part, does not enter the internal side diameter of retainer 45, is blocked by the retainer breadth.Thus, has the inside of no show bearing 41, the danger of lack of lubrication.In this occasion, perhaps increase air quantity, the oil mass of air oil equally, may avoid the deficiency of lubricating, if but increase oil mass, then also have and stir the increase that stops, the danger that temperature rises.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide and guarantee the reliability of lubricating, can realize presenting lubricated Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method and the lubricating fitting that stable temperature rises, air oil lubrication structure, and the spindle part that adopts this air oil lubrication structure simultaneously.
The Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method of the 1st scheme of the present invention relates to the lubricating method of supplying lubricating oil in the running of rolling bearing, it is characterized in that in order to suppress the temperature variation of rolling bearing, the delivery volume of on-stream change lubricant oil.
If adopt above-mentioned Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method, then can change the delivery volume of lubricant oil corresponding to the lubricating condition in the running.Present lubricated that stable temperature rises in the time of the reliability that thus, can realize from the low speed rotation to the high speed rotating, guaranteeing lubricating.
The supply of above-mentioned lubricant oil is also at the state of air oil and carry out.For lubricating of air oil,, can carry out the lubricated of low temperature rising corresponding to high speed rotating.In this air oil lubrication,, carry out and corresponding suitable the lubricating of the rotational speed of relative broad range by changing the delivery volume of the lubricant oil in the running.
The change of the lubricant oil delivery volume in the above-mentioned running also can be carried out corresponding to the rotational speed of rolling bearing.Because the lubricants capacity that is fit to is different corresponding to the rotational speed of bearing, so pass through corresponding to rotational speed, change the lubricant oil delivery volume in the running, present lubricated that stable temperature rises in the time of the reliability that can realize from the low speed rotation to the high speed rotating, guaranteeing lubricating.
In addition, in temperature rises, also comprise the delivery volume factor in addition of lubricant oil, such as, load, vibration etc.In addition, if with the factor of temperature rising as the switching of lubricants capacity, although then oil mass has the danger that changes oil mass under the situation about being fit to, generation burns out, the possibility of greatly regional generation etc.If can switch lubricants capacity corresponding to rotational speed, then avoid these rough sledding.
Resemble so above-mentioned, carry out occasion corresponding to the change of the lubricant oil delivery volume of the rotational speed of rolling bearing, also can be under the different multiple lubricating condition of lubricant oil delivery volume, carry out handling with the sampling of the temperature climb data of the corresponding rolling bearing of rotational speed, corresponding to this sampling result, change delivery volume with the corresponding lubricant oil of this rotational speed.
The temperature of bearing rises not only by bearing, also by its circumferential component, such as, shell, axle, the geometrical shape of seal arrangement etc. and heat release condition are determined.In this occasion, extremely difficult analog form by calculating etc., predicted temperature rises.If the mode that adopts sampling to handle can see that then the temperature of various lubricating condition rises, can hold the relation of each lubricants capacity and bearing temperature.Particularly, in the occasion of air oil lubrication because the reproducibility of lubricants capacity and the bearing temperature relation between rising is very high, thus most cases be, such as, by 1 time sampling processing, just enough.
Also can represent rotational speed at transverse axis, the longitudinal axis is represented bearing temperature and is adopted number of samples and form the occasion of plotted curve, change lubricating condition corresponding to rotational speed,, lubricating condition is made up thus according to the mode that does not produce maximal point or diminish in fact according to maximal point.
In order to obtain the combination of such lubricating condition, the plotted curve that forms such as, the plotted curve of making the multiple sampled data that the lubricant oil delivery volume is different overlaps.According to this overlapping curve figure,, can determine by the curved portion in each rotational speed zone to the path of high rotation speed from minimum rotational speed by very big zone.In this occasion, owing to switching the few occasion of grade quantity, control simply, only,, preferably carry out 2 grades switching if greatly not regional with the condition combination of 2 lubricant oil delivery volumes.As high-speed main spindle etc., at low-speed region and high-speed region, the occasion that the difference of suitable oil mass is bigger also can be carried out the combination of the condition of the lubricants capacity more than 3 grades.
The change of the lubricant oil delivery volume in the running also can be undertaken by manual operation, in addition, also can according to the information signal of rotational speed, automatically change the lubricant oil delivery volume in the running corresponding to imposing a condition.If can change automatically according to imposing a condition, then needn't require operator's judgement, the change with the corresponding lubricant oil delivery volume of rotational speed is carried out in operation.
The Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing device of the 2nd scheme of the present invention comprises the lubricant oil feed mechanism, this lubricant oil feed mechanism supplying lubricating oil in the running of rolling bearing; Delivery volume changes mechanism, and this delivery volume changes mechanism in the running of above-mentioned rolling bearing, makes above-mentioned lubricant oil feed mechanism change the delivery volume of lubricant oil corresponding to imposing a condition.
If adopt this Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing device, then can be by on-stream, the mode of the delivery volume of the lubricant oil of delivery volume change mechanism change lubricant oil feed mechanism, thus, present lubricated that stable temperature rises in the time of the reliability that can carry out from the low speed rotation to the high speed rotating, guaranteeing lubricating.
Above-mentioned lubricant oil feed mechanism such as, to rolling bearing injection air oil.
Above-mentioned delivery volume changes mechanism and also can be following type, and wherein, above-mentioned imposing a condition is the condition relevant with the rotational speed of rolling bearing, and this mechanism makes above-mentioned lubricant oil feed mechanism change the delivery volume of lubricant oil corresponding to rotational speed.In this occasion, above-mentioned delivery volume changes mechanism and also can be following type, that is, they are a plurality of at being divided into, and delivery volume is set in each zone in the rotational speed zone of rolling bearing, changes into the delivery volume of having set corresponding to the information of the rotational speed of having imported.
Also can be in the above-mentioned lubricating oil supply structure occasion of supplying lubricating oil off and on, above-mentioned delivery volume change mechanism change above-mentioned lubricant oil feed mechanism lubricant oil supply at interval.In the occasion of supplying lubricating oil off and on, the mode of adjusting each delivery volume of supplying with is adopted in the change of lubricant oil delivery volume, and changes 2 types that supply with mode at interval, still, supplies with mode occasion at interval changing, and control is simple.Supplying with change at interval can be by carrying out such as, the control of timer.The adjustment of each delivery volume of supplying with must be mechanically to such as, the opening amount of valve is controlled, so structure complexity.
Above-mentioned rolling bearing also can be the bearing of the main shaft of supporting working machine.The main shaft of working machine has the tendency of speed up, in addition, corresponding to processing purpose, according to different rotational speed runnings, in addition, requires consumingly to suppress heating, so that guarantee machining accuracy, the requirement of lubricated aspect is tighter.If adopt lubricating fitting of the present invention,, can be fit to the lubricated of the inhibition of speed up, suitable temperature rising then corresponding to such requirement.
The air oil lubrication structure of the 3rd scheme of the present invention is such, outer diametric plane at the inner ring of rolling bearing, the continuous inclined plane part of rolling surface with this inner ring is set, and the jet element that extends with this inclined plane part maintenance gap is set, in the said nozzle parts, offer and face above-mentioned inclined plane part and the air oil injection mouth of opening, the tilt angle alpha to axial in the inclined plane part of above-mentioned inner ring is:
α≥0.0667×dn×10 -4-1.8333
Wherein, dn represents bearing bore diameter size (mm) and rotational speed (min -1) product.
Like this, confirm by experiment: determine the necessary minimum value of the tilt angle alpha of inner ring inclined plane part, like this, lubricant oil can be because of centrifugal force leave in the way of inclined plane part, and lubricant oil can arrive the inner ring rolling surface really.Thus,, can be lubricated, can carry out really lubricated the time, suppress temperature and rise with good efficiency by the lubricant oil of necessary irreducible minimum.So ovenable roasting raising can be used to higher speed always.In addition, for air quantity, necessary irreducible minimum is just much of that, suppresses energy consumption, also further reduces noise.
The preferred maximum of the tilt angle alpha of inner ring inclined plane part is according to the type of bearing and difference has in the cylindrical roller bearing of flange at inner ring, best α≤35 °, and in angular contact ball bearing, best α≤25 °.In addition, in cylindrical roller bearing, particularly preferably the minimum value of tilt angle alpha is not less than 25 °.That is, have in the cylindrical roller bearing of flange at inner ring, best, the value of α is set in 25~35 ° the scope.The reason of She Dinging is as follows like this.
In the occasion of cylindrical roller bearing, if tilt angle alpha is not less than 25 °, then easily the front end of jet element is set in retainer annulus portion under.In addition, have in the cylindrical roller bearing of flange at inner ring, owing to have flange, so must bear larger axis to load, if and tilt angle alpha surpasses 35 °, the radial width that then is provided with the inner ring end face of inclined plane part narrows down, the inner ring distance piece that is contacted with this end face, the area of contact of shell etc. diminishes, and can't bear bigger axial load.
In angular contact ball bearing, if tilt angle alpha surpasses 25 °, the radial width that then is provided with the inner ring end face of inclined plane part narrows down, the inner ring distance piece that this end face contacted, and the area of contact of shell etc. diminishes, and can't bear larger axis to load.
The tilt angle alpha of above-mentioned inclined plane part, and also can be: α<90 °-β from the relation between the spray angle β of the air oil injection direction angle to axial of above-mentioned jetburner.
That is, set the tilt angle alpha of inclined plane part greater than 90 ° mode according to the angle between air oil injection direction and the inclined plane part.By the relation between such setting tilt angle alpha and the spray angle β, even under the inclined plane part case of collision of then oily at the air that sprays from jetburner and inner ring, it is subjected to action of centrifugal force, still can not have resistance ground to flow.
Also can be on the said nozzle parts, be provided with in the face of above-mentioned inclined plane part and the air oil injection groove of opening according to the mode of along the circumferential direction extending, the above-mentioned jetburner of said nozzle parts is opened on the inside of above-mentioned spray tank.
In the occasion that spray tank is set like this, the spray tank of air oil by along the circumferential direction extending from the jetburner of jet element sprays imports to the inclined plane part of inner ring and the gap between the jet element.Thus, the air oil that sprays from jetburner along the circumferential direction spreads all in its size is wider than the spray tank in the gap between inclined plane part and the jet element, is distributed in full week equably.So,, carry out further effective, certain lubricated by a spot of lubricant oil.
In addition, also can circumferential groove be set at the inclined plane part of above-mentioned inner ring, the above-mentioned jetburner of said nozzle parts is opening in the face of the part of the circumferential groove of above-mentioned inclined plane part.
Like this, the occasion of circumferential groove is set on above-mentioned inner ring, air oil is ejected into the circumferential groove of inner ring from the jetburner of jet element, it flow into the inclined plane part of inner ring and the gap between the jet element from circumferential groove.Thus, the air oil that sprays from jetburner along the circumferential direction spreads all in its size is wider than the circumferential groove in the gap between inclined plane part and the jet element, is distributed in full week equably.So,,, carry out further effective, certain lubricated by a spot of lubricant oil equally in this occasion.Even be provided with under the situation of circumferential groove, the effect of the vacuum suction effect by producing when the bearing operation, centrifugal force etc., air oil can successfully flow to above-mentioned gap.
At above-mentioned rolling bearing is the occasion of cylindrical roller bearing, also can have the retainer that keeps roller, and the axial position than the major diameter side of the inclined plane part of above-mentioned inner ring is positioned at also more close than the breadth of the said nozzle component side of above-mentioned retainer, above-mentioned rolling surface side.In addition, also can above-mentioned than major diameter side and inner ring rolling surface between, the cylinder face is set.
By like this, set the axial position than the major diameter side of inclined plane part, the breadth that the lubricant oil that flows to the rolling surface side along the inner ring inclined plane part can not be held device blocks, and successfully imports to the inside of bearing.
The spindle part of the 4th scheme of the present invention relates to the spindle part of the main shaft that supports working machine, above-mentioned main shaft is supported on the shell by the rolling bearing of front side and rear side, the rolling bearing of above-mentioned rear side makes the flanged cylindrical roller bearing of inner ring, adopt the air oil lubrication structure of the described rolling bearing of above-mentioned the 3rd scheme for the rolling bearing of above-mentioned rear side, the said nozzle parts are arranged at the front side of rolling bearing.
Adopt the occasion of the cylindrical roller bearing that has flange at the bearing of the rear side of spindle part, under the influence that the axle that generates heat because of running expands, the face of the contact segment of the flange surface of the front side of back side bearing and roller end face is pressed to be increased, the abrasion of the slip between opposing flanges face and the roller end face forms disadvantageous condition.Thus, the bearing of this rear side adopts the air oil lubrication structure of the rolling bearing of above-mentioned the 3rd scheme, and jet element is arranged at the front side of rolling bearing, and thus, in the side bearing of back, lubricant oil preferentially supplies to the flange surface of front side and the contacting part of roller end face.So the effect of the air oil lubrication structure of the rolling bearing by above-mentioned the 3rd scheme realizes the lubricated of flange surface and roller end face effectively.
Description of drawings
The skeleton diagram of the lubricating fitting that Fig. 1 is adopted for the 1st embodiment's of the present invention Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method;
Fig. 2 passes through the amplification view of the lubricated rolling bearing of this lubricating method and its periphery for expression;
Fig. 3 A for expression by each rolling bearing of lubricated other of this lubricating method and the amplification view of its periphery;
Fig. 3 B passes through the amplification view of lubricated each the other rolling bearing of this lubricating method and its periphery for expression;
Fig. 4 is the plotted curve of the test result of the occasion of the big lubricating condition of expression lubricants capacity;
Fig. 5 is the plotted curve of the test result of the occasion of the little lubricating condition of expression lubricants capacity;
Fig. 6 makes the plotted curve of the temperature variation of the occasion that the lubricant oil delivery volume changes for expression is on-stream;
Fig. 7 is the oil mass of expression Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing and the plotted curve of the relation between the temperature rising frictional loss;
The skeleton diagram of the system that Fig. 8 is adopted in the past rolling bearing lubricating method;
Fig. 9 A is the sectional view of air oil lubrication structure of the 2nd embodiment's of the present invention rolling bearing;
Fig. 9 B is the partial enlarged drawing of Fig. 9 A;
Figure 10 A is the sectional view of the testing installation of the affirmation test usefulness at the suitable angle of inclination of the inner ring inclined plane part of this air oil lubrication structure of expression acquisition;
Figure 10 B is the plan view of confirming paper that adheres to of the oil of this validation test;
Figure 11 is the 1st result's of this validation test of expression plotted curve;
Figure 12 is the 2nd result's of this validation test of expression plotted curve;
Figure 13 is the 3rd result's of this validation test of expression plotted curve;
Figure 14 is the sectional view of the 3rd embodiment's of the present invention air oil lubrication structure;
Figure 15 A is the sectional view of the 4th embodiment's of the present invention air oil lubrication structure;
Figure 15 B is the sectional view of variation of the 4th embodiment's of the present invention air oil lubrication structure;
Figure 16 is the sectional view of the 5th embodiment's of the present invention air oil lubrication structure;
Figure 17 is the sectional view of the 6th embodiment's of the present invention air oil lubrication structure;
Figure 18 is the sectional view of the 7th embodiment's of the present invention air oil lubrication structure;
Figure 19 is the sectional view of the 8th embodiment's of the present invention air oil lubrication structure;
Figure 20 A is the sectional view of the 9th embodiment's of the present invention air oil lubrication structure;
Figure 20 B is the part enlarged view of Figure 20 A;
Figure 21 A is the sectional view of the 10th embodiment's of the present invention air oil lubrication structure;
Figure 21 B is the sectional view of variation of the 10th embodiment's of the present invention air oil lubrication structure;
Figure 22 is the sectional view of expression the 11st embodiment's of the present invention spindle part;
Figure 23 is the part enlarged view of the cylindrical roller bearing of this spindle part;
Figure 24 is the sectional view of conventional example.
Embodiment
In conjunction with Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, the 1st embodiment's of the present invention Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method is described.Fig. 1 represents the form structure of the lubricating fitting that this Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method is adopted.This lubricating fitting comprises lubricant oil feed mechanism 101, changes mechanism 102 with delivery volume.This lubricant oil feed mechanism 101 is in the running of rolling bearing 103, the mechanism of supplying lubricating oil.It is in the running of rolling bearing 103 that this delivery volume changes mechanism 102, corresponding to imposing a condition the mechanism of the delivery volume of the lubricant oil of change lubricant oil feed mechanism 101.
To rolling bearing 103 injection air oil, it constitutes according to following mode this lubricant oil feed mechanism 101 off and on.This lubricant oil feed mechanism 101 comprises pump 105, and this pump 105 is used air by transporting, and the lubrication pressure in the case 104 is delivered to oil circuit 106; Air supply passage 107, this air supply passage 107 is connected with the upstream side of pump 105; Air branch supply passage 108, this air branch supply passage 108 be from these air supply passage 107 branches, converges at the front end of oil circuit 106.Case 104 has liquid-level switch, and it retains the lubricant oil of 1 time emitted dose from other case (not shown).In the way in air supply passage 107, be provided with solenoid valve 110, can be only this valve 110 open during, force feed comes the lubricant oil of self-pumping 105.The upstream side of the solenoid valve 110 in air supply passage 107 is provided with pressure switch 109.From the upstream side of branch part, to air supply passage 107 and air branch supply passage 108, force feed is by air filter 111 and mist separator 112 filtered airs.In air branch supply passage 108, be provided with changeable throttle valve, the can regulate flow.Air be often from this air branch supply passage 108 force feed come.The lubricant oil on liquid road 106 with from the air of these air branch supply passage 108 force feeds, mix in the fluidic junction of the front end of oil circuit 106, form air oil.This air oil, sprays to bearing 103 from the nozzle 126 of its front end through air oil pipeline 113.
It is to lubricant oil feed mechanism 101 that delivery volume changes mechanism 102, and the mechanism of the information signal of lubricant oil delivery volume is provided, and it is arranged in the controller 115.This controller 115 is a computer type, and it comprises the program that the lubricating condition of the rotational speed of the main shaft that supports by rolling bearing 103 and this lubricating fitting is controlled.Delivery volume change mechanism 102 is made of the part of this program.Controller 115 also can be the controller that the whole machinery of working machine with rolling bearing 103 etc. is controlled.Controller 115 both can be personal computer, also can be the programmable controller of computer type, also can be the device of the control function with other.In addition, controller 115 also can be the occasion of the control that is independent of bearing equipment machinery and is provided with.
Delivery volume changes the information signal of mechanism 102 corresponding to the bearing rotational speed that obtains from rotational speed feeler mechanism 114, produces the information signal of above-mentioned lubricant oil delivery volume.This rotational speed feeler mechanism 114 both can be the axle that detects by rolling bearing 103 supportings, or the type of the rotational speed of the motor (not shown) of its driving usefulness, also can be command value, obtain the type of bearing rotational speed according to the above-mentioned motor of control.
Change in the mechanism 102 in delivery volume, at each zone in a plurality of rotational speed zones of being divided in the rolling bearing 103, set delivery volume, to compare with the setting speed of dividing the rotational speed zone from the rotational speed of these rotational speed feeler mechanism 114 inputs, export the signal of the setting delivery volume in corresponding rotational speed zone.Rotational speed dividing region quantity both can be 2, also can be to be no less than 3.
In the present embodiment, the information signal of the above-mentioned lubricant oil delivery volume supply instruction at interval of the lubricant oil of lubricant oil feed mechanism 101 for a change.Specifically, supply with at interval corresponding to setting, output makes solenoid valve 110 be in the instruction of open mode.
The rolling bearing 103 of lubricated object be such as, support the bearing of the main shaft of working machine.Here, rolling bearing 103 is a single cylindrical roller bearing shown in Figure 2, and the rolling surface 122a in inner ring 122 and outer ring 123 between 123, is provided with a plurality of rolling elements 124 that formed by the cylinder roller.Rolling element 124 remains on the inside of the groove of retainer 125.
Nozzle 126 forms the parts of ring-type, and 1 position or a plurality of position at its circumferencial direction are provided with spray-hole 128.Nozzle 126 blows to air oil outside the bearing rolling surface 122a of inner ring 122.Jet element 126 is installed on the shell 129 of the outer ring 123 that bearing 103 has been installed.The installation of jet element 126 opposite shell 129 also can be undertaken by outer ring distance piece (not shown).The inlet of the spray-hole 128 of nozzle 126 is connected with above-mentioned air oil pipeline 113 by the circuit portion 113a in this shell 129.
In addition, rolling bearing 103 has the inner ring flange in the example of Fig. 2, still, also can not have the inner ring flange, and has outer ring flange, also can be the ball bearing of angular contact ball bearing etc.In addition, nozzle 126 also can adopt Fig. 3 A, the nozzle shown in Fig. 3 B.
In the example of Fig. 3 A, the outer diametric plane at the inner ring 122 of rolling bearing 103 is provided with and the rolling surface 122a connection inclined 122b of portion, and the mode of extending according to keeping the gap with this inclined plane part 122b is provided with said nozzle 126.This nozzle 126 is the parts of ring-type, and one or more positions at its circumferencial direction are provided with spray-hole 128.The installation of these jet element 126 opposite shell 129 is undertaken by outer ring distance piece 130, or directly is installed on the shell 129.
In the example of Fig. 3 B, rolling bearing 103 is an angular contact ball bearing.In addition, in the example of this figure, on inclined plane part 122b, circumferential groove 127 is set, according to the mode relative, nozzle 126 openings with this circumferential groove 127.The scheme that circumferential groove 127 is set like this is not limited to ball bearing, can generally be suitable for the rolling bearing of cylindrical roller bearing etc.
Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method to the 1st embodiment of the present invention of the lubricating fitting that adopts said structure is described below.In the running of rolling bearing 103,, the inner ring rotational speed of rolling bearing 103 is monitored by rotational speed feeler mechanism 114.The information signal of the rotational speed that will detect by rotational speed feeler mechanism 114 changes mechanism 102 by delivery volume, compares with the speed setting value of dividing the rotational speed zone, and this delivery volume changes the corresponding signal of setting delivery volume of mechanism's 102 outputs.This signal is for being in solenoid valve 110 signal of open mode, and the supply that is spaced apart the air oil that sprays from nozzle 106 of this signal at interval.This delivery volume change mechanism 102 such as, be 2 with the rotational speed region division, in the zone of low speed, the supply of air oil is longer at interval, and is shorter in zone at a high speed.Such as, the long interval that is spaced apart 15 minutes, short is spaced apart 5 minutes at interval.Like this, on-stream, delivery volume changes the delivery volume that mechanism 102 changes the lubricant oil in the lubricant oil feed mechanisms 101, thus, can be from the low speed rotation to the high speed rotating, guarantee to present the reliability of lubricating stable temperature simultaneously and rise.
Below with the test example, the setting of the rotational speed that changes the lubricant oil delivery volume is described.
Fig. 4 represents to rise by the temperature of air oil lubrication to the bearing outer ring of single cylindrical roller bearing (N1020K, bearing bore diameter φ are 100mm, and external diameter φ is 150mm) when testing.Transverse axis is represented rotational speed, and the longitudinal axis is represented bearing temperature, adopts sampled data and forms plotted curve.The air oil lubrication is undertaken by nozzle shown in Figure 8 156, and its aligned position forms the inner ring rolling surface.The test conditions of this moment provides in table 1.In addition, " rising of outer ring temperature " is the value from the support temperature of outer ring temperature deduction testing apparatus.
Table 1
Bearing Single cylindrical roller bearing N1020K (bearing bore diameter φ is 100mm, and external diameter φ is 150mm)
Rotational speed 2000~12000min -1
Inner radial gap after axle is chimeric +5μm
The air supply amount 20Nl/min
Supply with oil mass 0.02ml/1 injection/5min at interval
Lubricant oil Industrial lubricant oil ISO VG32
The shell cooling Implement (30 ± 1 ℃ of cooling oil mass 8.01/min oil masses)
The lubricants capacity of the test conditions of table 1 is that 0.02ml/1 injection/5min refers to by 1 time air oil injection to bearing, supplies with the lubricant oil of 0.02ml, injection be spaced apart 5min (minute).This value is defined as guaranteeing that high rotation speed is 12000min -1The value of reliability, adopt this value.
The plotted curve of Fig. 4 (curve a) in, at 4000~8000min of rotational speed -1Scope in, the very big zone that exists temperature to rise.Particularly, for 4000min -1And 8000min -1, produce significant part greatly.Can think that the reason of this situation is the stirring resistance of above-mentioned lubricant oil.The temperature of such bearing 133 rises in the occasion that is suitable for the working machine main shaft, not only produce the machining accuracy variation that the thermal expansion of main shaft causes, and because lubricant oil is too much, the possibility that bearing 133 burns out is also higher.
The plotted curve of Fig. 5 (curve b (plotted curve of representing curve by ■)) is in the test conditions of table 1, only cuts down the result who tests under the condition of lubricants capacity.The test conditions of this occasion provides in table 2.
Table 2
Bearing Single cylindrical roller bearing N1020K (bearing bore diameter φ is 100mm, and external diameter φ is 150mm)
Rotational speed 2000~12000min -1
Inner radial gap after axle is chimeric +5μm
The air supply amount 20Nl/min
Supply with oil mass 0.02ml/1 injection/5min at interval
Lubricant oil Industrial lubricant oil ISO VG32
The shell cooling Implement (30 ± 1 ℃ of cooling oil mass 8.01/min oil masses)
In the plotted curve of Fig. 5 (curve b (1 injection/15min at interval)), do not have the maximal point of the such temperature rising of the occasion (1 injections/5min at interval) of Fig. 4.It is believed that its reason is: the stirring resistance that lubricant oil too much causes reduces.On the other hand, at lubricants capacity (1 injection/15min -1) occasion, with lubricants capacity (1 injection/5min -1) compare, although cut down oil mass, temperature rises and does not reduce.This situation shows that lubricating condition is positioned near the temperature rising minimal point of oil mass area I I shown in Figure 7.Thus, such as, the relatively deterioration of the lubricating condition the when rough sledding of air oil supply system, acceleration and deceleration etc., the possibility that bearing temperature rises sharp is higher.
If summary view 4, the result of Fig. 5, then as described below.Be 5min occasion at interval,,, still guaranteeing enough oil masses even be under the situation at a high speed though produce greatly zone.When high speed, in 5min occasion (occasion that oil mass is more) at interval, its temperature is less than 15min occasion (occasion that oil mass is less) at interval.This means if at interval greater than 5min at interval, the possibility that then burns out is higher.Otherwise if at interval less than the 5min interval, increase oil mass, then greatly the zone enlarges in high-speed side, and thus, the velocity band that must turn round under the condition at 15min interval (occasion that oil mass is few) stretches in high-speed side.In this occasion, the 15min possibility that burns out at interval is higher equally.In 15min occasion at interval, the temperature during high speed rises bigger, still, in, in the low-speed range, do not produce very big zone.
According to Fig. 4, if the test result of Fig. 5 by rotary area, is lubricated the switching of condition, estimates from the low speed rotation to the high speed rotating, guarantees to present the reliability of lubricating stable temperature simultaneously and rise.
So, in the present embodiment, with the plotted curve of Fig. 4 (curve a) and the plotted curve (curve b) of Fig. 5 overlap, in Fig. 5, provide, according to overlapping curve figure, according to the nonevent in fact mode combined lubrication of maximal point condition.Such as, in rotational speed less than 10000min -1Occasion, reduce as the delivery volume at 1 injections/15min interval, the lubricant oil delivery volume is if rotational speed is at 10000min -1More than, then switching to 1 injection/15min delivery volume at interval, lubricants capacity increases, and in this manner, sets delivery volume and changes mechanism 102.That is the lubricating condition that provides of formation table 3.
Table 3
Bearing Single cylindrical roller bearing N1020K (bearing bore diameter φ is 100mm, and external diameter φ is 150mm)
Rotational speed 2000~12000min -1
Inner radial gap after axle is chimeric +5μm
The air supply amount 20Nl/min
Supply with oil mass 【0~8000min -1] 0.02ml/1 injection/15min interval [9000~12000min -1] 0.02ml/1 injection/5min at interval
Lubricant oil Industrial lubricant oil ISO VG32
The shell cooling Implement (30 ± 1 ℃ of cooling oil mass 8.01/min oil masses)
Like this, on-stream, monitor rotational speed, corresponding to rotational speed, change the delivery volume of lubricant oil, thus, as shown in Figure 6, present the lubricated that stable temperature rises in the time of the reliability of carrying out from the low speed rotation to the high speed rotating, guaranteeing lubricating.
If it is sum up the effect of present embodiment, then as described below.
Can realize presenting from the low speed rotation to the high speed rotating air oil lubrication of the stable temperature rising with very big zone handles.
Not only make stable that temperature rises, and can guarantee the reliability of lubricating, particularly, the reliability of high-speed region.
In the supply system of non-variable lubricants capacity in the past, even at middle low-speed region, still supply with the lubricant oil with the high-speed region same amount, still, in the present embodiment, this supply is unwanted.Consequently, at middle low-speed region, lubricating oil consumption is cut down, and can realize the reduction of the operating cost of lubricating fitting, the reduction of conditioning.
In addition, in the above-described embodiments, adopt 2 grades of switchings, still, also can adopt multistage switching, stepless switching corresponding to the scope of using rotational speed.
Below in conjunction with Fig. 9~Figure 13, the air oil lubrication structure of the 2nd embodiment's of the present invention rolling bearing is described.In rolling bearing 1, a plurality of rolling elements 4 are arranged at the rolling surface 2a of inner ring 2 and outer ring 3, between the 3a.The width of inner ring 2 and outer ring 3 is identical width.Rolling element 4 such as, form by ball, it remains in the groove of retainer 5.At the outer diametric plane of the inner ring 2 of this rolling bearing 1, be provided with and the rolling surface 2a connection inclined 2b of portion, jet element 6 is set, this jet element 6 is according to spaced apart with spacing δ and this inclined plane part 2b and mode extension is arranged on this inclined plane part 2b.Inclined plane part 2b extends to rolling surface 2a from the breadth of inner ring 2, and is arranged at the outer diametric plane of the anti-load side (bearing back side) of inner ring 2.Inclined plane part 2b directly is connected with rolling surface 2a substantially, and still, the cylinder face also can be arranged between inclined plane part 2b and the rolling surface 2a.At rolling bearing 1 is the occasion of angular contact ball bearing, and the outer diametric plane of the part of offering countersink in the inner ring 2 constitutes above-mentioned inclined plane part 2b.
In jet element 6, its front end 6aa is near the rolling element 4 between the outer diametric plane of the aperture surface of retainer 5 and inner ring 2.Jet element 6 is the parts of ring-type, and it comprises flange shape 6a, and this flange shape 6a is arranged in the rolling bearing 1 according to the mode of adjacency vertically, and inside diameter from the side extends vertically.The aperture surface of this flange shape 6a is formed on its angle plane of inclination identical with the inclined plane part 2b of inner ring 2, extend to retainer 5 under, its front end forms the front end 6aa of jet element 6.Gap delta between flange shape the 6a of jet element 6 and the inclined-plane 2b of inner ring 2 is according to considering the chimeric of inner ring 2 and axle, and rise the expansion with centrifugal force of the temperature of inner ring 2, and on-stream, size as far as possible little in the discontiguous scope is set.
Jet element 6 has air oil injection groove 7, and this air oil injection groove 7 is in the face of inner ring inclined plane part 2b and opening in this spray tank 7, is offered the spray-hole 8 of jetburner 8a opening.Spray tank 7 along the circumferential direction extends, in the form of a ring.Spray-hole 8 is arranged at 1 of circumferencial direction of jet element 6, or a plurality of position.This spray-hole 8 is provided with in the following manner, so that the air oil that has sprayed can directly blow to inner ring inclined plane part 2b, this mode is: from the injection direction of jetburner 8a towards inclined plane part 2b, and this inclined plane part 2b relatively, injection direction has inclination angle beta.Spray tank 7 is and does not stop lubricant oil directly to blow to the sectional shape of inclined plane part 2b from spray-hole 8.
According to the spray-hole 8 from said nozzle parts 6, the lubricant oil that blows to inner ring inclined plane part 2b transmits along inner ring inclined plane part 2b, effectively it is fed to the mode of the inside of rolling bearing 1, and the minimum value of the tilt angle alpha of inner ring inclined plane part 2b is set in following value.
α≥0.0667×dn×10 -4-1.8333
Wherein, dn represents bearing bore diameter size (mm) and rotational speed (min -1) product.
According to this formula, in rolling bearing 1, be 70mm φ at bearing bore diameter, rotational speed is 300000min -1The occasion of angular contact ball bearing, the tilt angle alpha of inner ring inclined plane part 2b is: α 〉=12.8 °.
Best, in the occasion of angular contact ball bearing, the maximum value of the tilt angle alpha of inner ring inclined plane part 2b is: α≤25 °.The reason of She Dinging is like this: in the occasion of angular contact ball bearing, if tilt angle alpha is above 25 °, the radial width that then is provided with the inner ring end face of inclined plane part 2b narrows down, the inner ring distance piece 11 that this end face contacted, or the area of contact of shell etc. diminishes, and can't bear bigger axial load.
That is, the preferred maximum value of the tilt angle alpha of inner ring inclined plane part is followed the type of bearing and difference, in the occasion of the cylindrical roller bearing that has the inner ring flange, and α≤35 ° preferably.In addition, in the cylindrical roller bearing that has the inner ring flange, the minimum value of tilt angle alpha preferably is being not less than 25 °.That is, best, in the occasion of the cylindrical roller bearing that has the inner ring flange, the value of α is set in 25~35 ° the scope.Its reason is as follows.
In the occasion of cylindrical roller bearing, be not less than 25 ° if tilt angle alpha makes, then easily the front end of jet element is set in retainer annulus portion under.In addition, have the occasion of the cylindrical roller bearing of flange at inner ring, if tilt angle alpha surpasses 35 °, the radial width that then is provided with the inner ring end face of inclined plane part narrows down, area of contact between the inner ring distance piece that this end face contacted, the shell etc. diminishes, and can't bear larger axis to load.
The inner ring that provides in the back has the occasion of the corresponding cylindrical roller bearing of flange, and tilt angle alpha all is set in 25~35 ° the scope.
The tilt angle alpha of inner ring inclined plane part 2b, and as the direction of jetburner 8a injection air oil and the relation between the spray angle β of the angle axially according to as Fig. 9 B, the mode of α<90 °-β is set.That is, the tilt angle alpha of inclined plane part 2b is set greater than 90 ° mode according to the angle between air oil injection direction and the inclined plane part.
In addition,, it is supplied to the inside of rolling bearing 1 effectively for the lubricant oil that blows to inner ring inclined plane part 2b transmits along this inclined plane part 2b, best, by modes such as grinding, smooth grindings, reduce the surface roughness of inner ring inclined plane part 2b.In this example, the Ra value of its surface roughness is being not more than 1.0.
The opening diameter d of the jetburner 8a of spray-hole 8 is in the scope of 0.8~1.2mm φ, and the long L in hole of the 8b of portion is set in more than 2 times of above-mentioned opening diameter d near the jetburner, so that reduce air oil injection speed.
Jet element 6 is installed on the shell 9 of the outer ring 3 that bearing 1 is installed.The installation of jet element 6 opposite shell 9 both can be undertaken by outer ring distance piece 10, also can directly carry out.The example of the example of Fig. 9 A for installing by outer ring distance piece 10 among the breach recess 10a of the ring-type on the inside diameter of a side of outer ring distance piece 10, is provided with jet element 6 in chimeric mode.The aperture surface of the part that the bearing of jet element 6 is outer according to the mode that does not contact with inner ring distance piece 11 near this distance piece 11.
Around the entrance part of the spray-hole 8 of jet element 6, offer circumferential groove, the sealed member 36 of seal ring etc. is set, fastening piece (not shown) by bolt etc. of outer ring distance piece 10 and jet element 6 and fastening, thus, prevent the situation that air oil leaks from the interconnecting part of air oil supply passage 13 and spray-hole 8.
The spray-hole 8 of jet element 6 is formed by near the diameter of the 8b of portion of the jetburner 8a throttle orifice less than common portion.The inlet of spray-hole 8 and air oil supply passage 13 is communicated with, and the oily supply passage 13 of this air is according to 6 the scope setting from shell 9 to jet element.This air oil supply passage 13 has air oil supplying mouth 13a in shell 9, at the inner face of shell 9, have housing department outlet 13b.The connectivity slot 13c of the ring-type on housing department outlet 13b and the outer diametric plane that is arranged at outer ring distance piece 10 is communicated with, and from this connectivity slot 13c, by the 13d of path separately of perforation radially, is communicated with each spray-hole 8 of jet element 6.Air oil supplying mouth 13a is connected with the supply source (not shown) of the air oil that transports air that lubricant oil is blended in compression.
Effect to the air oil lubrication structure of such scheme is described.The air oil of supplying with from the air of Fig. 9 A oil supplying mouth 13a sprays to the inclined plane part 2b of inner ring 2 through the spray-hole 8 of jet element 6.The air oil that sprays to inclined plane part 2b is according to following form, and bearing 1 lubricated played effect.
1. the gap between inner ring inclined plane part 2b and jet element 6 by blowing attached power, is fed directly to the inside of bearing 1.
2. the lubricant oil that is attached on the inner ring inclined plane part 2b acts on the component of inclined-plane than larger diameter side by what produce by its surface tension and centrifugal force, flow into the inside of bearing 1.
3. be stranded in the vacuum suction effect of air oil by the generation of the gap between inner ring inclined plane part 2b and jet element 6 in the spray tank 7 of circumferential groove shape, flow to the bearing private side, front end 6aa from jet element 6, pass through centrifugal force, be attached to rolling element 4, or on the aperture surface of retainer 7, help to form the lubricant oil of bearing each several part.
Like this, with the inclined plane part 2b of air oil supply inner ring 2, directly air oil is not sprayed to the rolling path of rolling element 4, thus, by the revolution of rolling element 4, do not produce the friction sound of the wind, noise reduces.In addition, owing to be not supply, but pass through the rotation of inner ring 2, the air oil that feeds to the inclined plane part 2b of inner ring 2 is sent to the inside of bearing 1 by the oil of air jet, so the air that is adopted realizes lubricant oil is transported to the function of inner ring inclined plane part 2b well, use amount is reduced.Thus, also can expect energy-conservation effect by the reduction of air quantity.
In addition, in the occasion of present embodiment, owing to directly air oil is blowed to inner ring inclined plane part 2b, so oil is attached on the inclined plane part 2b easily, in addition, even by blowing attached power, air oil still flows into bearing inside.The inclination angle beta of the injection direction of spray-hole 8 is determined directly to blow to inner ring inclined plane part 2b and because of the little scope of influence of the friction sound of the wind of the rolling element 4 of jet flow at the air that sprays from spray-hole 8.Owing to form this structure, so air oil inflow bearing inside easily feeds to contacting part between inner ring 2 and the rolling element 4 well with lubricant oil.In addition, since less as the diameter of the jetburner 8a of the export department of spray-hole 8, so flow velocity increases the decline of injection air temperature.Owing to, this Cryogenic air is blowed to inner ring 2, so can expect the reduction of inner ring temperature with closer distance.
Particularly, in this air oil lubrication structure,, obtain following effect owing to, set the scope of the tilt angle alpha to axial among the inclined plane part 2b as above-mentioned.For the minimum value of tilt angle alpha, as described later, by experiment, efficiency confirmed really.That is, because according to α 〉=0.0667 * dn * 10 -4-1.8333 mode is determined the necessary minimum value of tilt angle alpha, so lubricant oil can not arrive the inner ring rolling surface really because of centrifugal force leaves in the way of inclined plane part 2b.Thus, by the minimal lubricant oil of necessity, be lubricated with good efficiency, realize certain lubricating, simultaneously, the rising of temperature is suppressed.So ovenable roasting raising can be used to more at a high speed always.In addition, equally for air quantity, necessary inferior limit is just passable, suppresses energy consumption, and further reduces noise.
Because the tilt angle alpha of inclined plane part 2b and the relation between the spray angle β are set greater than 90 ° mode according to the angle between air oil injection direction and the plane of inclination, promptly, owing to be set at: α<90 °-β, even so under the inclined plane part 2b case of collision of air oil that sprays from jetburner 8a and inner ring 2, still can there be the mode of resistance to flow according to bearing centrifugal force.
Figure 10 A and Figure 10 B represent the affirmation test example of fit value of tilt angle alpha of inner ring inclined plane part 2b of the air oil lubrication structure of present embodiment.In this validation test, as testing installation, as Figure 10 A, instead above-mentioned inner ring inclined plane part 2b, adopt diametric plane outside to have the test axle 32 of inclined plane part 32b, the mode of extending according to keeping spacing δ with this inclined plane part 32b is provided with the jet element 6 identical with embodiment's occasion.In addition, in the shell 39 of the outside diameter of the inclined plane part 32b of above-mentioned test axle 32, offer the circular open 33 relative, paste at inner face and pay the peristoma stepped part 33a that plate 35 that the acrylic acid series material that has oil to adhere to confirm paper 34 makes is arranged at above-mentioned circular open 33 with above-mentioned inclined plane part 32.
In this validation test, make test axle 32 rotations of above-mentioned testing installation, simultaneously, jetburner 8a injection air oil from jet element 6, adhere to the distribution of dispersing of confirming the oil on the paper 34 according to being attached to above-mentioned oil, judge adhering to having or not of stream of the oil be attached on the inclined plane part 32b,, carry out the grade of fit of tilt angle alpha according to this result.Figure 10 B represents this validation test, adheres to the example that above-mentioned oil adheres to the distribution of confirming the oil that disperses on the paper 34.Promptly, in this validation test, if adhere in the affirmation paper 34 at above-mentioned oil, maximum diameter position X with test axle inclined plane part 32b is the border, dispersing of oil concentrates on paper right side (than larger diameter side), then has the stream of adhering to, in the paper left side, or have the occasion of dispersing on the whole, judge and do not adhere to stream.
The terms and conditions of setting in this affirmation experiment provides in table 4.In addition, the result of this validation test provides in the plotted curve of Figure 11~Figure 13.
Table 4
Project D (internal diameter)=100mm D (internal diameter)=80mm
1. orifice size φ1.2 φ0.8
2. bevel angle α 2~16° 10,12,14°
3. inclined-plane gap delta 0.16~1.0mm 0.1~0.3mm
4. air oil air quantity (Nl/min) oil mass (the ml/ fuel feeding at interval) 20 0.01ml/5min 10~20 0.01ml/5min
5. oily kinetic viscosity (mm/s 2) 10,32,68 32
6. rotational speed min -1 Max 21000 Max 30000
According to this test result, we can say that the gap delta between inner ring inclined plane part 2b and the jet element 6, oily kinetic viscosity are less to the influence of adhering to stream and causing.In addition, the oil that sprays from the jetburner 8a of jet element 6 can be because of centrifugal force leave inner ring inclined plane part 2b, and the tilt angle alpha that is delivered to the necessary inclined plane part 2b of rolling surface 2a is in such relation: α 〉=0.0667 * dn * 10 as aforesaid -4-1.8333
Wherein, dn represents bearing bore diameter size (mm) and rotational speed (min -1) product.
Like this, in the present embodiment of the tilt angle alpha of setting inner ring inclined plane part 2b, owing to the oil that sprays from the jetburner 8a of jet element 6 can not be delivered to rolling surface 2a and advances because of centrifugal force leaves inner ring inclined plane part 2b, so lubricant oil can good efficiency, arrive the rolling surface 2a of the inner ring 2 of rolling bearing 1.
Figure 14 represents the air oil lubrication structure of the 3rd embodiment's of the present invention rolling bearing.Present embodiment replaces rolling bearing 1 at the 1st embodiment shown in Fig. 9 A with cylindrical roller bearing 1A.In cylindrical roller bearing 1A, outer ring 3A has two flanges, and inner ring 2A does not have flange, and at Internal and external cycle 2A, the rolling surface 2a of 3A between the 3a, is provided with a plurality of rolling element 4A that formed by the cylinder roller.Each rolling element 4A remains among the retainer 5A.Retainer 5A is the axial centre at cylinder part, forms the form of groove, is called so-called sedan-chair shape, or the type of ladder shape.The two side portions of the rolling surface 2a of the outer diametric plane of inner ring 2A forms and the rolling surface 2a connection inclined 2b of portion, 2c.Jet element 6 has the spray-hole 8 and the spray tank 7 of the structure identical with the example of Fig. 9 A, the injection direction of jetburner 8a of spray tank 7 that is opened on spray-hole 8 is towards inclined plane part 2b, and relative inclined plane part 2b, injection direction has inclination angle beta (Fig. 9 A), so that the air oil that has sprayed can directly blow to interior inner ring inclined plane part 2b.
The conical surface that is arranged on the outer diametric plane of inner ring that the inclined plane part 2b of the both sides of the rolling surface 2a of inner ring 2A, 2c and inner ring do not have in the common cylindrical roller bearing of flange-type is identical.This conical surface is used for the facial 2b of inclination that air oil is supplied with usefulness.Thus, for air supply oil, needn't form inclined plane part especially.
In the present embodiment, the nozzle side breadth of the close rolling surface 2a among the inclined plane part 2b of inner ring 2A, more close rolling surface 2a than the relative retainer 5A of large-diameter portion.Thus, transmit and the lubricant oil that flows to rolling surface 2a side is not held the breadth of device 5A and stops, can successfully send into the inside of bearing 1A along inner ring inclined plane part 2b.The structure of other in the present embodiment, effect and Fig. 9 A, the 1st embodiment shown in the 9B is identical.The scope of tilt angle alpha is also identical with the 1st embodiment.Same in each following embodiment, the scope of tilt angle alpha is identical with the 1st embodiment.
Figure 15 A represents the air oil lubrication structure of the 4th embodiment's of the present invention rolling bearing.Equally in the present embodiment, at Fig. 9 A, the 1st embodiment shown in Fig. 9 B replaces rolling bearing 1 with cylindrical roller bearing 1A.In this cylindrical roller bearing 1A, outer ring 3A does not have flange, and inner ring 2A has flange, and at Internal and external cycle 2A, the rolling surface 2a of 3A between the 3a, is provided with a plurality of rolling element 4A that formed by the cylinder roller.Each rolling element 4A remains among the retainer 5A.The two side portions of the rolling surface 2a of the outer diametric plane of inner ring 2A, that is, the outer diametric plane of flange forms and the rolling surface 2a connection inclined 2b of portion, 2c.Inclined plane part 2b among this figure, 2c is connected with rolling surface 2a with the lip part inner face by cylinder is facial, still, also can not have the cylinder face, and from inclined plane part 2b, the flange inner face of the direct both sides with rolling surface 2a of 2c is connected.Jet element 6 has the A with Fig. 9, the spray-hole 8 of the structure that the example of Fig. 9 B is identical and spray tank 7, the injection direction of jetburner 8a that is opened on spray tank 7 places of spray-hole 8 can directly spray to the mode of inner ring inclined plane part 2b towards inclined plane part 2b according to the air oil that has sprayed, and relative inclined plane part 2b, its injection direction can have inclination angle beta (Fig. 9 A, Fig. 9 B).The air oil supply passage 13d that is arranged on the outer ring distance piece 10 extends vertically, and is still final, is communicated with the air oil supplying mouth 13a of shell 9 (Fig. 9 A).The nozzle side breadth of close rolling surface 2a among the inclined plane part 2b of inner ring 2A than the relative retainer 5A of large-diameter portion, more close rolling surface 2a, this situation is identical with Figure 14 embodiment's occasion.
In the embodiment of Figure 15 A, the front end of jet element 6 also can enter the internal side diameter of retainer 5A as Figure 15 B.If like this, enter the internal side diameter of retainer 5A, then along inner ring inclined plane part 2b, even flowing to the recycle oil of rolling surface 2a side is leaving under the situation that flows to outside diameter because of the front end and the inner ring inclined plane part 2b of centrifugal force at jet element 6, still can receive, help to lubricate by the inside diameter of retainer 5A.
Figure 16 and Figure 17 are respectively the air oil lubrication structure of the 5th embodiment of the present invention and the 6th embodiment's rolling bearing.These embodiments replace the retainer 5A of cylindrical roller bearing 1A among the 3rd embodiment shown in Figure 14 with the retainer 5B of comb type.The retainer 5A of the example of Figure 14 is the sedan-chair type, is the groove shapes that the rolling element 4A that will be formed by the cylinder roller encases, but the retainer 5B of comb type is for surrounding 3 directions of the rolling element 4A that is formed by the cylinder roller, the groove shapes that direction is unlimited.For this reason, with the ring-like guiding of the contacts side surfaces of annulus portion among the retainer 5B of comb type parts, be fixed in lip part with jet element 6 opposite sides with the flanged pin side among side plate 19 relative inner ring 2A and the outer ring 3A.Specifically, be provided with notch part in complete all scopes of the external lateral portion of the bearing width direction of lip part front end, guiding is embedded in notch part with the part of side plate 19, is being held on and the distance piece of this lip part adjacency and the state between the lip part fixed guide side plate 19.
The example of Figure 16 is opposite with the example of Figure 14, and inner ring 2A has two flanges, and outer ring 3A does not have flange, and the example of Figure 17 is identical with the example of Figure 14, and inner ring 2A does not have flange, and outer ring 3A has two flanges.
In addition, in the embodiment of Figure 16 and Figure 17, be arranged at the air oil supply passage 13c on the outer ring distance piece 10,13d is identical with the embodiment of Fig. 9, is arranged at the axial horizontal side of jet element 6.In the spray-hole 8 of jet element 6, only entrance part is provided with according to the mode with parallel to an axis, and the remainder of spray-hole 8 is according to tilting towards inclined plane part 2b.
Other structure of the 5th, the 6 embodiment is identical with the 2nd embodiment shown in Figure 9.
Figure 18 represents the air oil lubrication structure of the 7th embodiment's of the present invention rolling bearing.In this example, be opened among the jet element 6A spray-hole 8 according to the mode of parallel to an axis, the mode of air oil spurts to the inside of spray tank 7 is provided with.In the spray tank 7, the groove inner side surface of facing with spray-hole 8 is formed by following plane of inclination, and this plane of inclination can be sent to the air oil that has sprayed inner ring inclined plane part 2b side.Jet element 6A directly is installed on the aperture surface of shell 9, simultaneously as the outer ring distance piece.Jet element 6A also can install according to the mode of the breach recess 10a of the outer ring distance piece 10 that is embedded in the example that is arranged at Fig. 9 A, to replace directly being installed on the mode on the shell 9.Other structure of present embodiment is except the item that specifies, with Fig. 9 A, the example of Fig. 9 B is identical.Equally in the occasion of the jet element 6A of the structure that present embodiment is set, identical with the example of Figure 14, bearing 1 also can be cylindrical roller bearing.
Figure 19 represents the air oil lubrication structure of the 8th embodiment's of the present invention rolling bearing.Present embodiment omits the spray tank 7 of jet element 6 at the 1st embodiment shown in Fig. 9 A.The structure of other of present embodiment is identical with the example of Fig. 9 A.
Figure 20 A, 20B represent the air oil lubrication structure of the 9th embodiment's of the present invention rolling bearing.Present embodiment is at Fig. 9 A, and the 1st embodiment shown in Fig. 9 B omits the spray tank 7 of jet element 6, and for it, in the inclined plane part 2b of inner ring 2 side, circumferential groove 17 is set.This circumferential groove 17 along the circumferential direction extends, in the form of a ring, and the V-shaped shape in cross section.In jet element 6, offer spray-hole 8, this spray-hole 8 is faced with the circumferential groove 17 of inner ring inclined plane part 2b, offers jetburner 8a on it.This spray-hole 8 is arranged at one or more positions of the circumferencial direction of jet element 6.Towards circumferential groove 17, and the mode that the relative inclined plane part 2b of injection direction forms inclination angle beta is provided with spray-hole 8 according to the injection direction of jetburner 8a, blows the air oil that has sprayed so that can be directly to the circumferential groove 17 of inner ring inclined plane part 2b.The angle of inclination in the relative axle center of 17a, sidewall inclined-plane of the close rolling surface 2a in the circumferential groove 17 that the cross section is in the shape of the letter V is greater than the tilt angle alpha of the inclined plane part 2b of inner ring 2.The structure of other of present embodiment and Fig. 9 A, Fig. 9 B is identical.
Effect to the air oil lubrication structure of said structure is described.The air oil of supplying with from the air of Figure 20 A oil supplying mouth 13a is through the spray-hole 8 of jet element 6, sprays to the sidewall inclined-plane 17a of the circumferential groove 17 of inner ring inclined plane part 2b.
Because the angle of inclination of sidewall inclined-plane 17a so the oil that is attached on the sidewall inclined-plane 17a positively is sent to inner ring inclined plane part 2b by action of centrifugal force, flow into the inside of bearing greater than the inclined plane part 2b of inner ring as lubricant oil.In addition, even the air supply amount for the uneven situation of the stream on a small amount of circumference under, because the negative pressure suction force that the gap delta place between inner ring inclined plane part 2b and jet element 6 produces, flow of lubricant is to the bearing side, be attached on the aperture surface of rolling element 4 or retainer 5, can be used as the lubricant oil of bearing.Thus, the delay of a spot of airborne oil can be prevented, the variation of the bearing temperature that the delay because of oil causes can be prevented.
Because like this, air oil is supplied with the circumferential groove 17 of inner ring inclined plane part 2b, not directly to the rolling path injection air oil of rolling element 4, so do not produce the generation of friction sound of the wind of the revolution of rolling element 4, noise reduction.In addition, owing to be not supply because of the oil of the injection of air, and the rotation by inner ring 2 will feed to the inside that the air oil of the circumferential groove 17 of inner ring inclined plane part 2b is sent to bearing 1, and that oil is delivered to the function of circumferential groove 17 of inner ring 2 is just passable so the air that is adopted only plays, and use amount is reduced.For this reason, can expect effect because of the saving energy that reduces air quantity.In addition, in the less occasion of diameter as the jetburner 8a of the export department of spray-hole 8, flow velocity increases, and the injection air temperature descends.Owing to, this Cryogenic air is blowed to inner ring 2, so can expect further to reduce the temperature of inner ring with closer distance.
In the occasion of present embodiment, like this, reducing under the situation of air quantity, still can prevent the variation of the bearing temperature that the delay of the oil in the little air causes, can expect the effect that reduces of noise, and the effect of the further reduction of air oil mass.
Figure 21 A represents the air oil lubrication structure of the 10th embodiment's of the present invention rolling bearing.In the present embodiment, the 8th embodiment at shown in Figure 20 A changes rolling bearing 1 into cylindrical roller bearing 1A.In this cylindrical roller bearing 1A, outer ring 3A does not have flange, and inner ring 2A has two flanges, and at Internal and external cycle 2A, the rolling surface 2a of 3A between the 3a, is provided with a plurality of rolling element 4A that formed by the cylinder roller.The air oil supply passage 13d that is arranged on the outer ring distance piece 10 extends vertically, and is still final, is communicated with the air oil supplying mouth 13a of shell 9 (Figure 20 A).
Equally in the present embodiment, also can make the front end of jet element 6, enter the internal side diameter of retainer 5A as shown in Figure 21 B.
Figure 22 represents the 11st embodiment's of the present invention spindle part.This spindle part use such as, Fig. 9 A, Figure 15 A, the air oil lubrication structure of the rolling bearing of the embodiment shown in Figure 15 B.This spindle part is used for working machine, on the front end of main shaft 15, the chuck of instrument or workpiece is installed.The a plurality of rolling bearings that support this main shaft 15 are divided into the bearing 1 of front side, bearing 1A with rear side, this bearing 1 is positioned at the fixed side near front-end of spindle, and the thermal expansion of the main shaft 15 that the heating in this bearing 1A elimination running causes is near the rear-end of spindle as free side.At these rolling bearings 1, among the 1A, adopt Fig. 9 and Figure 15 A respectively, the embodiment's of Figure 15 B air oil lubrication structure.Here, the bearing 1 of front side adopts a plurality of angular contact ball bearings of the example of Fig. 9 A, and the bearing 1A of rear side adopts the cylindrical roller bearing of the example of 1 Figure 15 B.The bearing 1A of rear side also can be Figure 21 A, the bearing shown in Figure 21 B.In each rolling bearing 1 of front side, from the air oil supply passage 13 that is provided with according to the mode that extends to jet element 6 from shell 9, the spray-hole 8 through jet element 6 blows air oil to the inner ring inclined plane part 2b of rolling bearing 1.Same in the rolling bearing 1A of rear side, the air oil supply passage 13 from being provided with according to the mode that extends to jet element 6 from shell 9 by the spray-hole 8 of jet element 6, blows air oil to the inner ring inclined plane part 2b of rolling bearing 1A.The rolling bearing 1A of rear side has the cylindrical roller bearing of two flanges for inner ring 2A, and jet element 6 is provided with in abutting connection with the front side, will blow air oil towards the inclined plane part 2b of the inner ring 2A of front side.
In the spindle part of such structure, because the bearing 1A of rear side adopts cylindrical roller bearing, the influence of thermal expansion because of the main shaft 15 of the heating in the running, in Figure 23 with shown in the mode of amplifying, directive effect thrust that the end face of cylinder roller 4A is pushed on the flange edge of the close front side of the inner ring 2 of rear side rolling bearing 1.That is, the interface pressure of the contact segment between the end face of the front side flange surface of the inner ring 2A of the rolling bearing 1A of rear side and cylinder roller 4A increases.Relative this situation between the end face of the rear side flange surface of the inner ring 2A of the rolling bearing 1A of rear side and cylinder roller 4A, does not have the influence of the thrust of axle expansion.Consequently, the front side flange surface of the inner ring 2A of the rolling bearing 1A of rear side is compared with the rear side flange surface of this inner ring 2A with the contacting part between the end face of cylinder roller 4A, formation is disadvantageous condition for the sliding friction in when running, if the contacting part of the end face of its flange surface and cylinder roller 4A is not lubricated fully, then exist to produce abnormal heating, perhaps contacting part abrasion and danger that the abrasion powder enters the inside of bearing.
But, if adopt the spindle part of present embodiment, owing to blow air oil to the front side of the inner ring 2A of the bearing 1A of rear side inclined plane part 2b from the spray-hole 8 of jet element 6, so can preferentially lubricant oil be fed to the contacting part between the end face of the front side flange surface of inner ring 2A of this bearing 1A and cylinder roller 4A, can avoid above-mentioned rough sledding.
In addition, back side bearing 1A is lubricated that to handle be because from the internal feed air oil by the bearing 1A of the bearing 1 of main shaft 15, front side, rear side, space 30 that shell 9 centers on relatively from the front side, and in general, the air delivery volume of air oil lubrication is in the scope of 10~40Nl/min, so the pressure in the above-mentioned space 30 is higher than the pressure in its outside, consequently, freezing mixtures etc. are difficult to be immersed in from the outside and comprise bearing 1, in the space 30 of 1A, also can avoid foreign matter to invade bearing 1, the inside of 1A.

Claims (13)

1. the Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method of a supplying lubricating oil in the running of rolling bearing is characterized in that in order to suppress the temperature variation of rolling bearing, the delivery volume of on-stream change lubricant oil.
2. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method according to claim 1 is characterized in that being lubricated at the state of air oil the supply of oil.
3. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method according to claim 1 is characterized in that the delivery volume corresponding to the rotational speed change lubricant oil of rolling bearing.
4. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method according to claim 3, it is characterized in that under the different multiple lubricating condition of lubricant oil delivery volume, carry out handling with the sampling of the temperature climb data of the corresponding rolling bearing of rotational speed, corresponding to this sampling result, change delivery volume with the corresponding lubricant oil of this rotational speed.
5. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method according to claim 4, it is characterized in that representing that at transverse axis rotational speed, the longitudinal axis represent bearing temperature and adopt sampled data to form the occasion of plotted curve, change lubricating condition corresponding to rotational speed, thus according to not producing maximal point in fact or lubricating condition being made up according to the mode that maximal point diminishes.
6. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method according to claim 3 is characterized in that corresponding to imposing a condition, and according to the information signal of rotational speed, automatically changes the lubricant oil delivery volume in the running.
7. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing method according to claim 1 is characterized in that by the lubricant oil delivery volume in the manual operation change running.
8. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing device, this lubricating fitting comprises the lubricant oil feed mechanism, this lubricant oil feed mechanism supplying lubricating oil in the running of rolling bearing; Delivery volume changes mechanism, and this delivery volume changes mechanism makes above-mentioned lubricant oil feed mechanism change the delivery volume of lubricant oil corresponding to imposing a condition.
9. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing device according to claim 8 is characterized in that above-mentioned lubricant oil feed mechanism is to rolling bearing injection air oil.
10. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing device according to claim 8 is characterized in that it is that above-mentioned imposing a condition makes the mechanism of the delivery volume of above-mentioned lubricant oil feed mechanism change lubricant oil for the condition relevant with the rotational speed of rolling bearing, corresponding to rotational speed that above-mentioned delivery volume changes mechanism.
11. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing device according to claim 10, it is characterized in that above-mentioned lubricant oil feed mechanism is a plurality of at being divided into, delivery volume is set in each zone in the rotational speed zone of rolling bearing, change into the mechanism of the delivery volume of having set corresponding to the information of the rotational speed of having imported.
12. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing device according to claim 8, it is characterized in that above-mentioned lubricant oil feed mechanism is the mechanism of supplying lubricating oil with gap, it is the supply mechanism at interval that changes the lubricant oil of above-mentioned lubricant oil feed mechanism that above-mentioned delivery volume changes mechanism.
13. Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing device according to claim 8 is characterized in that above-mentioned rolling bearing is the bearing of the main shaft of supporting working machine.
CN 200610167303 2002-03-05 2003-03-03 Rolling bearing lubricating method and device Pending CN101059152A (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2002059349A JP2003278773A (en) 2002-03-05 2002-03-05 Air/oil lubricating structure of rolling bearing and spindle device
JP2002059349 2002-03-05
JP2002234481 2002-08-12

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CN101059152A true CN101059152A (en) 2007-10-24

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CN103967935A (en) * 2013-01-31 2014-08-06 拜尔及克佩尔有限及两合公司 Device for performing state-dependant lubrication of at least one sliding and/or rolling mating
CN104190531A (en) * 2014-08-07 2014-12-10 四川省双源环保设备有限公司 Sand and stone separating device and method
CN106122736A (en) * 2016-08-11 2016-11-16 无锡百禾工业机器人有限公司 A kind of oil gas lubricating system for machine tool mainshaft bearing
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CN103233983A (en) * 2013-05-06 2013-08-07 北京理工大学 Uniform lubricating system of high-speed rolling bearings
CN104190531A (en) * 2014-08-07 2014-12-10 四川省双源环保设备有限公司 Sand and stone separating device and method
CN106287185A (en) * 2015-06-03 2017-01-04 普阳商贸有限公司 Intelligent oil protects system with gas mixed lubrication
CN106287185B (en) * 2015-06-03 2018-05-15 普阳商贸有限公司 Intelligent oil and gas mixed lubrication protection system
CN106122736A (en) * 2016-08-11 2016-11-16 无锡百禾工业机器人有限公司 A kind of oil gas lubricating system for machine tool mainshaft bearing

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