CN101054855A - Strain computer-controlled beam support and change method - Google Patents

Strain computer-controlled beam support and change method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101054855A
CN101054855A CN 200710022247 CN200710022247A CN101054855A CN 101054855 A CN101054855 A CN 101054855A CN 200710022247 CN200710022247 CN 200710022247 CN 200710022247 A CN200710022247 A CN 200710022247A CN 101054855 A CN101054855 A CN 101054855A
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steel column
strain
support
displacement
value
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CN100469996C (en
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李今保
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李今保
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Abstract

An underpin method of building beam column, which is added with a strain instrument and a computer control device in the beam column underpin construction. The computer control device is connected to the strain gauge affixed on the support structure and surface of displaced structure or component, when adopting mechanical jack pair structure or component to exert jack lift force value in the unloading process, the strain of structure is transported to the computer control system by the strain gauge, which can exactly response to the internal force of the underpinned structure, deformation of structure, residual deformation of structure, internal force of the supporting structure and so on, thereby the operator can know actual stressed state of the structure and adopt the dial gauge to monitor structure displacement to provide reliable reference for loading, at last achieving purpose of structure unloading and ensuring safety of the operator and structure in the beam column underpin construction.

Description

Strain computer-controlled beam support and change method
Technical field
The present invention is a kind of beam support and change construction control method, particularly a kind of beam support and change method by the control of computer strain control system.Belong to and directly apply to building structure strengthening improvement project technical field.
Background technology
At present, existing beam support and change all belongs to support basically and underpins, and promptly the needs displacement members is not unloaded, and directly its adjacent structure or member is carried out supporting, and displacement back structure is unlikely to take place moderate finite deformation and destruction is purpose to reach.The important structure big for load and deformation requirements is little, beam support and change when construction adopts at present is that plant equipment such as fluid pressure type jack subsidiary stress test instrumentation applies the control top lift and unloads, because there are defectives such as oil return, leakage of oil in the fluid pressure type jack, cause in the work progress big to its power value control difficulty, it must be uninterrupted monitoring, consume a large amount of energy and time of technician, top lift can not be constant, and the top lift that applies can't be combined with the strain facies of structure generation in the uninstall process, reach the purpose of safety and precise unloading.Therefore existing underpinning technique all exists and underpins the back and easily produced crack, distortion equivalent damage by the adjacent structure of displacement members, has influenced the safety and the durability of structure.And by the real bearing state of displacement members and adjacent structure, all there is bigger danger in existing underpinning technique to structure and operating personnel owing to can't react in the replacement process.Present beam support and change technology can't combine the top lift that applies with the strain facies of structure generation in the uninstall process, thus the deficiency of structure real bearing state in the reaction uninstall process.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem: the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of strain computer-controlled beam support and change method, this method overcomes the deficiency of existing beam support and change method, can not only react the real bearing state of structure in the uninstall process accurately, overcome the labile defective of top lift value of fluid pressure type jack, and can control the loading procedure of top lift easily and accomplish synchronous loading, the beam support and change that carries out of safety and reliability is constructed.
Technical scheme: the present invention is connected structure or member that needs underpin by pasting foil gauge with the unloading supporting member with the computer strain control device, adopt mechanical type jack (having avoided the defective of fluid pressure type jack) as force application apparatus, the strain of unloading supporting member and the strain and the displacement of unloaded structure in the uninstall process are monitored.
Strain computer-controlled beam support and change method of the present invention is:
1.) definite needs are replaced the position of structure or member, investigate sectional dimension, concrete strength, arrangement of reinforcement quantity and specification, upper load and the distribution situation of this structure or member.
2.) determine following content by calculating:
2.1) need the total load of removal at this structure position; The quantity that required steel column supports; Every steel column supports the dimensions of required power value that applies and steel column support;
2.2) theoretical value of the ess-strain that supports of steel column;
2.3) original structure or member take place during the removal load strain and displacement and steel column support the strain that takes place;
2.4) support arrangement of reinforcement, size and the arrangement form of cushion cap.
3.) the stress-strain relation that supports at structural test aircraft measurements steel column, the theoretical value of the ess-strain that the contrast steel column supports is set up ess-strain numerical value correspondence table.
4.) at structure or the member top and the bottom pouring support cushion cap of need displacement, real size can be determined by calculating according to the site operation situation.
5.) supporting installation support steel column between cushion cap, all steel column sizes, specification should be consistent, adjust the steel column position, should guarantee that steel column is vertical, and smooth with the cushion cap joint face, the action center of all steel columns should overlap with the need column precipitator centre of form, avoids taking place in the loading procedure eccentric.
6.) the mechanical type jack is installed, is guaranteed that jack and steel column and cushion cap joint face are smooth, adjust the jack position, jack supporting surface center is overlapped with steel column joint face center every steel column bottom.
7.) at top cushion cap end face monitoring displacement dial gauge is installed, the dial gauge fastening devices should be guaranteed not interrelate with needing column precipitator and adjacent structure.
8.) paste foil gauge, support with the construction of condition surface at the structure of need displacement or member and steel column simultaneously and paste dummy gauge, and adopt the half-bridge connection method to be connected to the strain testing instrument at the structure of need displacements or member and steel column stayed surface.
9.) strain testing instrument and computer controller are installed.
10.) carry out hierarchical loading by the support of mechanical type jack pair steel column, loading should be carried out synchronously, and guarantee each jack applied force value unanimity, the top lift value that applies in the loading procedure is that the displacement that steel column support strain testing reading, structure produce is that the strain that dial gauge reading and original structure take place is that strain testing reading and calculated value compare, and guarantees the structural safety unloading.
11.) after taking place, one of following situation should stop unloading (three kinds of situations all reach simultaneously under the normal condition).
11.1) the concrete test compressive stress of original structure or member is zero;
11.2) to be loaded into the calculation Design load be that strain value arrive is calculated in the steel column strain to the mechanical type jack;
11.3) the dial gauge reading of displacement monitoring arrives the displacement calculating value.
12.) displacement structure or member.Original structure is removed, be replaced into the material or the structure that meet design requirement, answer the reading of complete coverage dial gauge and strain testing instrument in the replacement process, if change and to take measures on customs clearance.
13.) underpin and finish, on the structure of new displacement, paste foil gauge, the reading and the calculated value that support steel column load shedding observation dial gauge and strain testing instrument compare.
Beneficial effect: the present invention is a kind of strain computer-controlled beam support and change method.It is to have added strain testing instrument and Computer Control Unit in the beam support and change construction.Computer Control Unit is connected with the foil gauge that sticks on braced structures and quilt displacement structure or component surface by the strain testing instrument, when in uninstall process, adopting mechanical type jack pair structure or member to apply the top lift value, the strain that structure takes place is transferred to computer control system by foil gauge, can accurately react by the internal force of underpinning structure, the distortion of structure, the permanent set of structure, the internal force of braced structures etc., thereby make the operator recognize the real bearing state of structure, and adopt dial gauge to monitor displacement, for unloading provides reliable foundation, finally reach the purpose of structure unloading, structure and operating personnel's safety in the guarantee beam support and change work progress.Patented method of the present invention is reliable for the beam support and change construction safety, and is simple to operate, and equipment cost is cheap, it is stressed clear and definite to underpin process control, and controllability is strong, adopts the stress-strain relation of steel column support stable, easy construction is rapid, can accurately react the real bearing state of structure in the uninstall process.Can be widely used in the engineering such as structural strengthening transformation, translation, correction of building.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 represents schematic diagram of the present invention, and Fig. 2 represents support cushion cap plan view of the present invention,
Wherein have: top braces cushion cap 1.1, bottom support cushion cap 1.2, steel column supports 2.1, mechanical type jack 2.2, top dial gauge 3.1, bottom dial gauge 3.2, concrete strain sheet 4.1, steel foil gauge 4.2, with condition steel strain compensation sheet 4.3, with condition concrete strain compensating plate 4.4, strain testing instrument 5.1, computing machine control system 5.2 needs the post 6.0 of replacing.
Fig. 3 represents operating process schematic diagram of the present invention.
The specific embodiment
To underpin the reinforced concrete frame post is example: certain engineering is 19 layers of frame-shear wall structure, does not satisfy design C30 requirement because of construction reason causes layer 5 frame column structure concrete strength, and the actual measurement concrete strength is 16.7MPa, and this moment, main body was all finished.Construction unit disagrees with that employing leaves the reinforcement means of any vestige, so displacement method stiffening frame rod structure is adopted in final decision.Promptly adopt reliable support system that the low-intensity concrete of frame column is removed, be replaced into the concrete that meets design requirement.
1.) definite needs are replaced the position of frame column structure, investigate sectional dimension, actual measurement concrete strength, arrangement of reinforcement quantity and specification, upper load and the distribution situation etc. of this structural column,
2.) determine following content by calculating:
2.1) need the total load of removal at this frame column position, the quantity that required steel column supports, every steel column supports material, size, the specification that the required power value that applies and steel column support.Choose and should be steel column when steel column supports and support required design and apply 2 to 3 times of power value.The tonnage of selecting for use of mechanical type jack should be 2 to 3 times (forbidding to adopt the fluid pressure type jack) that required design applies the power value,
2.2) steel column of choosing is supported the theoretical value that specification is calculated its ess-strain.(by stress 6=N/s and the elastic modulus E=б/ε calculating of deriving),
2.3) load of required removal is divided into level Four, the first order 50%, the second level 20%, the third level 20%, the fourth stage 10%, and calculate strain and the displacement (should consider the stress of reinforcing bar in the post) that the original structure post under every grade of load takes place, the steel column that calculates under every grade of load supports the strain that takes place
2.4) support arrangement of reinforcement, size and the arrangement form of cushion cap,
3.) (the steel column stayed surface is pasted foil gauge to the stress-strain relation that supports at structural test aircraft measurements steel column, and is connected to the strain testing instrument; Steel column is supported on applies power value N on the structure testing machine, obtain corresponding strain value ε), the theoretical value of the ess-strain that the contrast steel column supports is set up power value and ess-strain numerical value correspondence table.
Power value strain numerical value correspondence table
Sequence number Steel column length (mm) Steel column net cross-sectional area (mm 2) The steel column material Steel column elastic modulus E (MPa) Apply power value N (KN) The theoretical strain stress of steel column Steel column actual measurement strain stress
??1 ????3260 ????3820.2 ????Q235 ????2.06E+05 ??50 ????6.35E-05 ????6.351E-05
??2 ????3260 ????3820.2 ????Q235 ????2.06E+05 ??100 ????1.27E-04 ????1.269E-04
??3 ????3260 ????3820.2 ????Q235 ????2.06E+05 ??150 ????1.91E-04 ????1.908E-04
??… ????… ????… ????… ????… ??… ????… ????…
4.) remove member top and bottom pouring support cushion cap at need, cushion cap is apart from the about 30CM of column end, and real size can be determined by calculating according to the site operation situation.
Support cushion cap and should descend column count:
Moment of flexure and Reinforcement Calculation
Mx=∑Niyi?My=∑Nixi、
Post is to the die-cut checking computations of cushion cap
γ0F1≤2[βox(b?c+a?oy)+βoy(h?c+a?ox)]βhpfth0
Support is to the die-cut checking computations of cushion cap
γ 0 N 1 ≤ [ β 1 x ( c 2 + a 1 y 2 ) + β 1 y ( c 1 + a 1 x 2 ) ] βhpfth 0
Cushion cap is sheared checking computations γ 0V≤β hs β ftb0h0
5.) supporting installation support steel column between cushion cap, all steel column sizes, specification should be consistent, adjust the steel column position, should guarantee that steel column is vertical, and smooth with the cushion cap joint face, the action center of all steel columns should overlap with the need column precipitator centre of form, avoids taking place in the loading procedure eccentric.
Support steel column and should descend column count:
Strength checking: A n ≥ N γ RE f The stability checking computations: λ x = l 0 x i x
6.) the mechanical type jack is installed, is guaranteed that jack and steel column and cushion cap joint face are smooth, adjust the jack position, jack supporting surface center is overlapped with steel column joint face center every steel column bottom.
7.) at top cushion cap end face monitoring displacement dial gauge is installed, the dial gauge fastening devices should be guaranteed not interrelate with needing column precipitator and adjacent structure.
8.) structure or the member and the steel column stayed surface stickup foil gauge of replacing at need, and be connected to the strain testing instrument; Support with the construction of condition surface simultaneously and paste dummy gauge, and adopt the half-bridge connection method to be connected to the strain testing instrument at the structure of need displacement or member and steel column.
9.) strain testing instrument and computer controller are installed.Data are by the automatic record of the special-purpose strain acquirement software of computer.
Computer strain record sheet
Channel position The test structure object Testing time Apply power value N (KN) The former dismounting concrete column top vertical displacement dial gauge reading (mm) that needs Theoretical reading strain ε Actual measurement reading strain ε
??1 Support steel column 1 07 on April 1,15: 46: 6 +100 ?1.27E- ?04 ?1.273E-04
??2 Support steel column 2 07 on April 1,15: 46: 6 +100 ?1.27E- ?04 ?1.270E-04
??3 Support steel column 3 07 on April 1,15: 46: 6 +100 ?1.27E- ?04 ?1.269E-04
??4 Support steel column 4 07 on April 1,15: 46: 6 +100 ?1.27E- ?04 ?1.271E-04
??5 The former dismounting concrete post that needs 07 on April 1,15: 46: 6 -400 +0.382 ?3.689E ?-04 ?1.326E-04
10.) carry out hierarchical loading by the support of mechanical type jack pair steel column, loading should be carried out synchronously, and guarantee each jack applied force value unanimity, the top lift value that applies in the loading procedure (steel column supports the strain testing reading), the strain (strain testing reading) that displacement (dial gauge reading) that structure produces and original structure take place should compare with calculated value, guarantees the structural safety unloading.
11.) after taking place, one of following situation should stop unloading (three kinds of situations all reach simultaneously under the normal condition).
11.1) the concrete test compressive stress of original structure or member is zero;
11.2) the mechanical type jack is loaded into calculation Design load (steel column strain arrive calculate strain value);
11.3) the dial gauge reading of displacement monitoring arrives the displacement calculating value;
12.) displacement structure or member.The low-intensity concrete of frame column is removed, be replaced into the concrete that meets design requirement, answer the reading of complete coverage dial gauge and strain testing instrument in the replacement process, if change and should take measures on customs clearance,
Displacement, strain record sheet (relative value) under preceding certain grade of load of post displacement
Channel position The test structure object Testing time Apply power value N (KN) Former dismounting concrete column top vertical displacement (relative value) mm that needs The actual measurement strain stress
??1 Support steel column 1 07 on April 1,15: 46: 6 ??+100 ?1.273E-04
??2 Support steel column 2 07 on April 1,15: 46: 6 ??+100 ?1.270E-04
??3 Support steel column 3 07 on April 1,15: 46: 6 ??+100 ?1.269E-04
??4 Support steel column 4 07 on April 1,15: 46: 6 ??+100 ?1.271E-04
??5 The former dismounting concrete post that needs 07 on April 1,15: 46: 6 ??-400 ??+0.382 ?1.326E-04
13.) underpin and finish.Paste foil gauge on the concrete post of new displacement, the reading and the calculated value that support steel column load shedding observation dial gauge and strain testing instrument compare.
Displacement, strain record sheet (relative value) under certain grade of load in post displacement back
Channel position The test structure object Testing time Apply power value N (KN) Former dismounting concrete column top vertical displacement (relative value) mm that needs The actual measurement strain stress
??1 Support steel column 1 07 on April 7,14: 38: 16 ??0 ????0
??2 Support steel column 2 07 on April 7,14: 38: 16 ??0 ????0
??3 Support steel column 3 07 on April 7,14: 38: 16 ??0 ????0
??4 Support steel column 4 07 on April 7,14: 38: 16 ??0 ????0
??5 The concrete post of new displacement 07 on April 7,14: 38: 16 ??+520 ??-0.202 ????1.349E-04

Claims (1)

1. a strain computer-controlled beam support and change method is characterized in that this method comprises the steps:
1.) definite needs are replaced the position of structure or member, investigate sectional dimension, concrete strength, arrangement of reinforcement quantity and specification, upper load and the distribution situation of this structure or member;
2.) determine following content:
2.1) need the total load of removal at this structure position; The quantity that required steel column supports; Every steel column supports the dimensions of required power value that applies and steel column support;
2.2) theoretical value of the ess-strain that supports of steel column;
2.3) original structure or member take place during the complete removal of load strain and displacement and steel column support the strain that takes place;
2.4) support arrangement of reinforcement, size and the arrangement form of cushion cap;
3.) the stress-strain relation that supports at structural test aircraft measurements steel column, the theoretical value of the ess-strain that the contrast steel column supports is set up ess-strain numerical value correspondence table;
4.) at structure or the member top and the bottom pouring support cushion cap of need displacement, real size can be determined by calculating according to the site operation situation;
5.) supporting installation support steel column between cushion cap, all steel column sizes, specification should be consistent, adjust the steel column position, should guarantee that steel column is vertical, and smooth with the cushion cap joint face, the action center of all steel columns should overlap with the need column precipitator centre of form, avoids taking place in the loading procedure eccentric;
6.) the mechanical type jack is installed, is guaranteed that jack and steel column and cushion cap joint face are smooth, adjust the jack position, jack supporting surface center is overlapped with steel column joint face center every steel column bottom;
7.) at top cushion cap end face monitoring displacement dial gauge is installed, the dial gauge fastening devices should be guaranteed not interrelate with needing column precipitator and adjacent structure;
8.) paste foil gauge, support with the construction of condition surface at the structure of need displacement or member and steel column simultaneously and paste dummy gauge, and adopt the half-bridge connection method to be connected to the strain testing instrument at the structure of need displacements or member and steel column stayed surface;
9.) strain testing instrument and computer controller are installed;
10.) carry out hierarchical loading by the support of mechanical type jack pair steel column, loading should be carried out synchronously, and guarantee each jack applied force value unanimity, the top lift value that applies in the loading procedure is that the displacement that steel column support strain testing reading, structure produce is that the strain that dial gauge reading and original structure take place is that strain testing reading and calculated value compare, and guarantees the structural safety unloading;
11.) after taking place, one of following situation should stop unloading (three kinds of situations all reach simultaneously under the normal condition),
11.1) the concrete test compressive stress of original structure or member is zero;
11.2) to be loaded into the calculation Design load be that strain value arrive is calculated in the steel column strain to the mechanical type jack;
11.3) the dial gauge reading of displacement monitoring arrives the displacement calculating value;
12.) displacement structure or member, original structure is removed, be replaced into the material or the structure that meet design requirement.
13.) underpin and finish, on the structure of new displacement, paste foil gauge, the reading and the calculated value that support steel column load shedding observation dial gauge and strain testing instrument compare.
CNB2007100222473A 2007-05-11 2007-05-11 Strain computer-controlled beam support and change method Active CN100469996C (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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CN102117364A (en) * 2011-02-28 2011-07-06 苏州市建筑设计研究院有限责任公司 Rib distribution method for beamed bottom plate with bearing platform column cap
CN102605860A (en) * 2011-01-25 2012-07-25 上海市建筑装饰工程有限公司 Gridding information monitoring method for load transmission and deformation of wood beam and wood column
CN103048088A (en) * 2012-12-18 2013-04-17 上海岩土工程勘察设计研究院有限公司 Experiment device for checking force of support shaft and method for checking force of support shaft
CN103758359A (en) * 2014-01-17 2014-04-30 西安建筑科技大学 Safe and reliable construction system for replacing columns by sustaining beams supported by columns and construction method for replacing columns by sustaining beams supported by columns
CN103912137A (en) * 2014-04-18 2014-07-09 江苏东南特种技术工程有限公司 Lifting device for lifting construction for buildings
CN103981816A (en) * 2014-04-15 2014-08-13 河南省公路工程局集团有限公司 Construction method for underpinning of overpass framework pier columns
CN104594654A (en) * 2015-02-02 2015-05-06 南京固强建筑技术有限公司 Building reinforcement reconstruction scheme generation method
CN105133854A (en) * 2015-09-29 2015-12-09 四川省建筑科学研究院 Replacement unloading structure and construction method for vertical component
CN106088652A (en) * 2016-07-20 2016-11-09 叶香雄 The deviation rectification construction method of inclined building
CN106198081A (en) * 2016-07-25 2016-12-07 中铁三局集团广东建设工程有限公司 A kind of multi-point settlement regulation and control monitoring system test loading frame and test method thereof
CN108643600A (en) * 2018-04-27 2018-10-12 湖南城市学院 A method of being suitable for building with brick-concrete structure underground increasing layer
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CN110043060A (en) * 2019-03-29 2019-07-23 杭州通达集团有限公司 A method of landing frame column is changed to beam post structures
CN110259184A (en) * 2019-07-02 2019-09-20 浙江众安建设集团有限公司 Column construction method is pulled out based on Removing Columns combined support jack-up system
CN111021771A (en) * 2019-12-24 2020-04-17 上海市机械施工集团有限公司 Construction method for replacing original building structure with steel structure
CN111122040A (en) * 2019-12-30 2020-05-08 浙江瑞邦科特检测有限公司 Dynamic balance monitoring system in support column replacement
CN111395795A (en) * 2020-03-28 2020-07-10 陕西省建筑科学研究院有限公司 Replacement method of defective concrete shear wall

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CN102605860A (en) * 2011-01-25 2012-07-25 上海市建筑装饰工程有限公司 Gridding information monitoring method for load transmission and deformation of wood beam and wood column
CN102605860B (en) * 2011-01-25 2014-04-16 上海市建筑装饰工程有限公司 Gridding information monitoring method for load transmission and deformation of wood beam and wood column
CN102117364A (en) * 2011-02-28 2011-07-06 苏州市建筑设计研究院有限责任公司 Rib distribution method for beamed bottom plate with bearing platform column cap
CN103048088A (en) * 2012-12-18 2013-04-17 上海岩土工程勘察设计研究院有限公司 Experiment device for checking force of support shaft and method for checking force of support shaft
CN103758359A (en) * 2014-01-17 2014-04-30 西安建筑科技大学 Safe and reliable construction system for replacing columns by sustaining beams supported by columns and construction method for replacing columns by sustaining beams supported by columns
CN103981816A (en) * 2014-04-15 2014-08-13 河南省公路工程局集团有限公司 Construction method for underpinning of overpass framework pier columns
CN103912137A (en) * 2014-04-18 2014-07-09 江苏东南特种技术工程有限公司 Lifting device for lifting construction for buildings
CN103912137B (en) * 2014-04-18 2016-06-15 江苏东南特种技术工程有限公司 The lifting gear of buildings lifting construction
CN104594654A (en) * 2015-02-02 2015-05-06 南京固强建筑技术有限公司 Building reinforcement reconstruction scheme generation method
CN105133854B (en) * 2015-09-29 2017-07-04 四川省建筑科学研究院 The displacement unloading structure and construction method of a kind of vertical member
CN105133854A (en) * 2015-09-29 2015-12-09 四川省建筑科学研究院 Replacement unloading structure and construction method for vertical component
CN106088652A (en) * 2016-07-20 2016-11-09 叶香雄 The deviation rectification construction method of inclined building
CN106198081B (en) * 2016-07-25 2019-01-22 中铁三局集团广东建设工程有限公司 A kind of multi-point settlement regulation monitoring system test loading frame and its test method
CN106198081A (en) * 2016-07-25 2016-12-07 中铁三局集团广东建设工程有限公司 A kind of multi-point settlement regulation and control monitoring system test loading frame and test method thereof
CN108643600B (en) * 2018-04-27 2020-07-10 湖南城市学院 Method suitable for underground storey addition of brick-concrete structure building
CN108643600A (en) * 2018-04-27 2018-10-12 湖南城市学院 A method of being suitable for building with brick-concrete structure underground increasing layer
CN108756292A (en) * 2018-09-05 2018-11-06 山东建筑大学 A kind of building synchronization of jacking up control method and system based on technology of Internet of things
CN110043060A (en) * 2019-03-29 2019-07-23 杭州通达集团有限公司 A method of landing frame column is changed to beam post structures
CN110259184A (en) * 2019-07-02 2019-09-20 浙江众安建设集团有限公司 Column construction method is pulled out based on Removing Columns combined support jack-up system
CN111021771A (en) * 2019-12-24 2020-04-17 上海市机械施工集团有限公司 Construction method for replacing original building structure with steel structure
CN111021771B (en) * 2019-12-24 2021-06-18 上海市机械施工集团有限公司 Construction method for replacing original building structure with steel structure
CN111122040A (en) * 2019-12-30 2020-05-08 浙江瑞邦科特检测有限公司 Dynamic balance monitoring system in support column replacement
CN111395795A (en) * 2020-03-28 2020-07-10 陕西省建筑科学研究院有限公司 Replacement method of defective concrete shear wall

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