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压缩机诊断和保护系统

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CN101052847B
CN101052847B CN 200580013451 CN200580013451A CN101052847B CN 101052847 B CN101052847 B CN 101052847B CN 200580013451 CN200580013451 CN 200580013451 CN 200580013451 A CN200580013451 A CN 200580013451A CN 101052847 B CN101052847 B CN 101052847B
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CN101052847A (zh )
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亨·M·彭
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谷轮公司
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23POTHER WORKING OF METAL; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P15/00Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass
    • B23P15/26Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass heat exchangers or the like
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04CROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; ROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04C28/00Control of, monitoring of, or safety arrangements for, pumps or pumping installations specially adapted for elastic fluids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B49/00Arrangement or mounting of control or safety devices
    • F25B49/005Arrangement or mounting of control or safety devices of safety devices
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04CROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; ROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04C2270/00Control; Monitoring or safety arrangements
    • F04C2270/18Pressure
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04CROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; ROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04C2270/00Control; Monitoring or safety arrangements
    • F04C2270/19Temperature
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04CROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; ROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04C2270/00Control; Monitoring or safety arrangements
    • F04C2270/80Diagnostics
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B1/00Compression machines, plant, or systems with non-reversible cycle
    • F25B1/04Compression machines, plant, or systems with non-reversible cycle with compressor of rotary type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2500/00Problems to be solved
    • F25B2500/06Damage
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2500/00Problems to be solved
    • F25B2500/19Calculation of parameters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2700/00Sensing or detecting of parameters; Sensors therefor
    • F25B2700/15Power, e.g. by voltage or current
    • F25B2700/151Power, e.g. by voltage or current of the compressor motor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2700/00Sensing or detecting of parameters; Sensors therefor
    • F25B2700/19Pressures
    • F25B2700/193Pressures of the compressor
    • F25B2700/1931Discharge pressures
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2700/00Sensing or detecting of parameters; Sensors therefor
    • F25B2700/19Pressures
    • F25B2700/193Pressures of the compressor
    • F25B2700/1933Suction pressures
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2700/00Sensing or detecting of parameters; Sensors therefor
    • F25B2700/21Temperatures
    • F25B2700/2106Temperatures of fresh outdoor air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2700/00Sensing or detecting of parameters; Sensors therefor
    • F25B2700/21Temperatures
    • F25B2700/2115Temperatures of a compressor or the drive means therefor
    • F25B2700/21151Temperatures of a compressor or the drive means therefor at the suction side of the compressor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2700/00Sensing or detecting of parameters; Sensors therefor
    • F25B2700/21Temperatures
    • F25B2700/2115Temperatures of a compressor or the drive means therefor
    • F25B2700/21152Temperatures of a compressor or the drive means therefor at the discharge side of the compressor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2700/00Sensing or detecting of parameters; Sensors therefor
    • F25B2700/21Temperatures
    • F25B2700/2116Temperatures of a condenser
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT COVERED BY ANY OTHER SUBCLASS
    • F25D2400/00General features of, or devices for refrigerators, cold rooms, ice-boxes, or for cooling or freezing apparatus not covered by any other subclass
    • F25D2400/36Visual displays
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/4935Heat exchanger or boiler making
    • Y10T29/49353Heat pipe device making

Abstract

本发明涉及压缩机诊断和保护系统。所述系统包括:压缩机;处理电路;检测指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的高侧数据的第一传感器;以及检测指示致冷电路的低压侧的操作条件的低侧数据的第二传感器。处理电路从第一和第二传感器接收高侧数据和低侧数据,并处理高侧数据和低侧数据中的至少一个,以为压缩机选择操作模式。操作模式包括正常模式、降低容量模式和关断模式。

Description

压縮机诊断和保护系统 [0001](对相关申请的交叉引用)

[0002] 本申请要求在2004年4月27日提交的美国临时申请No. 60/565795的益处。在 此引用上述申请的公开作为参考。

技术领域

[0003] 本教导涉及压縮机,更特别地,涉及改进的供压縮机使用的诊断系统。 背景技术

[0004] 压縮机可用于种类广泛的工业和家庭应用中,以循环致冷装置、热泵、HVAC或冷冻 系统(总称"致冷系统")中的致冷剂,以提供希望的加热或冷却效果。在上述应用中的任 意一种中,压縮机应提供一贯且高效的操作,以保证特定的应用(即,致冷装置、热泵、HVAC 或冷冻系统)正确地运行。

[0005] 家用空调和致冷系统可包括间歇地跳闸(trip)系统的保护装置,这将使户主 (homeowner)感觉不舒适,最终导致服务人员到家中修理系统的失效。保护装置可在检测到 特定的故障或失效时关断压縮机,以保护压縮机不受损坏。另外,如果超过压力极限,那么, 为了关断压縮机以防止损坏压縮机和系统部件,保护装置还可检测压縮机内或压縮机和相 关的系统部件(即,蒸发器、冷凝器等)之间的压力。

[0006] 可导致保护事项的故障的类型包括电气、机械和系统故障。电气故障对压縮机中

的电机有直接的影响,而机械故障一般包含故障轴承或破断的零件。机械故障常常将各个

部件的内部温度升高到较高的水平,由此导致压縮机的故障并可能损坏压縮机。

[0007] 系统故障可归因于诸如设置在系统内的流体的不利的水平的系统条件或压縮机

外面的阻塞流动条件。这些系统条件可将内部压縮机温度或压力升高到较高的水平,由此

损坏压縮机并导致系统无效或失效。为了防止系统和压縮机损坏或失效,可以在存在上述

条件中的任意一种时通过保护系统关断压縮机。

[0008] 常规的保护系统一般作为离散的开关感测温度和/或压力参数,并在经历预定 的温度或压力阈值时中断供给马达的电源。 一般在压縮机中监视的参数包含:马达绕组 的温度、螺旋包套(spiral wrap)或涡巻(scroll)(对于涡巻式压縮机(scroll-type compressor))的温度、排放(discharge)处的压力、引向马达的电流和连续的马达过载条 件。另外,还可监视诸如风扇失效、装载损失或阻塞孔的系统参数,以防止损坏压縮机和系 统。 一般需要多个传感器以测量和监视各个系统和压縮机操作参数。 一般地,测量的各个 参数构成单个传感器,由此产生使用许多传感器的复杂的保护系统。

[0009] 家用致冷系统的大多数共用保护配置使用高/低压断路开关(cutout switch)和

多个传感器以检测压縮机和系统的各个单个操作参数。传感器产生指示压縮机和/或系统

操作参数的信号并将其发送到处理电路,使得处理电路可确定什么时候关断压縮机以防止

损坏。当压縮机或系统经历不利的条件时,处理电路指导断路开关关断压縮机。

[0010] 与常规的系统相关的传感器必须迅速、精确地检测压縮机和/或系统经历的特定的故障。在没有多个传感器的情况下,当经历预定的阈值负载或电流时,常规的系统只会关 断压縮机,由此,在确定问题之前,要求户主或服务人员执行许多试验以正确地诊断故障的 原因。这样,常规的保护装置不能准确地指示特定的故障,因此不能用作诊断工具。

发明内容

[0011] —种系统包括:压縮机;与压縮机驱动连接的马达;确定高侧(highside)操作数 据的第一传感器;确定低侧(low Side)操作数据的第二传感器;以及从第一和第二传感器 接收高侧操作数据和低侧操作数据的处理电路。处理电路处理高侧操作数据和低侧操作数 据中的至少一个,以为压縮机选择操作模式。操作模式包括正常模式、降低容量模式和关断 模式。

[0012] 根据本发明,提供了一种系统,包括:在致冷电路中可操作的压縮机,所述压縮机 具有外壳和设置在所述外壳内的马达;检测指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的电流数据 的第一传感器;检测指示致冷电路的低压侧的操作条件的排放管线温度数据的第二传感 器;和从所述第一和第二传感器接收所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据、并比较所述 电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据中的至少一个的变化率以识别故障。

[0013] 根据本发明,提供了 一种用于致冷电路中的压縮机的控制器,所述控制器包括:检 测指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的电流数据的第一传感器;检测指示致冷电路的低压 侧的操作条件的排放管线温度数据的第二传感器;和从所述第一和第二传感器接收所述电 流数据和所述排放管线温度数据、并比较所述电流数据和排放管线温度数据中的至少一个 的变化率以识别故障。

[0014] 根据本发明,提供了一种方法,包括:存储用于压縮机的正常操作参数;检测指示 所述压縮机的高压侧操作条件的电流数据;检测指示所述压縮机的低压侧操作条件的排放 管线温度数据;处理所述电流数据和排放管线温度数据并比较所述电流数据和所述排放管 线温度数据中的至少一个的变化率以识别故障。

[0015] 根据本发明,提供了一种系统,包括:在致冷电路中可操作并包含马达的压縮机; 提供指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的高侧信号的电流传感器;提供指示致冷电路的低 压侧的操作条件的低侧信号的排放管线温度传感器;和处理所述高侧信号和所述低侧信号 以通过使用所述高侧信号和所述低侧信号的函数来间接确定致冷电路的非测量的冷凝器 温度和蒸发器温度中的至少一个的处理电路。

[0016] 根据本发明,提供了一种方法,包括:检测指示在致冷电路中的压縮机处高压操作 条件的电流数据;检测指示在所述致冷电路中的所述压縮机处低压操作条件的排放管线温 度数据;和处理所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据以通过使用所述电流数据和所述排 放管线温度数据的函数来间接确定所述致冷电路的非测量的冷凝器温度和蒸发器温度中 的至少一个。

[0017] 根据本发明,提供了一种系统,包括:压縮机;与所述压縮机驱动连接的马达;检 测供给所述马达的电流的电流传感器;检测排放管线温度的排放管线温度传感器;和从所 述电流传感器接收电流数据并从所述排放管线温度传感器接收排放管线温度数据、并通过 使用所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据的函数来处理所述电流数据和所述排放管线 温度数据以确定所述系统的效率的处理电路。[0018] 根据本发明,提供了一种方法,包括:检测指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的电 流数据;检测指示所述致冷电路的低压侧的操作条件的排放管线温度数据;处理所述电流 数据和所述排放管线温度数据以间接确定非测量的冷凝器温度和蒸发器温度中的至少一 个;和基于所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度中的至少一个并通过使用所述电流数据和所 述排放管线温度数据的函数来确定所述致冷电路的效率。

[0019] 根据本发明,提供了一种系统,包括:在致冷电路中可操作并包含马达的压縮机; 检测供给所述马达的电流的电流传感器;检测所述压縮机的排放管线温度的排放管线温度 传感器;和从所述电流传感器接收电流数据并从所述排放管线温度传感器接收排放管线温 度数据、并处理所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据以确定所述致冷电路的容量的处理 电路。

[0020] 根据本发明,提供了一种方法,包括:检测指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的电 流数据;检测指示所述致冷电路的低压侧的操作条件的排放管线温度数据;处理所述电流 数据和所述排放管线温度数据以通过使用所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据的函数 来确定不被直接测量的冷凝器温度和蒸发器温度中的至少一个;和基于所述冷凝器温度和 所述蒸发器温度中的至少一个确定所述致冷电路的容量。

[0021] 根据本发明,提供了一种系统,包括:在致冷电路中可操作并包含马达的压縮机; 检测由所述马达吸取的电流并提供高侧条件信号的电流传感器;检测所述压縮机的排放管 线温度并提供低侧条件信号的排放管线温度传感器;和在所述压縮机的安装过程中处理所 述高侧条件信号和所述低侧条件信号以基于通过使用所述高侧条件和所述低侧条件信号 的函数来确定的所述致冷电路的非测量的冷凝器温度和非测量的蒸发器温度中的至少一 个以初始配置所述压縮机的处理电路。

[0022] 根据本发明,提供了一种方法,包括:检测指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的电 流数据;检测指示所述致冷电路的低压侧的操作条件的排放管线温度数据;处理所述电流 数据和所述排放管线温度信号以通过使用所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度信号的函数 来间接确定所述致冷电路的非测量的冷凝器温度和非测量的蒸发器温度中的至少一个;和 基于所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度中的至少一个配置压縮机。

[0023] 通过下面给出的详细说明,本教导的适用性的其它领域将变得显而易见。应当理 解,详细说明和特定的例子仅仅是为了解释,其目的不在于限定本教导的范围。

附图说明

[0024] 通过详细的说明和附图,可更全面地理解本教导,其中:

[0025] 图1是根据本教导的原理的压縮机的透视图;

[0026] 图2是包含根据本教导的原理的保护系统的图1的压縮机的截面图;

[0027] 图3是包含根据本教导的原理的保护系统的图1的压縮机的截面图;

[0028] 图4是包含根据本教导的保护系统的压縮机的截面图;

[0029] 图5是排放过热与吸入过热的关系的图形表示;

[0030] 图6是表示排放管线温度随吸入温度升高而变化的图形表示;

[0031] 图7是表示排放管线温度升高反映吸入压力快速下降的图形表示;

[0032] 图8是表示压縮机操作的三个阶段:启动、准稳态和稳态的图形表示;[0033] 图9是图2的保护系统的示意图;

[0034] 图10是说明图9的保护系统的高侧(high-side)控制算法的流程图;

[0035] 图11是说明图9的保护系统的低侧(low-side)控制算法的流程图;

[0036] 图12是由正常条件下的压縮机排放管线温度与低致冷剂装载条件(charge

condition)的关系曲线表示的低侧传感器响应的图形表示;

[0037] 图13是其它故障模式如何在压縮机启动后的第一个30〜60秒的周期以及更长

时间的周期中被排放管线温度传感器有区分地检测的图形表示;

[0038] 图14是基于相对比正常的高的测量电流值的高侧故障的图形表示;

[0039] 图15是压縮机的操作模式的图形表示;

[0040] 图16是被加入热泵系统中的图1的压縮机的示意图;

[0041] 图17是被加入网络中的效率监视系统的示意图;

[0042] 图18是表示供图9的保护系统使用的故障树的流程图;

[0043] 图19是压縮机功率与冷凝温度的关系的图形表示;

[0044] 图20是排放管线温度与蒸发器温度的关系的图形表示;

[0045] 图21是压縮机质量流(mass flow)与排放管线温度的关系的图形表示;

[0046] 图22是详述压縮机容量和效率算法的流程图;

[0047] 图23是压縮机容量与冷凝器温度的关系的图形表示;

[0048] 图24是压縮机功率与环境温度的关系的图形表示;

[0049] 图25是压縮机效率与冷凝器温度的关系的图形表示;

[0050] 图26是百分比冷凝器温差与百分比容量的关系的图形表示;

[0051] 图27是基于冷凝器温差的高侧诊断的示意表示;

[0052] 图28是基于排放过热的低侧诊断的示意表示;

[0053] 图29是用于压縮机安装的流程图;

[0054] 图30是根据本教导的原理的效率监视系统的流程图;

[0055] 图31是供图29的压縮机安装过程使用的排放管线温度减环境温度与环境温度的 关系的图形表示;

[0056] 图32是供图29的压縮机安装过程使用的电流与环境温度的关系的图形表示。 具体实施方式

[0057] 以下说明本质上仅是示例性的,其意图决不是限制本教导、其应用或用途。 [0058] 参照附图,压縮机IO包括压縮机保护和控制系统12,该压縮机保护和控制系统12 用于基于感测的压縮机参数确定压縮机10的操作模式,以在条件不利时通过限制操作保 护压縮机10。保护和控制系统12在包含常规模式、降低容量模式和关断模式的操作模式之 间转换(toggle)压縮机。压縮机10将被描述为和示为涡巻(scroll)压縮机,但应理解, 任何类型的压縮机可与保护和控制系统12 —起使用。并且,虽然将在致冷系统11的上下 文中说明压縮机10,但压縮机10可类似地被加入诸如但不限于热泵、HVAC或冷冻系统的其 它这种系统中。

[0059] 特别参照图1〜4,压縮机10被示为包含在顶部具有焊接顶盖16的大致为圆筒 状的密封外壳14和具有在底部焊接的多个底脚(feet) 20的基座(base) 18。顶盖16和基

14座18装配到外壳14,使得限定压縮机10的内部体积22。如图2〜4最好地示出的那样, 顶盖16具有排放配件24,而外壳14类似地具有一般被配置在顶盖16和基座18之间的入 口配件26。另外,如下面进一步讨论的那样,电气外罩28被牢固地固定到一般在顶盖16和 基座18之间的外壳14上,并可操作地支持其中的保护系统12的一部分。 [0060] 曲轴30相对于外壳14被电马达32旋转驱动。马达32包含由密封外壳14牢固 地支持的定子34、穿过其中的绕组36和在曲轴30上压配合的转子38。马达32和相关的 定子34、绕组36和转子38是可操作的,以相对于外壳14驱动曲轴30,由此压縮流体。 [0061] 压縮机IO还包含用于接收和压縮流体的在其上表面上具有螺旋叶片或包套 (wrap) 42的绕动涡巻构件(orbiting scroll member) 40。十字滑块联轴器(Oldham coupling) 44位于绕动涡巻构件40和轴承箱46之间,并被用键固定到绕动涡巻构件40和 非绕动涡巻构件48上。十字滑块联轴器44将旋转力从曲轴30传输到绕动涡巻构件40上, 由此压縮设置在绕动涡巻构件40和非绕动涡巻构件48之间的流体。十字滑块联轴器44 及其与绕动涡巻构件40和非绕动涡巻构件48的交互作用优选是在受让人的共有的美国专 利No. 5, 320, 506中公开的类型,这里加入该发明的公开作为参考。

[0062] 非绕动涡巻构件48还包含被定位为与绕动涡巻构件40的包套42啮合的包套50。 非绕动涡巻构件48具有与向上开放的凹座54连通的中心设置的排放通道52。凹座54与 由顶盖16和间壁56限定的排放配件24流体连通,使得受压縮的流体经由通道52、凹座54 和配件24离开外壳14。非绕动涡巻构件48被设计为以诸如在上述美国专利No. 4, 877, 382 或美国专利No. 5, 102, 316中公开的适当方式被安装到轴承箱46上,在此加入这些专利的 公开作为参考。

[0063] 现在参照图2和图3,电气外罩28包含下壳58、上壳60和空腔62。下壳58通过 使用多个被焊接或另外牢固地固定到外壳14上的柱头螺栓64被安装到外壳14上。上壳 60以相配的方式被下壳58容纳并限定其间的空腔62。空腔62可以是可操作的,以容纳压 縮机保护和控制系统12的各个部件。

[0064] 特别参照图4,压縮机10被示为两步压縮机,该两步压縮机具有有选择地将绕动 涡巻构件40与非绕动涡巻构件48分开以调节压縮机10的容量的致动组件51。致动组件 51可包含与绕动涡巻构件40连接的螺线管53和与螺线管53耦合的控制器55,该控制器 用于控制螺线管53在伸出位置和縮回位置之间的移动。

[0065] 螺线管53在伸出位置的移动将绕动涡巻构件40的包套42与非绕动涡巻构件48 的包套50分开,以减少压縮机10的输出。相反,螺线管53的縮回移动绕动涡巻构件40的 包套42使其更接近非绕动涡巻构件48的包套50,以增加压縮机10的输出。这样,可以根 据需要或响应故障条件调节压縮机10的容量。致动组件51优选是在受让人的共有的美国 专利No. 6, 412, 293中公开的类型,这里加入该发明的公开作为参考。

[0066] 参照图2〜ll,保护和控制系统12 —般包含一对传感器66、68、处理电路70和电 力中断系统72。保护和控制系统12的传感器66、68检测系统11的累积参数,以在正常和 异常故障条件下诊断操作条件和故障。由于处理电路70通过分析由传感器66、68中的一 个或两个检测的数据之间的趋势和关系诊断压縮机10和系统11的条件,因此由传感器66、 68检测的参数称为累积传感器。另外,处理电路70可与控制器55通信,以基于由传感器 66、68检测的系统条件或由处理电路70确定的故障控制压縮机调节。[0067] 传感器66 —般提供与诸如压縮机机械失效、马达失效和电气部件失效的高侧故 障有关的诊断,这些电气部件失效诸如失相位(missingphase)、反相位、马达绕组电流失 衡、开路、低电压、锁定的转子电流、过高的马达绕组温度、焊接或打开的接触器和短循环。 传感器66监视压縮机电流和电压,以确定和区分机械失效、马达失效和电气部件失效,并 可如图2所示被安装到电气箱28中,或如图3所示被加入压縮机10的外壳14内。在任一 种情况下,诸如在受让人的共有的美国专利No. 6615594和在2004年12月30日提交的、要 求在2003年12月30日提交的美国临时专利申请No. 60/533236的益处的美国专利申请 No. 11/027757中公开的那样,传感器66监视压縮机10吸取的电流并产生指示其的信号,在 此引入这些专利的公开作为参考。

[0068] 虽然这里所述的传感器66可提供压縮机电流信息,但控制系统12也可包含安装 在排放压力区中的排放压力传感器13或安装在诸如冷凝器的外部系统中的温度传感器 15 (图16)。上述传感器中的任一个或全部可与传感器66 —起使用,以向控制系统12提供 额外的系统信息。

[0069] 传感器66向保护和控制系统12提供不需要遍及压縮机10和系统11设置的独立 的传感器就能迅速检测诸如系统风扇失效或致冷剂超载的高侧故障的能力。例如,由于在 给定的电压下被压縮机10吸取的电流随高侧压力迅速增加,因此,在压縮机10吸取额外的 电流时,压縮机10的高侧的压力增加被迅速检测到,并被报告给处理电路70。例如,当内部 压縮机部件经历诸如锁定转子条件的故障时,压縮机马达32在努力使锁定条件自由的过 程中吸取额外的电流。当马达32吸取额外的电流时,传感器66检测所吸取电流的增加并 通知处理电路70。

[0070] —般地,传感器66测量由马达32吸取的电流并指示系统11内的诸如致冷剂超 载、热交换器线圈变脏或冷凝器风扇失效的系统高侧故障。上述故障中的每一种导致压縮 机10增加致冷剂的压力以在整个系统11中对致冷剂加压。例如,当热交换器线圈阻塞、冷 凝器风扇被卡住或致冷剂超载时,系统11内的致冷剂不完全汽化,并且压縮机10被强制推 动液相致冷剂使其穿过系统11。

[0071] 由于液体致冷剂受到更大的摩擦阻力(S卩,在致冷剂和系统11的管道之间),因 此,与移动汽化的致冷剂使其穿过系统11相比,压縮机10移动液体致冷剂使其穿过同一系 统11的工作更加繁重。并且,液体致冷剂比汽化的致冷剂更致密,因此比等量的汽化致冷 剂需要更大的冷凝器压力。当强制压縮机10更繁重地工作时,马达32吸取额外的电流,这 被传感器66检测到并被报告给处理电路70。

[0072] 传感器68 —般提供诸如致冷剂低负载、管口堵塞、蒸发器吹风机失效或压縮机泄 漏的与低侧故障有关的诊断。传感器68可被设置在与压縮机10的排放出口 24或排放通 道52(图4)附近的位置,并监视离开压縮机10的压縮流体的排放管线温度。如图2所示, 传感器68可位于压縮机出口配件24附近, 一般在压縮机外壳14外面。在将传感器68定 位在外壳14的外面时,通过向传感器68提供很容易地适于供实际中任何压縮机使用和在 任何系统中使用的能力,使压縮机和系统设计变得灵活。

[0073] 虽然传感器68可提供排放管线温度信息,但控制系统12也可包含吸入压力传感 器17或低侧温度传感器19(即,安装在压縮机10的入口的附近或安装在诸如蒸发器的外 部系统中)。上述传感器的任何一种或全部可与传感器68 —起使用,以向控制系统12提供额外的系统信息。

[0074] 虽然传感器68可位于压縮机10的外壳14的外面,但也可类似地如图3所示在压 縮机10的外壳14内测量压縮机10的排放温度。可以使用一般在排放配件24采集的排放 端口温度以代替图2中所示的排放管线温度配置。密封端子组件74可与这种内部排放温 度传感器一起使用,以保持压縮机外壳14的密封本性,并可容易地被密封端子组件容纳。 [0075] 传感器68向保护和控制系统12提供不需要遍及压縮机10和系统11设置的独立 的压力和吸入温度传感器就能够迅速检测诸如吹风机失效或致冷剂装载损失的低侧故障 的能力。传感器68检测并监视排放管线温度,因而是压縮热的强的累积点。因此,传感器 68能够迅速检测压縮机10内的温度的升高并将信号发送给处理电路70。 [0076] 排放管线温度升高的一般原因包含:致冷剂装载损失;或致冷剂的流量由于吹风 机失效受限制;或者,由于进入压縮机10的低侧或吸入侧的致冷剂的量减少,管口阻塞。当 致冷剂的流量减少时,由压縮机马达32和相关的内部部件消耗的电力超过压縮进入的致 冷剂所需要的量,由此导致压縮机10的马达32和相关的内部产部件温度升高。升高的马 达和部件温度部分散失到被压縮致冷剂中,该被压縮致冷剂从而与在正常的操作条件下相 比过热。在致冷剂通过排放配件24离开外壳14时,传感器68检测被压縮致冷剂温度的升 高。

[0077] 图5给出排放过热和吸入过热之间的关系。 一般地,排放过热和吸入过热之间的 关系在大多数低侧故障条件下一般为线性,并由下式控制,其中SHd是排放过热,SHS是吸入 过热,T^是环境温度:

[0078] SHd = (1. 3 * SHs+30° F) + (0. 5 * (1^—95° F))

[0079] 吸入过热和排放过热之间的一般呈线性的关系使得,即使传感器68被设置在压 縮机10的出口附近,传感器68也能够迅速检测吸入过热的增加。在图6中进一步示出排 放温度和吸入温度之间的关系,这种关系表示排放管线温度是如何受吸入管线温度升高影 响的。图6中所示的关系使得,即使传感器68被设置在压縮机10的出口附近,传感器68 也能够迅速检测由较高的吸入温度导致的低侧故障(诸如低装载条件或管口阻塞)。 [0080] 除了确定与吸入温度的升高有关的低侧故障,传感器68还能够检测与吸入压力 的变化有关的故障。图7表示对于诸如装载损失或压縮机高低漏泄(high-low leak)的低 侧故障吸入压力如何迅速降低。如图7所示,吸入压力的迅速降低导致吸入的同时增加,由 此导致排放管线温度的上升。因此,如下面进一步参照图12和图13说明的那样,控制系统 12能够基于来自传感器68的读数报告(declare)低侧故障(诸如受限的热膨胀值)。 [0081] 当压縮机10在经过足够长的关闭期之后被初始启动时,由于压縮机10还必须循 环致冷剂使其穿过系统,因此初始排放管线温度一般接近环境温度。为了适应不同的环境 (即,不同的环境条件),并且为了减少环境对传感器68迅速、精确地监视排放管线温度的 能力的影响,传感器68在压縮机10启动后的第一个三十到六十秒内监视排放管线温度的 上升。

[0082] 传感器使得压縮机10不必在取得温度读数之前达到稳态。例如,在低侧故障的条 件下,吸入压力在压縮机操作的第一个三十到六十秒内降低最快。吸入压力的降低导致更 高的压縮比和更严重的过热。在压縮机操作的第一个三十到六十秒内,过热由传感器68检 测。如果没有这种配置,传感器68会变得对周围的环境敏感,由此增加传感器68必须等待取得温度读数的时间。通过在启动后很快取得温度读数(即,在三十到六十秒内),传感器 68能够与环境条件无关地迅速、一贯地检测诸如吸入压力损失的低侧故障。 [0083] —般而言,高侧或低侧传感器值随压縮机10的三个基本的操作阶段即启动、准稳 态和稳态阶段变化。在各个阶段取得的值可由控制系统12使用以监视和诊断高侧和低侧 故障。例如,图8表示在示例性压縮机10的启动、准稳态和稳态阶段中的高侧或低侧传感 器的曲线图。对于正常的曲线,排放管线温度和电流在启动的第一个六十秒内一般应逐渐 增加,并应在会花费约10分钟的准稳态阶段中开始变得线性更好。 一旦进入稳态阶段,曲 线就应恒定(即,由传感器66、68取得的读数不变),并且,除非环境温度突然改变,应在压 縮机10的整个操作中保持这种状态。通过监视传感器66、68随时间的变化速率,可以为各 种操作环境温度确定各个时间周期(即,启动、准稳态和稳态)。

[0084] 例如,当传感器66、68检测到电流和/或排放管线温度的突然变化时,可以为以加 热模式操作的热泵检测除霜周次。电流和排放管线温度的变化是压縮机io停止操作以使 得系统11能够执行除霜的结果。因此,与处理电路70结合的传感器66、68能够在压縮机 启动、准稳态和稳态操作条件下检测除霜周次。

[0085] 如果实现的除霜周次没有达到预定的时间量(即,一般大于六个小时的压縮机运 行时间),那么控制系统12可报告换向阀被卡住。当没有实现稳态使得传感器66、68达不 到稳定的状态时,控制12系统会报告热膨胀阀"摆动(hunting)"。当热膨胀阀连续调整其 位置时,该阀被视为"摆动"(即,对稳态位置的"摆动")。

[0086] 对于低侧故障,与正常的曲线相比,排放管线温度在启动期间更迅速地升高。因 此,在准稳态和稳态阶段期间实现更高的传感器值。因此,控制系统12能够在启动期间基 于排放管线温度急剧上升迅速确定低侧故障,然后,还能够当在准稳态和稳态两个阶段期 间也实现比正常高的条件时确认该故障。

[0087] 传感器68在吸入和/或排放压力的响应最能代表系统故障的周期中监视压縮机 10的排放管线温度。换句话说,根据感测的温度和获得温度的时间之间的相关关系,指示特 定的故障。排放管线温度一般随压縮比和吸入过热升高。因此,可通过分析不同的排放管 线温度特征,区分诸如流量管口 (flow orifice)受限、系统风扇失效(S卩,蒸发器或冷凝器 风扇等)、致冷剂装载损失或压縮机内部泄漏的几种特定的低侧系统故障。图12表示由正 常条件下的压縮机排放管线温度与低致冷剂装载条件的关系曲线表示的低侧传感器响应 的例子。可以看出,在第一个三十到六十秒期间以及在正常和低侧故障模式之间的稳态条 件期间,排放管线温度的升高明显不同。图13表示所有其它的故障模式如何在压縮机启动 后的第一个三十到六十秒的周期以及更长时间的周期中被传感器68有区分地检测的另一 示图。

[0088] 可以根据需要调整三十到六十秒的时间周期以通过使用环境温度传感器(下面 说明)容纳热泵的冷却和加热模式之间的差别。应当注意,在容量可变的压縮机的情况下, 还能够对各个容量段将该时间周期设为不同。如下面进一步讨论的那样,通过比较由传感 器66产生的信号和用传感器68产生的信号,可以通过处理电路70精确、迅速地区分低侧 和高侧故障。

[0089] 如图10和图11所示,由传感器66、68产生的高侧和低侧信号分别被发送到处理 电路70以将操作参数与基线(base-line)参数相比较。基线参数在安装压縮机10时被确

18定,以为压縮机10和系统11确定"正常"或无故障的操作条件。

[0090] 在安装时,确定压縮机电流与时间的关系的"特征",用于区分诸如冷凝器风扇失 效的高侧故障和致冷剂过载。压縮机电流与时间的关系的"特征"称为系统的基线读数 (BL),并用于确定故障条件。可以通过在初始安装后的第一个24〜48个小时的操作中自 适应地检测正常、无故障电流与环境温度的关系,避免为特定的压縮机尺寸或安装校准传 感器66。

[0091] 电流对时间的无故障特征向处理电路70提供用于比较由传感器66、68感测的电 流的基线。例如,当如图14所示感测的电流超过该初始基线值预定量时,处理电路70将报 告高侧故障。应当注意,除了传感器66,由于现场(field)中的电压波动,考虑到电流的调 整,可能进一步需要电压感测。

[0092] 提供环境温度传感器76,用于计算压縮机电流与时间的关系,由此,环境温度传感 器76提供给定环境的环境温度。为了降低成本,也可以直接在提供处理电路70的控制器 的电路板上加入环境传感器76。作为替代方案,可以通过对排放管线温度、感测的环境温度 读数和压縮机关闭时间执行回归方程拟合,确定给定环境的环境温度。并且,由于环境温度 在压縮机操作的第一个十到十五分钟通常不变化,因此在压縮机启动时确定的初始排放管 线温度值可被用作环境温度的近似值。

[0093] 特别参照图9〜17,将详细说明保护和控制系统12的操作。 一般而言,压縮机保 护和控制系统12使用压縮机10作为具有两个累积参数的系统传感器。由于高侧故障一般 导致比低侧故障快的响应,因此,优先级是首先使用压縮机电流,以确定在着手确定任何低 侧故障之前是否存在高侧故障。这样,压縮机保护和控制系统12能够迅速感测和区分高侧 故障和低侧故障。

[0094] 图16表示被加入具有蒸发器线圈80、冷凝器82、蒸发器风扇84、冷凝器风扇86和 膨胀装置88的热泵系统11的压縮机10。保护和控制系统12被加入系统11中,以检测和 区分诸如系统风扇失效或致冷剂过载的高侧故障和诸如蒸发器或冷凝器风扇失效和低致 冷剂装载的低侧故障。

[0095] 在安装时,确定用于区分高侧故障的压縮机电流对时间的基线特征。 一旦基线得 到确定,与传感器66、68组合的处理电路70就用于监视和诊断特定的压縮机和系统故障。 处理电路70与传感器66、68 —起工作,以指导电力中断系统72在正常操作模式、降低容量 模式和关断模式之间转换(toggle)压縮机。

[0096] 在图10和图11中给出传感器66、68的控制算法。应当注意,图IO和图11中的 限定各个高侧和低侧故障的数据范围本质上是示例性的,因此可以为不同的系统被修改。 [0097] 在启动压縮机10时,传感器66测量相对电流(S卩,与基线相比),以确定是否存在 高侧故障。处理电路70从传感器66接收电流和电压数据,并将数据处理成随时间变化的 电力消耗的特征。特别地,处理电路70接收电流和电压数据,并由下式确定功率(VA) :VA =电流*电压。然后,在正常/无故障操作条件下,将功率值(VA)与在安装时确定的基线 特征(BL)相比较。

[0098] 如果对于操作的第一个30秒由马达32吸取的电力比基线特征(随时间变化的电 流)大约1.3倍,那么处理电路70确定高侧故障。如图IO和图14所示,处理电路70基于 相对比标称的高的测量电流值(即,基线特征的约1.3倍)确定高侧故障(致冷剂过载或冷凝器线圈变脏)。相反,处理电路70基于相对比标称的低的测量电流(即,基线特征的约

0. 9倍)确定低侧故障(低致冷剂或蒸发器线圈变脏)。

[0099] 如果在操作的30秒内检测值比基线特征大约1. 5倍,并且在第一个十分钟后由马 达32吸取的电流比基线值小约0. 7倍,那么处理电路70指示不同的高侧失效模式。特别 地,如图14最好地示出的那样,如果对于第一个30秒由马达32吸取的电流比基线值大约

1. 5倍,并且在第一个十分钟后由马达32吸取的电流比基线值小约0. 7倍,那么处理电路 70指示冷凝器风扇失效。这种明显的变化被检测为由于压縮机马达失速和反向导致的条 件。在任一种情况下,处理电路70将指导电力中断系统72限制供给压縮机10的电力,以 停止操作或使得压縮机10能够以降低容量运行。

[0100] 传感器68与传感器68 —起工作,以向处理电路70提供足够的信息以在启动的30 秒内迅速、精确地确定压縮机和系统操作参数。在启动的第一个30秒内,传感器68测量排 放管线温度并产生指示其的信号。如图15所示,信号被发送给处理电路70,以为压縮机确 定适当的操作模式(即,正常模式、降低容量模式或关断模式)。

[0101] 如图13最好地示出的那样,如果压縮机启动后的感测的温度上升大于例如70度 (正常的大致1. 5倍),并且十分钟后功率消耗小于约0. 9倍的基线值,那么报告低装载或 阻塞管口故障。如图13最好地示出的那样,如果在操作的第一个30秒内感测的温度上升 小于50度、但在操作的15分钟后大于100度,使得在操作的十分钟后功率值小于约0. 9倍 的基线,那么报告吹风机失效或热膨胀值失效。如果在操作的第一个30秒后感测的温度小 于45度、但在操作的第一个15分钟后大于25度,使得在操作的十分钟后功率值小于约0. 9 倍的基线,那么报告吹风机失效或阻塞管口故障。最后,如果感测的温度小于25度,使得在 操作的十分钟后功率值小于约0. 9倍的基线,那么报告压縮机泄漏。

[0102] 如果处理电路70确定压縮机10和系统11在预定的操作参数内运行,那么系统70 将允许压縮机10和系统11的操作。处理电路70与传感器66、68—起工作,以区分高侧和 低侧压縮机和系统故障。另外,处理电路70和传感器66、68用于区分特定的高侧和低侧故 障,以将户主或服务人员引导到特定的压縮机或系统故障。在这样做时,优先级是在着手确 定任何低侧故障前首先使用压縮机电流以确定是否存在高侧故障。这样,可以在哪种故障 首先发生方面随时间区分两种故障(即,高侧和低侧),以迅速、精确地确定特定的高侧或 低侧故障。

[0103] 保护和控制系统12还包含多个发光器件(LED)以就压縮机和系统10、 12的状态 向用户报警。如图1和图9所示,在一种配置中,系统12包括绿光LED、黄光LED、和红光 LED 90、92、94。当压縮机在正常的条件下运行且传感器66、68没有检测到任何故障时,绿 光LED 90变亮。黄光LED 92变亮以指示系统故障。特别地,如果传感器66、68通过使用 上面讨论的控制算法检测到故障条件,那么处理电路70将使黄光LED 92变亮以向用户报 警系统故障。应当注意,当检测到系统故障、但压縮机10在其它方面正常运行时,黄光LED 92将变亮,以表示压縮机10在预定的可接受参数内运行但系统11正经受与系统有关的故 障。

[0104] 当压縮机10经受内部压縮机故障时只有红光LED 94变亮。这样,当压縮机10和 系统11均经受故障时,黄光和红光LED 92、94均变亮。当检测到压縮机故障时,将只有红 光LED 94变亮。总之,绿光、黄光、和红光LED 90、92、94独立地变亮,以特别地区分压縮机

20和系统故障。这种区别证明是对用户或修理人员有用的工具。例如,用户或修理人员可迅速观察在压縮机10的电气箱28上显示的LED 90、92、94,并迅速诊断问题。可以理解,这种诊断系统防止不正确的诊断和对运行的压縮机的不必要的更换。

[0105] 处理电路70除了使LED 90、92、94变亮外还可将压縮机和系统故障状态和数据传达给中央系统。换句话说,处理电路70可与网络IOO连接以提供压縮机和系统操作参数(图17)。压縮机和系统操作参数可被网络100收集和分析,以预测和免受未来的压縮机和/或系统故障。例如,如果压縮机10在某些循环周次上或这些循环周次附近经受封条(seal)破断,那么操作者可计划在关断周期中维修压縮机IO,而不是在正常的使用中关断压縮机10和系统11。可以理解,这种预定的维修防止在正常的使用中关断压縮机10和系统11,由此增加压縮机和系统效率。

[0106] 系统控制器可通过独立地检查其它传感器的状态和诸如风扇速度、油温等的可以使用的分量确认处理电路70的诊断。例如,系统控制器可基于控制器可用的风扇速度数据确认处理电路70的风扇失效测定。

[0107] 网络100除了包括系统控制器外,还可包括在图17中示意地示为71的诸如个人数据助理或小型手机的手持计算装置。手持计算装置71可由技术人员或修理人员使用以与处理电路70通信。例如,手持装置向技术人员或修理人员提供在当地(即,在现场)或从远程位置即刻检查压縮机操作条件(即,例如,排放管线温度和电流数据)的能力。可以理解,由于可以在设施内的任何位置迅速请求和接收压縮机操作数据,因此,当多个压縮机10与大型网络100上的系统控制器连接时,这种装置变得有用。

[0108] 如上面讨论的那样,处理电路70从各个传感器66、68接收高侧和低侧信号,以通过电力中断系统72规定压縮机模式。电流感测(即,传感器66)和排放管线温度(即,传感器68)的组合提供执行"智能"系统保护的机会。

[0109] 智能系统向保护和控制系统12提供区分"软"保护和"硬"保护的能力。例如,如图15所示,在检测到低侧故障时,"软"模式会在使得压縮机10能够以降低方式操作的努力中用间歇的功率限制允许压縮机继续操作。假如降低操作被视为安全,那么允许压縮机10的降低操作在修理之前提供连续的致冷(或在热泵应用中提供连续的加热)。可以通过使用致动组件51实现压縮机10的这种操作。

[0110] 例如,如果特定的低侧故障允许压縮机10在降低容量下操作(S卩,所谓的"沿跛模式(limp-along mode)",那么,通过控制器55,致动组件51可通过螺线管53和绕动涡巻构件40之间的交互作用将绕动涡巻包套42与非绕动涡巻包套50分开。绕动涡巻包套42与非绕动涡巻包套50的分开允许压縮机容量减少,并因此使得压縮机10能够在某些低侧故障中操作。

[0111] 但是,如图15所示,如果检测到严重的高温低侧故障(S卩,排放管线温度高于260° F),或者严重的低温低侧故障(即,排放管线温度低于135° F),那么处理电路70将引导电力中断系统72将压縮机10放在关断模式,直到执行修理。

[0112] 虽然图15示出低侧故障的操作温度范围,但应理解,限定低侧故障的压縮机操作模式的温度范围可取决于特定的压縮机10或系统11。换句话说,限定正常、降低容量和关断模式的特定范围可根据特定的压縮机10和应用而改变。可以通过使用特定的高侧故障产生类似的用于限定正常、降低容量和关断模式的图。这种配置会限定压縮机的可接受的功率消耗范围,并因此会规定压縮机10可在降低容量模式下继续操作而不导致损坏的可接受的故障。同样,限定可接受的操作参数的高侧范围可类似地根据特定的压縮机10和系统11波动。

[0113] 处理电路70能够通过获知特定的高侧或低侧故障的原因为压縮机10规定特定的操作模式。例如,如果电路70获知特定的低侧故障将在45分钟内跳闸(trip)内部保护器102,那么压縮机10会继续安全运行约30分钟。这种故障将压縮机10放在"软"模式,由此处理电路70引导电力中断系统72将供给压縮机10的电力限制为30分钟,以避免跳闸内部保护器102并/或通过致动组件51将绕动涡巻包套42与非绕动涡巻包套48分开。[0114]"硬"模式中断(disrupt)供给压縮机10的电力,以有效地关断进一步的操作,直到执行维护和修理。仅在必须进行以保护压縮机和系统10、11以及防止大修的情况下才采用"硬"模式。同样,处理电路70获知是否可接受连续操作的唯一方法是获知故障的特定原因。在"硬"模式的情况下,处理电路70引导电力中断系统72限制供给压縮机10的所有电力,由此将压縮机10放在关断模式。

[0115] 除了感测和诊断高侧和低侧故障,压縮机保护和控制系统12还向用户提供跟踪和控制压縮机10的功率消耗和能量使用的能力。图17表示将功率消耗算法加入网络100中的示意图。监视和存储电流和电压数据使得用户能够估计压縮机功率消耗。特别地,通过将电压乘以电流,可以确定压縮机和系统10、 11的功率消耗。

[0116] 通过将电压和电流的乘积乘以估计的功率因子,可精确地确定压縮机10和系统11的功率消耗。功率因子基本上校正从需给电表(utility meter)供给的功率读数,并提供消耗的实际功率的指示(即,由压縮机10消耗的实际功率)。可以对时间积分功率数据,以提供诸如瓦特每天/月的能量使用数据。这种数据对于能量和系统执行分析是有用的。[0117] 如上所述,压縮机保护和控制系统12从传感器68接收排放管线温度数据,并从传感器66接收电流数据,以确定和区分高侧和低侧故障。该信息一般用于确定和区分高侧和低侧故障,以更好地诊断压縮机和系统失效。除了上述的方面,这种信息还可用于确定与压縮机10和系统11有关的其它操作参数。特别地,排放管线温度数据和电流数据可用于确定冷凝器温度、蒸发器温度、吸入过热、排放过热、压縮机容量和压縮机效率。如下面进一步说明的那样,这种信息在优化压縮机和系统操作中以及在使压縮机安装简化和流线型化中是有用的。

[0118] 参照图18,给出故障树IIO,该故障树IIO通过使用诸如冷凝器温度和蒸发器温度的变量,说明压縮机保护和控制系统12如何使用排放管线温度和电流信息以确定与压縮机操作有关的特定故障。如下面进一步说明的那样,从通过传感器66、68获得的排放管线温度和电流数据确定蒸发器和冷凝器温度。

[0119] 当系统11经受不充分的冷却或不经受冷却条件时,系统12确定压縮机10已失效、正在运行但周次在保护器上、还是正在运行但是是以降低容量。如果压縮机IO已失效,那么控制系统12区分电气失效和机械失效。如果失效被认为是电气失效,那么系统12检查压縮机马达和相关的电气部件。如果失效被认为是机械失效,那么系统12检查锁定的转子条件。

[0120] 如果压縮机10正在运行但是周次在保护器上,那么系统12确定系统是否正经受低电压条件。另外,系统12还对高冷凝器温度/高电流条件或低蒸发器温度/低电流条件进行检查。如果高冷凝器温度/高电流条件被确定,那么报告高侧故障。如果低蒸发器温度/低电流条件被确定,那么报告低侧故障。如果低蒸发器温度/低电流条件连同高排放温度一起被确定,那么系统12还能够报告故障为装载损失、管口阻塞或吹风机/热膨胀值失效。如果低蒸发器温度/低电流条件连同低排放温度一起被确定,那么系统12还能够报告故障为吹风机/管口失效或管口尺寸过大。

[0121] 如果压縮机10正在运行但是是以降低容量,那么系统12对高蒸发器/低电流条件进行检查。如果高蒸发器温度/低电流条件伴随低排放温度,那么系统12报告内部压縮机高低泄漏。

[0122] 上面的故障树110除了依赖于电流和排放温度读数外还依赖于蒸发器温度和冷凝器温度读数,以确定压縮机10或系统11经受的故障。系统12可通过使用设置在蒸发器80或冷凝器82中的每一个中的温度或压力传感器获得这种信息。在这种系统中,温度或压力读数由单个的传感器简单地读取,并被传输给处理电路70用于处理,或可从另一系统控制器获得。另外,使用这些传感器虽然有效,但增加整个系统开销的成本和复杂性。[0123] 作为使用这些传感器的优选替代方案,本系统12可替代性地仅基于从传感器66、68接收的排放管线温度和电流信息确定蒸发器温度和冷凝器温度。参照图19,该图表示压縮机功率随蒸发器温度(TCTap)和冷凝器温度(T。。nd)的变化关系。如图所示,不管蒸发器温度如何,功率都保持相当恒定。因此,虽然精确的蒸发器温度是由二阶(degree)多项式(即,二次函数)确定的,但为了控制,蒸发器温度可由一阶多项式(即,线性函数)确定,并可例如在冷却模式中被近似为大致45。 F。换句话说,当确定冷凝器温度时,与选择不正确的蒸发器温度有关的误差极小。

[0124] 图19包括Y轴上的压縮机功率和X轴上的冷凝器温度。压縮机功率P是通过应用下面的公式确定的,其中,A是由传感器66获得的测量的压縮机电流,V是测量的电压V(由电压传感器获得):[0125] P = V*A

[0126] 冷凝器温度是对单个压縮机计算的,因此是压縮机型号和尺寸所特有的。在确定冷凝器温度中使用以下的等式,其中P是压縮机功率,C0〜C9是压縮机特有的常数、T。。nd是冷凝器温度,TCTap是蒸发器温度:

[0127] P = C0+(C1 * Tc。nd) + (C2 * Tevap) + (C3 * Tc。n(T2) + (C4 * Tc。nd * Tevap) + (C5 *Tevap-2) + (C6 * Tc。n(r3) + (C7 * Tevap * Tc。n(T2) + (C8 * Tc。nd * Tevap-2) + (C9 * Tevap-3)[0128] 上式可应用于所有的压縮机,常数CO〜C9如压縮机制造商公布的那样是压縮机型号和尺寸特有的,并且,必要时可以通过以很小的精度损失将该式降低为二阶多项式,简化该式。可以通过使用手持施工工具在安装过程中的现场中由制造商将等式和常数加载到处理电路70中,或直接将其从因特网下载到处理电路70中。

[0129] 通过参考给定系统的蒸发器温度与压縮机功率消耗的关系曲线(作为一阶或二阶多项式),确定特定的压縮机功率(基于测量的由传感器66吸取的电流)时的冷凝器温度。可以通过对照测量的电流读数与蒸发器温度关系曲线读取冷凝器温度。因此,冷凝器温度简单地随读取在传感器66上吸取的电流变化。例如,图13表示3400瓦的示例性功率消耗(由传感器66读取的吸取电流确定)。处理电路70能够通过简单地对照给定的蒸发器温度(即,如示出的那样,为45° F、50° F或55。 F)的3400瓦的功率消耗确定冷凝器温

23度,以确定相应的冷凝器温度。应当注意,蒸发器温度可近似为45。 F、50° F或55。 F而不会对冷凝器温度计算产生大的影响。因此,当进行上述计算时系统12—般选择45。 F。[0130] 参照图20,一旦获知冷凝器温度,就可通过画出排放管线温度与冷凝器温度的关系曲线确定精确的蒸发器温度。应当注意,在确定冷凝器温度中使用的蒸发器温度是近似值(一般为45〜55。 F之间)。近似不会对冷凝器温度计算造成大的影响,因此,这种近似是可接受的。但是,当进行容量和效率计算时,需要精确的蒸发器温度。[0131 ] 通过参照由传感器66感测的排放管线温度与计算的冷凝器温度的关系曲线(即,从图19)确定蒸发器温度,并可通过迭代对其进行精确确定。得到的蒸发器温度是真实的蒸发器温度的更特定的表示,因此在进行容量和效率计算时更有用。

[0132] —旦获知冷凝器和蒸发器温度,压縮机质量流、压縮机容量和压縮机效率就均可被确定。通过画出作为质量流(bm/hr)和排放管线温度的函数的冷凝器温度和蒸发器温度,确定压縮机质量流。通过参照感测的排放管线温度时的蒸发器温度和冷凝器温度的交点,确定质量流。例如,图21表示,对于180。 F的排放管线温度、120。 F的冷凝器温度和49° F的蒸发器温度,压縮机的质量流大致为600bm/hr。

[0133] 图22是说明压縮机容量算法和压縮机效率算法的流程图。两种算法在进行容量和效率计算中使用排放管线温度和电流。

[0134] 通过首先从各个传感器66、68获得排放管线温度和电流数据确定压縮机容量。一旦收集到数据,处理电路70就参照压縮机标称容量大小以建立常数C0〜C9。如上面讨论的那样,上述数据使得处理电路70能够计算冷凝器温度和蒸发器温度。这种信息还使得处理电路70能够通过应用下式确定压縮机容量信息,其中,X是压縮机容量,Y0〜Y9是压縮机特有的常数,T。。nd是冷凝器温度,TCTap是蒸发器温度:

[0135] X = Y0+(Y1 * Tc。nd) + (Y2 * Tevap) + (Y3 * Tc。n(T2) + (Y4 * Tc。nd * Tevap) + (Y5 *

Tevap-2) + (Y6 * Tc。n(r3) + (Y7 * Tevap * Tc。n(T2) + (Y8 * Tc。nd * Tevap-2) + (Y9 * Tevap-3)

[0136] 上式可应用于所有的压縮机,常数YO〜Y9如压縮机制造商公布的那样是压縮机

型号和尺寸特有的。可以由制造商或通过使用手持施工工具在安装过程中的现场中将等式

和常数加载到处理电路70中。可以通过使用手持施工工具在安装过程中的现场中由制造

商将等式和常数加载到处理电路70中,或直接将其从因特网下载到处理电路70中。

[0137] 参照图23,可以通过画出压縮机容量和冷凝器温度的关系曲线确定不同的蒸发器

温度的压縮机容量。可以通过如图24所示画出压縮机功率与环境温度的关系曲线确定压

縮机标称吨位大小。这样,对于具有预先限定的常数(即,Y0〜Y9)的给定的压縮机,处理

电路简单地参照计算的冷凝器温度与计算的蒸发器温度或压縮机吨位之间的关系,以确定

压縮机容量。

[0138] 通过画出作为压縮机效率和冷凝器温度的函数的蒸发器温度,确定压縮机效率。通过在传感器66、68测量排放管线温度和电流,确定冷凝器和蒸发器温度。 一旦处理电路70确定蒸发器温度和冷凝器温度,就可如图25所示确定压縮机效率。

[0139] 如图22所示,通过首先通过调整吸入管线过热和吹风机热确定净蒸发器线圈容量,确定系统效率。通过首先使用下式确定排放过热,确定吸入管线过热:[0140] SHd =排放管线温度_Tc。nd

[0141] —旦排放过热被确定,就可用在图形上以图5表示的下式确定吸入过热:[0142] SHd = (1. 3 * SHs+30° ) + (0.5*0^-95° ))

[0143] —旦系统处于稳态,就作为净蒸发器线圈容量与压縮机、风扇和吹风机功率的总 和的比值导出系统效率。确定启动或准稳态时的系统效率不提供系统效率的可靠的指示。 因此,一旦系统11处于稳态(即,压縮机10已运行约10分钟),就必须确定系统效率。通 过在传感器66上测量电流,确定压縮机功率。可以通过类似的电流传感器测量吹风机和风 扇功率,并将其传达给处理电路70和/或系统控制器。

[0144] —旦压縮机容量被确定,就可以使用冷凝温度和环境温度以确认高侧或低侧故 障。图26表示冷凝器温差(TD)与容量的关系图。 一般而言,产生正常冷凝器TD的约50X 的故障被视为严重的低侧故障,而产生大于正常冷凝器TD的约150%的故障被视为严重的 高侧故障。这些计算使得处理电路能够进一步对故障分类并确认故障确定结果。 [0145] 图27提供另外的将故障分类为低侧故障或高侧故障甚至使得处理电路70能够报 告各种程度的高侧和低侧故障的方法。 一般在TD1和TD2之间限定的正常温差(TD)可具 有诸如中等高侧故障、严重高侧故障、中等低侧故障和严重低侧故障的各种程度的高侧和 低侧故障。这种分类向控制系统12提供使得压縮机10能够以全容量或以降低容量在某些 故障条件下操作或完全停止操作的能力。

[0146] 例如,在中等高侧或低侧故障下,处理电路70可使得压縮机10能够以"沿跛"模式 操作,以在较低的输出下提供压縮机的操作,而诸如严重高侧或低侧故障的一些故障要求 处理电路70立即关断压縮机10。当在不严重的故障条件下允许压縮机10的一些用途时, 这种操作充分地保护压縮机10。

[0147] 除了基于温差对故障分级,控制系统12还可如图28所示基于排放过热对故障分 类(即,严重、中等等)。如上面讨论的那样,排放过热一般是指排放管线温度和冷凝器温度 之间的差值。这种分类使得处理电路70能够类似地允许压縮机10在存在某些故障条件时 操作,即使是以降低容量操作。这种操作通过在诸如回灌(floodback)和湿吸入条件的严 重条件下停止压縮机10的操作、而在不严重的故障条件下通过允许压縮机10的一些用途 随时优化压縮机10的输出,充分地保护压縮机10。

[0148] 除了提供与压縮机和系统故障信息有关的信息,传感器66、68还可在安装时被使 用。图29表示详细说明基于冷凝器TD和排放过热示例性安装检查压縮机10的流程图。如 图22所示,在完成安装后,压縮机10的初始效率被确定。

[0149] 在安装时,用致冷剂装载压縮机IO,并使其运行三十分钟。如上面讨论的那样,处

理电路70能够通过监视传感器66 、 68确定冷凝器温度、蒸发器温度、排放过热和吸入过热。

例如,如图29所示,这种信息使得安装人员能够在安装时确定诸如风扇阻塞或装载过量或

不足的故障的准确原因。例如,如果冷凝器温度高于预定的水平,那么安装人员会查看是系

统11过载还是冷凝器风扇被阻塞。相反,如果冷凝器温度低于预定的水平,那么安装人员

会检查排放过热以区分装载过量/不足以及蒸发器/冷凝器风扇阻塞。因此,传感器66、68

使得安装人员能够在不需要外部量器和设备的情况下诊断压縮机10和系统11。

[0150] 图31表示排放管线温度可与环境温度传感器一起使用,以向安装人员提供额外

的诊断工具。特别地,特定的温差(g卩,排放管线温度-环境温度)与特定的故障条件有关。

因此,该温差对于正确地诊断压縮机10和系统11的安装人员是有用的。

[0151] 图32还表示,在安装时检查排放管线温度之后,可使用电流测量以进一步诊断压縮机10和系统11。特别地,一旦获知排放管线温度是令人满意的,由传感器66获得的电流 读数就可使有意义的附加区域变窄。

[0152] 如上所述,保护和控制系统12使用单组因变量(即,排放管线温度和电流)以导 出多个自变量(即,蒸发器温度、冷凝器温度和吸入过热)。这些自变量然后与因变量一起 被系统12使用,以诊断压縮机10和系统11,由此优化压縮机和系统性能。 [0153] 本教导的说明在本质上仅是示例性的,因此,不背离本教导的要点的变化规定为 在本教导的范围内。这种变化不应被视为背离本教导的精神和范围。

Claims (150)

  1. 一种系统,包括:在致冷电路中可操作的压缩机,所述压缩机具有外壳和设置在所述外壳内的马达;检测指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的电流数据的第一传感器;检测指示致冷电路的低压侧的操作条件的排放管线温度数据的第二传感器;和从所述第一和第二传感器接收所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据、并比较所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据中的至少一个的变化率以识别故障的处理电路。
  2. 2. 根据权利要求l的系统,其中,所述处理电路处理所述排放管线温度数据和所述电 流数据作为累积参数以识别所述故障。
  3. 3. 根据权利要求2的系统,其中,所述处理电路基于所述故障选择操作模式,所述操作模式包括正常模式、降低容量模式和关断模式。
  4. 4. 根据权利要求1的系统,其中,所述第一传感器包括电流传感器。
  5. 5. 根据权利要求l的系统,其中,所述第二传感器包括设置在所述压縮机的排放端口 附近的排放管线温度传感器。
  6. 6. 根据权利要求l的系统,还包括与所述处理电路通信的排放压力传感器。
  7. 7. 根据权利要求l的系统,还包括电压传感器,所述电压传感器与所述第一传感器组 合以可操作地用于检测压縮机和马达电气部件失效。
  8. 8. 根据权利要求l的系统,还包括设置在所述压縮机的吸入端口附近的吸入管线温度 传感器。
  9. 9. 根据权利要求5的系统,其中,所述排放管线温度传感器被设置在所述压縮机的所 述外壳中。
  10. 10. 根据权利要求5的系统,其中,所述排放管线温度传感器被设置在所述压縮机的所 述外壳外面。
  11. 11. 根据权利要求1的系统,还包括环境温度传感器。
  12. 12. 根据权利要求11的系统,其中,所述环境温度传感器被安装在所述处理电路上。
  13. 13. 根据权利要求l的系统,还包括电力中断装置,该电力中断装置是可操作的,以响 应来自所述处理电路的信号而选择性地限制供给所述马达的电力,以向系统提供保护。
  14. 14. 根据权利要求l的系统,还包括与所述处理电路通信以记录和存储所述压縮机的 操作条件的诊断系统。
  15. 15. 根据权利要求1的系统,其中,所述压縮机包括可操作以指示由所述第一传感器或 所述第二传感器检测的故障条件的多个发光器件。
  16. 16. 根据权利要求15的系统,其中,所述多个发光器件包括不同颜色的光,以区分高侧 故障条件、低侧故障条件和正常操作条件。
  17. 17. —种用于致冷电路中的压縮机的控制器,所述控制器包括: 检测指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的电流数据的第一传感器; 检测指示致冷电路的低压侧的操作条件的排放管线温度数据的第二传感器;禾口 从所述第一和第二传感器接收所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据、并比较所述电流数据和排放管线温度数据中的至少一个的变化率以识别故障的处理电路。
  18. 18. 根据权利要求17的控制器,其中,所述处理电路处理所述排放管线温度数据和所 述电流数据作为累积参数以识别所述故障。
  19. 19. 根据权利要求17的控制器,其中,所述处理电路基于所述故障选择操作模式,所述 操作模式包括正常模式、降低容量模式和关断模式。
  20. 20. 根据权利要求17的控制器,其中,所述第一传感器包括电流传感器。
  21. 21. 根据权利要求17的控制器,其中,所述第二传感器是设置在所述压縮机的排放端 口附近的排放管线温度传感器。
  22. 22. 根据权利要求17的控制器,还包括与所述处理电路通信的排放压力传感器。
  23. 23. 根据权利要求17的控制器,还包括电压传感器,所述电压传感器与所述第一传感 器组合以可操作地用于检测压縮机和马达电气部件失效。
  24. 24. 根据权利要求17的控制器,还包括设置在所述压縮机的吸入端口附近的吸入管线 温度传感器。
  25. 25. 根据权利要求21的控制器,其中,所述排放管线温度传感器被设置在所述压縮机 的外壳中。
  26. 26. 根据权利要求21的控制器,其中,所述排放管线温度传感器被设置在所述压縮机 的外壳外面。
  27. 27. 根据权利要求17的控制器,还包括环境温度传感器。
  28. 28. 根据权利要求27的控制器,其中,所述环境温度传感器被安装在所述处理电路上。
  29. 29. 根据权利要求19的控制器,还包括电力中断装置,该电力中断装置是可操作的,以 在所述降低容量模式中限制压縮机占空因数,以避免在提供降低压縮机容量时跳闸压縮机 马达保护器。
  30. 30. 根据权利要求17的控制器,还包括与所述处理电路通信以记录和存储所述压縮机 的操作条件的诊断系统。
  31. 31. 根据权利要求17的控制器,其中,所述压縮机包括可操作以指示由所述第一传感 器或所述第二传感器检测的故障条件的多个发光器件。
  32. 32. 根据权利要求31的控制器,其中,所述多个发光器件包括不同颜色的光,以区分高 侧故障条件、低侧故障条件和正常操作条件。
  33. 33. —种方法,包括: 存储用于压縮机的正常操作参数; 检测指示所述压縮机的高压侧操作条件的电流数据; 检测指示所述压縮机的低压侧操作条件的排放管线温度数据;处理所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据并比较所述电流数据和所述排放管线温 度数据中的至少一个的变化率以识别故障。
  34. 34. 根据权利要求33的方法,还包括:存储所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据。
  35. 35. 根据权利要求33的方法,还包括从正常模式、降低容量模式和关断模式中选择所 述压縮机的操作模式,其中,选择所述降低容量模式包含限制压縮机占空因数,以避免在提 供降低压縮机容量时跳闸压縮机马达保护器。
  36. 36. 根据权利要求33的方法,还包括:基于所述排放管线温度数据和所述电流数据诊 断故障条件。
  37. 37. 根据权利要求35的方法,还包括:传达所述压縮机的操作模式。
  38. 38. 根据权利要求37的方法,其中,所述传达包含使发光器件变亮,以指示高侧故障、低侧故障或正常操作条件中的至少一个。
  39. 39. 根据权利要求33的方法,还包括:响应于所述电流数据和排放管线温度数据中的 至少一个的变化率大于正常操作条件下检测的电流数据和排放管线温度数据的预定变化 率,传达操作条件。
  40. 40. 根据权利要求33的方法,其中,所述正常操作条件是在安装所述压縮机时确定的 基线操作条件。
  41. 41. 根据权利要求33的方法,还包括:在所述排放管线温度数据之前处理所述电流数据。
  42. 42. 根据权利要求33的方法,还包括:在预定的时间周期内检测所述排放管线温度数 据或所述电流数据。
  43. 43. 根据权利要求42的方法,其中,在压縮机启动中、在准稳态条件下和在稳态条件下 执行所述检测。
  44. 44. 根据权利要求42的方法,其中,所述预定时间周期是一般在三十到六十秒的启动 时间周期。
  45. 45. 根据权利要求42的方法,还包括:计算从高侧或低侧故障导致的效率变化。
  46. 46. 根据权利要求33的方法,还包括:通过计算作为压縮机运行时间的电压和电流的 函数的功率消耗,确定能量利用率。
  47. 47. 根据权利要求46的方法,其中,所述确定能量利用率包含将所述电压和电流的乘 积乘以功率因子。
  48. 48. —种系统,包括:在致冷电路中可操作并包含马达的压縮机;提供指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的高侧信号的电流传感器; 提供指示致冷电路的低压侧的操作条件的低侧信号的排放管线温度传感器;禾口 处理所述高侧信号和所述低侧信号以通过使用所述高侧信号和所述低侧信号的函数 来间接确定致冷电路的非测量的冷凝器温度和蒸发器温度中的至少一个的处理电路。
  49. 49. 根据权利要求48的系统,其中,所述冷凝器温度是电流的函数。
  50. 50. 根据权利要求48的系统,其中,所述蒸发器温度是所述冷凝器温度和排放管线温 度的函数。
  51. 51. 根据权利要求48的系统,其中,所述处理电路确定排放过热,其中,所述排放过热 是所述冷凝器温度和排放管线温度的函数。
  52. 52. 根据权利要求48的系统,其中,所述处理电路确定吸入过热,其中,所述吸入过热 是所述排放过热的函数。
  53. 53. 根据权利要求51的系统,其中,所述处理电路是可操作的,以基于排放过热温度与 预定的排放过热温度的比较检测回灌条件。
  54. 54. 根据权利要求53的系统,其中,所述预定的排放过热大致等于40。 F或更低。
  55. 55. 根据权利要求48的系统,还包括与所述处理电路通信的系统控制器。
  56. 56. 根据权利要求55的系统,其中,所述系统控制器接收所述高侧信号和所述低侧信 号,并且可操作地用以验证由所述处理电路确定的所述非测量的冷凝器温度和蒸发器温度 中的所述至少一个。
  57. 57. 根据权利要求55的系统,其中,所述系统控制器包含至少一个手持计算机。
  58. 58. 根据权利要求57的系统,其中,所述手持计算机是个人数据助理和手机中的至少 一种。
  59. 59. —种方法,包括:检测指示在致冷电路中的压縮机处高压操作条件的电流数据;检测指示在所述致冷电路中的所述压縮机处低压操作条件的排放管线温度数据;禾口 处理所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据以通过使用所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据的函数来间接确定所述致冷电路的非测量的冷凝器温度和蒸发器温度中的至少一个。
  60. 60. 根据权利要求59的方法,还包括确定吸入过热和排放过热中的至少一种,其中所 述排放过热是所述冷凝器温度和排放管线温度的函数,而所述吸入过热是所述排放过热的 函数。
  61. 61. 根据权利要求60的方法,还包括:计算冷凝器温差和所述排放过热,以诊断所述致 冷电路。
  62. 62. 根据权利要求61的方法,其中,所述计算包含导出环境温度和从所述冷凝器温度 减去所述环境温度。
  63. 63. 根据权利要求62的方法,其中,所述导出的步骤包含测量压縮机启动时的排放管 线温度。
  64. 64. 根据权利要求59的方法,还包括:将所述非测量的冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度 中的至少一个传达给系统控制器。
  65. 65. 根据权利要求64的方法,还包括:在所述系统控制器上验证所述冷凝器温度和所 述蒸发器温度中的至少一个的确定。
  66. 66. 根据权利要求65的方法,其中,所述验证包含:基于由所述处理电路传达给所述系 统控制器的所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据,计算所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温 度中的至少一个。
  67. 67. 根据权利要求65的方法,其中,所述验证包含:基于由所述系统控制器检测的所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据,计算所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度中的至少一 个。
  68. 68. —种系统,包括: 压縮机;与所述压縮机驱动连接的马达; 检测供给所述马达的电流的电流传感器; 检测排放管线温度的排放管线温度传感器;禾口从所述电流传感器接收电流数据并从所述排放管线温度传感器接收排放管线温度数 据、并通过使用所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据的函数来处理所述电流数据和所述 排放管线温度数据以确定所述系统的效率的处理电路。
  69. 69. 根据权利要求68的系统,其中,通过使用不被直接测量的系统操作参数计算所述 效率。
  70. 70. 根据权利要求68的系统,其中,所述非测量系统操作参数包含冷凝器温度、蒸发器温度、吸入过热和排放过热中的至少一种。
  71. 71. 根据权利要求70的系统,其中,所述冷凝器温度是电流的函数。
  72. 72. 根据权利要求70的系统,其中,所述蒸发器温度是所述冷凝器温度和排放管线温 度的函数。
  73. 73. 根据权利要求70的系统,其中,所述排放过热是所述冷凝器温度和排放管线温度 的函数。
  74. 74. 根据权利要求70的系统,其中,所述吸入过热是所述排放过热的函数。
  75. 75. 根据权利要求70的系统,其中,所述处理电路是可操作的,以基于排放过热温度与 预定的排放过热温度的比较检测回灌条件。
  76. 76. 根据权利要求75的系统,其中,所述预定的排放过热温度大致等于40。 F或更低。
  77. 77. 根据权利要求70的系统,还包括具有预定的压縮机特性线图的存储器,其中,所述 冷凝器温度是所述蒸发器温度、所述电流数据和所述预定的压縮机特性线图的函数。
  78. 78. 根据权利要求77的系统,其中,所述预定的压縮机特性线图包含压縮机特有的参数。
  79. 79. 根据权利要求70的系统,其中,所述蒸发器温度是所述排放管线温度数据和所述 冷凝器温度的函数。
  80. 80. 根据权利要求70的系统,其中,所述蒸发器温度是迭代处理的产物。
  81. 81. 根据权利要求70的系统,其中,压縮机容量是所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度 的函数。
  82. 82. 根据权利要求81的系统,还包括检测吹风机电流的传感器,其中,蒸发器线圈的容 量是所述压縮机容量和所述吹风机电流的函数。
  83. 83. 根据权利要求82的系统,其中,所述系统效率是所述蒸发器线圈容量、所述电流数 据和所述吹风机电流的函数。
  84. 84. 根据权利要求68的系统,还包括与所述处理电路通信的系统控制器。
  85. 85. 根据权利要求84的系统,其中,所述系统控制器接收所述电流数据和所述排放管 线温度数据,并且可操作地用以验证由所述处理电路确定的所述效率。
  86. 86. 根据权利要求84的系统,其中,所述系统控制器包含至少一个手持计算机。
  87. 87. 根据权利要求86的系统,其中,所述手持计算机是个人数据助理和手机中的至少 一种。
  88. 88. —种方法,包括:检测指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的电流数据; 检测指示所述致冷电路的低压侧的操作条件的排放管线温度数据; 处理所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据以间接确定非测量的冷凝器温度和蒸发器温度中的至少一个;禾口基于所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度中的至少一个并通过使用所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据的函数来确定所述致冷电路的效率。
  89. 89. 根据权利要求88的方法,还包括基于所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度中的至少 一个间接确定吸入过热和排放过热中的至少一种。
  90. 90. 根据权利要求88的方法,还包括:导出作为所述蒸发器温度、所述高侧信号和预定的压縮机特性线图的函数的所述冷凝器温度。
  91. 91. 根据权利要求90的方法,其中,所述预定的压縮机特性线图包含压縮机特有的参数。
  92. 92. 根据权利要求89的方法,还包括:导出作为所述排放管线温度数据和所述冷凝器 温度的函数的所述蒸发器温度。
  93. 93. 根据权利要求92的方法,还包括使用迭代处理以导出所述蒸发器温度。
  94. 94. 根据权利要求89的方法,还包括:导出作为所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度的 函数的压縮机容量。
  95. 95. 根据权利要求94的方法,还包括:导出作为所述压縮机容量和测量的吹风机电流 的函数的蒸发器线圈的容量。
  96. 96. 根据权利要求95的方法,还包括:导出作为所述蒸发器线圈容量、所述电流数据和 所述测量的吹风机电流的函数的所述系统效率。
  97. 97. 根据权利要求88的方法,还包括:将所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度中的至少 一个传达给系统控制器。
  98. 98. 根据权利要求97的方法,还包括:在所述系统控制器上验证所述冷凝器温度和所 述蒸发器温度中的至少一个的确定。
  99. 99. 根据权利要求98的方法,还包括:向与所述系统控制器通信的处理电路报告所述 电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据,并基于所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据验证所 述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度中的所述至少一个。
  100. 100. 根据权利要求98的方法,还包括:所述系统控制器检测所述高侧操作条件和所述 低侧操作条件,并基于所述检测的高侧操作条件和所述低侧操作条件验证所述冷凝器温度 和所述蒸发器温度中的所述至少一个。
  101. 101. —种系统,包括:在致冷电路中可操作并包含马达的压縮机; 检测供给所述马达的电流的电流传感器; 检测所述压縮机的排放管线温度的排放管线温度传感器;禾口从所述电流传感器接收电流数据并从所述排放管线温度传感器接收排放管线温度数 据、并处理所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据以确定所述致冷电路的容量的处理电 路。
  102. 102. 根据权利要求101的系统,其中,通过使用所述致冷电路的非测量操作参数计算 所述容量。
  103. 103. 根据权利要求102的系统,其中,所述非测量系统操作参数包含冷凝器温度、蒸发 器温度、吸入过热和排放过热中的至少一种。
  104. 104. 根据权利要求103的系统,其中,所述冷凝器温度是电流的函数。
  105. 105. 根据权利要求103的系统,其中,所述蒸发器温度是所述冷凝器温度和排放管线 温度的函数。
  106. 106. 根据权利要求103的系统,其中,所述排放过热是所述冷凝器温度和排放管线温 度的函数。
  107. 107. 根据权利要求103的系统,其中,所述吸入过热是所述排放过热的函数。
  108. 108. 根据权利要求103的系统,其中,所述处理电路是可操作的,以基于排放过热温度 与预定的排放过热温度的比较检测回灌条件。
  109. 109. 根据权利要求108的系统,其中,所述预定的排放过热大致等于40。 F或更低。
  110. 110. 根据权利要求103的系统,还包括具有预定的压縮机特性线图的存储器,其中,所 述冷凝器温度是所述蒸发器温度、所述电流数据和所述预定的压縮机特性线图的函数。
  111. 111. 根据权利要求110的系统,其中,所述预定的压縮机特性线图包含压縮机特有的 参数。
  112. 112. 根据权利要求103的系统,其中,所述蒸发器温度是所述排放管线温度数据和所 述冷凝器温度的函数。
  113. 113. 根据权利要求103的系统,其中,所述蒸发器温度是迭代处理的产物。
  114. 114. 根据权利要求103的系统,其中,所述压縮机容量是所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发 器温度的函数。
  115. 115. 根据权利要求114的系统,还包括检测吹风机电流的传感器,其中,蒸发器线圈的 容量是所述压縮机容量和所述吹风机电流的函数。
  116. 116. 根据权利要求115的系统,其中,系统效率是所述蒸发器线圈容量、所述电流数据 和所述吹风机电流的函数。
  117. 117. 根据权利要求IOI的系统,还包括与所述处理电路通信的系统控制器。
  118. 118. 根据权利要求117的系统,其中,所述系统控制器接收所述电流数据和所述排放 管线温度数据,并且是可操作的,以验证由所述处理电路计算的所述容量。
  119. 119. 根据权利要求117的系统,其中,所述系统控制器包含至少一个手持计算机。
  120. 120. 根据权利要求119的系统,其中,所述手持计算机是个人数据助理和手机中的至 少一种。
  121. 121. —种方法,包括:检测指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的电流数据; 检测指示所述致冷电路的低压侧的操作条件的排放管线温度数据; 处理所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据以通过使用所述电流数据和所述排放管 线温度数据的函数来确定不被直接测量的冷凝器温度和蒸发器温度中的至少一个;禾口 基于所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度中的至少一个确定所述致冷电路的容量。
  122. 122. 根据权利要求121的方法,还包括确定吸入过热和排放过热中的至少一种,其中 所述排放过热是所述冷凝器温度和排放管线温度的函数,而所述吸入过热是所述排放过热 的函数。
  123. 123. 根据权利要求122的方法,还包括:导出作为所述蒸发器温度、所述电流数据和预 定的压縮机特性线图的函数的所述冷凝器温度。
  124. 124. 根据权利要求123的方法,其中,所述预定的压縮机特性线图包含压縮机特有的 参数。
  125. 125. 根据权利要求122的方法,还包括:导出作为所述排放管线温度数据和所述冷凝 器温度的函数的所述蒸发器温度。
  126. 126. 根据权利要求125的方法,还包括使用迭代处理以导出所述蒸发器温度。
  127. 127. 根据权利要求122的方法,还包括:导出作为所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度的函数的所述压縮机容量。
  128. 128. 根据权利要求127的方法,还包括:导出作为所述压縮机容量和测量的吹风机电流的函数的蒸发器线圈的容量。
  129. 129. 根据权利要求128的方法,还包括:导出作为所述蒸发器线圈容量、所述电流数据和所述测量的吹风机电流的函数的系统效率。
  130. 130. 根据权利要求121的方法,还包括:将所述确定的冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度发送给系统控制器。
  131. 131. 根据权利要求130的方法,还包括:在所述系统控制器上验证所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度的确定。
  132. 132. 根据权利要求131的方法,还包括:向所述系统控制器发送所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据,并基于所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据验证所述致冷电路的所述容量。
  133. 133. 根据权利要求131的方法,还包括:所述系统控制器检测所述高侧操作条件和所述低侧操作条件,并基于所述检测的高侧操作条件和所述低侧操作条件验证所述致冷电路的所述容量。
  134. 134. —种系统,包括:在致冷电路中可操作并包含马达的压縮机;检测由所述马达吸取的电流并提供高侧条件信号的电流传感器;检测所述压縮机的排放管线温度并提供低侧条件信号的排放管线温度传感器;禾口在所述压縮机的安装过程中处理所述高侧条件信号和所述低侧条件信号以基于通过使用所述高侧条件信号和所述低侧条件信号的函数来确定的所述致冷电路的非测量的冷凝器温度和非测量的蒸发器温度中的至少一个以初始配置所述压縮机的处理电路。
  135. 135. 根据权利要求134的系统,还包括与所述处理电路通信的系统控制器。
  136. 136. 根据权利要求135的系统,其中,所述系统控制器接收所述高侧条件信号和所述低侧条件信号,并且是可操作的,以验证由所述处理电路确定的所述压縮机配置。
  137. 137. 根据权利要求135的系统,其中,所述系统控制器包含至少一个手持计算机。
  138. 138. 根据权利要求137的系统,其中,所述手持计算机是个人数据助理和手机中的至少一种。
  139. 139. —种方法,包括:检测指示致冷电路的高压侧的操作条件的电流数据;检测指示所述致冷电路的低压侧的操作条件的排放管线温度数据;处理所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据以通过使用所述电流数据和所述排放管线温度数据的函数来间接确定所述致冷电路的非测量的冷凝器温度和非测量的蒸发器温度中的至少一个;禾口基于所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度中的至少一个配置压縮机。
  140. 140. 根据权利要求139的方法,还包括确定吸入过热和排放过热中的至少一种,其中所述排放过热是所述冷凝器温度和所述排放管线温度的函数,而所述吸入过热是所述排放过热的函数。
  141. 141. 根据权利要求140的方法,其中,所述配置的步骤包含确定冷凝器温差。
  142. 142. 根据权利要求141的方法,其中,所述配置的步骤包含:如果所述冷凝器温差高于预定值,对过载条件或冷凝器风扇阻塞进行检查。
  143. 143. 根据权利要求141的方法,其中,所述配置的步骤包含:如果所述冷凝器温差在预定的范围内,检查所述排放过热。
  144. 144. 根据权利要求143的方法,其中,所述配置的步骤包含:如果所述排放过热高于预定值,对装载不足条件或蒸发器风扇阻塞进行检查。
  145. 145. 根据权利要求143的方法,其中,所述配置的步骤包含:如果所述排放过热低于预定值,对过载条件或冷凝器风扇阻塞进行检查。
  146. 146. 根据权利要求143的方法,其中,所述配置的步骤包含:如果所述排放过热在预定的范围内,报告压縮机安装成功。
  147. 147. 根据权利要求139的方法,还包括:将所述非测量的冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度传达给系统控制器。
  148. 148. 根据权利要求147的方法,还包括:验证所述非测量的冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度的确定。
  149. 149. 根据权利要求148的方法,其中,所述验证的步骤包含:基于向所述系统控制器报告的所述高侧操作条件和所述低侧操作条件,计算所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度。
  150. 150. 根据权利要求148的方法,其中,所述验证的步骤包含:基于由所述系统控制器检测的所述高侧操作条件和所述低侧操作条件,计算所述冷凝器温度和所述蒸发器温度。
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