CN101051356A - Novel active radio frequency identifying system and its operationn method - Google Patents

Novel active radio frequency identifying system and its operationn method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101051356A
CN101051356A CN 200710040722 CN200710040722A CN101051356A CN 101051356 A CN101051356 A CN 101051356A CN 200710040722 CN200710040722 CN 200710040722 CN 200710040722 A CN200710040722 A CN 200710040722A CN 101051356 A CN101051356 A CN 101051356A
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label
read write
write line
data
time slot
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CN101051356B (en
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郝妍娜
淦克奇
李兴仁
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Shanghai Hualong Information Technology Development Center
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SHANGHAI HUALONG INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CENTER
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Abstract

The present invention discloses a new type active radio frequency identification (RFID) system and its operation method. The described system includes active RFID tag, active reader and its communication protocol. Said system is worked at 2.45 GHz of ISM frequency channel, the described tag portion includes microprocessor, radio frequency receiving/sending chip, power supply management, real time clock (RTC) and antenna. The described reader mainly includes microprocessor, radio frequency receiving and sending chip, power supply management, real-time clock (RTC), liquid crystal display, external interface module and antenna, etc. At the same time it provides RS-232 interface, and can implement communication with PC machine.

Description

A kind of novel active radio-frequency recognition system and operation method thereof
Technical field:
The present invention relates to the radio RF recognition technology field, particularly a kind of novel active radio-frequency recognition system and operation method thereof.
Background technology:
REID (Radio Frequency Identification, RFID) be a kind of of automatic identification technology, promptly carrying out the noncontact bidirectional data communication by wireless radio frequency mode is discerned target, have fast, accurately, reliable characteristics, can be widely used in producing, the application of needs collection such as logistics, traffic, transportation, medical treatment, false proof, tracking, equipment and asset management and deal with data.
At present, a typical R FID system generally partly is made up of RFID label, read write line and computer system etc.Realize the space coupling of radiofrequency signal between electronic tag and the read write line by coupling element, in coupling channel,, realize the transmission of energy and the conversion of data according to sequential relationship.The coupling type that occurs in the radiofrequency signal between read write line and the electronic tag mainly contains two kinds of inductive coupling and electromagnetic backscatter.Electromagnetic backscatter is based on electromagnetic spatial transmission rule, and what take is the Principles of Radar models, and the electromagnetic wave of launching is run into the target back reflection, carries back target message simultaneously.
With regard to the RFID label, the mode difference according to sending radiofrequency signal is divided into two kinds of active (Active) and passive types (Passive).The active electric subtab initiatively sends radiofrequency signal to read write line, by the internal battery power supply, is called active electronic label again usually; Passive label is charged pool not, is called passive electronic label again, the electromagnetic wave that its emission electric wave and internal processor operation institute energy requirement all produce from read write line.Passive label is converted into the energy of working for own with the part electromagnetic energy, so the emissive power of its read write line is generally bigger after receiving the electromagnetic wave signal that read write line sends.In contrast, the electronic tag of active RFID self possesses battery, and the power supply of whole device work can be provided, thereby the emissive power of corresponding read write line is less demanding, and effectively read apart from also increasing to some extent than the former, be mainly used in applications such as the remote detection of valuables.
Technically, active RFID system possesses that emissive power is low, communication distance is long, transmitted data amount is big, reliability is high and compatible characteristics such as good, compares with passive RFID, and advantage technically is very obvious.Just because of this, it is widely applied to fields such as highway toll, port cargo management, personnel positioning.
Through years of development, the RFID technology below the 13.56MHz is ripe relatively, and everybody more pays close attention to the RFID technology that is positioned at medium-high frequency section and microwave frequency band at present.In the 2.45GHz frequency range of international industrial medical special-purpose frequency range (ISM band), owing to simultaneously multiple products such as bluetooth, wireless local area are arranged, be subject to disturb, the technology relative complex, research that it is relevant and application still are in the stage of exploration.
Nowadays, domestic active RFID market is in the market starting period, there is no the product and the application of comparative maturity, and the market space is not opened up widely in addition.The main aspect that effect could be used and bring into play to the RFID technology comprises and saving labour turnover, improve the operation accuracy, speed up processing is effectively followed the tracks of the logistics dynamic dispatching, and the RFID technology has been widely used in various fields such as industrial automation, business automation, communications and transportation control and management at present.International advisory organization ABI estimates that by 2008, the sales volume of RFID electronic tag, reader and related software and service was expected to increase to 3,000,000,000 dollars, and will there be the market space of many trillion dollar the RFID technical market in the coming five years.If any rfid system is used and is popularized, all will breed a huge market, will become new growth engines of Chinese future.Can predict, in the near future, the RFID technology not only can be widely adopted in all trades and professions, and final RFID technology will merge mutually with the general fit calculation technology, and human society is exerted far reaching influence.
Certainly, the present invention remedies the technology limitation of RFID technology in this frequency range field by being used for of being born of our technological innovation just.
Summary of the invention:
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of novel active radio-frequency recognition system, this system comprises active RFID tag (Tag), active RFID read write line (Reader) and communication protocol thereof.System works is in the 2.45GHz of ISM band, and label segment comprises microprocessor, rf chip, power management, real-time clock (RTC) and antenna etc., adopts unique low power consumption design, can use button cell work 3-5.The read write line antijamming capability is strong, highly sensitive, mainly comprise microprocessor, rf chip, power management, real-time clock (RTC), liquid crystal display, external interface module, and antenna etc., provide RS-232 interface can realize and the communication of PC that the RS-485 interface satisfies the requirement of some all purpose instrument instrument simultaneously.Message transmission rate is fast, has adopted unique self-adaptation to divide groove time window algorithm to realize anticollision, can handle a plurality of labels simultaneously, can guarantee high discrimination under the state of high-speed motion.
In addition, another object of the present invention provides a kind of operation method according to said system.
The concrete technical scheme that said system comprises is as follows:
A kind of novel active radio-frequency recognition system comprises the hardware of being made up of active RFID tag and active RFID read write line; It is characterized in that described active RFID tag comprises working power, the rf chip, the real-time clock (RTC) that are connected with microprocessor difference circuit and the signal antenna that is connected with the rf chip circuit; Described active RFID read write line comprises working power, the rf chip, real-time clock (RTC), liquid crystal indicator, external interface module, the data transmission interface module that are connected with microprocessor difference circuit and the signal antenna that is connected with the rf chip circuit.
In the said system, described data transmission interface module comprises RS-232 interface, RS-485 interface etc.
In the said system, described system is provided with the dynamic power management module that can change microprocessor work voltage and frequency, make that MCU is after initialization is finished in the system, be in low power mode of operation, when having external event to take place, wake up and enter interrupt service routine, reenter low-power consumption mode after finishing, so move in circles, reduce the total system power consumption with this.
In addition, according to the operation method of said system, this method relates to the read write line and the two-part course of work of label; It is characterized in that,
The course of work of described read write line is: at first monitor serial ports, when after main frame obtains data, judgment data produces a new packet then for order (command) or data (data), adds 16 CRC-CCITT verification at last; Read write line can at first send and wake (wake-up) signal up before sending data, and read write line is waited for the return information from label then, and the information that receives is sent to main frame; Judged whether that simultaneously collision takes place,, then time window multiply by 2, continued to receive, taken place up to collisionless if bump;
Described label is divided into dormancy, monitoring, semidormancy and the one of four states of communicating by letter according to working condition: its course of work is: the label under dormant state within being in read write line read-write scope will be transformed into listening state by dormant state after receiving wake-up signal, inquire about possible channel simultaneously, and the ID that detects self detects sign (flag), if ID detects and is masked as 0, represent that it also was not read, then on corresponding channel, communicate by letter with read write line; Afterwards label will be in the time window of read write line at random time slot of selection send data; If receive that in official hour answer then changes sleep state over to; If in the regular hour, do not receive the response of read write line, then think to bump with other labels, in next time window, select a time slot to send data at random, up to the answer of receiving read write line; Behind the sign off, ID detects sign and will have been put, and label enters dormant state then.
In the said method, described system adopts the self-adaptation adjustment to divide the groove time window to place the algorithm of many label collisions under many label communications pattern; This algorithm is at read write line a period of time window to be set, and time window can be divided into N time slot (slot) again, and all enough read write lines of each time slot receive data; Label selects a time slot to send data in N-1 at random; When a time slot had only data, read write line received, and sends it back the order of reporting on completion of a task; Label changes dormant state over to after receiving commands in return; If then bump generation when in the time slot several label datas being arranged, its label is reselected a time slot at next time window and is sent from (2N-1).
In the said method, the message between read write line and the label sends by broadcasting (broadcast) mode and point-to-point (P2P) mode; Read write line is used to collect information such as label ID, user ID to the broadcast mode of label; Read write line is used to specify specific label to the P2P mode of label and operates.
In the said method, MS master-slave mechanism is adopted in the communication between label and the read write line, initiates communication with read write line earlier as main frame.
In the said method, the The data Manchester's cde (Manchester) between read write line and the label is transmitted with the form of packet, and each packet comprises prefix (prefix), data (data byte) and CRC check three parts.
System works of the present invention is in the 2.45GHz of ISM band, and label adopts unique low power consumption design, can use button cell work 3-5.The read write line antijamming capability is strong, and is highly sensitive, provides RS-232 interface can realize and the communication of PC that the RS-485 interface satisfies the requirement of some all purpose instrument instrument simultaneously.Message transmission rate is fast, and in addition, this system has adopted unique self-adaptation to divide groove time window algorithm to realize anticollision, can handle a plurality of labels simultaneously, can guarantee high discrimination under the state of high-speed motion.
The present invention utilizes the dynamic power management technology to make and make operating voltage and the frequency that dynamically changes microprocessor its just satisfied operation demand at that time, thereby average out between performance and energy consumption.Because radio frequency chip power consumption when accepting state is bigger, working current is tens of milliamperes, so should make radio frequency chip be in dormant state as far as possible.When read write line needs access tag, at first send and wake sign indicating number up, label receives that waking sign indicating number up then enters listening state, thereby reduces the power consumption of total system.
Active RFID system of the present invention has easy to use, and good reliability is read distance, and advantages such as many tag recognition can be widely used in fields such as gate control system, vehicle management, logistic track, personnel positioning.
Description of drawings:
Further specify the present invention below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments.
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of active RFID tag in the system of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of active RFID read write line in the system of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is the synoptic diagram of the branch groove time window anti-collision algorithm of system of the present invention employing.
Fig. 4 is the process flow diagram of active RFID read write line work in the system of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is the process flow diagram of active RFID tag work in the system of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is the synoptic diagram of the embodiment of employing system of the present invention.
Embodiment:
For technological means, creation characteristic that the present invention is realized, reach purpose and effect is easy to understand, below in conjunction with concrete diagram, further set forth the present invention.
According to above summary of the invention, main body provided by the invention comprises three parts: active RFID tag, active RFID read write line and corresponding communication agreement.Below will specifically introduce the composition and the realization of each several part.
As shown in Figure 1, the hardware circuit of active RFID tag mainly comprises microprocessor, rf chip, power management, real-time clock (RTC) and antenna etc.Wherein, microprocessor and rf chip constitute the core of label, finish the RF signal generation, modulate, separate and be in harmonious proportion function such as anticollision.
As shown in Figure 2, the hardware circuit of active RFID read write line mainly comprises microprocessor, rf chip, power management, real-time clock (RTC), liquid crystal display, external interface module, RS-232 interface, RS-485 interface and antenna etc.Rf chip is finished the modulation of wireless signal according to the indication of microprocessor.Main communication protocol and anticollision protocol are finished in microprocessor.System also provides RS-232 interface can realize and the communication of PC that the RS-485 interface satisfies the requirement of some all purpose instrument instrument.According to different application demands, can select to adopt the external antenna of PCB antenna or high-gain to satisfy remote demand.
Certainly, communication protocol also is one of ingredient of native system, and excellent communications mechanism is the assurance of total system steady operation.In the design of communication mechanism, need to take into account two problems: high reliability and short call duration time.The former be by its use determine that because RFID is generally used for application such as gate inhibition, logistics and toll management, its error rate requires in minimum scope.The latter considers from power consumption and detection speed that mainly the short number of labels that also can improve visit in the unit interval of call duration time strengthens practicality, and reduces power consumption.Describe the design of communication mechanism the present invention below in detail from several aspects such as command mode, duty, anticollision.
Message between read write line and the label sends in two ways: broadcasting (broadcast) mode and point-to-point (P2P) mode.Read write line is used to collect information such as label ID, user ID to the broadcast mode of label, and read write line is used to specify specific label to the P2P mode of label and operates.MS master-slave mechanism is adopted in communication between label and the read write line, and read write line is initiated communication earlier as main frame.The data Manchester's cde (Manchester) between read write line and the label is transmitted with the form of packet, and each packet comprises prefix (prefix), data (data byte) and CRC check three parts.
Order in the system is divided into following several:
Collection: collect label ID (broadcast mode)
Collection with Data: collect label ID and specific memory data (broadcast mode) thereof
Sleep: label dormant state (P2P mode) is set
Status: read tag state (P2P mode)
Read memory: read storage area data (P2P mode)
Write memory: write storage area data (P2P mode)
Password: tag pin (P2P mode) is set
As shown in Figure 3, for solving under many label communications pattern, the collision problem that label occurs each other, system design of the present invention one seed precipitation tank time window anti-collision algorithm.Promptly at read write line a period of time window is set, time window can be divided into N time slot (slot) again, and all enough read write lines of each time slot receive data.Label selects a time slot to send data in N-1 at random.When a time slot had only data, read write line received, and sends it back the order of reporting on completion of a task.Label changes dormant state over to after receiving commands in return.If then bump generation when in the time slot several label datas being arranged, its label is reselected a time slot at next time window and is sent from (2N-1).
As shown in Figure 4, the workflow of read write line is in the system: read write line is at first monitored serial ports, and when after main frame obtains data, judgment data is order (command) or data (data), produce a new packet then, add 16 CRC-CCITT verification at last.Read write line can at first send and wake (wake-up) signal up before sending data.Read write line is waited for the return information from label then, and the information that receives is sent to main frame.Judged whether that simultaneously collision takes place,, then time window multiply by 2, continued to receive, taken place up to collisionless if bump.
As shown in Figure 4, the label in the system has four kinds of duties: dormant state, monitor attitude, the semidormancy attitude and the attitude of communicating by letter.Except that timer, all parts of label all quit work in the dormant state.After the monitoring attitude is meant that label is waken up by certain incident, the effective read write line signal on the queried channel.If bump, temporary transient dormancy a period of time, be called the semidormancy attitude with other labels.The communication attitude has been set up with read write line and effectively has been connected, and realizes the transmission of data.In most cases, label is in dormant state.Label within being in read write line read-write scope will be transformed into listening state by dormant state after receiving wake-up signal.Be in the label of listening state, inquire about possible channel, and detect the ID detection sign (flag) of self, be masked as 0, represent that it also was not read, then on corresponding channel, communicating by letter with read write line if ID detects.Label will be in the time window of read write line at random time slot of selection send data.Answer then change sleep state over to if in official hour, receive; If in the regular hour, do not receive the response of read write line, then think to bump with other labels, in next time window, select a time slot to send data at random, up to the answer of receiving read write line.Behind the sign off, ID detects sign and will have been put, and label enters dormant state then.Label just can be realized once complete communication according to above-mentioned mechanism.
If the read write line signal exists, and ID detects and is masked as 1, represents that it is read, and then returns dormant state.If detect less than the read write line signal, then think outside the read write line effective range, to enter dormant state immediately.After the detection, enter the corresponding ID of the label of dormant state again and detect sign and be 1, this will stop it with read write line between communicate by letter.This measure mainly is in order to reduce the repeatedly visit of a read write line for same label, if but should sign constant always, will influence of the visit of other read write lines to this label.Therefore, behind the dormancy certain hour, ID detects sign and will be removed by force.
In addition, another key of the present invention is a low power dissipation design.In active RFID system, the power consumption that how to reduce label is a gordian technique.The present invention is except adopting the low-power consumption hardware in label design, and (Dynamic Power Management, DPM) technology all operates under the energy saver mode system's various piece, has saved lot of energy by dynamic power management.The most frequently used power management policy is to close idle module, and in this state, the part of tag circuit will be closed or be in low power consumpting state, up to there being interested incident to take place.MCU is in low power mode of operation in the system after initialization is finished, and wakes up when having external event to take place and enters interrupt service routine, reenters low-power consumption mode after finishing, and so moves in circles, and can reduce power consumption to greatest extent.
Certainly, a key problem of dynamic power management is the node state scheduling strategy, because different states has different power consumption features, and the state switching also has energy and time overhead.Under active state, take the dynamic electric voltage adjustment technology to come conserve energy.The computational load of label is time dependent, does not therefore need microprocessor all to keep peak performance at any time.
Therefore the present invention dynamically changes the operating voltage and the frequency of microprocessor, makes its just satisfied operation demand at that time, thereby averages out between performance and energy consumption.Because radio frequency chip power consumption when accepting state is bigger, working current is tens of milliamperes, so should make radio frequency chip be in dormant state as far as possible.When read write line needs access tag, at first send and wake sign indicating number up, label receives that waking sign indicating number up then enters listening state, thereby reduces the power consumption of total system.
In actual applications, active RFID tag can be directly installed on vehicle etc. to be needed on the object of identification, with a certain distance from regional (0 ~ 80 meter) of the identification of needs such as vehicle active rfid interrogator is being installed, the background information center just can be by the active RFID tag that exists in this rfid interrogator identification working range.
Here be specific embodiments of the invention with no-stop charging system (ETC):
As shown in Figure 6, no-stop charging system utilizes active RFID and computer technology to realize the charge function, each car is all installed active RFID tag on shield glass, charging aperture at highway is provided with the ETC designated lane, active rfid interrogator antenna is installed in the passage top, the back bench control system of active RFID read write line and PC links to each other, and can realize the operation such as identification, charging of label.When the vehicle that active RFID tag is installed crosses, will deduct the fee automatically, the friendship money that need not stop has improved the ability that is open to traffic of charging aperture greatly.Concrete implementation process is as follows:
1. active RFID tag is installed in the windshield back of vehicle;
2. above the ETC designated lane, set up reading and writing device antenna;
3. when vehicle is equipped with the door frame of transceiver by first, detects antenna and activate the RFID label, and finish the two-way confirmation of transceiver and RFID label;
4. transceiver is at first verified the validity and the remaining sum of RFID label;
5. if this label can't be identified (it is invalid to comprise) or Sorry, your ticket has not enough value, the blocking bar and can not rise (not letting pass) of door frame the place ahead, the simultaneity factor pilot lamp gives a warning, and the prompting driver changes the manual toll collection track over to and pays dues;
6. if all are normal, the bar that blocks in door frame the place ahead rises (clearance) automatically, and vehicle information in the RFID label when the door frame of transceiver is housed by second is modified, and finishes charging process, and whether pilot lamp and hummer can tell the driver to charge and finish.
The foregoing description is that of native system uses demonstration, and native system is in other vehicle management, and the personnel control aspect all has wide practical use.
More than be one of embodiments of the present invention,, do not spend performing creative labour, on the basis of the foregoing description, can do multiple variation, can realize purpose of the present invention equally for those skilled in the art.But this variation obviously should be in the protection domain of claims of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1, a kind of novel active radio-frequency recognition system comprises the hardware of being made up of active RFID tag and active RFID read write line; It is characterized in that described active RFID tag comprises working power, the rf chip, the real-time clock RTC that are connected with microprocessor difference circuit and the signal antenna that is connected with the rf chip circuit; Described active RFID read write line comprises working power, the rf chip, real-time clock RTC, liquid crystal indicator, external interface module, the data transmission interface module that are connected with microprocessor difference circuit and the signal antenna that is connected with the rf chip circuit.
According to the novel active radio-frequency recognition system of claim 1, it is characterized in that 2, described data transmission interface module comprises RS-232 interface, RS-485 interface.
3, according to the novel active radio-frequency recognition system of claim 1, it is characterized in that, described system is provided with the dynamic power management module that can change microprocessor work voltage and frequency, make that MCU is after initialization is finished in the system, be in low power mode of operation, when having external event to take place, wake up and enter interrupt service routine, reenter low-power consumption mode after finishing, so move in circles, reduce the total system power consumption with this.
4, a kind of operation method of novel active radio-frequency recognition system, this method relates to the read write line and the two-part course of work of label; It is characterized in that,
The course of work of described read write line is: at first monitor serial ports, when after main frame obtains data, judgment data produces a new packet then for order command still is data data, adds 16 CRC-CCITT verification at last; Read write line can at first send and wake the wake-up signal up before sending data, and read write line is waited for the return information from label then, and the information that receives is sent to main frame; Judged whether that simultaneously collision takes place,, then time window multiply by 2, continued to receive, taken place up to collisionless if bump;
Described label is divided into dormancy, monitoring, semidormancy and the one of four states of communicating by letter according to working condition: its course of work is: the label under dormant state within being in read write line read-write scope will be transformed into listening state by dormant state after receiving wake-up signal, inquire about possible channel simultaneously, and the ID that detects self detects sign, if ID detects and is masked as 0, represent that it also was not read, then on corresponding channel, communicate by letter with read write line; Afterwards label will be in the time window of read write line at random time slot of selection send data; If receive that in official hour answer then changes sleep state over to; If in the regular hour, do not receive the response of read write line, then think to bump with other labels, in next time window, select a time slot to send data at random, up to the answer of receiving read write line; Behind the sign off, ID detects sign and will have been put, and label enters dormant state then.
According to the operation method of the novel active radio-frequency recognition system of claim 4, it is characterized in that 5, described system adopts the self-adaptation adjustment to divide the groove time window to place the algorithm of many labels collisions under many label communications pattern; This algorithm is at read write line a period of time window to be set, and time window can be divided into N time slot again, and all enough read write lines of each time slot receive data; Label selects a time slot to send data in N-1 at random; When a time slot had only data, read write line received, and sends it back the order of reporting on completion of a task; Label changes dormant state over to after receiving commands in return; If then bump generation when in the time slot several label datas being arranged, its label is reselected a time slot at next time window and is sent from 2N-1.
According to the operation method of the novel active radio-frequency recognition system of claim 4, it is characterized in that 6, the message between read write line and the label sends by broadcasting broadcast mode and point-to-point P2P mode; Read write line is used to collect information such as label ID, user ID to the broadcast mode of label; Read write line is used to specify specific label to the P2P mode of label and operates.
According to the operation method of the novel active radio-frequency recognition system of claim 4, it is characterized in that 7, MS master-slave mechanism is adopted in the communication between label and the read write line, initiate communication earlier as main frame with read write line.
8, according to the operation method of the novel active radio-frequency recognition system of claim 4, it is characterized in that, The data Manchester's cde Manchester between read write line and the label, form with packet transmits, and each packet comprises prefix prefix, data data byte and CRC check three parts.
CN200710040722XA 2007-05-16 2007-05-16 Novel active radio frequency identifying system and its operation method Expired - Fee Related CN101051356B (en)

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CN106557803A (en) * 2016-11-17 2017-04-05 武汉瑞纳捷电子技术有限公司 A kind of RFID active cards low-power consumption performs structure and low-power consumption performs method
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