CN101011257B - Focus-detector arrangement for generating projective or tomographic phase contrast recordings - Google Patents

Focus-detector arrangement for generating projective or tomographic phase contrast recordings Download PDF

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CN101011257B
CN101011257B CN 200710007968 CN200710007968A CN101011257B CN 101011257 B CN101011257 B CN 101011257B CN 200710007968 CN200710007968 CN 200710007968 CN 200710007968 A CN200710007968 A CN 200710007968A CN 101011257 B CN101011257 B CN 101011257B
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grating
detector
focus
phase
radiation
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CN101011257A (en
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乔基姆·鲍曼
乔尔格·弗洛伊登伯格
克里斯琴·戴维
埃克哈德·亨普尔
弗朗兹·法伊弗
托马斯·默特尔迈耶
斯蒂芬·波普斯库
曼弗雷德·舒斯特
马丁·恩格尔哈特
马丁·霍黑塞尔
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保罗谢勒研究所
西门子公司
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/48Diagnostic techniques
    • A61B6/484Diagnostic techniques involving phase contrast X-ray imaging
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/42Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment with arrangements for detecting radiation specially adapted for radiation diagnosis
    • A61B6/4291Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment with arrangements for detecting radiation specially adapted for radiation diagnosis the detector being combined with a grid or grating
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2223/00Investigating materials by wave or particle radiation
    • G01N2223/40Imaging
    • G01N2223/419Imaging computed tomograph
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2223/00Investigating materials by wave or particle radiation
    • G01N2223/60Specific applications or type of materials
    • G01N2223/612Specific applications or type of materials biological material

Abstract

The present invention relates to a focus-detector arrangement (F, D) of an X-ray apparatus for generating projective or tomographic phase contrast recordings of an observed region of a subject. In at least one embodiment, the arrangement includes a radiation source (2) which emits a coherent or quasi-coherent X-radiation and irradiates the subject (7, P), a phase grating (G1) which is arranged behind the subject (7, P) in the beam path of the radiation source and generates an interference pattern of the X-radiation in a predetermined energy range, and an analysis-detector system (G2, D) which detects at least the interference pattern generated by the phase grating (G1) in respect of its phase shift with position resolution. Further, the beam path of the X-radiation used diverges in at least one plane between the focus (F) and the detector (D).

Description

产生投影或断层造影相位对比图像的焦点_检测器装置 Generating tomographic projection focal point or phase contrast image detector device _

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种用于对检查对象的观察区域( = FOVdSg)产生投影或断层造影相位对比图像的X射线设备的焦点-检测器装置,具有发射相干或准相干X射线并透视检查对象的辐射源、设置在辐射源的辐射路径中、检查对象之后的相位光栅,该相位光栅产生预定能量范围内的X射线相干图案,以及分析检测器系统,用于位置分辨地至少对由相位光栅产生的相干图案进行检测以检测相位光栅的相移。 [0001] relates to an X-ray examination apparatus for observation of the object region (= FOVdSg) for generating a projection or tomographic phase contrast image of the focus of the present invention - a detector means, having emit coherent or quasi-coherent X-ray and fluoroscopy the radiation source object is provided in the radiation path of the radiation source, object under examination after the phase grating, the phase grating to produce a coherent pattern of X-rays within a predetermined energy range, a detector and an analysis system for resolving the location of at least the phase generating coherent grating pattern is detected to detect a phase shift of the phase grating.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 一般来说对于X射线成像大多观察在X射线穿过物质时出现的两个效应,即对特定X射线分量的吸收以及所发射的X射线的相移。 [0002] Generally two X-ray imaging mostly observed effect occurs when an X-ray through the substance, i.e. the X-ray absorption of a particular component and for the phase shift of the transmitted X-rays.

[0003] 对于通过等式(1)针对X射线给定的折射率, [0003] for by equation (1) for a given X-ray refractive index,

[0004] η = 1- δ -i β (1) [0004] η = 1- δ -i β (1)

[0005] 所述吸收取决于虚数衰减量β的大小,该衰减量通过等式(2)与质量吸收系数形成一定的关系, [0005] The absorption depends on the magnitude of the imaginary attenuation amount β, the amount of attenuation of a certain relationship between the absorption coefficient by the equation (2) with the mass,

[0006] μ/ρ = 4 π β / λ (2) [0006] μ / ρ = 4 π β / λ (2)

[0007] 其中λ是波长,μ是线性吸收系数,而P是质量密度。 [0007] where λ is the wavelength, [mu] is the linear absorption coefficient, and P is the mass density.

[0008] 相移从折射率l-δ的实部导出。 [0008] derived from the phase shift of the real part of the refractive index of l-δ. 物质中X射线波的相移Δ与真空相比通过等式⑶给出, X-ray wave substance phase shift Δ is given by equation ⑶ compared to vacuum,

[0009] Δ = 2 π δ T/ λ (3) [0009] Δ = 2 π δ T / λ (3)

[0010] 其中T是物质厚度,δ是折射率的实数衰减量。 [0010] where T is the material thickness, δ is the refractive index of the real attenuation.

[0011] 在X射线放射学中用X射线辐射检查对象,并记录X射线穿过对象之后的强度。 [0011] In the X-ray radiology object under examination with X-ray radiation, and recording the X-ray strength after passing through the object. 借助该测量可以产生展示由对象引起的吸收的投影图像。 The measurement may be generated by means of a projection image display caused by the absorption of the object. 在X射线断层造影中采用多张投影图像来计算表现吸收系数μ的空间分布的三维数据组。 Three-dimensional data sets to calculate the absorption coefficient μ of the performance of the spatial distribution of a projected image using a plurality of X-ray tomography.

[0012] 对于相位对比放射学和相位对比断层造影,必须对由对象引起的相移进行分析。 [0012] For phase contrast radiological and tomographic phase contrast, must be analyzed for the phase shift caused by an object. 与吸收成像类似,可以计算表现折射率的实部IS的空间分布的三维数据组。 Similarly absorbent imaging, three-dimensional data set may be computed real part of the refractive index of the performance of IS spatial distribution.

[0013] 由于无法直接测量波的相位,因此首先通过用参考波干涉待检查波将相移转换为可测量的强度。 [0013] Since the phase of the wave can not be measured directly, so the interference to be examined by the first wave with a reference wave phase shift is converted to a measurable intensity. 这种测量既针对投影图像又针对断层造影图像的实际实施例如展示在欧洲专利申请ΕΡ1447046Α1和享受相同优先权的德国专利申请102006017290. 6、 102006015358. 8、102006017291. 4、102006015356. 1 和102006015355. 3 中。 This measurement for both projection images and tomographic images for the actual embodiment, for example, in European Patent Application ΕΡ1447046Α1 display and enjoy the same priority of German Patent Application No. 102006017290.6, 102006015358. 8,102006017291. 4,102006015356. 1 and 102006015355.3 in.

[0014] 该文献中展示的方法利用在辐射路径上设置于检查对象之后的相位光栅,该相位光栅作为衍射光栅工作并将X射线分为+1和-1阶的射线。 [0014] The method presented in this document using the phase grating provided on the object after checking in the radiation path, the phase grating as the diffraction grating and the X-ray work into +1 and -1 order beam. 在位于相位光栅之后的波场中, 衍射的射线在形成X射线驻波场的情况下相互干涉。 In the wavefield is located after the phase grating, the diffracted rays interfere with each other in the case of forming an X-ray standing wave field. 检查对象引起局部相移,该相移会使波前变形并因此改变驻波场的局部振幅、相位和偏移量。 Inspection object causing local phase shift, the phase shift causes the wavefront modification and thus change the local amplitude, phase and offset of the standing wave field. 因此采用能提供关于驻波场的信息如静止波的相位、振幅和中值的测量,可以计算局部相移穿过检查对象的影响。 Thus use can provide information about the phase of the standing wave field, such as a stationary wave, and measures the amplitude value can be calculated through the phase-shifting effect of local inspection object. 为了以要求的分辨率扫描波场,分析器光栅逐步地在该波场上移动,同时采用相应的检测器逐个像素地同步监控强度。 In order to request resolution scanning wave field, the analyzer grating gradually moving wave field, while using a respective synchronizing detectors to monitor the intensity of a pixel by pixel. [0015] 在上述欧洲专利申请EP1447046A1中采用平行的X射线来扫描检查对象。 [0015] The parallel X-ray in the above European Patent Application EP1447046A1 to scan the object under examination. 对于表面观察可以从下面的事实出发:在使用发散的射线几何和将检查对象相应地定位在辐射路径上的情况下可以实现任意的放大效应。 The surface can be observed from the following fact: in the case of divergent rays and geometric inspection object respectively positioned in the radiation path may be implemented in any amplification effect. 但是如果考察射线在检查对象处的折射效应,则似乎不能再测量相移,因为肯定会出现偏转射线的“无秩序”图案,该图案不会导致可利用的图像再现。 However, if the inspection ray refraction effect of the object at the inspection, the measured phase shift is no longer appears, because there will be deflected rays "chaotic" pattern, which does not cause image reproduction can be utilized. 由于该原因目前还不能采用相位光栅在放大几何中进行X射线相位对比测量。 For this reason there is a phase grating can not be used for measurements in the X-ray phase contrast enlarged geometry.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0016] 因此本发明要解决的技术问题是找到一种用于X射线相位对比放射学和X射线相位对比断层造影的焦点-检测器装置,其可以产生检查对象折射率空间分布的放大至强烈放大的投影和断层造影显示。 [0016] Accordingly technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to find a focus X-ray phase contrast radiology and X-ray phase contrast tomography for - a detector means, which can produce an amplified spatial distribution of the refractive index of the examination subject to intense and amplifying tomography projection display.

[0017] 原则上,对于借助相位光栅和相干或准相干的X射线进行的X射线相位对比测量还要注意以下几点: [0017] In principle, X-ray phase contrast means for measuring the phase grating and the coherent or quasi-coherent X-rays must pay attention to the following points:

[0018] 实验室X射线源(X射线管、次要目标、等离子源、放射性源、参量X射线源、沟道辐射)以及第一至第三代传统同步辐射源的X射线光子发射基于随机过程。 [0018] lab X-ray source (X-ray tube, a secondary target, a plasma source, a radioactive source, an X-ray source parameters, channel radiation) and first to third-generation X-ray synchrotron source conventional photon emission based random process. 因此所发射的X 射线本身没有空间相干性。 Thus the emitted X-rays without spatial coherence in itself. 但是如果观察角足够小,射线源在该观察角下显现给观察者或对象、光栅或检测器,则X射线源的射线在相位对比X射线摄影和相位对比断层造影或者任意干涉实验中就和空间相干射线的情况一样。 However, if the viewing angle is sufficiently small, the radiation source at an observation angle appears to the observer or subject, grating or the detector, the X-ray radiation source in phase contrast and phase-contrast X-ray tomography, or any interference experiment and on as in the case of spatially coherent radiation. 作为扩大的X射线源的空间相干性的度量, 可以给出所谓的空间/横向相干长度L。 As a measure of spatial coherence of the X-ray source is expanded, it can be given a so-called space / lateral coherence length L. :

[0019] [0019]

[0020] 在此λ是波长,s是横向的射线源大小,a是射线源与观察者之间的距离。 [0020] Here λ is the wavelength, s is the lateral size of the radiation source, a is the distance between the radiation source and the observer. 精确值是第二位的;重要的是与射线应当相互干涉的空间区域的大小相比,相干长度L很大。 Exact value is a second bit; significant compared with the size of the spatial region of the radiation should interfere with each other, a large coherence length L.

[0021] 在本专利申请的范围内,相干射线应当理解为会在给定的几何形状和期望的X射线光栅之间距离的条件下产生相干图案的射线。 [0021] In the context of this patent application, it should be understood as the coherent radiation produces coherent radiation pattern between a given geometry and desired X-ray under the grating distance. 当然空间相干以及因此的空间相干长度总是由波长、射线源大小和观察距离这3个参数确定。 Of course, spatial coherence and therefore the spatial coherence length is always determined by the wavelength of radiation source size and distance of three parameters was observed. 为了紧凑起见,将该情况简化为诸如“相干X射线”、“相干X射线源”或“用于产生相干X射线的点源”的概念。 For reasons of compactness, the concept is to simplify the case, such as "coherent X-rays", "coherent X-ray source" or "X-rays to produce a coherent point source". 该简化的基础是一方面在这里讨论的应用中通过期望的检查对象的穿透能力、另一方面在实验室X射线源提供的频谱中限制X射线的波长(或能量E)。 The simplification is based penetration inspection target applications discussed herein in one hand by the desired, and limiting the X-ray wavelength (or energy E) in the spectrum laboratory X-ray source provided. 射线源和观察点之间的距离a在用于无破坏性的材料检验或医疗诊断的实验室构成中受到某些限制。 The distance between the radiation source and the observation point in a subject to certain limitations or medical laboratory diagnostic tests constituent material for the non-destructive. 从而大多将射线源s保留为最后的自由度,即使射线源大小和X射线功率之间的关系在此同样有严格的限制。 Most of the s-ray source so as to retain the last degree of freedom, even if the size relationship between the radiation source and X-ray power in this same strict limits.

[0022] 如果采用合适尺寸的源光栅,则可以在这里给出的焦点-检测器装置中采用功率更强的辐射源和因此更大的焦点尺寸。 Focus [0022] If the source grating suitable size, can be given here - more power sources and thus a larger focal spot size detection means employed. 源光栅的狭窄缝隙负责保持所要求的所有从同一缝隙射出的射线的空间相干性。 All spatial coherence of light emitted from the same narrow gap slit ray source grating is responsible for maintaining required. 来自同一缝隙的光子可以相互干涉,也就是相位正确地相重叠。 Photons from the same slot can interfere with one another, i.e. the correct phase overlap. 与此相反,来自源光栅的不同缝隙的光子之间不可能相位正确地重叠。 In contrast, the correct phase can not overlap a gap between the different photon from the source grating. 但是,在适当调谐源光栅周期g0和相干图案周期&以及源光栅Gtl与相位光栅G1之间的距离1和相位光栅G1与相干图案G2之间的距离d时,可以在按照 However, when the distance between the source appropriately tuning the grating period and g0 & coherent pattern period, and the source grating and the phase grating G1 Gtl distance between the phase grating and the coherent pattern G1 and G2 d, can follow

[0023] [0023]

Figure CN101011257BD00051

[0024] 的第一近似中将驻波场的波最大值和波最小值至少根据强度进行正确重叠。 [0024] The minimum value of the wave and the wave maximum in the standing wave field is a first approximation to overlap at least in accordance with the correct intensity. 在本专利申请的简化表示中,采用“准相干射线”或“准相干射线源”的概念。 In the simplified representation of the present patent application, a "quasi-coherent radiation" concept or "quasi-coherent radiation source".

[0025] X射线或X射线源的单色性伴随而来的是射线的时间相干或纵向相干。 Monochromatic [0025] X-ray source or X-ray radiation is accompanied by the longitudinal coherence time or coherence. 特征线的X射线在这里讨论的应用中具有足够的单色性或时间相干长度。 Application of the characteristic X-ray lines discussed herein have sufficient coherence length of time or monochromatic. 连接在前的单色器或通过相位光栅的栅条高度对谐振能量的选择还可以从韧致辐射频谱或同步频谱中滤除足够窄的频谱范围,因此满足对所示装置中的时间相干长度的要求。 Connecting the front monochromator or selection of resonant energy can also filter sufficiently narrow spectral range or a spectrum from bremsstrahlung spectrum by synchronous grate phase grating height, and therefore meet the device shown in temporal coherence length requirements.

[0026] 与焦点-检测器装置的放大结构不能用于相位对比测量的专业认识相反,本发明人发现与所有假设相反可以实现令人满意的成像结果。 [0026] The focal point - detector means amplifying structure can not be applied to a reverse phase contrast professional knowledge in measurement, the present inventors have found that a satisfactory contrast can be achieved with all assumptions imaging result.

[0027] 根据该认识本发明人建议一种用于对检查对象的观察区域(=FOVjSg )产生投影或断层造影相位对比图像的X射线设备的焦点-检测器装置,该装置至少具有以下特征: [0027] According to the present invention recognizes human observation suggests a region of an examination subject (= FOVjSg) focus an X-ray device or tomographic phase contrast projection image - a detector means having at least the following features:

[0028] 发射相干或准相干的X射线并透射检查对象的辐射源, [0028] emit coherent or quasi-coherent X-ray radiation source and transmitting the object under examination,

[0029] 设置在辐射源的辐射路径中、检查对象之后的相位光栅,该相位光栅产生位于预定能量范围内的X射线的相干图案,以及 [0029] arranged in the radiation path of the radiation source, object under examination after the phase grating, the phase grating positioned to produce a coherent pattern of X-rays within a predetermined energy range, and

[0030] 分析-检测器系统,用于位置分辨地检测由相位光栅产生的相干图案以检测相位光栅的相移,其中 [0030] - A detector system for detecting spatially-resolved coherent pattern generated by the phase grating to detect the phase shift of the phase grating, wherein

[0031] 所使用的X射线的辐射路径在焦点和检测器之间的至少一个平面内发散,也就是相当于扇形射线。 [0031] X-ray radiation path is used in at least one plane between the focal spot and the detector divergent, fan-shaped radiation is equivalent.

[0032] 在另一个实施方式中,也可以这样构成该焦点-检测器装置,使得所使用的X射线的辐射路径在焦点和检测器之间的两个平面内发散,并因此相当于圆锥射线。 [0032] In another embodiment, may be configured so that the focus - a detector means, such that the X-ray radiation path is used in two planes diverging between a focus and the detector, and thus corresponds to the cone rays .

[0033] 为了形成紧凑的结构,特别优选的是所使用的射线束至少在一个平面中至少张开5°,优选至少张开10°。 [0033] In order to form a compact structure, is particularly preferred to use expanded beam at least 5 ° at least in one plane, preferably open at least 10 °. 在医疗计算机断层造影领域的应用中,甚至使用超过45°的扇 Application of the contrast in medical computed tomography, the use of more than 45 ° even fan

[0034] 根据所采用的射线几何形状的发散性,在辐射路径的光轴方向的投影中看到的检查对象的被观察区域可以小于在辐射路径中设置于后的相位光栅的使用区域,而该相位光栅的使用区域又小于在辐射路径中设置于后的分析-检测器系统的使用区域。 [0034] The divergence of the beam geometry employed, the observation area is seen in the optical axis direction of the projection beam path in use may be smaller than the object under examination region disposed after the phase grating in the radiation path, and area of ​​use of the detector system - analysis is provided in the radiation path to the area of ​​use and the phase grating is less than. 当然从焦点开始反方向观察时逐渐增大的尺寸也是有意义的。 Of course, gradually increasing from the opposite direction at the beginning of the focus size is also interesting to observe.

[0035] 在特别优选的实施方式中,建议从辐射源到分析-检测器系统的距离至少是从辐射源到检查对象的距离的两倍。 [0035] In a particularly preferred embodiment, the radiation source to the recommendations from analysis - detector distance system is at least twice the distance from the radiation source to the object under examination. 由此可以使用相位光栅和所述分析_检测器系统首次进行有效放大的相位对比拍摄,其中在该图像中只显示相移。 Whereby the phase grating may be used and the analysis of the detector system the first time _ efficient amplification phase contrast imaging, which shows only a phase shift in the image. 该放大系数在相应的需要下通过相应选择χ射线源与检查对象之间的距离和χ射线源与分析-检测器系统之间的距离可以放大到10倍甚至放大到1000倍。 The amplification factor at the corresponding need to select a distance between the respective χ-ray source and the object under examination and χ-ray source and analysis - may amplify the distance between the detector system and even 10 times to 1000 times enlarged.

[0036] 在本发明的焦点-检测器装置中建议对相位光栅和分析器光栅的周期来说保持以下几何关系: [0036] In the focus of this invention - the detector device is recommended to maintain the geometric relationship between the phase grating and the analyzer grating period is:

[0037] [0037]

[0038] 其中dm是光栅之间的距离,Γι是辐射源与相位光栅之间的距离,g2是分析器光栅的周期,gl是相位光栅的周期。 [0038] where dm is the distance between the gratings, Γι is the distance between the radiation source and the phase grating, g2 is the period of the analyzer grating, gl is the period of the phase grating.

[0039] 利用关系式r2 = ri+dm还可以将等式(6)改写为 [0039] using the relationship r2 = ri + dm also equation (6) can be rewritten as

Figure CN101011257BD00071

[0041] 此外还建议这样定位分析_检测器系统,使得当分析_检测器系统由具有分析器光栅的检测器组成时的分析器光栅、或者当分析_检测器系统由没有分析器光栅的检测器组成时的检测器的入射面与相位光栅之间的距离使得驻波场为最大。 [0041] Further analysis also suggested that such positioning _ detector system, such as analysis of the analyzer grating _ detector system analyzer grating by the detector having a composition, or _ when the analysis by the detector system does not detect analyzer grating the distance between the incident surface of the phase detector when the grating composed such that the maximum standing wave field. 对于所谓的塔尔博(Talbot)距离,在第一近似中以下等式成立: For so-called Talbot (Talbot) distance, in a first approximation the following equation holds:

[0042] [0042]

Figure CN101011257BD00072

[0043]其中: [0043] wherein:

[0044] dm =相位光栅与分析器光栅之间的距离,即所谓的塔尔博距离; [0044] dm = the distance between the phase grating and the analyzer grating, i.e., a so-called Talbot distance;

[0045] m =塔尔博干涉的阶数;m = 1,2,3,...; [0045] m = the number of Talbot interference order; m = 1,2,3, ...;

[0046] gl =相位光栅的周期; [0046] gl = the period of the phase grating;

[0047] λ =所使用的X射线的波长。 [0047] λ = wavelength of X-ray used.

[0048] 等式(7)描述针对平行射线的准确距离。 [0048] Equation (7) describes the exact distance for the parallel rays. 在使用锥形射线时等式(7)仅在第一近似中有效,因为随着与相位光栅之间距离的增大,相干图案也越来越大,如等式(6)所描述的。 Equation (7) is only valid when using a cone-rays in a first approximation, because with the increase of the distance between the phase grating, the coherent pattern is also growing, as shown in equation (6) described above. 该等式相当于随着距离的增大相位光栅的光栅周期gl也越来越大的效果。 This equation is equivalent to the phase grating the grating period is also growing gl effects increase with increasing distance.

[0049] 按照本发明,在焦点_检测器装置的该实施方式中可以调整相位光栅和分析_检测器系统的相对设置的两个不同变形。 [0049] According to the present invention, in this embodiment, focus _ detector means may be adjusted in two different variants of the phase grating and the detector system analysis _ oppositely disposed. 如果相位光栅在辐射方向上距离分析-检测器系统比距离检查对象更近,则分析-检测器系统中的振幅光栅的光栅周期小于相位光栅的光栅周期,典型地大约小一半。 If the phase grating in the radiation direction from - A detector system is more than to the examination subject, the analysis - amplitude grating detector system is smaller than the grating period of the phase grating the grating period, typically about one half smaller.

[0050] 在另一种的焦点-检测器设置中,相位光栅在辐射方向上距离检查对象比距离检测器更近,则分析器光栅以更大的光栅周期工作。 [0050] In another focal point - the detector arrangement, a phase grating in the radiation direction of the inspection object is closer than a distance from the detector, the analyzer grating period of the grating at a larger work. 分析器光栅甚至可以用大于相位光栅的光栅周期工作。 Analyzer grating can even be greater than the grating period of the phase grating work.

[0051] 上述两个变形可以用这样的分析-检测器系统实施,该系统用检测器来代替分析器光栅,该检测器的各个检测器元件又构成为条纹形状,其方向对应于相位光栅的光栅线, 其中这些条纹必须具有最大等于分析器光栅的对应周期的1/3的周期,以便用一次测量就能确定X射线在检测器元件中的相移。 [0051] The two modified such analysis may be used - a detector system embodiment, the system with a detector instead of the analyzer grating, each detector element of the detector to constitute a stripe shape, in a direction corresponding to the phase grating grating lines, wherein the fringes must be equal to the maximum period of the analyzer grating corresponds to 1/3 cycle, with a measurement in order to be able to determine a phase shift in the X-ray detector element.

[0052] 为了产生相干的X射线,本发明人建议在第一替换方式中,辐射源具有关于焦点_检测器装置的几何形状而构成为微焦点的焦点。 [0052] In order to produce a coherent X-rays, the present invention proposes in a first alternative embodiment, the radiation source having a focus on the focus geometry _ detector means is configured as a micro-focus.

[0053] 按照另一替换方式,如果另外设置在辐射方向上的X射线光栅、即所谓的源光栅用于产生必要的相干性,则辐射源还可以具有发散焦点。 [0053] According to another alternative embodiment, if the other direction is provided on the X-ray radiation the grating, i.e., a so-called source grating for generating the necessary coherence of the radiation source may also have diverging focus. 由此虽然就可以达到的分辨率给出了限制,但可以提高性能,从而例如可以减少所需要的照射时间。 Thus although the resolution can be achieved given limited, but the performance can be improved, for example to irradiation time required can be reduced.

[0054] 尽管在上述变形中给出了本发明的优选实施例,所有其它公知的、产生相干X射线光的X射线源如自由电子激光器、第4代同步加速器同样在本发明的范围内,前提条件分别是发散的辐射几何形状。 [0054] While the present invention is preferably given in the above-described variant embodiments, other well-known to all, the X-ray generating coherent light source such as an X-ray free electron lasers, likewise within the scope of the present invention in the 4th generation synchrotron, Prerequisites are diverging radiation geometry.

[0055] 根据本发明人的认识,还建议将本发明的焦点-检测器装置与用于产生投影相位对比图像的X射线系统或者与用于产生断层造影相位对比图像的X射线计算机断层造影系统结合起来使用,这些系统分别可以放大显示检查对象。 X-ray computed tomography system and a detector means for generating X-ray phase contrast image projection system, or generating tomographic phase contrast image and for - [0055] The present inventors recognized that further recommended that the focus of the present invention. in combination, these systems can magnify each inspection object. 大多数情况下这种系统与小样本的分析结合起来使用,但还可以在医疗计算机断层造影设备中进行细节成像时或者在检查小动物时使用。 In most cases such a system is used in conjunction with analysis of small samples, but it can also be used when the details of the inspection or imaging of small animals in medical computed tomography apparatus. 附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0056] 下面借助附图中的优选实施例详细描述本发明,其中只显示理解本发明所需要的特征。 [0056] The following description of preferred embodiments of the drawings in detail in which the present invention is described only show understanding of the features required by the present invention. 在此使用以下附图标记:1 :计算机断层造影系统;2 :第一X射线管;3 :第一检测器; 4 :第二X射线管;5 :第二检测器;6 :支架外壳;7 :患者;8 :患者卧榻;9 :系统轴;10 :控制和计算单元;11 :存储器;d :相位光栅G1与分析器光栅G2之间的距离;D :检测器;dm :塔尔博距离;EiJj :检测器元件;F :焦点;Gtl :源光栅^ :相位光栅;G2 :分析器光栅;gl、& :光栅周期I(ExOO):在光栅位移为时在检测器元件Ex上测得的强度;I :测得的光子流的强度;M :相干图案;P :样本;Prgn :程序;面:辐射源与分析器-检测器系统之间的距离;尿: 辐射源与样本之间的距离:焦点到相位光栅的径向距离;r2 :焦点到分析器-检测器系统的径向距离成=X射线;Xe :分析器光栅的位移;φ :检测器元件Ex上的相移;Ψϋ :检测器元件之间的相对相移;λ :所 As used herein, the following reference numerals: 1: computed tomography system; 2: first X-ray tube; 3: a first detector; 4: second X-ray tube; 5: second detector; 6: carrier housing; 7: patient; 8: patient couch; 9: system axis; 10: control and computing unit; 11: memory; D: distance between the phase grating G1 and the analyzer grating G2; D: detector; DM: Talbot distance; EiJj: detector element; F.: focus; of Gtl: the source grating ^: phase grating; G2: analyzer grating; gl, &: the grating period I (ExOO): in the last grating displacement measured on the detector elements Ex with intensity; the I: intensity of the measured photon flux; M: a coherent design; P: sample; PRGN: program; surface: a radiation source and analyzer - the distance between the detector system; Urine: a radiation source with the sample of distance between: the radial distance from the focus to the phase grating; R2: the analyzer to focus - the radial distance to the detector system = X-ray; Xe: displacement of the analyzer grating; [Phi]: a phase shift detector elements Ex ; Ψϋ: relative phase shift between the detector elements; λ: the 用的X射线的波长。 With X-ray wavelength.

[0057] 具体示出: [0057] DETAILED shown:

[0058] 图1 :示出用于显示干涉现象的具有相位光栅、分析器光栅和检测器的焦点-检测器装置的原理图的纵截面; [0058] FIG 1: shows, the focus detector and the analyzer grating having a phase grating for displaying the interference phenomenon - a longitudinal sectional diagram of a detector means;

[0059] 图2 :示出在选择的检测器元件上与分析器光栅到相干图案的相对位置有关的强度变化; [0059] FIG 2: shows the relative intensity variation relating to the position on the detector element and the analyzer grating to select a coherent pattern;

[0060] 图3 :示出按照本发明的具有强放大效应和设置在分析器_检测器系统附近的相位光栅的焦点-检测器组合的示意截面图; [0060] FIG 3: shows a focus in the vicinity of the analyzer grating _ phase detector system in accordance with the present invention and provided strong amplification effect - a schematic cross-sectional view of a detector in combination;

[0061] 图4 :示出按照本发明的具有强放大效应和设置在检查对象附近的相位光栅的焦点-检测器组合的示意截面图; [0061] FIG 4: shows a focus in the vicinity of the examination subject phase grating having a strong amplification effect according to the present invention is provided and - a schematic cross-sectional view of a detector in combination;

[0062] 图5 :示出按照本发明的具有强放大效应和使用没有分析器光栅的分析器_检测器系统的焦点-检测器组合的示意截面图; [0062] Figure 5: shows an enlarged in accordance with strong focus effect without the use of the analyzer and the analyzer grating _ detector system according to the present invention - a schematic cross-sectional view of a detector in combination;

[0063] 图6 :示出按照本发明的具有强放大效应和设置在分析器_检测器系统附近的相位光栅、并且在辐射源上采用源光栅的焦点-检测器组合的示意截面图; [0063] FIG 6: shows according to the present invention having strong amplification effect and the phase grating disposed near _ analyzer detector system, and the use of the source grating focus radiation sources - a schematic cross-sectional view of a detector in combination;

[0064] 图7 :示出按照本发明的具有强放大效应和设置在检查对象附近的相位光栅、并且在辐射源上采用源光栅的焦点-检测器组合的示意截面图; [0064] Figure 7: shows the focus of the source grating having a phase grating effect and a strong amplification is provided in the vicinity of the examination subject, and the radiation source employed according to the invention - a schematic cross-sectional view of a detector in combination;

[0065] 图8 :示出具有按照本发明的焦点-检测器组合的计算机断层造影系统的示意图, 该焦点_检测器组合具有放大效应和相位光栅、并且在辐射源上采用源光栅。 [0065] FIG 8: shows a focus according to the present invention - a schematic view of a computer tomography system detector combination, a combination of the focus detector _ and phase grating having a magnifying effect, and the use of radiation sources in the source grating.

[0066] 为了更好的理解下面用图1和图2描述相位对比测量的基本原理。 [0066] To better understand the basic principle of phase comparison measurement by Figures 1 and 2 described below.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0067] 图1示出来自放射源的准相干射线或者来自源光栅的单独的相干射线,射线穿过检查对象或样本P,其中在穿过检查对象P时产生相移。 [0067] FIG 1 illustrates a quasi-coherent radiation from the radiation source or from a separate source grating coherent rays, rays pass through the examination object or sample P, wherein a phase shift passes through the examination object P. 在穿过光栅G1时产生通过灰色阴影显示的相干图案,该相干图案借助光栅G2在后面连接的检测器D及其检测器元件E” Ej 上产生对各检测器元件不同的辐射强度,其中以所谓的塔尔博距离形成相干图案或X射线驻波场。 Produce a coherent pattern displayed by the shades of gray when passing through the grating G1, the grating G2 by means of coherent pattern for each detector element generating different radiation intensities at the detector D and the detector elements E "connected downstream Ej, which a so-called Talbot distance or a pattern forming a coherent X-ray standing wave field.

[0068] 如果例如根据分析器光栅G2的相对位置xG考察检测器元件Ei并且强度I (Ei (xG))是该相对位置Xe的函数,则获得检测器元件Ei上强度的正弦形变化过程,如图2所示。 [0068] For example, if the detector element Ei xG examine the relative position of the analyzer grating G2 and the intensity of the I (Ei (xG)) is a function of the relative position Xe, the sinusoidal variation is obtained on the strength of the detector element Ei process, as shown in picture 2. 如果针对每个检测器元件Ei或E^测量的辐射强度I与位移xG相关,则对于最终形成焦点和相应检测器元件之间的空间X射线的不同检测器元件来说可以用函数I(EiOO)或函数KEj(Xg))来近似。 If for each detector element E ^ Ei or the measured radiation intensity I associated with the displacement xG, then the final formation of different detector elements of the space between the X-ray focal spot and the respective detector elements can be used for the function I (EiOO ) or function KEj (Xg)) is approximated. 从该函数中可以为每个检测器元件确定相移φ和检测器元件之间的相对相移(pij Can determine the relative phase shift (phase shift between Pij is φ and the detector element for each detector element from the function

[0069] 因此对于空间中的每个射线通过至少3次利用分别错开的分析器光栅的测量来确定每个检测器像素或所考察的射线的相移,从中可以在投影X射线拍摄的情况下直接计算出投影图像的像素值,另一方面可以在CT检查的情况下产生像素值等于相移的投影,从而可以由此借助本身公知的再现方法计算出检查对象中的哪个体积元素对应于测得的相移的哪一部份。 The [0069] Therefore, for each space-ray measurements of the analyzer grating at least 3 times with each shifted by each detector determines the considered pixel ray or the phase shift, which can be taken in the case where the X-ray projection calculated directly projected image pixel values, on the other hand can generate the pixel value is equal to the phase shift of a projection in the case of CT, to calculate the volume elements which inspection object can thereby reproducing means known per se measuring method corresponds to the which was part of phase shift. 由此计算出截面图像或立体数据,其就X射线的相移反映被检查对象的效果。 Thereby calculating three-dimensional cross-sectional images or data, which the X-ray phase shift to reflect the performance of the inspection target. 由于组成中的微小差异或厚度的微小差异就会对相移产生很强的效果,因此可以再现本身比较接近的物质、尤其是器官组织的细节丰富和对比度强的立体数据。 Due to small differences in the composition of minor differences in thickness or will have a strong effect on the phase shift, it is possible to reproduce itself is relatively close to the substance, in particular organ tissues rich in detail and contrast of the stereoscopic intensity data.

[0070] 借助多重移位的分析器光栅和测量位于该分析器光栅之后的检测器元件上的辐射强度来检测穿过检查对象的X射线的相移,是以每条X射线在分析器光栅分别移动了光栅周期的一部分的情况下必须执行至少3次测量为条件的。 [0070] by means of multiple shifted grating and an analyzer measuring a radiation intensity on a detector element after the analyzer grating to detect X-rays passing through the object under examination phase shift is in each X-ray analyzer grating They are moved part of the case where the grating period is at least three measurements must be performed for the condition.

[0071] 原则上还存在这样的可能性:不使用这样的分析器光栅而是采用足够高分辨的检测器,在这种情况下不会发生由于吸收而在分析器光栅的栅条中导致的强度损失,并且用一次测量就能确定各个射线/像素之间的相移。 [0071] There is also the possibility in principle: do not use such an analyzer grating instead of using a sufficiently high resolution of the detector, does not occur in this case due to absorption in the analyzer grating resulting gridlines loss of strength, and can be determined by measurement of the phase shift between the respective rays / pixel.

[0072] 为了测量相位对比需要使用相干射线或至少是准相干射线。 [0072] In order to measure the phase contrast requires the use of coherent radiation or at least quasi-coherent radiation. 该射线例如可以通过点状的焦点产生,或者作为单独相干射线的场通过位于平面构成的焦点之后的源光栅或者通过用于平衡这种光栅的阳极上燃烧斑(Brermfleck)的相应光栅类型的结构产生。 The radiation can be, for example, is generated by the focal point, or as a separate source of coherent radiation field through the grating after the focus is on a plane formed by combustion or spot (Brermfleck) corresponding raster anode balance this type of grating structure produce.

[0073] 应当这样选择光栅的线定向,使得现有光栅的光栅线以及必要时存在的检测器元件的条纹结构相互平行。 [0073] orientation of the grating lines should be selected such that the structure of the conventional raster stripe grating lines and a detector element is present parallel to each other when necessary. 此外优选但不是必须的是,光栅线平行于或垂直于在此示出的焦点_检测器系统的系统轴地定向。 Further preferably, but not necessarily, the grating lines are parallel to or perpendicular to the system axis oriented focus here illustrated _ detector system.

[0074] 图3示出按照本发明的具有焦点F的焦点-检测器组合的示意图,该焦点在样本或检查对象P的方向上射出具有射线SiW发散射线束。 [0074] Figure 3 shows a focal point in accordance with the focus F of the present invention - a schematic diagram of a combined detector, the focal point is emitted in the direction of the sample or the inspection object P having SiW rays of diverging radiation beams. 在穿过检查对象P之后该射线束扩张地落到第一相位光栅G1上,在该相位光栅中产生相干图案,该图案通过后面连接的包括分析器光栅G2和其后的检测器D的分析-检测器系统来分析。 After passing through the examination object beam P falls on the first phase expansion of the grating G1, the coherent pattern is generated in the phase grating, the analysis includes the analyzer grating G2 and the subsequent detector D is connected downstream of the pattern by - to analyze the detector system. 该分析通过在此示出的这种分析-检测器系统进行,该分析-检测器系统具有分析器光栅和连接在后的、包括多个检测器元件的检测器,如图1和图2所描述的。 The analyzed by this analysis is shown here - a detector system, which - A detector system having a grating and an analyzer connected to the rear, comprising a plurality of detector elements, Figures 1 and 2 describe. 为了改善分析器光栅G2的效果在该光栅G2的光栅空隙中还示出了高吸收性的材料。 In order to improve the effect of the analyzer grating G2 in the grating of the grating G2 of the gap also shows a superabsorbent material. 但是要指出在光栅空隙中没有这种填充材料的分析器光栅也在本发明的范围内。 It is to be noted that the analyzer grating is not within the scope of this invention, filler is also present in the grating interstices.

[0075] 另外在该图的下方示出焦点-检测器组合的主要元件之间的重要径向距离,如焦点和相位光栅G1之间的径向距离T1以及焦点和分析_检测器系统之间的径向距离r2。 [0075] Further, in the figure below shows the focus - important radial distance between the main elements in the detector assembly, the radial distance between the focal point and the phase gratings G1 and T1 as the focus between the detector system and analysis _ radial distance r2. 为了描述发散射线的放大特性同样绘制出焦点或射线源和样本之间的距离硬以及射线源或焦点和分析-检测器系统之间的距离面。 In order to describe the same amplification characteristic diverging rays from a hard drawn between the focal point and the radiation source or radiation source and the sample or the analysis of focus and - the distance between the surface of the detector system. 放大系数V由射线源或焦点与分析-检测器系统之间的距离面以及射线源或焦点与样本之间的距离尿之比给出,其中 Amplification factor V or a radiation source focal point and analysis - urine, given than the distance between the surface and the radiation source or distance from the focal point of the sample between the detector system, wherein

[0076] 7 =逕。 [0076] 7 = diameter. (8) (8)

QP QP

9[0077] 检查对象中被扫描区域(=FOV =视场)的投影大小与后面相位光栅G1的使用区域之比以及与使用的随后的分析器-检测器系统的区域之比都与在按照本发明扫描检查对象时的上述几何状况相对应。 9 [0077] inspection subject area being scanned (= FOV = field of view) and the size of the rear projection grating G1 phase ratio of the area of ​​use and the subsequent use of the analyzer and - the ratio of area detector system are in accordance with the when the above-described geometries scan the object corresponding to the present invention.

[0078] 图4中示出同样按照本发明的焦点-检测器系统的变形,其中相位光栅和后面的分析-检测器系统之间的距离明显增大。 In [0078] FIG. 4 shows the same in accordance with the focus of the present invention - modification of the detector system, wherein the phase grating and the subsequent analysis - the distance between the detector system is significantly increased. 本发明人认识到,可以通过选择更大的塔尔博阶数m和/或通过放大相位光栅周期gl来增大塔尔博距离。 The present invention recognize that a larger Talbot order m and / or be increased by amplifying gl phase grating period selected by the Talbot distance. 放大gl还会导致分析器光栅周期的增大。 Gl amplification also causes an increase in the analyzer grating period. 但首先通过放大几何形状来增大待扫描驻波场的周期并因此增大分析器光栅的周期。 But first wave field to be scanned is increased by enlarging the geometry of the cycle and thus increase the period of the analyzer grating. 由此减小长宽比并因此简化光栅的制造。 Thereby reducing the aspect ratio and thus simplifying the manufacturing of the grating. 如果要实施没有分析器光栅的分析-检测器系统,则优选可以通过上述几何形状选择稍低的对检测器的位置分辨率的要求。 To analyze embodiment not analyzer grating - detector system, it is preferably be selected slightly lower position detector requires the resolution of the above-described geometries.

[0079] 在图5中示出具有相位光栅G1的这种焦点-检测器系统的变形,该相位光栅与后面连接的分析_检测器系统形成干涉,在该分析_检测器系统中检测器分为单个检测器元件,并且确定检测器的位置分辨率的这些检测器元件又对应于相位光栅的光栅线划分为条纹形状的,以测量每个检测器元件的相移。 [0079] This shows a focus with a phase grating G1 in FIG. 5 - modification of the detector system, the detector system analysis _ the phase grating to form an interference with the rear of the connector, the detector sub-system analysis detector _ resolution of a single detector element, and determines the position of the detector which detector elements corresponding to the phase grating has grating lines are divided into a stripe shape, each detector element to measure the phase shift. 在此也将相位光栅G1与后面检测器D之间的距离选择为等于塔尔博距离dm。 Here also the distance between the phase grating G1 and the rear detector is selected to equal D Talbot distance dm.

[0080] 在图6和图7中示出焦点-检测器系统的变形,其中在焦点F和检查对象P之间还连接了一个源光栅,从而对于扩大的焦点也能产生准相干的X射线,由此可以用明显更高的功率/强度工作。 [0080] In FIG 6 and FIG 7 illustrates a focus - deformation detection system, wherein between the inspection object and the focal point P F is also connected to a source grating, thereby to expand the focus can produce quasi-coherent X-rays , thereby work with substantially higher power / intensity.

[0081] 由此还可以将这种焦点-检测器系统与医疗用途的投影X射线设备或者计算机断层造影系统结合起来使用。 [0081] Accordingly this focus may also be - detector system and the projection for medical use X-ray device or a computer tomography system used in combination.

[0082] 图6和图7中光栅相互之间的距离比例与图3和图4中的距离比例相同。 [0082] FIGS. 6 and Comparative distance from the ratio of FIGS. 3 and 4 to each other between the grating 7 in the same FIG.

[0083] 图8中示出医疗应用的例子_计算机断层造影系统1,该系统具有一个或可选的两个按照本发明的焦点_检测器系统。 Example [0083] FIG. 8 illustrates a medical application 1 _ computed tomography system, the system having one or two optional according to the present invention, the focus detector system _. 示出支架外壳6,外壳内设置有第一X射线管2和位于其对面的检测器系统3,在该检测器系统中还集成了如上述附图中示出的相位光栅。 6 shows a carrier housing, the housing is provided with a first X-ray tube 2 and located opposite the detector system 3, the detector system is also integrated into the phase grating as shown in the above figures. 可选的,还可以设置另一个具有第二X射线管4和第二检测器系统5的焦点-检测器系统。 Alternatively, another may be provided with a second X-ray tube 4 and the second focus detector system 5 - detector system. 为了沿着系统轴9进行扫描,可以借助可移动患者卧榻8将作为检查对象的患者7移动穿过支架的开口。 For scanning along the system axis 9, it can be moved by means of the patient couch through the opening 8 to move the bracket 7 as a patient examination object. 借助控制和计算单元10运行计算机断层造影系统的控制和分析,在该控制和计算单元10中设置了包含程序Prg1-Prgn的存储器。 Analysis and control means of the control and computation unit 10 runs a computer tomography system is provided comprising program memory Prg1-Prgn in the control and computing unit 10. 在该控制和计算单元10中还可以对图像进行分析并执行再现。 The image can also be analyzed in the control and computation unit 10, and performs reproduction.

[0084] 要指出,利用在此在本文献中展示的焦点_检测器系统不仅可以进行相位对比测量,而且还可以进行吸收测量。 [0084] It is noted that, in using the here presented in this document focus detector system _ can not only phase comparison measurement, but also can measure absorption. 在分析每个像素时获得相位信息和吸收信息。 Absorption and phase information obtained in the analysis information of each pixel.

[0085] 应当理解本发明的上述特征不仅可以用于各给出的组合而且还可以在不偏离本发明范围的情况下用于其它组合或单独使用。 [0085] It should be understood that the above features of the present invention may be used in combination of not given but may also be used in other combinations or alone without departing from the scope of the invention.

10 10

Claims (12)

1. 一种用于对检查对象的观察区域产生投影或断层造影相位对比图像的CT系统(1) 的焦点-检测器装置(F,D),该装置具有:,1.1.辐射源(2),用于发射相干或准相干的X射线并透射检查对象(7,P),,1.2.设置在辐射源的辐射路径中、检查对象(7,P)之后的相位光栅(G1),该相位光栅产生位于预定能量范围内的X射线相干图案,以及,1.3.分析-检测器系统(G2,D),用于位置分辨地检测由相位光栅(G1)产生的相干图案以检测相位光栅的相移,所述分析-检测器系统(G2,D)具有分析器光栅(G2),其特征在于,,1.4.所使用的X射线的辐射路径至少在焦点(F)和检测器(D)之间的一个平面内发散,以及I η+ d,1. 5.保持几何关系& =-J幻,其中,d是相位光栅(G1)与分析器光栅(G2)之间的,Z rI距离,巧是辐射源与相位光栅之间的距离,g2是分析器光栅(G2)的周期,gl是相位 1. A method for producing focus of the projection image or tomographic phase contrast CT system (1) of the observation area of ​​the object under examination - detector means (F, D), the apparatus comprising: 1.1 the radiation source (2). for emitting a coherent or quasi-coherent X-ray transmission inspection and the object (7, P) ,, 1.2. arranged in the radiation path of the radiation source, the phase grating (G1) after the examination object (7, P), the phase the X-ray generating coherent grating pattern located within a predetermined energy range, and a 1.3 analysis - detector system (G2, D), for detecting the position resolution generated by the phase grating (G1) phase coherent patterns to detect a phase grating shifting said analysis - detector system (G2, D) has an analyzer grating (G2), characterized in that ,, 1.4 X-ray radiation path is used at least in the focal point (F) and a detector (D) of. a divergence between the inner plane, and I η + d, 1. 5. & = -J holding phantom geometry, wherein, d is between phase grating (G1) and the analyzer grating (G2), Z rI distance, Qiao is the distance between the radiation source and the phase grating, g2 is an analyzer grating (G2) of the cycle, gl is the phase 栅(G1) 的光栅周期。 The gate (G1) of the grating period.
2.根据权利要求1所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所使用的X射线的辐射路径在焦点(F)和检测器(D)之间的两个平面内发散。 The focal point of the claim 1 - detector means, characterized in that, X-rays used in the radiation path divergence in two planes between the focal point (F) and a detector (D).
3.根据权利要求1所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,在辐射路径的光轴方向的投影中看到的检查对象的被观察区域小于在辐射路径中设置于后的相位光栅(G1)的使用区域,而该相位光栅(G1)的使用区域又小于在辐射路径中设置于后的分析-检测器系统(G2, D)的使用区域。 The focal point of the claim 1 - detector means, characterized in that, seen in the region to be observed in the optical axis direction of the projection path of the radiation inspection object is less than the phase grating is disposed in the radiation path ( using the area detector system (G2, D) of - G1) in the area of ​​use, and analysis is provided in the radiation path in the phase grating (G1) and smaller than the area of ​​use.
4.根据权利要求1所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,从所述辐射源(2)到分析-检测器系统(G2,D)的距离(QD )至少是从辐射源(2)到检查对象(7,P)的距离(QP ) 的两倍。 The focal point of the claim 1 - detector means, characterized in that, from the radiation source (2) to the analysis - Distance (QD) detector system (G2, D) at least from the radiation source (2 ) twice to the examination object (7, P) a distance (QP) of.
5.根据权利要求1至4中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,从所述辐射源⑵到分析-检测器系统(G2,D)的检测器的距离(QD )至少是从辐射源(2)到检查对象(7,P)的距离(QP )的10倍。 Detector means, characterized in that, from the radiation source to the analysis ⑵ - - The focus as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, detector distance detector system (G2, D) is (QD) It is at least 10 times the distance (QP) from a radiation source (2) to the examination object (7, P) of.
6.根据权利要求1至4中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述相位光栅(G1)在辐射方向上距离分析-检测器系统(G2,D)比距离检查对象(7,P)更近。 The focus as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, - a detector means, wherein said phase grating (G1) from the analysis in the radiation direction - a detector system (G2, D) than the distance inspection the object (7, P) closer.
7.根据权利要求1至4中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述相位光栅(G1)在辐射方向上距离检查对象(7,P)比距离分析-检测器系统(G2,D)更近。 Detector means, wherein said phase grating (G1) than the distance from the analysis of the inspection object (7, P) in the radial direction - - 7. The focus as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, the detector system (G2, D) closer.
8.根据权利要求1至4中任一项所述的焦点_检测器装置,其特征在于,所述分析-检测器系统(G2,D)具有在辐射方向上设置在分析器光栅(G2)之后的包括多个检测器元件(Ex)的所述检测器(D)。 _ 8. A focus detector according to an apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein said analysis - detector system (G2, D) having a radiation pattern disposed in the analyzer grating (G2) after it comprises a plurality of detector elements (Ex) of the detector (D).
9.根据权利要求8所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述相位光栅(G1)与分析器光栅(G2)之间的距离(dm)满足以下几何关系: According to claim 8, wherein the focus - a detector means, characterized in that the distance between said phase grating (G1) and the analyzer grating (G2) (dm) satisfy the following geometric relationship:
Figure CN101011257BC00021
其中:dm =相位光栅(G1)与分析器光栅(G2)之间的距离;m=l,2,3,···;gl =相位光栅(G1)的光栅周期; λ =所使用的X射线的波长。 Wherein: dm = the distance between the phase grating (G1) and the analyzer grating (G2); m = l, 2,3, ···; gl = phase grating (G1) of the grating period; λ = X used wavelength radiation.
10.根据权利要求1至4中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述辐射源具有关于焦点-检测器装置的几何形状而构成为微焦点的焦点,其中:Sx其中s是焦点的大小,λ是所使用的射线的波长,Γι是焦点到相位光栅的径向距离,gl 是相位光栅的光栅周期。 Detector means, characterized in that the radiation source having a focus on - - 10. The focus as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, according to the geometry of the focus detector means is configured as a micro-focus, wherein: Sx where s is the size of the focal point, λ is the wavelength of the radiation used, Γι is the radial distance to focus the phase grating, gl is the grating period of the phase grating.
11.根据权利要求1至4中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述辐射源具有所述焦点(F)和设置在辐射方向上的源光栅(Gtl)。 Detector means, characterized in that the radiation source having the focal point (F) and the source grating arranged in the radiation direction (Gtl) - 11. Focus claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4.
12. —种X射线计算机断层造影系统,用于产生可以放大地显示检查对象的断层造影相位对比图像,其特征在于,其具有根据权利要求1至11中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装 12. - kind of X-ray computed tomography system for generating a display can be enlarged tomographic phase contrast image of the object under examination, characterized in that it has a focus in any one of claims 1 to 11, - a detector dress
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