CN101011250B - Focus detector arrangement for generating phase-contrast X-ray images and method for this - Google Patents

Focus detector arrangement for generating phase-contrast X-ray images and method for this Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN101011250B
CN101011250B CN 200710007935 CN200710007935A CN101011250B CN 101011250 B CN101011250 B CN 101011250B CN 200710007935 CN200710007935 CN 200710007935 CN 200710007935 A CN200710007935 A CN 200710007935A CN 101011250 B CN101011250 B CN 101011250B
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
grating
ray
focus
detector means
phase
Prior art date
Application number
CN 200710007935
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN101011250A (en
Inventor
乔基姆·鲍曼
乔尔格·弗罗伊登伯格
克里斯琴·戴维
埃克哈德·亨普尔
弗朗兹·法伊弗
托马斯·默特尔梅尔
斯蒂芬·波普斯库
曼弗雷德·舒斯特
马丁·恩格尔哈特
马丁·霍黑塞尔
Original Assignee
保罗谢勒研究所
西门子公司
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE102006004976.4 priority Critical
Priority to DE102006004604 priority
Priority to DE102006004976 priority
Priority to DE102006004604.8 priority
Priority to DE102006037256.5 priority
Priority to DE102006037256.5A priority patent/DE102006037256B4/en
Application filed by 保罗谢勒研究所, 西门子公司 filed Critical 保罗谢勒研究所
Publication of CN101011250A publication Critical patent/CN101011250A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN101011250B publication Critical patent/CN101011250B/en

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/48Diagnostic techniques
    • A61B6/484Diagnostic techniques involving phase contrast X-ray imaging
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/42Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment with arrangements for detecting radiation specially adapted for radiation diagnosis
    • A61B6/4291Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment with arrangements for detecting radiation specially adapted for radiation diagnosis the detector being combined with a grid or grating
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2223/00Investigating materials by wave or particle radiation
    • G01N2223/40Imaging
    • G01N2223/419Imaging computed tomograph
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2223/00Investigating materials by wave or particle radiation
    • G01N2223/60Specific applications or type of materials
    • G01N2223/612Specific applications or type of materials biological material

Abstract

The invention relates a focus-detector arrangement (F1, D) of an X-ray apparatus for generating phase contrast recordings of an observed subject (7, P), including: a radiation source (2) with a focus (F1), arranged on a first side of the observed subject, for generating a fan-shaped or conical beam of rays (Si); at least one X-ray optical grating (G0, G1, G2) arranged in the beam path, wherein at least one phase grating (G1) arranged on the opposite second side of the observed subject (7, P) in the beam path generates an interference pattern of the X-ray in a particular energy range of the X-ray; and an analysis-detector system (G2, D1) which detects at least the interference pattern generated by the phase grating (G1) in respect of its phase shift with position resolution, wherein according to the invention, at least one X-ray optical grating (G0, G1, G2) includes bars which are free from overhangs form shadows in the beam path of the fan-shaped or conical beam of rays (Si).

Description

X射线设备的用于产生相位对比照片的焦点-检测器装置 Focus X-ray device for generating phase contrast photo - detector means

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种X射线设备的用于产生投影或断层造影的相位对比照片的焦点-检测器装置,其具有:设置在检查对象第一侧的具有用于产生扇形或锥形射束的焦点的辐射源,在检查对象的相对的第二侧在射线途径中设置的相位光栅,该相位光栅产生一个在X射线的预定能量区域内X射线辐射的干涉图形,以及分析检测系统,该分析检测系统至少分辨位置地针对相位移检测由相位光栅产生的干涉图形。 [0001] The present invention relates to an apparatus for generating X-ray projections or tomographic phase contrast focus of the photo - detector means having: a first side disposed in the examination subject having a fan or cone emitted for generating the focus of the radiation source beam, the phase grating in the radiation pathway provided in the opposing second side of the object under examination, the phase grating produces an X-ray radiation of the interference pattern, and analyzing the detection system in a predetermined area of ​​the X-ray energy, detecting the position of the interference pattern generated by the phase shift of the phase grating for resolving at least spectrometric detection system.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 这类用于产生检查对象的投影或断层造影的相位对比照片的焦点-检测器装置是已知。 [0002] generating a focus or object under examination projection tomographic phase contrast of such a photo - detector means are known. 例如可以参见欧洲专利申请EP 1447046 Al和未在先公开的带有案卷号102006017290.6、102006015358. 8、102006017291. 4、102006015356. 1 以及102006015355. 3的德国专利申请。 See, for example, European Patent Application EP 1447046 Al and German Patent Application 102006017290.6,102006015358. 8,102006017291. 4,102006015356. 1 and 102006015355.3 not previously disclosed with docket number.

[0003] 为了通过电离射线、尤其通过X射线来成像,主要可以考虑两个在辐射穿过物质时出现的效应,即,通过检查对象的辐射的吸收和相位移。 [0003] In order to ionizing radiation, in particular X-ray imaged, it can be considered mainly two effects occur when radiation passes through the material, i.e., phase shift, and the radiation absorption by the examination object. 还已知,在很多情况下在射线穿过检查对象时发生的相位移对所穿越物质的厚度和成分方面的微小差别的反应明显比对射线的吸收强得多。 It is also known, the phase shift that occurs when rays pass through the object under examination in many cases, response to minor differences in thickness and composition of the material traversed significantly stronger than the absorption of radiation. 这两种效应的大小基本上分别强列地取决于辐射的能量和所透射物质的荷电荷数。 The size of these two effects are substantially dependent on the radiation intensity and the number of columns of energy transmitting material bearing charge.

[0004] 为了进行这种相位对比-射线照相或相位对比-断层造影必须分析由检查对象引起的相位移。 [0004] In order to perform such a phase contrast - radiographic contrast or phase - tomographic analysis must be caused by displacement of the object under examination. 在此,与X射线照相及X射线断层造影类似,不仅可以制成相位移的投影图像, 或者还可以计算相位移的断层造影表示的多个投影图像。 Here, the X-ray tomography X-ray photography and the like, may be made of not only a phase shift of the projected image, or a plurality of projection images may also be calculated phase shift tomographic representation.

[0005] 不能直接确定X射线波的相位,而只能通过与基准波的干涉来确定。 [0005] X-rays are not directly determine the phase of the wave, and can only be determined by interference with the reference wave. 相对于基准波或者相对于相邻射线的相位移可以通过采用干涉仪的光栅来测定以及组合成投影和断层造影的照片。 Reference wave or phase shift relative to adjacent rays can be measured by using a grating interferometer, and combinations and to project with respect to the tomographic pictures. 有关干涉仪的测量方法可以参考前面所引用的文献。 For measurement interferometer may be references cited above. 在这些方法中,用相干的X射线透射检查对象,随后引导X射线通过具有与射线的波长相适配的周期的光栅,由此产生干涉图形,该干涉图形取决于在检查对象体内产生的相位移。 In these methods, X-ray transmission using coherent object under examination, X-rays and then guided by a grating having a wavelength is adapted to the radiation cycle, thereby generating an interference pattern, the interference pattern depends on the phase generated in vivo examination object displacement. 通过后联(时间上随后)的分析检测装置对该干涉图形进行测定,由此可以分辨位置地确定相位移。 It was measured by analyzing the interference pattern detecting means after with (subsequent in time), and thereby determine a position-resolved relative displacements. 还已知,此类相位光栅例如通过从硅晶片中蚀刻矩形结构来制造。 It is also known, for example, such a phase grating is manufactured from a silicon wafer by etching a rectangular configuration.

[0006] 迄今的用于不同的相位对比射线照相或相位对比断层造影的系统是针对平行射束几何形状设计的。 [0006] date for different phase-contrast or phase contrast radiographic tomography system for parallel beam geometry is designed. 业已表明,在这类系统中只在轴附近的区域内才能满意地实现成像,而随着朝检测器边缘方向逐渐增大的扇形角和锥形角,成像效果越来越差。 It has been shown, in such systems can be achieved only in the region near the axis of the imaging satisfactorily, and with an edge direction towards the detector fan angle is gradually increased and the taper angle, the imaging effect is getting worse.

[0007] 对于医学诊断和无损的材料检验希望所采用的X射线设备具有紧凑的结构。 [0007] having a compact X-ray apparatus for medical diagnosis and non-destructive testing of materials employed desired. 例如在计算机断层造影仪(CT)中源、相位对比光栅系统及检测器在一个入口内旋转,该入口的直径出于系统方面原因以及因为离心力受到限制。 For example the source, phase-contrast grating and the detector system in a rotary inlet in a computer tomography (CT), the diameter of the inlet reasons systems and the centrifugal force is restricted. 另外,医学CT系统的开口通过患者的尺寸和所需人体工程学确定。 Further, the opening of the CT system of medical patient by size and determining the desired ergonomics. 该尺寸将一个最大长度附加到差分相位对比成像系统的射线途径上。 The maximum size of a length of the additional route to the ray differential phase contrast imaging system. 另一方面,视野要足够大,以便达到合理的扫描。 On the other hand, the field of view large enough to achieve a reasonable scan. 这要求采用宽的扇形或锥形射束。 This requires a wide fan or cone beam. 在用于投影照片的X射线设备或C形弓架系统中也给出类似的状态和考虑。 In the X-ray device or the C-arm system for a projection photographs also give similar status and considerations. 发明内容 SUMMARY

[0008] 本发明所要解决的技术问题是,提供一种在所有远离轴线的区域或检测器系统的边缘区域内改善成像的焦点-检测器装置。 [0008] The present invention solves the technical problem is to provide an improved focus image of all areas in the edge area or away from the axis of the detector system - a detector means.

[0009] 发明人认识到,在相位对比拍摄时朝检测器边缘方向至少局部成像差的原因在于,在传统的平面光栅中在边缘区域内栅条(Gitterstege)相对于射线方向的定向随着与中心的距离增大而具有一个逐渐增大的角度。 [0009] The inventors have recognized that, in the phase contrast edge direction towards the detector when photographing at least a partial reason for the difference is that the image, the orientation in the conventional planar grating grate in the edge region (Gitterstege) with respect to the radiation direction, It increases from the center having a gradually increasing angle. 基于通常> 20keV的相对高的光子能量在光栅内(确切地说,不仅在相位光栅内而且在分析光栅内)达到在大于10 : 1范围的栅条高与栅空宽的形态比。 Based on the relative high photon energy typically> 20keV in grating (specifically, not only the phase grating and the grating in the analysis) reaches greater than 10: irons and high aspect ratio of the gate width of an empty range. 相位光栅的光栅高度随着光子能量大致成线性增长,分析光栅的光栅高度甚至还增长得更强,这在医学诊断和无损材料检测的高光子能量条件下导致极大的形态比。 Phase grating with the grating height substantially linear increase photon energy, the analyzer grating height of the grating grow even stronger, which results in a great aspect ratio at high photon energy condition medical diagnosis and non-destructive material testing. 如果要采用具有更宽扇形或锥形角度的射线路径,则这种具有大形态比的光栅导致遮挡效应,该遮挡效应尤其强烈地影响相位光栅的折射效果以及分析光栅朝更大角度、亦即朝检测器边缘方向的扫描效果。 If the ray path to be used having a wider fan or cone angle of the grating having such a large aspect ratio results in shielding effect, the shielding effect particularly strong influence of the refractive effect of the phase grating and the analyzer grating towards larger angles, i.e. scans toward the edge direction detector.

[0010] 如果要避免这种负面效应,则必须要相应地构造光栅,该光栅要避免阴影形成或避免相对于所照射射线的辐射方向的悬幕(iiberhang)。 [0010] To avoid this negative effect, it must be configured accordingly grating, which is formed to avoid or prevent shadows with respect to the radiation direction of the radiation curtain hanging irradiated (iiberhang).

[0011 ] 这种遮挡例如可以通过将栅条设计成其侧面沿各射线方向定向来避免。 [0011] This example grate designed to shield its side oriented in the direction of each ray can be avoided. 也存在这样的可能性,即,将栅条设计成梯形,使得只在光栅的小部位上出现遮挡。 There is also the possibility that the grate trapezoidal design, such that only a small portion in sheltered grating. 相应地也可以选择避免遮挡的波浪形轮廓。 Accordingly, you may also choose to avoid occlusion of an undulating profile. 尤其有利的可以是,光栅还可以具有栅条的波浪形变化,这种变化在不是过陡的侧面走向时防止出现遮挡。 It may be particularly advantageous, having an undulating grating may also change the gridlines, prevent occlusion when this change is not too steep sides towards.

[0012] 另外,也可以采用具有垂直侧面的传统光栅,如果该光栅圆形地围绕辐射源焦点弯曲的话。 [0012] Further, a conventional grating can also be employed with vertical sides, if the focus of the radiation source around the circular grating bending it. 在此,沿径向对准定向的栅条垂直于所展开的球形表面或圆柱形表面地延伸。 Here, aligned radially oriented perpendicular to the gridlines expanded spherical or cylindrical surface extending to the surface.

[0013] 光栅的这种弯曲可以例如通过相应的绷紧来产生,或者还通过将一个弯曲的光栅用作两个不同气压或液压的腔室之间的分界面来实现,其中,在边缘侧设置支承。 This bending [0013], for example, the grating may be produced by a corresponding tightening, or implemented through an interface between the two different curved grating as pneumatic or hydraulic pressure chamber, wherein, at the edge setting the support. 差分相位对比方法在扇形和锥形射束形状时不仅需要圆柱段或球拱形式的相位光栅,而且由于同心的干涉图形的形成也需要圆柱段或球拱形式的同心分析光栅以及必要时还有圆柱段或球拱形式的同心检测器。 Differential phase contrast method requires not only a cylindrical segment or spherical cap form of a phase grating in the cone beam and fan-shape, and because the formation of the interference pattern needs to be concentric cylindrical section or in the form of concentric spherical cap and possibly also an analyzer grating cylindrical section or spherical cap form of concentric detector. 这意味着技术上的困难。 This means that technical difficulties. 为此,发明人广泛地建议,根据几何学的已知条件,单独或组合地将相位光栅的栅条高度(Steghoehe)或光栅周期调整为,使得相位光栅与分析检测装置的径向距离等于所希望的塔尔波特距离(Talbot-Abstand)。 To this end, the invention broadly suggested according to the known geometrical conditions, alone or in combination height of the grating bars of phase grating (Steghoehe) or grating period is adjusted such that the radial distance from the phase grating and the detection means is equal to the analysis Talbot desired distance (Talbot-Abstand).

[0014] 原则上还要注意以下情况: [0014] Also note that on the following principles:

[0015] 经过随机过程从实验室X射线源(例如X射线管、次级靶、等离子体源、放射源) 以及也从第一至第三代传统的同步加速辐射源发射X射线光子。 [0015] After the random process from a laboratory X-ray source (e.g. X-ray tube, a secondary target, a plasma source, the radiation source) and also from the first to the third generation of synchrotron radiation source conventional X-ray photons. 因此,所发射的X射线辐射本身不具有空间相干性。 Thus, X-ray radiation emitted by itself has no spatial coherence. 但是当观察角度足够小时,X射线源的辐射如在空间中相干辐射那样在相位对比射线照相及相位对比断层造影或者任意干涉实验中实现,在所述观察角度下,为观察者、对象、光栅或检测器显现所述辐射源。 However, when the viewing angle is sufficiently small, the X-ray radiation sources, such as coherent radiation in space as in the phase contrast radiographing and a phase-contrast tomograph or any interference experiment implemented at the observation angle, the observer, the object, the grating show the radiation source or detector. 作为衡量一个外展X射线源的空间 As a measure of the X-ray source abduction space

或横向相干性的参数列举所谓的空间相干长度L。 Or lateral coherence parameters include the so-called spatial coherence length L. :

Figure CN101011250BD00071

[0017] 其中,λ是波长,s是横向的辐射源尺寸,a是辐射源与观察点的距离。 [0017] where, λ is the wavelength, s is the lateral size of the radiation source, a is a distance from the radiation source and the observation point. 有些作者也将上面所定义的数值的一半称为空间相干长度。 Some authors will also be half as defined above values ​​called spatial coherence length. 精确的数值是次要的;重要的是,与从中发出的射线应该相互干涉的空间范围的(横向)尺寸相比,相干长度L。 Precise values ​​is secondary; important, compared with the spatial extent of the radiation emitted therefrom should interfere with each other (lateral) dimension, the coherence length L. 要大。 Larger.

[0018] 在本专利申请的意义上可以将相干辐射理解为这样的辐射,S卩,该辐射在X射线光学光栅的给定几何形状以及给定间距的情况下导致形成干涉图形。 [0018] In the sense of the present patent application may be understood as a coherent radiation irradiation, S Jie, the radiation results in the case of X-ray optical grating for a given geometry and a given pitch to form an interference pattern. 当然,所述空间相干性以及进而空间的相干长度总是通过三个数值(波长、辐射源尺寸以及观察距离)确定。 Of course, the spatial coherence and thus the coherence length of the space is always by three numbers (wavelength, the radiation source size and viewing distance) is determined. 在紧凑表达方式的意义上实际情况是简略到如“相干的X射线辐射”、“相干的X射线辐射源” 或“用于产生相干的X射线辐射的点源”等概念上。 In the sense of reality compact expression is simplified to as "coherent X-ray radiation," "coherent X-ray radiation" or "X-ray radiation for generating a coherent point source" on concepts. 这些简略是基于,在此所讨论的用途中X射线辐射的波长或能量E —方面通过检查对象所期望的透射能力以及另一方面通过在实验室X射线源内可利用的频谱来限制。 These are based on the schematic, the purpose of this discussion in the wavelength of X-ray radiation or energy E - aspect of the inspection object by the desired capacity and on the other to limit the transmission spectrum in the laboratory by X-ray source available. 辐射源与观察点之间的距离a在用于无损材料检验或医学诊断中要受到一定的限制。 The distance between the radiation source and the observation point in a material for medical diagnosis or non-destructive inspection to be subject to certain restrictions. 因此,多数情况下辐射源尺寸s是唯一的自由度,即使辐射源尺寸与管功率的关系是有紧密界限的。 Thus, in most cases the radiation source size s is the only degree of freedom, even if the relationship between the radiation source and the size of the tube is closely power limit.

[0019] 对小的或点状辐射源的要求导致,可以采用的强度也相对较小。 [0019] or a small point source of radiation requirement results, the strength is relatively small may be employed. 因此,为了提高强度还建议,采用一个具有相对大面积的焦点的X射线源以及在焦点与检查对象之间的射线途径中采用一个X射线光学吸收光栅、一个所谓的源光栅。 Accordingly, in order to increase the strength also suggested by focal having a relatively large area of ​​the X-ray source and the X-ray optical employ a radiation pathway between the focus of the inspection target absorption grating, a so-called source grating. 大面积的焦点允许采用更大的以及进而功率更强的X射线源。 Focus a large area and thus allow the use of larger and stronger power X-ray source. 源光栅的狭窄缝隙或栅空用于保持所有从同一个缝隙中射出的射线所要求的空间相干性。 The source grating narrow gap or space for holding the gate in all spatial coherence of light emitted from the same radiation required gap. 缝隙宽度必须满足从方程(1)得出的对于横向辐射源尺寸S的数值要求。 The slot width must satisfy the equation (1) to the value required lateral dimension S of the radiation source derived. 在光子从源光栅的缝隙到缝隙之间在按照: Photons from the gap between the slits of the source grating in accordance to:

[0020] g0/g2 = l/d(2) [0020] g0 / g2 = l / d (2)

[0021] 适当地使源光栅周期而和干涉图形周期&以及源光栅(^1与相位光栅G1之间的距离1和相位光栅G1与干涉图形之间的距离d相协调时,至少可以实现将驻波场的最大值与最小值在强度方面的正确叠加。在本专利申请的简略表达方式中与此相关地采用“近似相干辐射”或“近似相干辐射源”的概念。 [0021] Suitably the grating period of the source and the interference pattern and the source grating period & (^ 1 and distance d between phase grating G1 and coordinate the interference pattern, may be implemented at least 1 and the distance between the phase grating G1 maximum and minimum values ​​of the standing wave field is superimposed in the correct strength. shorthand in the present embodiment in this patent application uses the concept of "approximately coherent radiation" or "approximately coherent radiation" in relation to.

[0022] 辐射随时间或纵向的相干性是随X射线辐射或X射线辐射源的单色性出现的。 [0022] Radiation longitudinal coherence time or with a monochromatic X-ray radiation or X-ray radiation occurring. 特性线的X射线辐射对于在此所讨论的用途多数具有足够的单色性及随时间的相干长度。 X-ray radiation characteristic line for use in most discussed herein monochromatic and have sufficient coherence length over time. 连接在前的单色仪或者通过相位光栅的栅条高度选择共振能量也可以从阻滞辐射频谱或同步加速频谱中过滤出足够狭窄的频谱区以及进而满足对在本装置内随时间变化的相干长度的要求。 Connecting the front monochromator or height selected by the phase grating resonance energy gridlines may be blocked from the synchrotron radiation spectrum or a filtered spectrum sufficiently narrow spectral region, and further satisfies the time-varying coherence within the apparatus desired length.

[0023] 根据这些基本思想,发明人建议,改进用于X射线设备的焦点-检测器装置,该装置用于产生检查对象的投影或断层造影的相位对比照片,其组成至少如下: [0023] According to the basic idea, the inventors have suggested to improve the focus of an X-ray device - a detector means for generating an object under examination projection or tomographic phase contrast photographs, at least the following composition:

[0024]-设置在检查对象第一侧的具有用于产生扇形或锥形射束的焦点的辐射源, [0024] - examination subject disposed in a first side having a fan or cone beam to generate a focus for the radiation source,

[0025]-至少一个在射线途径中设置的X射线光学光栅,其中至少一个在检查对象的相对的第二侧在射线途径中设置的相位光栅,该相位光栅产生一个在X射线辐射的、优选在预定能量区域内X射线辐射的干涉图形,以及 [0025] - X-ray optical grating disposed in at least a radiation pathway, wherein at least one of the phase grating in the radiation pathway provided in the opposite second side of the inspection object, which generates a phase grating in the X-ray radiation, preferably X-ray radiation interference pattern of energy within a predetermined area, and

[0026]-分析检测系统,该分析检测系统至少分辨位置地针对相位移检测由相位光栅产生的干涉图形。 [0026] - detection analysis system, the analysis and detection system to detect the position of at least resolved interference pattern generated by the phase grating for phase shift.

[0027] 按照本发明的改进之处在于,至少一个X射线光学光栅具有在所述扇形或锥形射束的射线途径中没有由遮挡形成的悬幕的栅条。 [0027] The improvement according to the present invention is that at least one X-ray optical gratings having grating bars hanging curtain is not formed by a radiation shielding in the pathway of the fan or cone beam. 也就是说,这种光栅具有在每个位置上沿射线方向对准定位的栅条和栅空,使得沿各自实际的射线方向跃变地出现栅条和栅空之间的过渡区域,其方法是,过渡棱边平行于射线方向延伸。 That is, this grating has at each position along the ray direction positioned in alignment with the gate finger and a gate space, so that the actual rays along respective transition region between the gridlines and the gate becomes empty Fangxiang Yue appears which method that the transition edge extends parallel to the radiation direction.

[0028] 这种设计例如通过下述方式实现,S卩,一个X射线光学光栅设计为至少在一个第一截面平面内围绕着焦点弯曲,其中,该至少一个X射线光学光栅可以优选地在所述第一截面平面内具有围绕着焦点的恒定的曲率半径。 [0028] Such a design, for example, by the following manner, S Jie, an X-ray optical grating designed as at least curved around a focal point within the first sectional plane, wherein the at least one X-ray optical grating may preferably be in the within said first cross-sectional plane having a constant radius of curvature around the focus.

[0029] 另外,所述X射线光学光栅也可以设计为在一个与第一截面平面垂直的第二截面平面内围绕着焦点弯曲。 [0029] Further, the X-ray optical grating may be designed within a second sectional plane perpendicular to the first sectional plane curved around the focal point. 在此,也优选地采用相同的围绕着焦点的曲率半径。 Here, also preferably of the same radius of curvature around the focus. 由此达到,所述X射线光学光栅的每个位置都具有相同的围绕着焦点的距离,亦即在一个围绕着焦点的球形表面上延伸。 Thereby achieving, for each position of the X-ray optical gratings have the same focal distance around, i.e. extends on a spherical surface around the focal point.

[0030] 按照本发明的一项特别的设计,所述X射线光学光栅的栅条只具有沿径向朝焦点对准的上升及下降的侧面。 [0030] In accordance with a special design of the present invention, the X-ray optical gratings having grating bars only focus side radially towards the rise and fall.

[0031] 光栅的这种一种弯曲例如可以相应的绷紧来产生或者还可以通过将一个弯曲的光栅用作两个不同气压或液压的腔室之间的分界面来实现,其中,在边缘侧设置支承。 [0031] This can, for example, one kind of curved gratings to produce a corresponding tightening or may also be implemented by a curved grating serves as the interface between two different pneumatic or hydraulic pressure chambers, wherein the edge side support.

[0032] 在所述焦点-检测器装置、尤其相位光栅的一种示例性设计方案中,所述相位光栅在一个平面内的弯曲是通过在至少三个、优选四个支承元件之间绷紧而强制达到的。 [0032] In the focus - a detector means, in particular, an exemplary design of the phase grating, the phase grating is bent in one plane is obtained by tightening between at least three, preferably four support elements compulsory achieve. 其中,至少所述一个支承元件可以点状或线状地贴靠在该相位光栅上。 Wherein said at least one support element may be a dot or line rests on the phase grating. 如果这些支承元件相互错开地设置,则可以根据施加到支承元件上的压力以及根据光栅的柔性达到在一个或多个平面内的弯曲。 If these support elements disposed offset from one another, depending on the pressure applied to the support element and a curved plane in accordance with one or more gratings to achieve flexibility. 由此,可以使原本制造成平面式的光栅以希望的方式弯曲。 This makes it possible to manufacture a planar original raster bending in a desired manner. 原则上也存在这样的可能性,即,通过调整作用到支承元件上的压力变化地补偿可能存在的(例如在CT系统中所出现的)重力和离心力。 There is also the possibility that, in principle, i.e., by adjusting the pressure acting on the support member to compensate for variations that may exist in gravity and centrifugal force (e.g. in a CT system occurring).

[0033] 按照另一个实施方案建议,所述X射线光学光栅为至少两个不同气压区域之间的分界面以及所述光栅在至少一个平面内所希望达到的弯曲至少附加地通过两个不同气压区域之间的压差来强制实现。 [0033] According to another embodiment proposed that the X-ray optical grating interface between at least two different pressure regions and curved in at least one plane to achieve the desired grating additionally by at least two different pressure pressure difference between the region to enforce. 在此,还可以通过压力变化来影响弯曲。 In this case, the influence can be bent by the pressure change. 另外需要指出的是, 至少在光栅的一侧还可以采用液体来代替气体。 Also to be noted that at least on one side of the grating may also be employed instead of the gas to a liquid.

[0034] 在另一项基本不同的设计中,建议用平面X射线光学光栅代替全部弯曲的光栅, 其中,根据本发明的基本思想将栅条设计成不会发生遮挡。 [0034] In another substantially different design, it is recommended to replace all ray optical grating with curved grating plane X, wherein, according to the basic idea of ​​the invention is designed to shield the rail member does not occur. 这例如可以通过对栅条的相应定向或形状设计来达到。 This can be achieved by appropriate orientation of the gate finger or design.

[0035] 但是还要注意到,在本发明的范围内可以采用表面两维弯曲的光栅与具有沿射线方向定向的栅条的平面光栅的组合。 [0035] also to be noted, however, within the scope of the present invention is a two-dimensional curved grating surface may be employed in combination with the radiation direction oriented in the plane of the grating gridlines.

[0036] 按照本发明,所述光栅的栅条在至少一个截面平面内、必要时在两个相互垂直的截面平面内沿径向对准焦点定向。 [0036] According to the present invention, the grating bars of the grating in at least one cross-sectional plane, in focus, if necessary radial cross-sectional plane oriented in two mutually perpendicular.

[0037] 另外建议,所述X射线光学光栅的栅条沿射线途径在至少一个截面平面或所述第一截面平面内具有一种至少大致的正弦形的高度变化。 [0037] Further proposed that the X-ray optical grating gridlines pathway along a ray having one of at least substantially sinusoidal variation in the height of the at least a first sectional plane or the cross-sectional plane.

[0038] 另一方面,所述相位光栅的栅条也可以沿射线途径在两个相互垂直的截面平面内具有一种正弦形或波线形或梯形的高度变化。 [0038] On the other hand, the phase grating gridlines ray height variation of one pathway having a sinusoidal wave or a linear or trapezoidal cross-section in two orthogonal direction may be. 这种设计在采用在两个平面内扇形展开的射束时是尤其有利的。 When using this design in two planes fanned beam is particularly advantageous.

[0039] 另外,按照对本发明思想的延伸,为了调整光栅表面的弯曲和由此调整对相位光栅的塔尔波特距离的给定影响以及为了可能与焦点-检测器装置内的给定几何关系相适应,发明人建议,关于所述相位光栅的延伸长度,该相位光栅到所述分析检测系统呈现不同距离。 [0039] Further, according to the extension of the idea of ​​the present invention, in order to adjust the bending and thereby adjust the Talbot effect on a given distance of the phase grating to a grating surface, and the focus may be - given the geometric relationship between the detector means compatible, the inventors suggestions on extending the length of the phase grating, the phase grating to the detection system analyzes show different distances.

[0040] 在此,为了使塔尔波特距离适应于到所述分析检测系统的不同距离所述相位光栅的栅条可以具有不同的栅条长度。 [0040] Here, in order to make the Talbot distance is adapted to analyze different distances to the detection system of the phase grating gridlines gridlines may have different lengths. 为了使塔尔波特距离适应于到所述分析检测系统的不同距离所述相位光栅的栅条也可以具有不同的光栅周期。 In order to adapt to the Talbot distance to the analysis of different distances of the detection system gridlines phase grating may have different grating periods. 同样地也可以采用上述两种特征的组合。 Similarly combination of the above two features may be employed.

[0041] 与上述方案的设计不同地,建议一种等距离的焦点-检测器装置,其中关于所述相位光栅的延伸长度,该相位光栅到所述分析检测系统的距离相同。 [0041] with the above-described embodiment is designed differently, one kind of the focal point equidistant recommendations - a detector means, wherein the extended length with respect to the phase grating, the phase grating analyze the same distance to the detection system.

[0042] 在此,为了使塔尔波特距离适应于到所述分析检测系统的相同距离,所述相位光栅的栅条在具有不同栅条高度时可以具有相同的栅条长度。 [0042] Here, in order to make the Talbot distance is adapted to analyze the same distance to the detection system, the grating bars of phase grating may have the same gate finger length grate having different height. 为了清楚起见要说明的是,在栅条垂直时栅条高度与栅条长度相等。 For the sake of clarity of illustration, the gate finger length is equal to the height of the gate finger when the vertical gridlines.

[0043] 按照另一种设计,为了使塔尔波特距离适应于到所述分析检测系统的相同距离, 所述相位光栅的栅条在具有相同的栅条高度和不同栅条长度时可以呈现不同的光栅周期。 [0043] According to another design, in order to adapt to the Talbot distance of the same distance to the detection analysis system, the phase grating having grating bars may be presented at the same height and different gate finger lengths grate different grating periods. 最后提到的这些特征的组合也是可能的。 The last-mentioned combination of these features are also possible.

[0044] 另外建议,至少在从焦点到相位光栅的径向距离和从焦点到分析检测系统的径向 [0044] Another proposal, at least in the radial direction from the focus to the phase grating of the radial distance from the focus to the analysis and detection system

距离的平均值方面遵循下列几何关系: Follow these aspects of the average distance of the geometric relationship:

Figure CN101011250BD00101

[0046]其中: [0046] wherein:

[0047] Γι =焦点到相位光栅的径向距离; [0047] Γι = the radial distance from the focus to the phase grating;

[0048] r2 =焦点到分析检测系统的径向距离; [0048] r2 = radial distance from the focus detection analysis system;

[0049] 相位光栅G1的周期; [0049] G1 phase of the grating period;

[0050] g2 =分析检测系统的内的分析光栅(¾的周期。 [0050] g2 = analyzer grating in a detection system analysis (¾ cycle.

[0051] 发明人还建议,在利用扇形展开的射束进行相位对比测量的焦点-检测器装置内 [0051] The inventors have also suggested that the focus of the beam phase contrast measured using fanned - the detector device

保持下列几何关系: 2 Maintain the following geometric relationship: 2

Figure CN101011250BD00102

[0053]其中: [0053] wherein:

[0054] Γι =焦点到相位光栅的径向距离; [0054] Γι = the radial distance from the focus to the phase grating;

[0055] 相位光栅G1的周期; [0055] G1 phase of the grating period;

[0056] λ =所考虑的X射线辐射的能量的波长。 [0056] λ = wavelength of X-ray radiation energy under consideration.

[0057] 另外应该保持如下几何关系: [0057] In addition it should be maintained following geometric relationship:

Figure CN101011250BD00103

[0059]其中: [0059] wherein:

[0060] Γι =焦点到相位光栅的径向距离; [0060] Γι = the radial distance from the focus to the phase grating;

[0061] r2 =焦点到分析检测系统的径向距离; [0061] r2 = radial distance from the focus detection analysis system;

[0062] 相位光栅G1的周期; [0062] G1 phase of the grating period;

[0063] dm =相位光栅到分析检测系统的距离; [0063] dm = the phase grating distance analysis to the detection system;

[0064] λ =所考虑的X射线辐射的能量的波长。 [0064] λ = wavelength of X-ray radiation energy under consideration.

[0065] 另外要遵守如下几何关系: [0065] In addition to compliance with the following geometric relationship:

Figure CN101011250BD00104

[0067]其中:[0068] Θ =在相位光栅上所观察的X射线辐射的第一序数(Ordrumg)的半个折射角,有Θ =Brcsin(Xz^g1); [0067] wherein: [0068] Θ = the ordinal number of the first (Ordrumg) on ​​the phase grating the observed X-ray radiation is a half angle of refraction with Θ = Brcsin (Xz ^ g1);

[0069] Δ α =按照Δα= arc (g»的相位光栅的锥形角; [0069] Δ α = according Δα = arc (taper angle G »of the phase grating;

[0070] 相位光栅G1的周期; [0070] G1 phase of the grating period;

[0071] Γι =焦点到相位光栅的径向距离; [0071] Γι = the radial distance from the focus to the phase grating;

[0072] λ =所观察的X射线辐射的能量波长。 [0072] λ = wavelength of X-ray radiation energy observed.

[0073] 前面所描述的焦点-检测器装置基本上可以设有一个设计为尽可能点状的焦点。 [0073] The previously described focus - detector means may be provided with a substantially designed as a focal point as possible. 在此有利的是,呈现极为明确的几何关系。 In this advantageous that presents a very clear geometric relationships. 但是在焦点尺寸极小时最大的剂量功率通常不足以用这样的系统来实施CT检查,因为扫描时间太长。 However, extremely small spot size of the maximum dose usually insufficient power in such a system implemented CT examination, since the scanning time is too long.

[0074] 为了达到高的剂量功率在此建议,所述焦点-检测器装置例如设有面状结构的焦点和一个附加地设置在焦点与检查对象之间的用于产生个别相干射线射束的源光栅。 [0074] In order to achieve high power dosages recommended herein, the focus - is provided with a detector device, such as a planar structure and a focus for an additionally provided between the focal point of the inspection object to generate the individual coherent radiation beam the source grating. 但是还要指出的是,在不背离本发明思想的情况下,没有源光栅而产生近似相干射线的焦点形状(例如多条焦点)也视为具有等同的效果。 It is also noted, however, without departing from the spirit of the present invention, there is no grating generates the source focus shape approximately coherent radiation (e.g., a plurality of focus) is also considered to have an equivalent effect.

[0075] 这样一种焦点-检测器装置也属于本发明的范围,即,在该焦点-检测器装置中, 分析检测系统设计为分辨位置的检测器与沿射线方向安置在前的用于确定各检测器元件特定能量的X射线辐射平均相位移的分析光栅的组合。 [0075] Such a focus - detector means within the scope of the present invention, i.e., the focus - a detector means, the analysis system is designed to detect the position resolving detector is disposed to the front along the direction of rays for determining average composition analyzer grating phase shift of X-ray radiation detector elements each particular energy. 在此,分析检测系统的检测器具有围绕着焦点的曲率和/或分析检测系统的分析光栅具有围绕着焦点的曲率。 Here, the analysis detection system having a detector analyzer grating curvature around the focus and / or analytical detection system around the focal point has a curvature.

[0076] 另外,所述分析检测系统设计为分辨位置的检测器,其中检测器元件具有适用于确定各检测器元件的X射线辐射的平均相位移的内部结构。 [0076] Further, the assay system is designed to detect the position resolution of the detector, wherein the internal structure has an average phase shift is adapted to determine each of the X-ray detector elements of the radiation detector elements. 在这种方案中分析检测系统的检测器也可以具有优选以恒定的半径围绕着所述焦点的曲率。 In this embodiment the detector spectrometric detection system preferably may have a constant radius of curvature about said focal point.

[0077] 在按照本发明的焦点-检测器装置的另一种建议的实施方式中,焦点到检查对象的距离相对于检查对象到分析检测系统的距离而言设计得要小(1/2χ-1/10χ)直至很小(< 1/ΙΟχ)。 [0077] In accordance with the present invention, the focus - a detector device according to another proposed embodiment, the focal length to the object under examination with respect to the inspection object from the analysis in terms of the detection system is designed to be smaller (1 / 2χ- 1 / 10χ) until a small (<1 / ΙΟχ). 由此达到相应的放大效果。 Thus achieve the appropriate amplification.

[0078] 本发明的发明原理例如可以应用在用于产生投影的相位对比照片的X射线系统、 用于产生投影或断层造影的相位对比照片的X射线C形弓架系统或者用于产生断层造影的相位对比照片的X射线计算机断层造影系统中。 [0078] The principles of the present invention may be applied, for example, X-ray systems for generating phase-contrast photograph projection, an X-ray C-arm system or a projection tomography generating phase contrast photographs or for generating tomography X-ray computer tomography system of phase contrast photographs.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0079] 下面借助于在附图中示出的优选实施方式对本发明予以详细阐述,其中只描述对于理解本发明所需要的特征。 [0079] The following are shown in the drawings by means of a preferred embodiment of the present invention is explained in greater detail, which describes only the features needed for understanding the present invention. 在此,采用了下述附图标记:1 :计算机断层造影系统;2 :第一X射线管;3 :第一检测器;4 :第二X射线管;5 :第二检测器;6 :机架外壳;7 :患者;8 :患者卧榻;9 :系统轴;10 :控制和计算单元;11 :存储器;12 :轴线;13 :干涉图形;14 :栅条; 15 :栅空;16 :支承元件;17 :密封件;18 :支承力;19 :窗口;20. 1,20. 2 :腔室半部:检测器;d :间距;dffl :塔尔波特距离;E :能量;EX :检测器元件:焦点;G0 :源光栅:相位光栅;G2 :分析光栅;gQ、g” g2 :光栅刻线的周期;h0、h” h2 :栅条的高度;I :强度;1 :距离; η :折射指数;P :样品;:程序:焦点到相位光栅的径向距离;r2 :焦点到分析检测系统的径向距离成:X射线;x、y、ζ:笛卡儿坐标;Xe :分析光栅的偏移量;© :在具有θ = arcsin(A/2gl)的相位光栅上所考虑的X射线辐射的 Here, using the following reference numerals: 1: computed tomography system; 2: first X-ray tube; 3: a first detector; 4: second X-ray tube; 5: second detector; 6: housing shell; 7: patient; 8: patient couch; 9: system axis; 10: control and computing unit; 11: memory; 12: axis; 13: interference pattern; 14: gridlines; 15: empty grid; 16: a support member; 17: sealing member; 18: supporting force; 19: window; 20 1, 20 2: The chamber halves: a detector; D: pitch; dffl: Talbot distance; E: energy; EX : a detector element: focus; the G0: the source grating: phase grating; G2: analyzer grating; gQ, g "g2: the periodic grating lines; h0, h" h2: height of the grate; the I: intensity; 1: distance ; [eta]: refractive index; P: sample;: program: radial distance from the focus to the phase grating; R2: radial distance to the focus detection system into the analysis: X-ray; x, y, ζ: Cartesian coordinates; Xe : analysis offset grating; ©: = X-ray radiation in the phase grating having θ arcsin (a / 2gl) under consideration of 一序数的一半折射角;Δ α :按照Δ α = arcig./r,)的相位光栅周期的圆锥角;λ :所考虑的X射线辐射能量的波长;Cpij:检测器元件之间的相对相位移;φχ:在检测器元件Ex上的相位移。 According to the cone angle Δ α = arcig./r,) of the phase grating period; λ:: Δ α; a refraction angle half the ordinal number of the wavelength of the X-ray radiant energy are taken into account; Cpij: the relative phase between the detector element displacement; φχ: phase shift on the detector element of Ex. 附图中: In the drawings:

[0080] 图1以纵剖视图表示具有相位光栅、分析光栅及用于表示干涉现象的检测器的焦点-检测器系统的原理图; [0080] Figure 1 represents a longitudinal sectional view of a phase grating, the grating and means for analyzing the interference phenomenon denotes a focus detector - schematic diagram of the detector system;

[0081] 图2表示所选择的检测器元件的取决于分析光栅相对于干涉图形的相对位置的强度变化曲线; Depending on the detector element [0081] FIG. 2 shows the selected analyzer grating with respect to the intensity curve of the relative position of the interference pattern;

[0082] 图3表示设置有源光栅、相位光栅及分析光栅的焦点-检测器系统的纵剖视图; [0082] FIG. 3 shows a set of active grating, focus the phase grating and an analyzer grating - a longitudinal sectional view of a detector system;

[0083] 图4表示具有点状焦点、同心弯曲的相位光栅和分析光栅、包含同心弯曲的检测面的焦点-检测器装置的纵剖视图; [0083] FIG. 4 shows a focal point, the curved concentric phase grating and the analyzer grating, comprising focus detection concentric curved surface - longitudinal cross-sectional view of the detector means;

[0084] 图5表示具有点状焦点、平面相位光栅、分析光栅和检测器的焦点-检测器装置的纵剖视图,但是栅条沿径向定向; [0084] FIG. 5 represents a focal point, the phase grating plane, the grating and the detector of the focus - A longitudinal sectional view of the detector means, the grating bars oriented radially;

[0085] 图6表示通过四个支承元件弯曲的光栅的实施方式; [0085] FIG. 6 is represented by four support elements curved grating according to the embodiment;

[0086] 图7表示通过两侧设置的压力腔室施加不同压力而弯曲的光栅的实施方式; [0086] FIG. 7 shows a bent by applying different pressures on both sides of the pressure chamber provided in the embodiment of the grating;

[0087] 图8以三维视图表示具有本发明焦点-检测器系统的X射线计算机断层造影系统; [0087] FIG. 8 shows a three-dimensional view of a focus of the present invention - an X-ray detector system is computed tomography system;

[0088] 图9以图解表示在相位光栅上的X射线的折射和塔尔波特距离。 [0088] FIG. 9 shows an X-ray on a phase grating and a refractive Talbot distance graphically. 具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0089] 为了更好地理解本发明,下面通过图1至3描述相位对比测量的基本原理。 [0089] For a better understanding of the present invention, the following basic principle of measurement is described by a phase contrast FIGS 1-3. 为此作如下基本说明:所有附图并不是标准性视图,而是要列举基本的结构及所阐述的效应。 Substantially as follows for this description: not a standard view of the drawings, but to include the basic structure and effects set forth. 横轴相对于纵轴(光轴)延伸。 The horizontal axis with respect to the longitudinal axis (optical axis) extends. 由此角度是夸大示出的。 Whereby the angle is shown exaggerated. 虽然在干涉图形最大时、亦即以第一塔尔波特距离定位所述分析光栅正是采用所述方法的目的,但是尤其可能出于教学的原因在空间上要相互分离开一些描绘出干涉图形与分析光栅。 Although the maximum interference pattern, i.e., a first analysis of the Talbot distance of the object grating is positioned using the method, but especially for reasons of teaching may be spatially separated from each other depicting some of the interference raster graphics and analysis. 因此,参数d和r2不仅涉及干涉图形,而且涉及分析光栅。 Thus, not only the parameter d and r2 relate to the interference pattern, but also to the analyzer grating.

[0090] 图1表示出来自点状辐射源的相干辐射或者通过源光栅产生的近似相干的辐射, 这些辐射穿过样品P,其中,在穿过检查对象P之后出现相位移。 [0090] FIG. 1 shows coherent radiation from an approximate point source of radiation or coherent radiation produced by the source grating, the radiation passes through the sample P, wherein, after passing through the phase shift occurs examination object P. 在穿过光栅G1时产生一个通过灰色阴影表示出的干涉图形,该干涉图形借助于光栅&在随后的检测! Generating an interference pattern is shown by gray shading while passing through the grating G1, the interference pattern by means of a grating in the subsequent detection &! D1以及其检测器元件上导致各检测器元件不同的辐射强度,其中,以所谓的塔尔波特距离形成一个干涉图形。 Each leading to a different intensity of radiation detector elements on the detector D1, and which element, in which a so-called Talbot distance forming an interference pattern.

[0091] 例如,可以观察到检测器元件&与分析光栅(¾的相对位置&的关系以及强度KEi(Xc))作为相对位置&关于强度I的函数,由此获得一种在图2中示出的在该检测器元件Ei的强度I的正弦形变化曲线。 [0091] For example, the detector may be observed with the analyzer grating & element (¾ of the relationship of the relative position and the strength of & KEi (Xc)) as a function of the relative position & intensity I, thereby to obtain a 2 shown in FIG. a sinusoidal variation in the intensity of the detector element Ei, I curve. 如果根据偏移量xG记录对应于每个检测器元件Ei或& 所测得的辐射强度I,则对于不同的最终在焦点与各检测器元件之间形成立体的X射线束的检测器元件而言函数I (EiOO)和I轧(¾))是近似的。 The offset xG if the records corresponding to each detector element, or & Ei measured radiation intensity I, then finally formed for different perspective of the detector elements of the X-ray beam between the focal point of each of the detector elements Introduction function I (EiOO) rolling and I (¾)) is approximated. 从这些函数中对应于每个检测器元件可以确定相位移φ和检测器元件之间的相对相位移<Pij。 From these functions corresponds to the relative phase shift between each detector element can be determined phase shift φ and the detector element <Pij.

[0092] 因此,对于空间内的每条射线通过利用分别错开设置的分析光栅至少进行的三次测量来确定每条射线的相位移,从中或者能够在进行投影的X射线拍摄时直接计算出投影照片的像素值,或者能够在进行计算机断层造影检查时生成其像素值相当于相位移的投影,使得从中可以借助于本身公知的再现方法计算出,所测量的相位移的那些份额属于检查对象体内的那些体积单元。 [0092] Thus, three measurements for each ray analyzer grating are offset by utilizing the space provided at least to determine the phase shift of each ray, or can be calculated directly from when performing X-ray imaging of the projection picture projection the pixel values ​​or pixel values ​​to generate a phase shift corresponding to the projection when the computer tomography examination can be performed, which can be calculated by means of such known per se reproducing method, the phase shift share those measured in vivo examination object belongs those unit volume. 因此从中计算出断层图像或体积数据,它们可以分辨位置地反映所检查的对象针对X射线辐射的相位移的影响。 Thus calculated from volume data or tomographic image, which may be resolved to reflect the effects of the position of the inspection object for the phase shift of X-ray radiation. 由于检查对象在组成方面的微小差别对相位移施加强烈的影响,因此可以对本身相对类似的材料、尤其软组织描述出极其详细及对比强烈的体积数据。 Since the inspection object is a slight difference in composition exerted a strong influence on the phase shift, can be similar to the material itself is relatively soft tissue and describe in great detail the data volume, especially strong contrast.

[0093] 这种借助于多次移位的分析光栅以及对在分析光栅之后的检测器元件上的辐射强度的测量对穿过检查对象的X射线相位移进行检测的方案导致,必须对每束X射线束在分别以光栅周期的小数部分移动分析光栅的条件下实施至少三次测量。 [0093] This analysis by means of multiple shifted grating as well as analytical measurements led to the program on the intensity of the radiation detector element after the phase shift grating for X-rays pass through the examination object to be detected, it is necessary for each bundle X-ray beam at each grating period to move the fractional part of the analyzer grating embodiment at least three measurements.

[0094] 原则上还存在下述可能性,S卩,取消此类分析光栅以及代之以采用足够精细结构的检测器,其中在这种情况下避免了由于在分析光栅的栅条内的吸收而造成的剂量损失以及通过进行唯一一次测量就可以确定所观察射线内的相位移。 [0094] In principle there is also a possibility, S Jie, lift them and instead using the analyzer grating detector sufficiently fine structure, which in this case is avoided due to absorption in the analysis of the grating gridlines the dose losses and phase shift in the radiation measurement by performing only time can be determined by observation.

[0095] 为了测量相位对比需要采用相干的辐射。 [0095] In order to measure the phase comparison need coherent radiation. 该辐射例如可以通过点状焦点或者作为近似相干的辐射的场通过在面形结构的焦点之后的源光栅或者通过在一个阳极上的焦点的用于仿制这类光栅的相应光栅类型的结构产生。 This radiation can be used, for example, the generic structure of the class of the respective grating type produced by grating or as an approximate focal point of the field radiated by the coherent source grating after the focal plane shaped structure or by a focus on the anode.

[0096] 这样一种通过在面形结构焦点F1后面的源光栅产生近似相干辐射的场的方案在图3中示意地表示出来。 [0096] Such a program is generated by the field of coherent radiation at approximately the back focal plane F1 source grating-shaped structure in FIG. 3 is schematically represented. 这样一种设计由于高的可供利用的剂量功率也适用于CT系统。 Such a design due to the high power utilization of available doses also apply to the CT system. 原则上所有在图中所示的光栅(^G1与&都可以通过按照本发明的不遮光或遮光少的光栅代替。 All grating shown in FIG principle (^ G1 and may be substituted by & shielding is not or less according to the present invention, the light-shielding grating.

[0097] 用s表示其最大延伸长度的焦点F1位于第一光栅之前。 [0097] s is represented by its focal point F1 is located before the maximum extension length of the first grating. 从源光栅发出的近似相干的X射线用Sl至S4表示。 Approximate coherent X-rays emitted from the source grating is represented by Sl to S4. 该一光栅具有光栅刻线的周期以及栅条的高度Iv 相应地,光栅G1和(;2设有高度Ii1或Ii2以及周期&或&。为了实现相位测量的功能要求, 光栅Gtl与G1之间的距离1以及光栅G1与(;2之间的距离d相互之间要具有确定的比例关系。在此,下述关系成立: The height Iv grating having a period and the grating lines of the grating bars correspondingly, and gratings G1 (; or 2 provided the height Ii1 and Ii2 & cycles or in order to achieve the functional requirements & phase measurement between the grating G1 and the Gtl. . 1 and the distance G1 and the grating (; distance d between the two determined to have a proportional relationship to each other in this case, the following relationship is established:

I I

[0098] g0 = g2 3。 [0098] g0 = g2 3.

α α

[0099] 具有检测器元件E1至&的检测器D1与分析光栅(¾的距离是次要的。在此,应该将相位光栅的栅条高度h选择成,根据所考虑的波长、亦即所考虑的X射线辐射能量以及针对各自光栅材料要满足下列公式: [0099] with the detector elements E1 to & detectors D1 and analyzer grating (¾ distance is secondary. In this case, the grating bars of the phase grating should be selected to be the height h, depending on the wavelength in question, i.e. the X-ray radiant energy considerations, and for the respective grating material satisfy the following formula:

[0100] "-2(^1)° [0100] "-2 (^ 1) °

[0101] 在此,η表示光栅材料的折射指数,而λ表示要测量相位移的X射线的波长。 [0101] Here, [eta] represents a refractive index grating material, and λ represents a wavelength to be measured phase shift X-rays. 还可以观察到,上面所提到的方程只严格地适用于平行射束几何形状,而在采用扇形射束几何形状时必须要相应地调整。 It can also be observed that the above mentioned equation is only strictly applicable to parallel beam geometry, but must be adjusted accordingly when using a fan beam geometry.

[0102] 为了在透射X射线辐射的栅条与光栅广泛空留的位置之间产生有效的吸收差别, 分析光栅的高度Ii2必须足够,以便通过位置分辨和强度/灰度值分辨采集干涉图形的强度分布以及使进一步的数据处理容易达到。 [0102] In order grating bars of the grating transmission X-ray radiation is generated between the empty position left wide effective absorption difference analysis Ii2 grating height must be sufficient to distinguish between intensity and / gray value resolution acquired by the position of the interference pattern intensity distribution data processing and causing further easily achieved.

[0103] 通常将光栅至(;2的刻线方向选择为,使现有光栅的光栅刻线以及必要时使检测器元件的现有条结构相互平行地延伸。另外有利的是,光栅刻线平行或垂直于在此示出的旋转焦点-检测器系统的系统轴地定向,但这不是必需的。 [0103] generally to grating (; groove 2 in the direction chosen, existing grating lines of the grating and the detector elements, if necessary, a conventional bar structure extending parallel to each other is also advantageous, grating lines. parallel or perpendicular to the rotation shown here focus - oriented system axis detector system, this is not required.

[0104] 在图3中可以更精确地看到所表示出的光栅和扇形射线或扇形射束,由此可以看到,倾斜延伸的射线Si在栅条边缘处导致遮挡。 [0104] in FIG. 3 can be seen more precisely as shown and raster-ray fan beam or a fan, it can be seen, diagonally extending gridlines ray Si results in obscured edges. 但是在事实上栅条相对于栅条间距或光栅周期明显设计得更高,亦即形态比更大,使得形成阴影的效应在已经略微偏离光轴时也表现得更明显。 However, in fact, with respect to the grate or grate spacing grating period designed to be significantly higher, i.e., greater aspect ratio, so that a shadow effect at the time slightly shifted from the optical axis also it has been even more marked. 另外射线成扇形散开的程度部分地比图3中示意地表示出的情况明显更大。 In addition to the case where the degree of fanning rays partially shown in FIG. 3 schematically ratio significantly greater. 由此出现,在大的扇形或锥形角以及大的形态比时在平的传统光栅的边缘区域内高X射线能量时由于越来越强地表现出的遮挡效应使相位对比测量的原理几乎不能奏效。 Thus it appears a large fan or cone angle and a large aspect ratio in the edge region of a conventional flat grating effect due to occlusion exhibit growing phase contrast so that the principle of measurement of X-ray energy is high almost It does not work.

[0105] 为了避免这种问题,按照本发明现在建议,至少一个光栅构这样造成,其具有在扇形或锥形射束射线途径内没有由遮挡构成的悬幕的栅条。 [0105] To avoid such problems, according to the current proposal of the invention, the at least one grating structure caused by this, not having the shutter curtain hanging by a grate constituted in the fan or cone beam radiation pathway. 这例如可以通过下面所描述的两种基本不同的实施方案以及必要时这两种方案的组合来实现: This may be described by a combination of the following two different embodiments of the basic and, if necessary to achieve the two schemes:

[0106] 弯曲的光栅: [0106] curved grating:

[0107] 按照本发明在一种实施方案中建议一种由点状焦点F1、具有沿径向定向的栅条14 的弯曲光栅G1和(;2以及弯曲的检测器D1的X射线光学系统,如在图4中示例性地示出的。 在此,光栅G1和(;2的曲率中心定位在光轴12上的辐射源焦点内、在此是焦点F1内,亦即曲率半径巧、r2分别等于辐射源焦点F1与各个光栅G1和(;2之间的距离。在这种X射线光学系统中,不仅起射线分配器作用的相位光栅G1而且起分析器作用的幅度光栅(¾都是弯曲的以及都对中到同一焦点上。光栅G1和(;2可以在一个或两个平面内弯曲。通过这种由弯曲光栅组成的X射线光学系统可以避免遮挡效应,而这种遮挡效应否则在公知的平坦光栅中按照大的锥形角出现。将这些光栅弯曲成,使得在一个圆柱或球形表面上弯曲的光栅的中心处于辐射源的焦点内。 [0107] In accordance with the present invention suggests an embodiment of one of the focal point F1, having a radially oriented gridlines G1 and the curved grating 14 (; 2 and a curved detector D1 of the X-ray optical system, as exemplarily shown in FIG. 4 herein, and gratings G1 (;. 2 is positioned within the center of curvature of the radiation source focal point on the optical axis 12, in this case the focal point F1, i.e. the radius of curvature Qiao, r2 equal to the radiation source focal point F1 and the respective gratings G1 (;. the distance between the amplitude in this X-ray optical system, not only as radiation allocator phase grating G1 and plays the role of the analyzer gratings (both ¾ and a pair are curved to the same focus and the grating G1 (;. 2 may be bent within this plane one or two X-ray optical system composed of a curved grating shielding effect can be avoided, and this shielding effect otherwise. appear in a large taper angle in the known flat grating. these gratings bent into, so that the center in a cylindrical or spherical surface curved grating is within the focus of the radiation source.

[0108] 需要指出的是,根据图3中的焦点-检测器系统的设计一个必要时存在的源光栅也可以具有相应的弯曲表面以及沿射线方向定向的栅条。 [0108] It should be noted that, according to the focus in Figure 3 - the design of the detector of the presence of a necessary source grating system may also have a curved surface and a respective rail member oriented in the ray direction.

[0109] 为了建立按照锥形射束或扇形射束几何形状的驻波场,必须满足下列第一序数反射的折射角2 Θ与相位光栅周期Δ α的锥形角之间的关系: [0109] In order to establish in accordance with a cone beam or fan beam geometry of the wave field, it must satisfy the relationship between the angle of refraction 2 Θ reflecting the number following the first sequence and the phase Δ taper angle α of the grating period:

[0110] 2 Θ > Δ α /2, [0110] 2 Θ> Δ α / 2,

[0111] 其中,θ = arcsin(A/2gl)以及Δ α = arc (δι/Γι), &对应于相位光栅G1的周期,而A对应于相位光栅G1的曲率半径,该半径等于辐射源到光栅G1的距离。 [0111] where, θ = arcsin (A / 2gl) and Δ α = arc (δι / Γι), & grating G1 corresponding to the phase period, and a radius of curvature corresponding to the A phase grating G1, it is equal to the radius of the radiation source to from grating G1. 为了达到透射检查对象,对于在射线照相中所需要的波长λ而言,相位光栅G1的周期&通常处于多个微米数量级的范围内,但是根据辐射源-相位光栅距离相位光栅G1的周期&也可以或大或小。 In order to achieve the object under examination transmission for λ wavelength in radiographic required, the period of the phase grating G1 & typically in the range of a plurality of microns, but according to the radiation source - a phase grating G1 from the period of the phase grating is also & It can be large or small.

[0112] 原则上每个具有所要求周期性的光栅都可以用作射线分配器,但是采用具有相突变η的相位光栅的优点是,折射高份额的射入强度。 [0112] In principle, each grating having a desired periodic radiation may be used as a dispenser, but the advantage of using a phase grating having a phase of mutations η is the intensity of incident high proportion of refraction. 为了获得对应于波长λ的谐振能量E的相突变π,亦即为了在折射序数为+1和-1时达到最大强度,借助于下列公式描述相位光栅G1的高度Ill : In order to obtain the wavelength λ corresponding to the resonant energy E mutation [pi] phase, i.e. the sequence number to the maximum intensity of the refractive +1 and -1, the height by means of the following formula Ill described phase grating G1:

[0113] h = λ/2δ [0113] h = λ / 2δ

[0114] 其中,δ为光栅材料的折射指数的真实消减量。 [0114] wherein, δ is the real amount of reduction of the refractive index of the grating material.

[0115] 对于低光子能量,对于由低核电荷数的材料构成的栅条建议例如铝、硅、金刚石或塑料。 [0115] For low photon energies, the rail member for nuclear charge number of the material constituting the low recommendation for example, aluminum, silicon, diamond, or plastic. 对于高光子能量,对于由更高核电荷数的材料构成的栅条建议例如铬、镍、钼、钽、钨、 钼、金、铅、铀或这些元素的组合。 For high photon energy, composed of a material for the gate finger nuclear charge number higher recommended compositions such as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, molybdenum, gold, lead, uranium, or these elements. 在最后所述的这些材料中可以通过更微小的栅条高度达到所需要的相突变η,而该更微小的栅条高度能够更容易地制造以及不太会对准射线。 In the last of these materials can be finer in height gridlines achieve the desired phase mutation η, while the finer grate height can be manufactured more easily and less radiation is aligned.

[0116] 为了避免不必要的强度损失,可以选择一种具有尽可能小的质量吸收系数的载体材料/晶片,例如硅晶片或塑料载体。 [0116] In order to avoid unnecessary loss of strength, you can select a support material with as small a mass absorption coefficient / wafer, such as a silicon wafer or a plastic carrier.

[0117] 所述光栅应该具有为1 : 1的栅空与栅条的宽度比,以便达到+1和-1折射序数时的最大强度;不同的比例对不同的折射序数有利。 The [0117] should have a grating of 1: width ratio of the air grate of a gate in order to achieve maximum strength when the refractive ordinal number of +1 and -1; advantageously different proportions of different refractive sequence numbers.

[0118] 通常光栅的形状是矩形,但是其他的形状也有效以及影响关于不同折射序数的强度分布。 Shape [0118] gratings generally rectangular, but other shapes are also effective and the effects on the intensity distribution of the number of different refractive sequence. 在矩形光栅形状时+1和-1折射序数的强度为原射线的大约85%。 Shape when a rectangular raster over the +1 and -1 order refractive the original strength of the number of rays about 85%. 通过正弦形光栅形状,除了可忽略的吸收损失外+1和-ι折射序数的强度近似100%。 By sinusoidal grating pattern, in addition to a negligible absorption loss of intensity of the +1 and -ι refractive ordinal number approximately 100%.

[0119] 在平行射束几何形状中驻波场的横向周期为相位光栅的周期的一半: [0119] In the parallel beam geometry transverse wave field period is half the period of the phase grating:

[0120] 丨。 [0120] Shu.

[0121] 驻波沿着光轴形成,这作为塔尔波特效应早已是已知的。 [0121] formation of standing waves along the optical axis, as the Talbot effect which is already known. 最短的距离Cl1、所谓的第一塔尔波特距离(在那里干涉条纹的对比、亦即驻波场显示最大值)取决于波长和光栅周期&并且可以近似表示如下: Cl1 shortest distance, a first so-called Talbot distance (where the interference fringes contrast, i.e. maximum value of the standing wave field display) depends on the wavelength and grating period and can be approximated by & follows:

[0122] [0122]

Figure CN101011250BD00151

[0123] 在锥形或扇形射束几何形状时横向驻波的横向周期还取决于源的距离。 [0123] When the cone or fan beam geometry of the transverse standing waves also depends on the cycle of the transverse distance from the source. 在第一近 In the first near

似中它被视为增大的投射几何形状,在那里在第一塔尔波特距离内驻波场的横向周期为: It seems to be considered in increased projected geometry, where in the first Talbot distance for the lateral cyclic wave field:

Figure CN101011250BD00152

[0125] 该驻波场的调节和相位受由相位对象引入的相位移的影响。 [0125] Effect of phase shift and phase adjustment by the wave field is introduced by the phase object. 原则上具有足够分辨率的检测器能够描绘出驻波场的特征以及由此反映所述对象的成像。 In principle, with sufficient resolution detector can depict characterized thereby reflected wave field and the imaging of the object. 为此,其分辨率必须处于驻波场周期的大数量级上或更好。 To this end, the resolution must be on the large magnitude of the standing wave field period or better. 这类方案已在专利申请DE 102006017290和DE 102006017291. 4中有所介绍以及也可以应用于此。 Such programs have application DE 102006017290 and DE 102006017291. 4 has been described in the patent and can also be applied thereto. 如果不能够使用这样的检测器,则可以采用在驻波场位置处(优选在在第一塔尔波特距离内)具有足够分辨率的分析光栅。 If you can not use such a detector, the wave field at the position of the analyzer grating (preferably in the first Talbot distance) with sufficient resolution may be employed. 通过沿相同塔尔波特序数的驻波扫描该分析光栅,确定正弦形强度变化曲线的相位、幅度和偏移。 Number standing wave by the scanning sequence along the same Talbot analyzer grating, to determine the phase, amplitude and offset sinusoidal intensity variation curve.

[0126] 对于该处理程序至少必须拍摄三个测量点,其中将光栅移动了周期&的小数部分,优选以间距量移动。 [0126] must be at least three measurement points for the shooting processing program, wherein the moving grating period & fractional part, preferably an amount of pitch movement. 在实践中这种扫描以或更小的步长宽度按照四步或更多步骤来实现。 In practice this scan or smaller step width in accordance with the four-step or more steps to achieve. 对于这种扫描理想情况下必须围绕源实施旋转运动。 For this situation must be scanned over the rotational movement about the source embodiment. 但是,小的扫描长度也允许横跨光轴的直线扫描。 However, a small scanning length also allows the linear scan across the optical axis.

[0127] 在这种实施方案中建议,分析光栅(¾、也称为幅度光栅呈现一种具有沿径向定位栅条的弯曲光栅形状。弯曲光栅表面的铅垂线应该在源焦点中与光轴相交,亦即曲率半径等于源与光栅之间的距离r2。因此,在一维情况下光栅具有圆柱段的形状以及在二维情况下具有球拱形的形状,其中圆柱的轴线或球的中心位于源点或X射线源的焦点上。起分析器作用的幅度光栅同样可以对中到所述源上。分析光栅可以在一个或两个平面内与相位光栅&的形状一致地弯曲。通过光栅弯曲的形状使栅条沿径向定向以及可以避免针对平直光栅在较大锥形角情况而言的遮挡效应。 [0127] In this embodiment, it is proposed that the analyzer grating (¾, also known as amplitude gratings present a grate positioned radially having a curved grating shape curved grating surface is a vertical line in the light source should be in focus intersects the axis, i.e., a radius of curvature equal to the distance between the source and the grating r2. Thus, in the case of a one-dimensional grating has a cylindrical shape and a section of an arcuate shape of a ball in two-dimensional case, wherein the axis of the cylinder or sphere source point located at the focal point or center of the X-ray source. plays the role of the analyzer grating amplitude can also be easily aligned to the source. analyzer grating and the phase grating may be bent shape & consistently in one or two planes through grating a curved shape and is oriented so that the radial gridlines shielding effect can be avoided for a flat grating for larger taper angle of the case.

[0128] 检测器、例如CXD直接安置在分析光栅之后。 [0128] detector, e.g. CXD disposed directly after the analyzer grating. 检测器的像素分辨率确定位置分辨率,通过该位置分辨率对对象成像。 Pixel resolution of the detector determines the position resolution, a resolution by which the position of an object imaged. 但是,在采用分析光栅时与所述传播方法相反不需要通过检测器本身分辨干涉条纹。 However, when using the analyzer grating and the propagation method does not need to distinguish between interference fringe contrast by the detector itself. 在此,这通过精密分辨率的分析光栅完成。 In this case, this is done through sophisticated analysis raster resolution. 另外,在锥形或扇形几何形状时利用扩大效应,以及因此利用较低位置分辨率的检测器对对象以高的位置分 Further, when using a conical or expanding effect fan geometry, and therefore with lower resolution position detector of the position of an object with a high fraction of

辨率成像。 Resolution imaging.

[0129] 为了使相位光栅起折射光栅或射线分配器的作用以及能够在相位光栅之后产生一干涉图形,在相位光栅上射入的X射线辐射必须满足相干性要求。 [0129] In order to function as a phase grating or refractive grating rays dispenser and capable of generating an interference pattern after the phase grating, is incident on the phase grating in the X-ray radiation must meet the requirements of coherence. 至少必须形成相干地照射相位光栅的两个相邻的栅条。 Must be formed of at least two adjacent illuminated coherently gridlines phase grating. 也就是说,横向相干长度必须至少为光栅周期&的数量级。 That is, the transverse coherence length must be at least the number of grating periods & stages. 除了观察距离和波长外,源参数、尤其焦点的横向尺寸决定相干长度。 In addition to viewing distance and wavelength, the source parameters, in particular the transverse dimension of the focus of the coherence length is determined.

[0130] 对于光栅的圆形一维弯曲例如建议两种在图6和7中示出的技术: [0130] For a circular one-dimensional, for example, propose two curved grating in FIGS. 6 and 7 shown in the art:

[0131] ⑴图6表示具有均勻厚度基质/晶片的矩形光栅G1,除了栅条外,光栅还借助于在四条支承线上的四个支承元件16 (在图6的横截面视图中表示出了4个支承点)通过错开且相对作用的力18被弯曲。 [0131] ⑴ 6 shows a rectangular grating having a uniform thickness of the matrix G1 / wafer, in addition to the grate, the grating by means of a further four support elements supporting four line 16 (shown in cross-sectional view of FIG. 6 four support points) is bent by a force acting opposite and offset 18. 通过对称地施加负荷在两个内支承线之间的光栅/晶片部分不受外力作用以及只承受一个恒定的力矩。 Grating by applying a load between the two wires symmetrically supporting / wafer portion and an external force is not only subjected to a constant torque. 由此获得一个固定的曲率半径、亦即一维圆柱形弯曲的光栅。 Thereby obtaining a constant radius of curvature, i.e. a cylindrically curved grating dimension.

[0132] (ii)在图7中表示出了另一种实施方式,其中,矩形光栅G1或晶片通过密封件17 密封地定位在具有两个腔室半部20. 1和20. 2及窗口19的横截面为矩形的压力腔室或真空腔室上。 [0132] (ii) Another embodiment shown in Figure 7, wherein the grating G1 or rectangular wafer 17 is sealingly positioned in and 20.1 and 20.2 window having two halves by a seal chambers 19 is a cross section of rectangular pressure chamber or vacuum chamber. 两个相对置的边平坦以及相互平行地设计。 Two opposing flat sides and parallel to each design. 其他的边具有期望的圆形轮廓。 The other side has a circular profile desired. 在光栅G1的两侧施加的压力差将该光栅压成所希望的圆形弯曲形状。 A pressure applied to both sides of the gratings G1 and the difference between the desired grating pressed into a circular shape curved. 由此获得一种一维弯曲的圆柱段形式的光栅。 Thereby to obtain a one-dimensional cylindrical section bent in the form of a grating. 为了确保尽管在光栅具有各向异性的挠性特点情况下光栅均勻地弯曲,栅条和基质的结晶主轴(在硅中的〔100〕及〔010〕取向)应该平行于压力腔室或支承线地定向。 In order to ensure uniform bending flexibility despite having the anisotropic characteristics of gratings in the grating, and a matrix crystal trash rack shaft (in silicon [100] and [010] orientation) should be parallel to the pressure chamber, or support wire oriented. 为了避免边缘效应,在这两种弯曲结构配置中光栅垂直于图纸平面的尺寸与该光栅的圆形延伸长度相比足够大。 To avoid edge effects, grating arranged perpendicular both to the size of the curved structure as compared with the circular plane of the drawing extends the length of the grating is large enough.

[0133] 为了使光栅两维地成球形弯曲,将光栅定位在一个圆形的压力或真空腔室上。 [0133] In order to make two-dimensionally into a spherical grating curved grating positioned on a circular pressure or vacuum chamber. 在圆形的框架(腔室边缘)上光栅被防漏地密封。 It is sealed on a circular frame (cavity edge) grating leakproof manner. 在光栅的两侧施加的压力差将该光栅压成所希望的两维圆形弯曲的形状、亦即球拱形。 A pressure difference applied on both sides of the grating of the grating is pressed into the desired shape of the two-dimensional circularly curved, i.e. arcuate ball.

[0134] 对于在放射学中的应用,检测器不必是弯曲的。 [0134] For radiology applications, the detector need not be curved. 平面检测器也能满足这些功能。 Planar detector can meet these functions. 但是对于在CT中的应用优选具有弯曲轮廓形状的检测器。 However, for the application in CT preferably has a curved contour shape detector.

[0135] 还需要指出的是,作为在压力腔室内产生压力的介质除了气体外也可以采用液体。 [0135] should also be noted that, as a pressure medium in the pressure chamber may also be employed in addition to the liquid gas. 同样地也可以仅仅采用一个腔室半部20. 2,条件是,在该腔室半部内已建立了相对于外界大气压而言的负压。 Likewise be employed only one chamber half 20.2, with the proviso that, in the half of the chamber has been established with respect to ambient atmospheric pressure vacuum.

[0136] 具有倾斜栅条的平面光栅: [0136] inclined plane grating having grating bars of:

[0137] 如同在图5中所示出的那样,根据另一种实施方案还建议一种具有平面光栅G1和&的、但是带有径向定向的结构的X射线光学系统。 [0137] As shown in as shown in FIG. 5, according to another embodiment also suggested, but the X-ray optical system having a plane grating G1 and & structures with radially oriented. 在此,光栅定位的中心位于光轴上的源焦点F1内。 Here, the positioning of the center of the raster source located within the focal point F1 on the optical axis. 光栅G1和(;2相对于光轴对称地定位,其中栅条和栅空对准X射线源的行焦点(Strichfokus)或点焦点。在这种X射线光学系统中起射线分配器作用的相位光栅G1和起分析器作用的幅度光栅&在栅条14的定向方面都对准同一焦点Fp以这种方式不仅可以实现一维光栅结构,而且可以实现二维光栅结构,以及通过这种由恰当定向的栅条和栅空组成的X射线光学系统可以避免会通过在更大锥形角下的平面光栅产生的遮挡效应。 Phase 2 is positioned symmetrically with respect to the optical axis, wherein the alignment of the empty trash rack and the gate line focus X-ray source (Strichfokus) rays from the focal point or dispenser role in such X-ray optical system; and gratings G1 (. gratings G1 and play the role of an amplitude analyzer & grating orientation in terms of the rail member 14 are aligned with the same focal point Fp can be achieved in this way is not only a one-dimensional grating structure, and can achieve two-dimensional grating structure, and by this the appropriate X-ray optical system composed of the grate and the gate oriented air shielding effect will be avoided in the plane of the grating at a larger taper angle produced by.

[0138] 具有平面光栅的这种实施方式的尺寸遵循上述对于弯曲光栅的基本原则。 [0138] This embodiment has the size of a plane grating follow these basic principles for the curved grating. 但是弯曲光栅与具有倾斜栅条的平面光栅的区别表现为严格理论上的差别。 But having curved grating differs from the inclined grate of the grating plane strictly theoretical performance difference. 然而这种实施方式在具有中等锥形角的射线途径中具有技术上的优点。 However, this embodiment has the technical advantage in having a radiation pathway in moderate cone angle. [0139] 上述光栅具有的优点是,可以取消为了达到某一确定的圆形形状而采取的措施或者至少可以通过略微的弯曲就足够。 [0139] The grating has the advantage that measures can be eliminated in order to achieve a circular shape to a defined or at least taken by slight bending sufficient.

[0140] 光栅内栅条和栅空的倾斜定向例如通过以下两个蚀刻过程达到: [0140] the gate finger and the gate empty raster oriented obliquely e.g. etching process achieved by the following two:

[0141] (i)在等离子体或干蚀刻过程中通过使晶片相对于等离子体的电场倾斜。 [0141] (i) in a plasma or dry etching process with respect to the wafer by the plasma electric field inclination.

[0142] (ii)在湿化学腐蚀时通过光控的腐蚀作用。 [0142] (ii) wet chemical etching when etching action by the light control. 为此,在第一步中借助于在晶片正面上的KOH腐蚀在用光刻技术定义的结构图案上设置启动缺陷(Martdefekte)。 For this purpose, on the front side of the wafer by means of a KOH etching defects in the structure is provided to start the pattern defined by the photolithography technique in the first step (Martdefekte). 在第二步中在晶片正面上采用HF腐蚀以及同时用^(IR=红外线)光从后侧照射晶片。 Employed in the second step on the front surface of the wafer and etching simultaneously with HF ^ (IR = infrared) light is irradiated from the back side of the wafer. 在此,可以利用在弱的η掺杂的硅中通过电穴(空穴)来控制腐蚀作用。 Here, use can be controlled electrically by the action of etching hole (holes) in silicon in the weakly doped η. 可以在η掺杂的硅中通过输入顶光来控制电穴的生成。 Points may be controlled by electrically generated input η top light in the doped silicon. 因为硅对于顶而言是可透射的,所以可以从晶片后侧进行照射。 Since silicon is transmissive for the terms top, it may be irradiated from the back side of the wafer. 照射方向以及所述通过KOH预先腐蚀的启动缺陷控制所腐蚀的孔或栅空的方向或形状。 KOH etching and the irradiation direction of advance start corroded defect control gate or aperture or the shape of the null direction by.

[0143] 由于栅条的倾斜,所以沿射线方向的栅条长度不相等,而是根据距光轴的距离有所不同,尽管栅条高度(相对于光栅面而言的垂向高度)是相同的。 [0143] Since the inclined grate, the gate finger length direction along a ray is not equal, but vary according to the distance from the optical axis, although the grate height (with respect to the grating surface in terms of vertical height) are identical of. 这导致,光栅只在几个小的区域内对应于确定的波长提供准确η的相位移。 This results, only the wavelength corresponding to the grating to provide accurate determination of η phase shift in a few small areas. 因此,在优化的设计中应该将对所述栅空的腐蚀控制成,使得栅条长度沿射线方向在整个晶片上是均勻的。 Thus, in the optimization of the design will be empty corrosion control gate such that the gate finger length along the ray direction is uniform over the entire wafer. 上面所提到的光辅助的腐蚀过程提供了这种可能性。 Photo-assisted etching process mentioned above provides this possibility. 如果采用其他不具有这种控制可能性的腐蚀过程,则下面的抛光过程是可行的另一种方案,通过该抛光过程可以调整栅条的高度。 If no other control possibilities of having such etching process, the following polishing process is another possible embodiment, the height may be adjusted by the grate polishing process.

[0144] 由于扇形或锥形的射束形状,X射线驻波场在恒定的塔尔波特距离时本身在栅条高度相同时可能略微弯曲。 [0144] Since the fan or cone beam shape, X-ray wave field at a constant Talbot itself may be slightly bent at the same time the height of the grate distance. 当考虑沿光轴塔尔波特距离的典型数值时,这种略微的不同可以在第一序数中可忽略。 When considering typical values ​​Talbot distance along the optical axis, which is slightly different from the first sequence may be negligible numbers. 但是在更深入地考虑时光栅周期随着与光轴的距离变化的变化按照上面所提到的用于塔尔波特距离的方程提供了这样的可能性,即,将驻波场定向在一个平面内或者使其与分析光栅或分析检测器的实际距离相适应或者将驻波场调节到该检测器上。 However, when the grating period is considered in more depth as the distance from the optical axis changes variations provided the possibility in accordance with the equation for the Talbot distance mentioned above, i.e., oriented in a standing wave field or made within a plane adapted to the actual distance or the analyzer grating or analysis detector is adjusted to the wave field on the detector.

[0145] 即,基本上可以表述出三种使X射线光学光栅适应于所给定的几何条件的方案: 光栅的栅条长度可以改变,光栅的曲率可以调整以及光栅的周期可以改变。 [0145] That is, the expression can be essentially three kinds of X-ray optical grating adapted to the geometry of the given program: a raster gate finger length may vary, and can adjust the curvature of the grating period of the grating may be changed. 为了清楚起见要说明的是,在栅条垂直时栅条高度和栅条长度是相等的。 For clarity It is noted that, when the gate finger and the gate finger length vertical grate height are equal.

[0146] 为了获得长度可变的栅条,对于栅条而言采用一种弯曲的纵截面。 [0146] In order to obtain a variable length irons, irons for purposes adopt a curved longitudinal section. 亦即为了补偿到分析光栅的变化距离,可以按照对光栅表面的要求改变栅条的长度。 I.e., to compensate for the change in distance analyzer grating, the length of the grate may be varied according to the requirements of the grating surface. 在此,例如使到光栅中心的距离较大的栅条得到一个比光栅中心的栅条更小的垂向高度。 Here, for example, keeping the distance to the center of the raster to obtain a larger gridlines smaller than the height of the vertical grating bars of the grating center. 由此关于射线方向的栅条长度、亦即射线通过栅条的行程在光栅的整个表面上是相同的。 Whereby the gate finger length direction about radiation, i.e. radiation travel through gridlines are the same over the entire surface of the grating. 以这种方式所有栅条都适应于X射线辐射的相同波长。 In this manner all the grate are adapted to the X-ray radiation of the same wavelength. 在工艺上这可以通过抛光过程达到,如在光学工业中已知的,在将栅空蚀刻到硅晶片上之前采用了该抛光过程。 In the process which can be reached by the polishing process, as is known in the optical industry, prior to the empty grid onto a silicon wafer is etched using the polishing process. 但是也存在对栅条倾斜的过补偿或欠补偿的可能性。 But there are also inclined to grate over the possibility of compensation or under-compensation.

[0147] 假如通过锥形射束几何形状获得了弯曲的塔尔波特截面:为了避免对弯曲吸收截面的必要性,可以在同一垂直平面内、确切地说在吸收光栅的平面内调整所有的塔尔波特距离。 [0147] If the obtained cross-section by curved Talbot cone beam geometry: In order to avoid the necessity of bending the absorption cross-section, can be precisely adjusted in the plane of all the absorption grating in the same vertical plane Talbot distance. 为此,可以使光栅周期在所述垂直平面内连续地变化,使得所导致的塔尔波特距离总是以及最佳地不只在第一近似法中相当于目标平面。 For this purpose, it is possible that the grating period varies continuously in the vertical plane, so that the Talbot distance and always lead to the best object plane corresponds to only a first approximation method. 因为塔尔波特距离取决于光栅周期, 这意味着,光栅周期作为与光轴的距离函数被逐步调整。 Because Talbot distance depends on the grating period, which means that the grating period is gradually adjusted as a function of distance from the optical axis.

[0148] 由此,也可以将干涉器的小范围与X射线辐射的不同波长相协调。 [0148] Accordingly, a different wavelength may be a small range of X-ray radiation and the interferometer is coordinated. 为了处理变化的塔尔波特距离的这种措施,当呈现相同形状的光栅周期时,发明人建议,局部地对于不同的波长调节所述相位光栅。 To measure such a Talbot distance change process, when presenting the same shape as the grating period, the inventors suggested that partially adjusting the phase grating for different wavelengths. 因此,本发明所要解决的问题是,最大幅度的条纹总是出现在同一平面内。 Accordingly, the present invention is to solve the problem is most significant streaks always appear in the same plane. 因为塔尔波特距离取决于波长,这意味着,根据与光轴的距离对应于不同的波长来调整所述相位光栅。 Since the Talbot distance depends on the wavelength, which means, according to the distance from the optical axis corresponding to different wavelengths to adjust the phase grating. 为了对应于不同的波长振荡,所以栅条具有不同的长度。 In order to correspond to different oscillation wavelengths, so that the gate finger having different lengths. 这要求具有确定纵截面的栅条,确定的纵截面可以通过对例如用于光透镜的光栅表面进行抛光来达到。 This determination requires a grate longitudinal section, longitudinal section can be determined by the grating surface, such as for an optical lens is polished to achieve.

[0149] 在图9中表示出该问题的图解性表示,其中,用Si表示单个射线,以及在相位光栅G1之后表示出以第一塔尔波特距离Cl1的+1和-1序数的折射。 [0149] This problem is shown diagrammatically in FIG. 9, where, a represents a single Si-rays, and after the phase grating G1 is shown in the +1 and -1 order number of the first Talbot distance refractive Cl1 . 在此应该遵守下列几何关系式2Θ > Δ α/2, In this geometry should comply with the following formula 2Θ> Δ α / 2,

[0150] 其中,θ = arcsin(A/2gl)表示在相位光栅上所观察的X射线Si的第一序数的半个折射角,Δ α表示按照Δ α = arc (δι/Γι)的相位光栅的锥形角,gl为相位光栅G1的周期,巧为焦点到相位光栅的径向距离,以及λ为所观察的X射线的能量的波长。 [0150] where, θ = arcsin (A / 2gl) representing a first ordinal number in the phase grating the observed X-ray half angle of refraction Si, Δ α represents the phase grating in accordance with Δ α = arc (δι / Γι) of taper angle, GL is a phase grating G1 period, Qiao radial distance to focus the phase grating, and λ is the wavelength of X-ray energy observed.

[0151] 现在有利的是,在相位对比射线照相及断层造影时通过弯曲的光栅或倾斜定向的栅条从更大的可利用的视野中有利于成像。 [0151] Now Advantageously, when the phase contrast radiographic tomography and by a curved or inclined orientation of the grating from the grating bars larger field of view can be utilized in favor of imaging. 由此可以实现更佳的剂量效率以及快速的诊断和分析。 Thus better dose efficiency and rapid diagnosis and analysis can be achieved.

[0152] 在显微射线照相及断层造影中所描述的光栅系统允许,对象不仅直接定位在相位光栅之前或之后,而且也靠近辐射源。 [0152] In the grating system microradiography tomography and described herein allows, not only the object is positioned directly before or after the phase grating, but also close to the radiation source. 这可以实现一个放大的几何形状,该放大的几何形状尤其在无损检测时允许在差分相位对比成像的条件下将小的对象放大。 This enables a larger geometry, the geometry of the particular amplification under conditions allowing differential phase-contrast imaging of small objects will be enlarged upon NDT. 由此不再需要使检测器分辨率与光学上所希望的分辨率相适应。 Thereby no longer necessary to be compatible with the resolution of the detector on the optical resolution desired. 取而代之的是,投影几何形状的放大降低了关于放大因数所必需的检测器分辨率。 Instead, the geometry of the projection on an enlarged amplification factor reduces the required resolution of the detector.

[0153] 该示例性说明主要涉及相位光栅,但是对结构和尺寸设计的考虑基本上也转用到分析光栅和源光栅上。 [0153] This example illustrates the phase grating generally relates to, but considering the structure and size of the design also substantially diverted to the analyzer grating and the source grating. 如已描述的那样,分析光栅的周期可以直接从相位光栅中得出。 As already described, the period of the analyzer grating can be derived directly from the phase grating. 在与共振能量相协调的意义上不存在关键调整栅空深度(吸收结构的厚度)问题,但是吸收结构必须有足够的厚度,大于吸收长度的三倍,或最好更厚些。 The gate adjustment key blank depth (thickness of the absorbent structure) problem, but the absorbent structure must have a sufficient thickness larger than the absorption length of three times, or more preferably thicker in the absence of resonance energy coordinated significance. 此外,为了所希望的共振能量要选择具有尽可能高的质量吸收系数的材料(例如:Ta、W、Pt、Au、Pb、U)。 Further, for resonance energy desired to be selected as a material having a high mass absorption coefficient (e.g.: Ta, W, Pt, Au, Pb, U). 如所描述的那样,对于分析光栅的形状视相位光栅的设计尺寸情况可以存在不同的尺寸设计规则。 As described, for the analysis and design of the shape depends on the size of the phase grating of the grating may exist in different dimensioning rules. 为了避免不必要的强度损失,应该选择具有尽可能小的质量吸收系数的载体材料。 In order to avoid unnecessary loss of strength, should be selected to have the smallest possible mass absorption coefficient of the carrier material.

[0154] 对于源光栅而言无遮蔽的构造形状也是有利的。 [0154] For purposes of the source grating structure unsheltered shape is also advantageous. 同样可以设计为弯曲光栅或具有倾斜栅条的光栅。 It may also be designed as a curved grating or a grating with inclined grate. 原则上与此相关地也可以采用具有带状阳极的源、亦即具有X射线辐射的发射位置的光栅形结构的阳极。 In principle, this source may be used in association with a strip-shaped anode, an anode having a grating-shaped structure that is emitted X-ray radiation position. 周期可以从所描述的杠杆比(Hebelverhaltnis)中得出。 Cycle than can be described from the lever (Hebelverhaltnis) derived. 栅空宽度与栅条宽度之比有利地介于1 : 10至1 : 1之间。 Empty the gate width ratio between the width of the grate is advantageously 1: 1: 10 to 1. 栅空的数量有利地介于1至大约20的范围内。 Advantageously the number of empty grid in the range of 1 to about 20. 在与共振能量相协调的意义上不存在关键调整栅空深度(吸收结构的厚度)问题,但是吸收结构必须有足够的厚度,也就是说,吸收结构的厚度大于吸收长度的三倍。 The gate adjustment key blank depth (thickness of the absorbent structure) problem, but the absorbent structure must have a sufficient thickness is not present in the resonance energy coordinated sense, that is to say, three times the thickness of the absorbent structure is greater than the absorption length. 此外,为了所希望的共振能量要选择具有尽可能高的质量吸收系数的材料(例如:Ta、W、Pt、Au、Pb、U)。 Further, for resonance energy desired to be selected as a material having a high mass absorption coefficient (e.g.: Ta, W, Pt, Au, Pb, U). 为了避免不必要的强度损失,载体材料应该薄以及应该选择具有尽可能小的质量吸收系数的载体材料。 In order to avoid unnecessary loss of strength, the support material should be thin and should be selected as carrier material having a low mass absorption coefficient.

[0155] 在图8中也示例性及代表性地对于其他X射线系统、尤其用于产生投影相位对比照片的X射线系统以及对于C形弓架装置表示出了具有本发明焦点-检测器系统的以及用于实施本发明方法的完整的计算机断层造影系统。 [0155] In the example in FIG. 8 and also representatively for the other X-ray systems, in particular for generating X-ray phase-contrast photographs of the projection system and for the C-arm apparatus of the present invention is shown having a focal point - detector system and a complete computer tomography system for implementing the method of the present invention. 该图示出了计算机断层造影系统1,其具有带有安置在机架外壳6内的一个未详细示出的机架上的X射线管2和相对置的检测器3的第一焦点_检测器系统。 The figure shows a computed tomography system 1 having a first focus disposed with a rack 6 of a housing not shown in detail on the X-ray tube 2 and the frame 3 opposite the detector detects _ system. 在该第一焦点_检测器系统2、3的射线途径中安置了一个按照图1至3所示的光栅系统,使得可以在第一焦点_检测器系统的射线途径中移动所述位于可沿光轴9运动的患者卧榻上的患者7以及在那里对其进行扫描。 _ The first focus detection system arranged in the radiation pathway 2,3 grating system illustrated in Figure 1-3, may be moved such that the light is located along the route of the first focus-ray detector system _ patient on the patient bed 7 and the movement of the shaft 9 to scan in there. 通过控制和计算单元10 实施对CT系统的控制,在该控制和计算单元10中在存储器11内存储了程序Prg1至Prgn, 这些程序用于实施前面所描述的按照本发明的方法以及从所测量的与射线有关的相位移中重建相应的断层造影图像。 And calculating by the control unit 10 controls the embodiments of the CT system, a program stored in the memory Prgn Prg1 to 11 in the control and computation unit 10, the programs for implementing the previously described method according to the invention and from the measured the reconstructed tomographic image of respective phase shift related rays.

[0156] 可选择地,作为一个唯一的焦点_检测器系统的替代方案,也可以在在机架外壳内安置一个第二焦点_检测器系统。 [0156] Alternatively, as an alternative to single focus _ detector system, may be disposed a second detector system in focus _ within the housing shell. 该第二焦点-检测器系统在图8中通过虚线示出的X 射线管4和检测器5表示。 The second focus - detector system shown by dashed lines in FIG. 8 X-ray tube 4 and the detector 5. FIG.

[0157] 至少在焦点-检测器系统存在一个按照本发明的光栅,其中通过超声驻波在光栅介质中产生用于检测相位对比照片的光栅结构。 [0157] at least the focus - a presence detector system, wherein the grating structure by generating ultrasonic standing waves for detecting a phase contrast photograph of a grating in the grating medium according to the present invention.

[0158] 在焦点-检测器系统的另一项扩展设计中,也可以通过光栅介质来构成光栅,其中,借助于超声波驻波场构成用于X射线辐射的光栅结构。 [0158] In the focus - a further refinement of the detector system, the gratings may be formed by a grating medium, wherein, by means of a grating structure composed of an ultrasonic wave field for X-ray radiation.

[0159] 还需要补充说明的是,通过所示出的焦点-检测器系统不仅可以测量X射线辐射的相位移,而且此外这样的焦点-检测器系统还适用于传统测量对射线的吸收以及用于重建相应的吸收图像。 [0159] need to be added that, through focus illustrated - can measure not only the displacement detector system with X-ray radiation, and in addition such a focus - detector system is also applicable to the conventional measurement of the absorption of radiation and by reconstructed image corresponding to the absorption. 需要的话,也可以生成组合的吸收和相位对比照片。 If desired, the absorbent may be generated and combined phase contrast photographs.

[0160] 不言而喻,在不脱离本发明范围的情况下,本发明的上述特征不仅可以用于所分别列举的组合中,而且也适用于其他组合或单独场合。 [0160] Needless to say, without departing from the scope of the present invention, the features of the present invention may be used not only in the combination respectively mentioned, but also to other combinations or alone applications.

Claims (34)

1. 一种用于产生检查对象(7,P)的投影或断层造影的相位对比照片的X射线设备的焦点-检测器装置(F1, D),其组成至少如下:1. 1.设置在检查对象第一侧的具有用于产生扇形或锥形射束(Si)的焦点(F1)的辐射源⑵,1.2.至少一个在射线途径中设置的X射线光学光栅OVG1A2),其中,至少一个在检查对象(7,P)的相对的第二侧在射线途径中设置的相位光栅(G1),该相位光栅产生一个在X 射线辐射的优选为预定能量区域内X射线辐射的干涉图形,以及1.3.分析检测系统(¾, D1),该分析检测系统至少分辨位置地针对相位移检测由相位光栅(G1)产生的干涉图形,其特征在于,1.4.至少一个X射线光学光栅((VG1,^)具有在所述扇形或锥形射束(Si)的射线途径中没有形成遮挡的悬幕的栅条,其中1.5.所述至少一个X射线光学光栅((V G1, G2)设计为在第一截面平面内围绕着焦点(F1)弯曲, 1. A method for generating examination object (7, P) of the focus of the projection apparatus or X-ray tomographic phase contrast photo - detector means (F1, D), which is composed of at least the following: 1. provided. having a focal point (F1) for generating a fan or cone beam (Si), a first radiation source ⑵ inspection object side, 1.2 at least a radiation pathway provided in the X-ray optical grating OVG1A2), wherein at least one of phase grating (G1) opposite the second side of the examination object (7, P) is provided in the radiation pathway, the phase grating to produce an interference pattern in a X-ray radiation of X-ray radiation energy is preferably in a predetermined area, and 1.3. analysis detection system (¾, D1), the assay detection system to distinguish at least the position of the for relative displacement detecting an interference pattern generated by the phase grating (Gl), wherein 1.4 at least one X-ray optical grating ((the VG1, ^) having (grate is not formed hanging curtain occluded Si) of radiation pathway, wherein 1.5 the at least one X-ray optical grating ((V G1, G2) in the fan or cone beam designed to a first cross-sectional plane around a focal point (F1) is bent, 1.6.通过向所述至少一个光栅((VG1,^)施加压力来实现该光栅的弯曲。 1.6. The curved raster is achieved by applying pressure to the at least one grating ((VG1, ^).
2.按照权利要求1所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述至少一个X射线光学光栅((VG1,^)在所述第一截面平面内具有围绕着焦点(F1)的曲率半径(Γι)。 2. The focal point of the claim 1, - a detector means, characterized in that at least one X-ray optical grating ((VG1, ^) having a focal point around (F1) of the first curvature in the sectional plane radius (Γι).
3.按照权利要求1所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述至少一个X射线光学光栅((VG1,^)设计为在与第一截面平面垂直的第二截面平面内围绕着焦点(F1)弯曲。 3. The focal point of the claim 1, - a detector means, characterized in that at least one X-ray optical grating ((VG1, ^) designed to surround a second cross-section in a plane perpendicular to the first sectional plane focus (F1) is bent.
4.按照权利要求3所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述至少一个X射线光学光栅((VG1,^)在所述第二截面平面内具有围绕着焦点(Fl)的曲率半径(Γι,r2)。 4. The focal point of the claim 3, - a detector means, characterized in that at least one X-ray optical grating ((VG1, ^) having a focal point around (Fl) is a cross-sectional curvature in the second plane radius (Γι, r2).
5.按照权利要求1所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述至少一个X射线光学光栅((VG1,^)的栅条(14)只具有沿径向对准焦点(F1)的上升及下降的侧面。 5. The focal point of the claim 1 - detector means, characterized in that the grate (14) of said at least one X-ray optical grating ((VG1, ^) only along a radial of focus (F1) the rise and fall of the side.
6.按照权利要求5所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述至少一个X射线光学光栅((VG1,^)的每个栅条(14)具有垂直于所述射束(Si)的透射射线定向的端面。 6. The focus of claim 5, wherein - the detector means, characterized in that at least one X-ray optical grating ((VG1, ^) for each rail member (14) having perpendicular to the beam (Si ) transmission radiation directed end faces.
7.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述至少一个X射线光学光栅(¾,G1, G2)在一个平面内的弯曲是通过在至少三个支承元件(16)之间的绷紧而强制达到的。 7. The focus as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 6, - a detector means, characterized in that at least one X-ray optical grating (¾, G1, G2) is bent in one plane by at least taut between three supporting elements (16) forcibly achieved.
8.按照权利要求7所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,至少所述一个支承元件(16)点状地贴靠在所述至少一个X射线光学光栅((^6,¾)上。 On the detector means, characterized in that said at least one support element (16) rests against the point at least one X-ray optical grating ((^ 6, ¾) - 8. The focal point according to claim 7, .
9.按照权利要求7所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,至少所述一个支承元件(16)线状地贴靠在所述至少一个X射线光学光栅((^G”^)上。 On the detector means, characterized in that said at least one support element (16) rests against the line at least one X-ray optical grating ((^ G "^) - 9. The focal point according to claim 7, .
10.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,10. 1所述至少一个X射线光学光栅((V G1, G2)为至少两个不同气压区域之间的分界面,以及10.2所述至少一个X射线光学光栅((V G1, G2)在至少一个平面内所希望的弯曲至少附加地通过两个不同气压区域之间的压差来强制实现。 Detector means, characterized in that at least one of the 101 X-ray optical grating ((V G1, G2) of at least two different pressure regions - 10. The focus as claimed in any one of claim 1 to 6. the interface between, and 10.2 the at least one X-ray optical grating ((V G1, G2) in at least one plane bending desired additionally by the pressure difference between at least two different pressure regions to enforce.
11.按照权利要求1至4中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述至少一个X射线光学光栅((VG1A2)的栅条沿射线途径在至少一个截面平面内具有一种正弦形的高度变化。 Detector means, characterized in that at least one X-ray optical grating ((VG1A2) having gridlines pathway along a ray in at least one sectional plane - 11. The focus as claimed in any one of claim 1 to 4, sinusoidal one kind of height variations.
12.按照权利要求11所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述至少一个X射线光学光栅OVG1A2)的栅条沿射线途径在两个相互垂直的截面平面内具有一种波线形或梯形的高度变化。 12. The focal point of claim 11, wherein the - detector means, characterized in that at least one X-ray optical grating OVG1A2) gridlines to have a wave along a linear pathway rays in two mutually perpendicular cross-sectional plane or trapezoidal height variation.
13.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,在至少一个X射线光学光栅OV G1, G2)的延伸长度上,该至少一个X射线光学光栅((V G1, G2)到所述分析检测系统((^D1)呈现不同距离。 Detector means, characterized in that, on at least one X-ray optical grating OV G1, G2) extending the length of the at least one X-ray optical grating (- 13. The focus as claimed in any one of claim 1 to 6, (V G1, G2) to a detection system ((^ D1) different from the present analysis.
14.按照权利要求13所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,为了使塔尔波特距离适应于到所述分析检测系统((^D1)的不同距离所述相位光栅(G1)的栅条具有不同的栅条长度。 14. The focal point according to claim 13, - a detector means, characterized in that, in order to make the Talbot distance adapted to different distances from the detection analysis system ((^ D1) of said phase grating (G1) of grate having different lengths gridlines.
15.按照权利要求12所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,为了使塔尔波特距离适应于到所述分析检测系统((^D1)的不同距离所述相位光栅(G1)的栅条具有不同的光栅周期(gl) ° 15. The focal point of claim 12, wherein the - detector means, characterized in that, in order to make the Talbot distance adapted to different distances from the detection analysis system ((^ D1) of said phase grating (G1) of grate having different grating periods (gl) °
16.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,在所述相位光栅(G1)的延伸长度上,该相位光栅(G1)到所述分析检测系统((^D1)的距离相同。 16. The focus of claim any one of claims 1 to 6 - a detector means, characterized in that the phase grating (G1) which extends the length of the phase grating (G1) to the assay detection system the same distance ((^ D1) of.
17.按照权利要求16所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,为了使塔尔波特距离适应于到所述分析检测系统(¾,D1)的相同距离,所述相位光栅(G1)的栅条在具有不同栅条高度时呈现相同的栅条长度。 17. The focal point of the claim 16, - a detector means, characterized in that, in order to adapt to the Talbot distance of the same distance to the detection analysis system (¾, D1), said phase grating (G1) gridlines exhibit the same gate finger length grate having different height.
18.按照权利要求16所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,为了使塔尔波特距离适应于到所述分析检测系统(¾,D1)的相同距离,所述相位光栅(G1)的栅条在具有相同的栅条高度和不同栅条长度时呈现不同的光栅周期(gl)。 18. The focal point of the claim 16, - a detector means, characterized in that, in order to adapt to the Talbot distance of the same distance to the detection analysis system (¾, D1), said phase grating (G1) gridlines exhibit different grating periods (GL) in the grate having the same height and different gate finger lengths.
19.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,至少从焦点(F1)到相位光栅(G1)的径向距离和从焦点(F1)到分析检测系统(G2, D1)的径向距离的平均值方面遵循下列几何关系: 其中:Γι =焦点到相位光栅的径向距离; r2 =焦点到分析检测系统的径向距离; gl =相位光栅(G1)的周期; g2 =分析检测系统的周期。 19. The focus of claim any one of claims 1 to 6 - a detector means, characterized in that, at least from the focal point (F1) to the radial distance from the phase grating (G1) and from the focal point (F1) to detect Analysis average aspect of the system of radial distance (G2, D1) follows the following geometric relationship: wherein: Γι = the radial distance from the focus to the phase grating; r2 = radial distance from the focus detection analysis system; gl = phase grating (G1 ) period; G2 = cycle analysis detection system.
20.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,保持下列几何关系: 其中:Γι =焦点到相位光栅的径向距离; gl =相位光栅(G1)的周期; λ=所考虑的X射线辐射能量的波长。 gl = phase grating (G1); Γι = the radial distance from the focus to the phase grating: wherein: a detector means, characterized in that the holding of the following geometric relationship - 20. The focus as claimed in any one of claim 1 to 6, cycle; λ = wavelength of X-ray radiant energy are considered.
21.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,保持如下几何关系: 21. The focus of claims 1 to 6 one of the - detector means, characterized in that, to maintain the following geometric relationship:
Figure CN101011250BC00041
其中:Γι =焦点到相位光栅的径向距离; r2 =焦点到分析检测系统的径向距离; gl =相位光栅(G1)的周期; d=相位光栅到分析检测系统的距离; λ=所考虑的X射线辐射能量的波长。 Wherein: Γι = the radial distance from the focus to the phase grating; r2 = radial distance from the focus detection analysis system; gl = phase grating (G1) of the period; d = distance analysis phase grating to the detection system; λ = consideration X-ray radiant energy of wavelength.
22.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,保持如下几何关系: 其中:Θ =在相位光栅上所观察的X射线的第一序数的半个折射角,有Θ = arcsin ( λ /^g1);Δ α =按照Δ α = arc (δι/Γι)的相位光栅的锥形角; gl =相位光栅(G1)的周期; Γι =焦点到相位光栅的径向距离; λ=所观察的X射线辐射能量的波长。 22. The focus of claim any one of claims 1 to 6 - a detector means, characterized in that, to maintain the following geometric relationship: where: [Theta] = half the ordinal number of the first X-ray observed on the phase grating angle of refraction, there Θ = arcsin (λ / ^ g1); Δ α = Δ α = phase grating according to the arc (δι / Γι) taper angle; gl = phase grating (G1) of the period; Γι = focus to the phase the radial distance of the grating; λ = wavelength of X-ray radiant energy are observed.
23.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述焦点(F1)基本设计为点状。 23. The focus of claim any one of claims 1 to 6 - a detector means, wherein said focal point (F1) substantially point-like design.
24.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,在焦点(F1) 与检查对象(7,P)之间安置用于产生近似相干的射线射束的源光栅(Gtl)15 24. The focus of claim any one of claims 1 to 6 - a detector means, characterized in that, between the focal point (F1) and the examination object (7, P) arranged to generate approximately coherent radiation beam the source grating (Gtl) 15
25.按照权利要求M所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述分析检测系统设计为具有多个确定系统分辨率的检测器元件的单行或多行检测器与沿射线方向安置在前的用于分辨位置地确定各检测器元件的特定能量的X射线辐射的平均相位移的分析光栅(G2) 的组合。 Claim 25. The focus of the M - detector means, characterized in that the analysis and detection systems are designed to determine a plurality of detector elements having a system resolution of single or multiple rows of detectors disposed along the ray direction and average composition analyzer grating phase shift of X-ray radiation for a particular energy resolved before determining the position of each detector element (G2) is.
26.按照权利要求25所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述分析检测系统的检测器具有围绕所述焦点(F1)的曲率。 26. The focal point of the claim 25 - a detector means, wherein said detection system analyzing the detector has a curvature about said focal point (F1) of.
27.按照权利要求25或沈所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述分析检测系统(G2, D1)的分析光栅(e2)具有围绕所述焦点的曲率半径(r2)。 Or claim 27. The focus of the sink 25 - detector means, wherein the detection analysis system (G2, D1) of the analyzer grating (e2) having a radius (r2) of curvature about said focal point.
28.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述分析检测系统((^D1)设计为具有多个确定系统分辨率的检测器元件的单行或多行检测器,其中, 至少一部分检测器元件具有适用于分辨位置地确定各检测器元件的特定能量的X射线辐射的平均相位移的内部结构。 28. The focus of claim any one of claims 1 to 6 - a detector means, wherein the detection analysis system ((^ D1) is designed to determine a plurality of detector elements having a resolution of one-way systems multi-row detector, wherein the detector element having at least a portion suitable for the position-resolved determination of the internal structure of an average phase shift of X-ray radiation the energy of each particular detector element.
29.按照权利要求观所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述分析检测系统(¾, D1)的检测器(D1)具有围绕所述焦点(F1)的曲率半径(r2)。 Concept 29. The focus of the claim - detector means, wherein the detection analysis system (¾, D1) detector (D1) having a radius (r2) of curvature about said focal point (F1) of.
30.按照权利要求四所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,所述曲率半径保持相同。 Claim 30. The focal point of the four - detector means, characterized in that the radius of curvature remains the same.
31.按照权利要求1至6中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置,其特征在于,焦点(F1)到检查对象⑵的距离相对于检查对象⑵到分析检测系统((^D1)的距离而言要小。 Detector means, characterized in that the focal point (F1) from the object under examination with respect to ⑵ ⑵ examination subject to analysis and detection system ((^ D1) of - 31. The focal claimed in any one of claim 1 to 6, for smaller distances.
32. 一种用于产生投影的相位对比照片的X射线系统,其特征在于,所述X射线系统具有按照上述权利要求1至31中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置。 32. A system for generating phase contrast X-ray projection photographs, wherein the X-ray system having a focal point according to any one of claim 1 to 31, according to the above claim - detector means.
33. 一种用于产生投影或断层造影的相位对比照片的X射线C形弓架系统,其特征在于,所述X射线C形弓架系统具有按照上述权利要求1至30中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置。 33. A phase contrast photograph for generating projection tomography or an X-ray C-arm system, characterized in that the X-ray C-arm system having any one of claims 1 to 30 in accordance with one of the preceding claims said focus - the detector means.
34. 一种用于产生断层造影的相位对比照片的X射线计算机断层造影系统,其特征在于,所述X射线计算机断层造影系统具有按照上述权利要求1至31中任一项所述的焦点-检测器装置。 X-ray computed tomography system 34. A method for generating a phase contrast photograph tomography, characterized in that the X-ray computer tomography system having a focal 1-31 according to any one of the preceding claims - detector means.
CN 200710007935 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Focus detector arrangement for generating phase-contrast X-ray images and method for this CN101011250B (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102006004976.4 2006-02-01
DE102006004604 2006-02-01
DE102006004976 2006-02-01
DE102006004604.8 2006-02-01
DE102006037256.5 2006-08-09
DE102006037256.5A DE102006037256B4 (en) 2006-02-01 2006-08-09 Focus-detector arrangement of an X-ray apparatus for producing projective or tomographic phase contrast recordings and X-ray system, X-ray C-arm system and X-ray CT system

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN101011250A CN101011250A (en) 2007-08-08
CN101011250B true CN101011250B (en) 2011-07-06

Family

ID=38699127

Family Applications (8)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN 200710007964 CN101011256A (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Method and measuring arrangement for nondestructive analysis of an examination object by means of X-radiation
CN 200710007962 CN101011255B (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Focus-detector arrangement with X-ray optical grating for phase contrast measurement
CN 200710007968 CN101011257B (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Focus-detector arrangement for generating projective or tomographic phase contrast recordings
CN 200710007954 CN101011253B (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Focus-detector arrangement for generating projective or tomographic phase contrast recordings
CN 200710105338 CN101044987A (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 X-ray ct system for producing projecting and tomography contrast phase contrasting photo
CN 200710007935 CN101011250B (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Focus detector arrangement for generating phase-contrast X-ray images and method for this
CN 200710007967 CN101013613B (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 X-ray optical transmission grating of a focus-detector arrangement of an X-ray apparatus
CN 200710007965 CN101011260A (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Method and CT system for detecting and differentiating plaque in vessel structures of a patient

Family Applications Before (5)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN 200710007964 CN101011256A (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Method and measuring arrangement for nondestructive analysis of an examination object by means of X-radiation
CN 200710007962 CN101011255B (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Focus-detector arrangement with X-ray optical grating for phase contrast measurement
CN 200710007968 CN101011257B (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Focus-detector arrangement for generating projective or tomographic phase contrast recordings
CN 200710007954 CN101011253B (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Focus-detector arrangement for generating projective or tomographic phase contrast recordings
CN 200710105338 CN101044987A (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 X-ray ct system for producing projecting and tomography contrast phase contrasting photo

Family Applications After (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN 200710007967 CN101013613B (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 X-ray optical transmission grating of a focus-detector arrangement of an X-ray apparatus
CN 200710007965 CN101011260A (en) 2006-02-01 2007-02-01 Method and CT system for detecting and differentiating plaque in vessel structures of a patient

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (8) CN101011256A (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8972191B2 (en) 2009-02-05 2015-03-03 Paul Scherrer Institut Low dose single step grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging

Families Citing this family (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101011256A (en) 2006-02-01 2007-08-08 西门子公司 Method and measuring arrangement for nondestructive analysis of an examination object by means of X-radiation
CN105596022A (en) 2006-02-27 2016-05-25 罗切斯特大学 Method and apparatus of cone beam CT dynamic imaging
CN101576515B (en) 2007-11-23 2012-07-04 同方威视技术股份有限公司 System and method for X-ray optical grating contrast imaging
CN101467889B (en) * 2007-12-26 2010-08-25 中国科学院高能物理研究所 Grating shearing phase contrast CT image-forming data acquisition and reconstruction method
EP2245636A2 (en) 2008-02-14 2010-11-03 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. X-ray detector for phase contrast imaging
US8565371B2 (en) * 2008-03-19 2013-10-22 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Rotational X ray device for phase contrast imaging
JP5451150B2 (en) * 2008-04-15 2014-03-26 キヤノン株式会社 X-ray source grating and X-ray phase contrast image imaging apparatus
CN101726503B (en) 2008-10-17 2012-08-29 同方威视技术股份有限公司 X ray phase contrast tomography
US8559594B2 (en) 2008-10-29 2013-10-15 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Imaging apparatus and imaging method
EP2343537B1 (en) * 2008-10-29 2019-04-10 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha X-ray imaging device and x-ray imaging method
US7949095B2 (en) * 2009-03-02 2011-05-24 University Of Rochester Methods and apparatus for differential phase-contrast fan beam CT, cone-beam CT and hybrid cone-beam CT
EP2443491A1 (en) * 2009-06-16 2012-04-25 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Tilted gratings and method for production of tilted gratings
CN101943668B (en) 2009-07-07 2013-03-27 清华大学 X-ray dark-field imaging system and method
CN102781327B (en) * 2009-12-10 2015-06-17 皇家飞利浦电子股份有限公司 Phase contrast imaging
JP5818444B2 (en) * 2010-02-04 2015-11-18 キヤノン株式会社 Function information acquisition apparatus, function information acquisition method, and program
EP2611364B1 (en) * 2010-09-03 2018-03-07 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Differential phase-contrast imaging with improved sampling
DE102010043226A1 (en) * 2010-11-02 2012-05-03 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Method and evaluation device for determining the position of a structure in an object to be examined by means of X-ray computer tomography
JP5697430B2 (en) * 2010-12-17 2015-04-08 キヤノン株式会社 X-ray imaging device
US9287017B2 (en) 2011-02-07 2016-03-15 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Differential phase-contrast imaging with increased dynamic range
DE102011076346B4 (en) 2011-05-24 2016-07-14 Siemens Healthcare Gmbh Method and computer tomography system for generating tomographic image data sets
CN103364418B (en) * 2012-04-01 2016-08-03 中国科学院高能物理研究所 Grating shearing two-dimensional imaging system and grating shearing two-dimensional imaging method
DE102012213876A1 (en) * 2012-08-06 2014-02-06 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Arrangement and method for inverse X-ray phase-contrast imaging
WO2014100063A1 (en) * 2012-12-21 2014-06-26 Carestream Health, Inc. Medical radiographic grating based differential phase contrast imaging
CN103901493B (en) * 2012-12-27 2016-12-28 同方威视技术股份有限公司 A kind of no frame CT device
US9364191B2 (en) 2013-02-11 2016-06-14 University Of Rochester Method and apparatus of spectral differential phase-contrast cone-beam CT and hybrid cone-beam CT
DE102013205406A1 (en) * 2013-03-27 2014-10-16 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft X-ray imaging system for X-ray imaging at high image frequencies of an examination subject by direct measurement of the interference pattern
CN105612584B (en) * 2013-10-07 2018-12-04 西门子医疗有限公司 Phase contrast x-ray imaging equipment and its phase grating
CN105828716B (en) * 2013-12-17 2019-05-10 皇家飞利浦有限公司 For scanning the phase recovery of differential phase contrast system
CN103760176B (en) * 2014-01-17 2016-01-20 东南大学 The apparatus and method of X ray and ultrasonic combined measurement Multiphase Flow parameter
CN106232008B (en) * 2014-06-16 2018-01-16 皇家飞利浦有限公司 Computer tomography (CT) blended data gathers
EP3133999B1 (en) * 2014-10-13 2017-12-13 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Grating device for phase contrast and/or dark-field imaging of a movable object
CN106153646A (en) * 2015-04-08 2016-11-23 清华大学 X-ray imaging system and method
CN105096270B (en) * 2015-08-07 2018-04-06 北京欣方悦医疗科技有限公司 A kind of calcified plaque minimizing technology in coronary artery three-dimensional reconstruction
DE102016200440A1 (en) * 2016-01-15 2017-07-20 Siemens Healthcare Gmbh Device and X-ray phase contrast imaging device with a curved interference grating and method for bending an interference grating for interferometric X-ray imaging
WO2017216354A1 (en) * 2016-06-16 2017-12-21 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Apparatus for x-ray imaging an object
CN106251925B (en) * 2016-08-29 2018-09-07 深圳先进技术研究院 A kind of particle control system and method based on slit phonon crystal
CN106658930B (en) * 2017-01-23 2018-04-10 中国工程物理研究院激光聚变研究中心 adjustable X-ray source

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1256417A (en) 1998-10-21 2000-06-14 模拟技术有限公司 Scanning system for computing fault with stable light-beam position
EP1447046A1 (en) 2003-02-14 2004-08-18 Paul Scherrer Institut Apparatus and method to obtain phase contrast x-ray images

Family Cites Families (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH0466147B2 (en) 1984-02-29 1992-10-22 Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co
US5812629A (en) 1997-04-30 1998-09-22 Clauser; John F. Ultrahigh resolution interferometric x-ray imaging
WO2004025335A1 (en) 2002-08-24 2004-03-25 Carl Zeiss Smt Ag Binary blazed diffractive optical element
DE10354808A1 (en) 2003-11-21 2005-06-30 Siemens Ag Method for shading scattered radiation in front of a detector array
DE10354811B4 (en) 2003-11-21 2012-09-27 Siemens Ag Anti-scatter grid, in particular for medical X-ray devices, and method for its production
DE102004027163B4 (en) 2004-06-03 2008-04-10 Siemens Ag Method for compensation of image disturbances during radiation image acquisition
CN101011256A (en) 2006-02-01 2007-08-08 西门子公司 Method and measuring arrangement for nondestructive analysis of an examination object by means of X-radiation

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1256417A (en) 1998-10-21 2000-06-14 模拟技术有限公司 Scanning system for computing fault with stable light-beam position
EP1447046A1 (en) 2003-02-14 2004-08-18 Paul Scherrer Institut Apparatus and method to obtain phase contrast x-ray images

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8972191B2 (en) 2009-02-05 2015-03-03 Paul Scherrer Institut Low dose single step grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN101011253A (en) 2007-08-08
CN101013613B (en) 2011-10-19
CN101011257B (en) 2011-07-06
CN101011250A (en) 2007-08-08
CN101011260A (en) 2007-08-08
CN101011256A (en) 2007-08-08
CN101013613A (en) 2007-08-08
CN101011255A (en) 2007-08-08
CN101011253B (en) 2011-06-15
CN101011257A (en) 2007-08-08
CN101011255B (en) 2010-10-27
CN101044987A (en) 2007-10-03

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6289235B1 (en) Method and system for creating three-dimensional images using tomosynthetic computed tomography
DE102006015358B4 (en) Focus / detector system of an X-ray apparatus for producing phase-contrast images, associated X-ray system and storage medium and method for producing tomographic images
US8855265B2 (en) Correction method for differential phase contrast imaging
DE102006037257B4 (en) Method and measuring arrangement for the non-destructive analysis of an examination object with X-radiation
AU2006257026B2 (en) Interferometer for quantative phase contrast imaging and tomography with an incoherent polychromatic x-ray source
CN102740775B (en) Radiation imaging system
US8972191B2 (en) Low dose single step grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging
US20140226783A1 (en) Method and apparatus of spectral differential phase-contrast cone-beam ct and hybrid cone-beam ct
US20070183584A1 (en) Focus-detector arrangement with X-ray optical grating for phase contrast measurement
US7412024B1 (en) X-ray mammography
US6081577A (en) Method and system for creating task-dependent three-dimensional images
JP2009525084A (en) Projection image and tomography image creation method using X-ray system
JP2013529984A (en) Method for X-ray phase contrast and dark field imaging using planar grating structure
DE102008048688B4 (en) X-ray CT system for generating tomographic phase-contrast or dark-field images
JP5142540B2 (en) X-ray device focus-detector system
US8306183B2 (en) Detection setup for X-ray phase contrast imaging
US7319734B2 (en) Method and apparatus for blocking radiographic scatter
JP5493852B2 (en) Radiation imaging equipment
US7983381B2 (en) X-ray CT system for x-ray phase contrast and/or x-ray dark field imaging
Yashiro et al. Efficiency of capturing a phase image using cone-beam x-ray Talbot interferometry
WO2004058070A1 (en) X-ray imaging system and imaging method
JP5477428B2 (en) Radiation imaging system
JP5725870B2 (en) X-ray imaging apparatus and X-ray imaging method
JP2012130586A (en) X-ray image detecting apparatus, radiographing apparatus, and radiographing system
DE102006037256B4 (en) Focus-detector arrangement of an X-ray apparatus for producing projective or tomographic phase contrast recordings and X-ray system, X-ray C-arm system and X-ray CT system

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
C06 Publication
C10 Request of examination as to substance
C41 Transfer of the right of patent application or the patent right
C14 Granted