CN101009619A - A wireless sensor network gateway device - Google Patents

A wireless sensor network gateway device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101009619A
CN101009619A CN 200610169744 CN200610169744A CN101009619A CN 101009619 A CN101009619 A CN 101009619A CN 200610169744 CN200610169744 CN 200610169744 CN 200610169744 A CN200610169744 A CN 200610169744A CN 101009619 A CN101009619 A CN 101009619A
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unit
sensor network
wireless sensor
gateway device
gprs
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CN 200610169744
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赵磊
阚保强
夏鹏
徐勇军
李晓维
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Institute of Computing Technology of CAS
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Institute of Computing Technology of CAS
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Priority to CN 200610169744 priority Critical patent/CN101009619A/en
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Abstract

The disclosed gateway device for wireless sensor network comprises: a GPRS communication unit to communicate between the gateway and Internet or wireless communication network, a wireless RF transceiver for gateway and wireless sensor network, and a MPU to control the communication of former two units, wherein the MPU uses UART (general asynchronous serial interface) to communicate with the GPRS unit and SPI (synchronous serial interface) to communicate with the RF transceiver. This invention realizes reliable remote connection and bidirectional transmission for request in real application.

Description

A kind of wireless sensor network gateway equipment
Technical field
The present invention relates to the wireless sensor network technology field, relate in particular to a kind of wireless sensor network gateway equipment.
Background technology
Along with the develop rapidly of the communication technology, embedded computing technique and sensor technology and increasingly mature, the microsensor with perception, computing capability and communication capacity begins worldwide to occur.The small node that is integrated with transducer, data processing unit and communication module of random distribution constitutes network by the mode of self-organizing, by means of the heat in the various informative sensor measurement place surrounding enviroment built-in in the node, infrared, sonar, radar and seismic signal, thereby survey numerous our interested material phenomenons such as size, speed and the direction etc. that comprise temperature, humidity, noise, luminous intensity, pressure, soil constituent, mobile object.
On communication mode, though various ways such as microsensor can adopt wired, wireless, infrared and light it is generally acknowledged that the most suitable sensor network of short-range wireless, low-power communication technology uses, so generally be called wireless sensor network.
Wireless sensor network has very wide application prospect, monitors, has the tracking monitoring of danger of extinction or precious animal, many fields such as safety monitoring civilian and job facilities all to have important scientific research to be worth and huge practical value in military surveillance, environmental monitoring, traffic administration, disaster preparedness, deathtrap.
In wireless sensor network, node dispenses by aircraft, modes such as artificial layouts, be deployed in a large number perceptive object inside or near.These nodes constitute wireless network by the self-organizing mode, with information specific in cooperation way perception, collection and the processing network's coverage area, can realize the collection at any time of anywhere information, handle and analyze.This network that constitutes with the self-organizing form, is sent to remote control center by the sink link with the data in the whole zone at last and focuses on data back sink node (receiver transmitter) by the multi-hop relay mode.
As shown in Figure 1, Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of present typical sensor network architecture.This sensor network comprises distributed sensor node (group), sink node, the Internet and user interface etc.Sink node in sensor network is to be served as by ordinary node at present, and this node is communicated by letter with PC by the RS-232 serial ports, then by this PC and network interconnection.Though this method can satisfy the requirement of disposing sensor network in the laboratory, and significant limitation is arranged in actual applications.This mainly shows:
1), can't provide power supply for PC in the sensor network actual deployment environment;
2), can't provide wired network interface for PC in the actual deployed environment of sensor network;
3), sensor network application requirements node is in and is difficult for finding comparatively hidden state;
Wireless sensor network is mainly used in monitoring, tracking and investigation etc., these application are normally carried out in the comparatively abominable wild environment of environment, sensing node dispenses in these environment on a large scale, needs them to organize themselves into network simultaneously and sends sensing data to remote server or terminal.Therefore, how under these environment, to provide sensor network to insert and reduce and transmit power consumption, become the ultimate challenge that to dispose extensive real sensor network application.
More existing wireless sensor network environment monitorings are used, and what adopt during such as the test of big duck island is that satellite link is connected with Internet as the base station.The cost of this mode is higher relatively and power consumption is also bigger.We consider that present most of area provides the covering support of GPRS network, and the relative serial ports pattern maximum communication rate 19.2kbps of radio frequency transceiving module cc1000 in the wireless sensor network node, the transmission rate of the 128kbits/S of GPRS module is well positioned to meet transmission rate request, and GPRS also has the relatively low advantage of power consumption simultaneously.Therefore, adopt GPRS to have the superiority that can not be substituted as the access way of wireless sensor network gateway.
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is the abbreviation of GPRS, is a kind of data transmission technology based on global system for mobile communications (GSM).GPRS introduces two new network nodes on based on the GSM network of circuit switching (CSD) mode original: GPRS serving GPRS support node (SGSN) and gateway support node (GGSN).SGSN and MSC be at same hierarchy level, and the memory cell of following the tracks of single MS realizes safety function and access control, and be connected to base station system by frame relay.GGSN supports the intercommunication with external packet-switched networks, and is communicated with via IP-based GPRS backbone network and SGSN.
Fig. 2 shows the schematic diagram that present GPRS is connected with Internet.The GPRS terminal obtains data by interface from client, and the GPRS grouped data after the processing sends to the GSM base station.Grouped data is after the SGSN encapsulation, and SGSN supports contact GGSN to communicate by GPRS backbone network and gateway.GGSN handles accordingly to grouped data, re-sends to the purpose network, as Internet or network X.25.If grouped data is to send to another GPRS terminal, then data send to SGSN by the GPRS backbone network, send to the GPRS terminal through BSS again.The GPRS net has not only that wide coverage, data transmission bauds are fast, the high communication quality, always online and advantage such as charge by flow, and itself be exactly a multicomponent data net, support ICP/IP protocol, need not switching through PSTN networks such as (public switched telephone networks), can be directly and the Internet net interconnecting.Therefore gprs service has unrivaled superiority of effectiveness in industries such as wireless Internet access, environmental monitoring, traffic monitoring, mobile office.
In cordless communication network, radio network gateway is meant the wireless aps that is integrated with simple routing function.It mainly provides wireless stations to cable LAN with from the visit of cable LAN to wireless stations, and the wireless stations in the access points coverage can intercom mutually by it.The operation principle of wireless aps is that network signal is sent by twisted-pair feeder, and the compiling through the AP product converts the electrical signal to radio signals send out, and forms the covering of wireless network.According to different power, it can be realized in various degree, the network coverage of different range.
Normally communicate between wireless device and the radio network gateway by the IEEE802.11b/g agreement.Radio network gateway is mainly used in family, company, community and service location at present, and these places can provide the spider lines access interface and not have the requirement of aspects such as power supply, and requires gateway can support multimedia transmission to use.And at present the peak transfer rate of GPRS is 128Kbits/S, and the transmission rate of 802.11b/g has reached 54Mbits, so GPRS communication module and be not suitable for as radio network netgate and be linked into Internet.And (such as GPRS radio meter register scheme) all is to adopt GPRS communication mode direct to jump to be linked into Internet in the wireless device that adopts the GPRS communication module, send the data to remote server and user, need not to adopt other radio-frequency (RF) receiving and transmission module to realize the networking of wireless device.
The working method of wireless senser gateway is as follows: at first utilize the cc1000 radio frequency transceiving module that is operated in 433M hertz frequency range between wireless sensor network node and the gateway node, and the self-organizing network of an existing medium access control protocol (B-MAC) and a multi-hop of self-organizing Routing Protocol (Direct Diffusion) composition, the realization gateway node is connected with the sensing node transfer of data.Gateway node is jumped by GPRS communication module one and is linked into Internet, data is sent to remote server and terminal use realize being connected of sensor network and Internet.
For satisfying the application demand of wireless sensor network, the combining with wireless sensor network own characteristic: node needs wireless Ad Hoc to become network; Sensor network needs wireless access Internet.Design realizes utilizing the GPRS wireless communication technology that the embedded type wireless sensing device network gateway that wireless sensor network inserts Internet will be had crucial meaning.
Summary of the invention
(1) technical problem that will solve
In view of this, main purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of wireless sensor network gateway equipment, be connected reliably to realize that remote server and mobile subscriber terminal are set up with wireless sensor network, realize the transmitted in both directions of data, satisfy wireless sensor network demand in actual applications.
(2) technical scheme
For achieving the above object, technical scheme of the present invention is achieved in that
A kind of wireless sensor network gateway equipment, this gateway device comprises:
The GPRS communication unit is used to realize communicating by letter between gateway device and Internet network or gateway device and the cordless communication network;
The radio transceiver unit is used to realize communicating by letter between gateway device and the wireless sensor network;
Microprocessor unit is used to control GPRS communication unit and Internet network, GPRS communication unit and cordless communication network, or communicating by letter between radio transceiver unit and the wireless sensor network;
Described microprocessor unit communicates by universal asynchronous serial interface UART and GPRS communication unit, and communicates by synchronous serial interface SPI and radio transceiver unit.
This gateway device further comprises: RS232 serial ports unit, be used to connect GPRS communication unit and upper PC, and debug and dispose described gateway device by upper PC.
Described RS232 serial ports unit is connected by the UART interface with the GPRS communication unit.
This gateway device further comprises between GPRS communication unit and RS232 serial ports unit: level conversion unit, be used for the TIA/EIA-232-F level of PC serial ports and the TTL/CMOS level of GPRS communication unit, and the TTL/CMOS level of the TIA/EIA-232-F level of PC serial ports and microprocessor unit is changed.
This gateway device further comprises: jtag interface, the nonvolatile memory, fuse and the locking bit that are used for microprocessor internal are programmed, and realize online debugging emulation.
This gateway device further comprises: Power Management Unit, be used for being responsible for the power supply of each unit of described gateway device, and detect the health status of power supply, and as required power supply is carried out Based Intelligent Control, realize stable power supply.
This gateway device further comprises: Power Management Unit, be used for being responsible for the power supply of each unit of described gateway device, and detect the health status of power supply, and as required power supply is carried out Based Intelligent Control, realize stable power supply.
Described GPRS communication unit is the M22GPRS chip, support GSM900/DCS1800/PCS1900 three frequently, circuit switched data transmission flank speed is 128Kbit/s, support GPRS Class10 multi-slot function, embedded ICP/IP protocol stack, support GSM07.07 enhancement mode AT Command Set, can effectively realize voice call, sending and receiving short messages and GPRS wireless data transmission function, be connected with the SIM card seat by SIM CLK, SIM IO, SIM RET, VRSIM pin; Be connected with level conversion unit by RXD, TXD pin.
Described radio transceiver unit is the CC1000 chip, adopt the frequency shift keying fsk ZAP, carrier wave frequency range is 300 to 1000MHZ, support 315MHZ, 433MHZ, 868MHZ and the basic modulating frequency of 915MHZ, maximum data transfer rate is 76.8kbps, is connected with SPI MISO, SPISCK, PCLK, PDATA, the PALE pin of microprocessor unit by DIO, DCLK, PCLK, PDATA, PALE pin.
Described microprocessor unit is the Atmegal128L chip, and this chip comprises the flash memory Flash of a 128KB, the EEPROM of the SRAM of a 4KB and a 4KB, and SRAM is as general-purpose storage, and EEPROM is used for the parameter of storage running system; Also comprise 28 bit timing devices and 2 16 s' expansion timer, 2 USART interfaces and 1 serial peripheral interface SPI controller are provided; Chip internal provides the I2C serial bus communication mode of hardware and the ADC controller of 8 path 10 position sampling precisions.
(3) beneficial effect
From technique scheme as can be seen, wireless sensor network gateway equipment provided by the invention has made full use of characteristics such as GPRS communication module cost is low, low in energy consumption, wide coverage, innovation ground combines the wireless sensor network transmission technology of the GPRS communication technology with low rate, low-power consumption, has realized mode self-organizing network that employing between node and the gateway is wireless and the function of wireless access Internet.
Wireless sensor network generally adopts sensing node to connect the scheme of PC as gateway relatively at present, and the wireless sensor network gateway equipment that this aspect provides has the following advantages:
1), the gateway device cost is lower, be convenient to dispose large-scale wireless sensor network and use.
2), gateway device is low in energy consumption, supports multiple power saving operation pattern, can adopt powered battery.Can effectively be applied to environmental monitoring, forest fire protection monitoring etc. can't provide in the outdoor environment of reliable DC power supply.
3), the gateway device volume is less, size and wireless sensor network node size are basic identical.Dispense in the Military Application such as battlefield monitoring and target following, be difficult for being found by the enemy.
4), the gateway device environmental suitability is stronger.The gateway node various piece all adopts ripe industrial module, can effectively adapt to outdoor comparatively rugged environment.
5), the gateway device disposal ability is stronger.Be convenient to realize that network data merges, save network service bandwidth and energy, improve the efficient of information gathering.
6), gateway device wide coverage.Adopt the GPRS transport module, make wireless sensor network to be connected with Internet and remote mobile terminal equipment, realize effective network data transmission by gateway.
7), fast, the high communication quality of gateway device data transmission bauds, be not subject to the influence of surrounding environment.The GPRS communication network itself has stronger error correction capability, and message transmission rate can reach 128kbits/s, can guarantee the transfer of data that reliable and real-time wireless sensor network is used.
8), gateway device uses modular construction, configuration more convenient.The user can be configured gateway node very easily by the RS232 serial ports, and utilizes jtag interface to carry out reprogrammed.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of present typical sensor network architecture;
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram that present GPRS is connected with Internet;
Fig. 3 is the structured flowchart of wireless sensor network gateway equipment provided by the invention;
The structural representation of the wireless sensor network gateway equipment that provides according to the embodiment of the invention is provided Fig. 4;
Fig. 5 is the circuit theory diagrams of GPRS communication unit provided by the invention
Fig. 6 is the circuit theory diagrams of microprocessor unit provided by the invention
Fig. 7 is the circuit theory diagrams of radio transceiver provided by the invention unit.
Embodiment
For making the purpose, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, below in conjunction with specific embodiment, and with reference to accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in more detail.
As shown in Figure 3, Fig. 3 is the structured flowchart of wireless sensor network gateway equipment provided by the invention, and this gateway device comprises GPRS communication unit 10, microprocessor unit 11 and radio transceiver unit 12 at least.
Wherein, GPRS communication unit 10 is used to realize communicating by letter between gateway device and Internet network or gateway device and the cordless communication network.Microprocessor unit 11 is used to control GPRS communication unit and Internet network, GPRS communication unit and cordless communication network, or communicating by letter between radio transceiver unit and the wireless sensor network.Radio transceiver unit 12 is used to realize communicating by letter between gateway device and the wireless sensor network.
Described microprocessor unit 11 communicates by universal asynchronous serial interface UART and GPRS communication unit 10, and communicates by synchronous serial interface SPI and radio transceiver unit 12.
Based on the structured flowchart of the described wireless sensor network gateway equipment of Fig. 3, further describe below in conjunction with the structure of specific embodiment to wireless sensor network gateway equipment of the present invention.
Embodiment
Wireless sensor network gateway equipment provided by the invention and Internet network, and wireless sensor network catenation principle figure is referring to shown in Figure 1, the wireless sensor node that has the sensing acquisition module will be gathered the sensing data of being monitored, and by the radio frequency transceiving module of node itself sensing data be sent to wireless senser gateway equipment; Wireless senser gateway equipment is connected to the Internet network with the sensing data that receives by GPRS network, and sends the data to remote server; Wireless senser gateway equipment sends the data to mobile phone users with the sensing data that receives by GPRS network; The wireless senser gateway node is supported the real-time query function of distance host and mobile phone users.
As shown in Figure 4, the structural representation of the wireless sensor network gateway equipment that provides according to the embodiment of the invention is provided Fig. 4, and this gateway device comprises GPRS communication unit 10, microprocessor unit 11 and radio transceiver unit 12, RS232 serial ports unit 13, level conversion unit 14, jtag interface 15 and Power Management Unit 16.Microprocessor unit 11 communicates by general serial asynchronous interface (UART) and GPRS communication unit 10; Microprocessor unit 11 carries out the reception and the transmission of sensing data by synchronous serial interface (SPI) and radio transceiver unit 12; Microprocessor unit 11 is connected with RS232 serial ports unit 13 by general serial asynchronous interface (UART).The components and parts that each unit adopted are as follows:
As shown in Figure 5, Fig. 5 is the circuit theory diagrams of GPRS communication unit provided by the invention.GPRS communication unit 10 uses the M22GPRS module of BENQ company.This module is the GSM/GPRS module of a technical grade, support GSM900/DCS1800/PCS1900 three frequently, circuit switched data transmission flank speed is 128Kbit/s, supports GPRS Class10 multi-slot function, embedded ICP/IP protocol stack is supported GSM07.07 enhancement mode AT Command Set.This module can effectively realize voice call, sending and receiving short messages and GPRS wireless data transmission function.The GPRS communication module is connected with the SIM card seat by SIM CLK, SIM IO, SIM RET, VRSIM pin; Be connected with multinomial selector switch by RXD, TXD pin.
As shown in Figure 6, Fig. 6 is the circuit theory diagrams of microprocessor unit provided by the invention.Microprocessor unit 11 uses the Atmegal128L of atmel corp.This processor has relatively abundanter internal resource and external interface.128KBFlash is arranged in the sheet, can programme 10000 times; The SRAM of 4KB and the EEPROM of 4KB.SRAM can be used as general-purpose storage and use, and EEPROM then can be used for storing the parameter of some operational systems.Provide 28 bit timing devices in the sheet, 2 16 expansion timer; Two general synchronous and asynchronous serial line interfaces (universal synchronous andasynchronous serial receiver and transmitter, USART) controller are provided in the sheet; A serial peripheral interface (serial peripheral interface) controller is provided in the sheet; Processor inside provides the I2C serial bus communication mode of hardware; The ADC controller of 10 sampling precisions of 8 passages is provided in the sheet; Aspect power management, Atmegal128L has designed 6 kinds of different sleep modes, is particularly suitable for the application of energy limited.
As shown in Figure 7, Fig. 7 is the circuit theory diagrams of radio transceiver provided by the invention unit.Radio transceiver unit 12 adopts the CC1000 chip of Chipcon company.CC1000 adopts frequency shift keying (FSK) ZAP.Carrier wave frequency range is 300~1000MHZ.Support 315MHZ, 433MHZ, 868MHZ and the basic modulating frequency of 915MHZ.Maximum data transfer rate is 76.8kbps.CC1000 is connected with microprocessor module SPIMISO, SPISCK, PCLK, PDATA, PALE pin by DIO, DCLK, PCLK, PDATA, PALE pin.
RS232 serial ports unit 13 is used to connect GPRS communication unit 10 and upper PC, debugs and dispose described gateway device by upper PC.Described RS232 serial ports unit 13 is connected by the UART interface with GPRS communication unit 10.
This gateway device further comprises level conversion unit 14 between GPRS communication unit 10 and RS232 serial ports unit 13, be used for the TIA/EIA-232-F level of PC serial ports and the TTL/CMOS level of GPRS communication unit 10, and the TTL/CMOS level of the TIA/EIA-232-F level of PC serial ports and microprocessor unit 11 is changed.Level conversion unit 14 uses the MAX232 power conversion chip, and the TIA/EIA-232-F level of PC serial ports and the TTL/CMOS level of GPRS module are changed.
Nonvolatile memory, fuse and locking bit that jtag interface 15 is used for microprocessor internal are programmed, and realize online debugging emulation.Jtag interface 15 meets the IEEE1149.1 standard.Three functions have mainly been realized: adopt boundary-scan function that chip is tested; Nonvolatile memory, fuse and locking bit to chip internal are programmed; Realize online debugging emulation.Jtag interface be connected with ADC4, ADC5, ADC6, RSTN, the ADC7 pin of microprocessor module by TCK, TMS, TDO, TDI pin.
Power Management Unit 16 is used for being responsible for the power supply of each unit of described gateway device, detects the health status of power supply, and as required power supply is carried out Based Intelligent Control, realizes stable power supply.Power Management Unit 16 is used the DC-DC voltage transitions MOSFET module of the luxuriant and rich with fragrance Step-Down type of isolating of S8P78K3V6.The output voltage of this module is 3.6V, continues output current 1.6A, and moment exports greater than 2A.Operating frequency 380KHZ, maximum efficiency is more than 90%.
Above-described specific embodiment; purpose of the present invention, technical scheme and beneficial effect are further described; institute is understood that; the above only is specific embodiments of the invention; be not limited to the present invention; within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any modification of being made, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1, a kind of wireless sensor network gateway equipment is characterized in that, this gateway device comprises:
The GPRS communication unit is used to realize communicating by letter between gateway device and Intemet network or gateway device and the cordless communication network;
The radio transceiver unit is used to realize communicating by letter between gateway device and the wireless sensor network;
Microprocessor unit is used to control GPRS communication unit and Intemet network, GPRS communication unit and cordless communication network, or communicating by letter between radio transceiver unit and the wireless sensor network;
Described microprocessor unit communicates by universal asynchronous serial interface UART and GPRS communication unit, and communicates by synchronous serial interface SPI and radio transceiver unit.
2, wireless sensor network gateway equipment according to claim 1 is characterized in that, this gateway device further comprises:
RS232 serial ports unit is used to connect GPRS communication unit and upper PC, debugs and dispose described gateway device by upper PC.
3, wireless sensor network gateway equipment according to claim 2 is characterized in that, described RS232 serial ports unit is connected by the UART interface with the GPRS communication unit.
4, wireless sensor network gateway equipment according to claim 2 is characterized in that, this gateway device further comprises between GPRS communication unit and RS232 serial ports unit:
Level conversion unit be used for the TIA/EIA-232-F level of PC serial ports and the TTL/CMOS level of GPRS communication unit, and the TTL/CMOS level of the TIA/EIA-232-F level of PC serial ports and microprocessor unit is changed.
5, according to claim 1,2 or 4 described wireless sensor network gateway equipments, it is characterized in that this gateway device further comprises:
Jtag interface, the nonvolatile memory, fuse and the locking bit that are used for microprocessor internal are programmed, and realize online debugging emulation.
6, wireless sensor network gateway equipment according to claim 5 is characterized in that, this gateway device further comprises:
Power Management Unit is used for being responsible for the power supply of each unit of described gateway device, detects the health status of power supply, and as required power supply is carried out Based Intelligent Control, realizes stable power supply.
7, according to claim 1,2 or 4 described wireless sensor network gateway equipments, it is characterized in that this gateway device further comprises:
Power Management Unit is used for being responsible for the power supply of each unit of described gateway device, detects the health status of power supply, and as required power supply is carried out Based Intelligent Control, realizes stable power supply.
8, wireless sensor network gateway equipment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described GPRS communication unit is the M22GPRS chip, support GSM900/DCS1800/PCS1900 three frequently, circuit switched data transmission flank speed is 128Kbit/s, support GPRS Class10 multi-slot function, embedded ICP/IP protocol stack, support GSM07.07 enhancement mode AT Command Set, can effectively realize voice call, sending and receiving short messages and GPRS wireless data transmission function, be connected with the SIM card seat by SIM_CLK, SIM_IO, SIM_RET, VRSIM pin; Be connected with level conversion unit by RXD, TXD pin.
9, wireless sensor network gateway equipment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described radio transceiver unit is the CC1000 chip, adopt the frequency shift keying fsk ZAP, carrier wave frequency range is 300 to 1000MHZ, support 315MHZ, 433MHZ, 868MHZ and the basic modulating frequency of 915MHZ, maximum data transfer rate is 76.8kbps, is connected with SPI MISO, SPISCK, PCLK, PDATA, the PALE pin of microprocessor unit by DIO, DCLK, PCLK, PDATA, PALE pin.
10, wireless sensor network gateway equipment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described microprocessor unit is the Atmegal128L chip, this chip comprises the flash memory Flash of a 128KB, the EEPROM of the SRAM of one 4KB and a 4KB, SRAM is as general-purpose storage, and EEPROM is used for the parameter of storage running system; Also comprise 28 bit timing devices and 2 16 s' expansion timer, 2 USART interfaces and 1 serial peripheral interface SPI controller are provided; Chip internal provides the I2C serial bus communication mode of hardware and the ADC controller of 8 path 10 position sampling precisions.
CN 200610169744 2006-12-28 2006-12-28 A wireless sensor network gateway device Pending CN101009619A (en)

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