CN101003100A - Electrolytic lathe working method - Google Patents

Electrolytic lathe working method Download PDF

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CN101003100A
CN101003100A CN 200710071668 CN200710071668A CN101003100A CN 101003100 A CN101003100 A CN 101003100A CN 200710071668 CN200710071668 CN 200710071668 CN 200710071668 A CN200710071668 A CN 200710071668A CN 101003100 A CN101003100 A CN 101003100A
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workpiece
machining
anode
processing
electrolyte
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CN 200710071668
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王振龙
朱保国
曾伟梁
孙立忠
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哈尔滨工业大学
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Abstract

An electrolytic turning method for machining the internal and external rotary surfaces and their end face includes such steps as fixing the tool as cathode in the electrolyzer fixed onto a movable bench of machine-tool, fixing the workpiece as anode to the lower end of a mainshaft of machine-tool, regulating the gap between said cathode and anode, and using an electrolyte pump to make the electrolyte to cyclically flow through said gap while machining the workpiece.

Description

电解车削加工方法 Electrolytic Machining Method

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及一种用于特种加工领域的电解车削加工方法,主要用于各种内、外旋转表面及其端面的加工。 The present invention relates to an electrolytic machining method of turning the field for special processing, mainly used for a variety of surface and the outer end surface of the rotary machining.

背景技术 Background technique

目前机械制造所使用的加工可以分成传统机械加工和非常规机械加工。 Currently used processing machinery can be machined into a conventional and unconventional machining.

传统机械加工是靠刀具材料比工件更硬,利用机械能把工件上多余的材料切除,一般情况下是可行的。 By conventional machining tool material is harder than the workpiece, the workpiece can use mechanical removal of excess material, are possible in general. 但是,当工件材料越来越硬,加工表面复杂的情况下,传统的机械加工则会限制生产率和影响加工质量;如果工件越来越细小(截面圆直径在1毫米以下),由于传统的机械加工存在机械力的作用,很容易损坏被加工工件,难以完成加工任务。 However, when more and more hard workpiece material, machining the surface of the complex, the conventional machining process will affect the quality and productivity limit; more fine if the workpiece (cross-sectional diameter of 1 mm or less), since the conventional mechanical a mechanical force acting machining, the workpiece is easily damaged, it is difficult to complete the processing tasks.

非常规机械加工即特种加工,实现了用软的工具加工硬的材料,主要是采用电、化学、光、声等能量来进行加工,而且加工过程中工具和工件之间不存在显著的机械切削力。 Unconventional machining i.e. special processing to achieve a soft tooling hard material, is used mainly electrical, chemical, light, sound and other energy to be processed, and the processing of a significant mechanical cutting does not exist between the tool and the workpiece force. 在特种加工方法中,电火花加工和激光加工的工件表面质量都不是很好,且电火花加工效率不高,激光加工成本较高。 In the special processing method, electrical discharge machining, and laser machining the workpiece surface quality is not very good, and the efficiency is not high EDM, laser machining costs higher.

发明内容 SUMMARY

为了克服传统机械加工和其它特种加工在加工各种内、外旋转表面中效率低、成本高及加工表面质量低的缺陷,本发明提供了一种电解车削加工方法。 In order to overcome special machining and other various machining in the machining, the outer surface of the rotating low efficiency, high cost and low quality of the machined surface defects, the present invention provides an electrolytic method of turning.

本发明包括以下步骤将工具阴极固定在电解液槽内,电解液槽固定在可移动的机床工作台上,工件阳极固定在机床上;使工具阴极和工件阳极接触;设置工具阴极与工件阳极的加工间隙,在间隙处有由电解液泵提供的循环电解液流过,工具阴极与工件阳极之间的工作电流流过加工间隙的电解液,通过溶解工件阳极进行加工;工件阳极固定在机床的主轴下端,工件阳极在加工时高速旋转。 The present invention comprises the steps of fixing the tool in an electrolyte bath a cathode, an electrolyte tank fixed to the movable machine table, workpiece on the machine fixed anode; a cathode of the tool and the workpiece in contact with an anode; a cathode and the workpiece setting tool anode machining gap, there is provided by the circulation of electrolyte through the electrolyte pump flow at the gap, the operating current between the tool and the work piece cathode electrolyte anode flow through the machining gap, machining the workpiece by dissolving anode; anode workpiece clamped on the machine's the lower end of the spindle, the workpiece in the processing of high speed rotation of the anode.

本发明的电解车削加工方法是利用阳极溶解的原理加工各种导电材料,在加工过程中,需要不断改变阴阳极的相对位置,由于工件阳极高速旋转,距离工具阴极最近处的电流密度最大,则此处最易发生电化学反应,阳极材料最容易被去除,由于使用了高频窄脉冲电源和非线性钝化电解液,电解车削加工的定域性很强,能很好的控制加工范围,减小杂散腐蚀,提高加工精度。 Turning electrolytic machining method of the present invention is to use the principle of anodic dissolution of various conductive materials processing, during processing, the need to constantly change the relative position of the anode and cathode, the anode rotates at high speed since the workpiece from the tool nearest the cathode current density maximum, the most likely to occur where an electrochemical reaction, the anode material is most easily removed, since the high-frequency power and narrow pulse nonlinear passivating electrolyte, electrolytic turning localized strong, good control processing range, reduce stray corrosion, improve the machining accuracy. 工件高速旋转,可以认为其材料是沿半径指向圆心的方向,一层一层的去除的。 High-speed rotation of the workpiece, the material can be considered the radial direction of the center point, layer by layer removal. 同时工件阳极和工具阴极的相对位置不断改变,就会加工出工件沿轴向截面直径不一的回转体;也可以加工出圆柱体。 At the same time the relative position of anode and cathode of changing tools, the workpiece will be machined rotors axially varying cross-sectional diameter; it may be machined cylinder.

本发明是通过伺服系统控制工具阴极和工件阳极运动的,数控程序决定加工轨迹。 The present invention is to control the movement of anode and cathode tool by the servo system, the NC program determines the processing path. 一般工件阳极的旋转速度都很高,都在1000转/分以上,工件阳极的转速会影响工件的表面质量,要根据具体加工情况调节。 A workpiece rotational speed of the anode is high in general, in 1000 r / min or more, the rotation speed of anode can affect the surface quality of the workpiece, to be adjusted according to the specific processing conditions. 电解液性质和浓度也影响表面质量、加工效率和加工精度,电解液必须保证足够的压力,可以达到冲洗加工间隙的目的,但在微细加工时,则要减小电解液的压力,确保工件不受径向力的作用。 Nature and concentration of electrolyte also affects the surface quality, processing efficiency and processing accuracy, the electrolyte must ensure adequate pressure, can achieve the purpose of flushing the machining gap, but in fine processing, have to reduce the pressure of the electrolytic solution, ensure that the workpiece is not by the action of radial forces. 电解车削优于传统车削的主要特点是没有切削力,可以实现微细加工,而在微细加工中多选用低浓度钝化电解液,可以实现小的去除量,同时可以减小杂散腐蚀的不利影响。 Turning over traditional electrolysis main feature is not turning the cutting force can be achieved microfabrication and micromachining more choice in the low concentration electrolyte solution passivated small removal can be achieved, while reducing the adverse effects of stray Corrosion . 脉冲电源的频率和占空比是实现小间隙加工的保证,提高加工的定域性,增强集中蚀除的能力,同时为了保证较高的加工精度和表面质量,加工电源应具有更宽的频率调节范围、更精确的可调电压和可调电流的特性。 Pulse power frequency and duty cycle to achieve a small gap to ensure that the processing, improving locality processing, enhance the ability to focus erosion, and in order to ensure high machining accuracy and surface quality, machining power supply should have a wider frequency adjustment, more precisely adjustable and adjustable current voltage characteristic. 由于脉间是保证消电离的需要,而加工中电解液和加工材料的不同导致了不同的加工条件,需要的脉间长度也各不相同,所以电源发出脉冲信号的占空比必须可以调节,以达到高精度和高速的微细电加工要求。 Since the inter-pulse is needed to ensure that deionization, and the processing of different electrolytes and the work material results in different processing conditions, the required length between the pulse is also different, so the duty cycle of the power signal must be emitted can be adjusted, in order to achieve high accuracy and high-speed fine processing power requirements. 伺服控制系统必须有足够快的响应时间,可以避免短路对加工造成的伤害。 Servo control system must have a response time, to avoid damage caused by a short circuit to process fast enough.

本发明的特点:1、电解车削是基于电解加工的一种新的加工工艺形式,主要用于各种内、外旋转表面及其端面的加工,它的加工尺寸范围较大。 Feature of the invention: 1, electrolysis is based on a turning ECM form new processing technology, mainly used for a variety of surface rotation and the outer end surface of the processing, processing of its large size range.

2、加工时,主运动是工件旋转运动,进给运动是刀具(或工件)的纵向和横向移动。 2, the processing, the main movement is the rotational movement of the workpiece, a tool feed movement (or workpiece) in the longitudinal and transverse movement.

3、一般情况下,电解车削过程是连续的加工,没用传统车削的切削力,加工比较平稳,尤其适合微细加工。 3, under normal circumstances, the electrolysis process is continuous turning process, a conventional turning cutting force useless, relatively stable process, particularly suitable for microfabrication.

4、电解车削加工中,采用冲液的方式可以带走加工过程中产生的热量和加工产物。 4, turning the electrolytic process, by way of flushing away heat and machining may be generated during processing of the product.

5、在一般情况下,电解车削加工即可以用于粗加工,也可以用于精加工,只要采用合理的加工参数。 5, in general, may be used for electrolysis turning i.e. roughing, finishing can also be used, as long as reasonable processing parameters employed.

本发明的主要优点是:1、脉冲电解车削加工可以采用更小的间隙进行加工。 The main advantage of the invention is: 1, pulse electrolysis turning smaller gaps can use for processing. 在实验和生产应用中发现高频电流相对于低频电流,其加工效果更好,整平效果更明显,其原因可能是高频脉冲电流在加工中,除了电化学本身的作用外,高频电流作用产生的震动冲击使电解液的更新更快,解决了电解液容易滞流和加工热量不易排出的问题,使小间隙加工的优越性得到发挥。 Found that a high-frequency current with respect to low-frequency current, which process better leveling effect is more pronounced in the experimental and production applications, the reason may be a high frequency pulse current in the process, in addition to the electrochemical action itself, the high frequency current shock impact action produced faster the update to the electrolytic solution, the electrolytic solution is easy to solve the problem of stagnation and difficult to discharge the heat processing, the processing of the small gap superiority play.

2、加工范围广。 2, processing a wide range. 电解车削加工几乎可以加工所有的导电材料,并且不受材料的强度、硬度、韧性等机械、物理性能的限制,加工后材料的金相组织基本上不发生变化。 Electrolytic machining turning almost all conductive materials, mechanical and physical properties from the material strength, hardness, toughness, and other restrictions, the microstructure of the material does not change substantially after processing.

3、生产率高,且加工生产率不直接受加工材料、加工精度和表面粗糙度的限制。 3, high productivity, and the productivity is not directly affected by machining the workpiece, machining accuracy and surface roughness limit. 电解车削加工能以简单的直线进给运动一次加工出复杂的旋转型面和型腔,而且加工速度和电流密度成比例。 Turning to electrolysis to enter a simple linear motion to a rotary machining complex surfaces and cavities, and processing speed and a current proportional to the density. 统计,电解加工的生产率约为电火花加工的5至10倍,在某些情况下,甚至可以超过机械切削加工。 Statistics, the ECM about 5 to 10 times the productivity of EDM, in some cases, may even exceed the mechanical machining. 对于一个大而复杂的型面或型腔可一次加工成形。 For a large and complex profile or may be a cavity forming process. 这与机械加工相比,减少了许多工序和大幅度地提高了生产效率。 This is compared with machining, reducing the number of steps and greatly improve production efficiency.

4、加工质量好,可获得一定的加工精度和表面粗糙度。 4, good processing quality, get a certain machining accuracy and surface roughness. 脉冲电解车削加工间隙性加工,在脉冲间隔时间内,使反应热量能够迅速排除,使电解液迅速得到更新,从而改善流场,提高加工表面质量的一致性。 Turning intermittent pulse electrochemical machining, within the pulse interval, so that the reaction heat can be quickly removed, so that the electrolytic solution quickly updated, thereby improving the flow fields, to improve the consistency of the quality of the processed surface.

5、可用于加工微细和易变形回转体零件。 5, can be used for processing a fine and deformable rotary parts. 电解车削加工过程中工具和工件不接触,不存在机械切削力,不产生残余应力和变形,没有飞边毛刺。 Electrolytic turning process tool and the workpiece are not in contact, a mechanical cutting force is not present, no residual stresses and distortion, no flash burr.

6、工具阴极无损耗,在电解车削加工过程中工具阴极上仅仅析出氢气,而不发生溶解反应,所以没有损耗。 6, no loss of the cathode tools, turning process in the electrolysis of hydrogen are merely deposited on the cathode tools, the dissolution reaction does not occur, so there is no loss. 只有在产生火花、短路等异常现象时才会导致阴极损伤。 Only when a spark or short circuit anomaly would lead to damage to the cathode.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1是本发明的装置的结构示意图,图2是加工工件内表面的加工完成的工件的示意图,图3是加工工件外表面的加工完成的工件的示意图。 FIG 1 is a schematic view of the apparatus of the present invention, FIG 2 is a schematic view of the workpiece surface finished processing a workpiece, FIG. 3 is a schematic view of an outer surface of the workpiece machining of the finished article.

具体实施方式 detailed description

下面结合图1具体说明本实施方式,本实施方式包括以下步骤将工具阴极1固定在电解液槽10内,电解液槽10固定在可移动的机床工作台上,工件阳极5固定在机床上;使工具阴极1和工件阳极5接触;设置工具阴极1与工件阳极5的加工间隙,在间隙处有由电解液泵8提供的循环电解液流过,工具阴极1与工件阳极5之间的工作电流流过加工间隙的电解液,通过溶解工件阳极5进行加工;工件阳极5固定在机床的主轴4下端,工件阳极5在加工时高速旋转。 Specifically described below in conjunction with FIG. 1 embodiment to the present embodiment, the present embodiment includes the step of fixing the tool in the cathode electrolyte tank 10, the electrolytic solution tank 10 is fixed on a movable machine table, workpiece anode 5 is fixed on the machine; the cathode 1 and the workpiece the tool in contact with the anode 5; cathode setting tool 1 and the workpiece machining gap 5 of the anode, the electrolyte is provided by the circulating electrolyte flows through the pump 8 at the gap, the working tools of the cathode 1 and the workpiece between the anode 5 current flows through the electrolytic machining gap, machining the workpiece by dissolving anode 5; 5 of anode 4 fixed to the lower end of the spindle of the machine, a high speed rotation of anode 5 during processing.

上述步骤中主轴4的转速由机床伺服系统7控制,机床伺服系统7的运作由工控机9控制,工具阴极1的移动位置和电解液泵8的运转由工控机9控制。 In the above step 4 is controlled by the spindle speed machine tool servo system 7, the operation of the machine is controlled by a servo system 7 IPC 9, the operation of the tool position and moving the cathode electrolyte pump 8 is controlled by a industrial computer 9. 电解车削加工前设置电压、电流、脉冲电源频率、脉宽和脉间大小。 Disposed between the voltage, current, frequency pulse power, pulse width and pulse electrolysis size before turning. 加工过程中通过电流短路检测系统6进行电流检测,电流短路检测系统6由工控机9控制,当工具阴极1与工件阳极5无加工间隙发生短路则工具阴极1回退一定距离后重新加工。 Processing a current detected by the short circuit current detection system 6, a short circuit current is controlled by a detection system 6 IPC 9, when the tool 1 and the workpiece cathode anode 5 without the tool machining gap is short-circuited at a distance from the cathode 1 backoff reworked. 通过溶解工件进行加工的操作为循环操作,工控机9控制循环次数。 Processing operations by dissolving the cyclic operation of the workpiece, 9 IPC control cycles. 工具阴极1与工件阳极5之间的加工电压在微细加工时一般选择0~10V,普通加工时,即加工大型零件时,电压为10~30V,并且加工电压为脉冲电压,脉冲电压的脉冲宽度ti为1~200μs,脉冲间隔to为2~800μs。 When the machining voltage between the cathode tool and the workpiece 1 is generally selected anode 5 0 ~ 10V when fine processing, general machining, i.e. machining large parts, voltage of 10 ~ 30V, and the working voltage of the pulse voltage, the pulse width of the pulse voltage ti is 1 ~ 200μs, to the pulse interval of 2 ~ 800μs.

上述实施方式为电解车削加工方法。 Turning to the embodiment described above electrolytic machining method. 该方法原理图如图1,加工系统包括工具阴极1,电解液箱2,加工用的直流脉冲电源3,实现工件自转的主轴4,工件阳极5、电解液泵8和电解液槽10。 The principle of the method shown in Figure 1, a processing system includes a tool cathode, the electrolytic solution tank 2, the DC pulse power supply 3 processing, to achieve the rotation of the workpiece spindle 4, 5 of anode, electrolyte pump 8 and the electrolyte tank 10. 工具阴极可以根据加工需求进行设计,可以设计成单个阴极或多个部件的组合阴极,从而提高工作效率;另外,由于阴极无损耗,可以大大降低加工成本。 The cathode tools can be designed according to processing needs, the cathode may be designed as a single or a combination of a plurality of cathode members, to enhance efficiency; Further, since the cathode lossless, can greatly reduce processing costs. 按图2和图3所示,合理的阴极形状可以完成各种回转体的内、外表面加工,实现不同的加工目的。 In Figure 2 and 3, the shape of the cathode can be completed in a reasonable variety of inner and outer surfaces of the machining of the rotary body to achieve different processing purposes. 在加工过程中,主轴带动工件高速自转,同时可以沿Z轴和X轴,或Z轴和Y轴做平面运动;也可以由主轴自转,而工具阴极沿Z轴和X轴,或Z轴和Y轴做平面运动。 In the process, the main shaft drive piece high-speed rotation, and can be planar motion along the Z axis and the X axis, or Z axis and Y axis; may be by the spindle rotation, and the tool of the cathode along the Z axis and the X axis, or Z axis, and Y-axis plane doing exercise. 加工方式比较灵活,可以根据机床情况进行调节,只要合理设置工具阴极的轨迹。 Processing a more flexible way, the machine can be adjusted according to circumstances, as long as reasonable setting tool trajectory cathode. 采用高频脉冲电源是实现小间隙加工的保证,从而使这种加工方式能够实现精密和超精密加工。 High-frequency pulse power supply is a small gap to ensure processing to achieve, so that this processing method can achieve precision and ultra-precision machining. 选择合理的电解液可以改善工件的表面质量,提高工件的加工精度和加工效率。 Reasonable choice of electrolyte may improve the surface quality of the workpiece, to improve the machining precision and efficiency of a workpiece.

在加工过程中要控制工件形状和加工精度的要求:1、调整电源参数。 In the process requires to be controlled and the shape of the workpiece machining accuracy: 1, adjust the power parameters. 加工电压是电解加工过程中可调的参数之一,是使电解加工得以进行的原动势能,它克服双电层的反电势和溶液欧姆压降而建立起必要的极间电流场,从而确保达到所选用的电流密度。 Machining voltage is one of the parameters adjustable in the electrolysis process, the electrolytic process is performed to the original moving potential, it overcomes the back EMF and the solution ohmic drop electrical double layer and establish the necessary inter-electrode current field, to ensure reaches the selected current density. 其大小随电极体系分解电压的高低而定,加工电压越高,加工间隙就越大,相应产生的加工误差也就越大,零件的加工精度也就越差。 An electrode system with the size of the voltage level decomposition may be, the higher the machining voltage, the greater the machining gap, the greater the respective processing errors generated, machining precision also worse. 因而,电解车削加工过程中,在确保满足所要求的电流密度时,加工电压尽量取下限。 Thus, turning the electrolysis process, in ensuring the current density to meet the required time, try to get the lower limit of the machining voltage. 脉冲电源是伴随着半导体功率开关器件发展而发展的,总的发展趋势是电源频率不断提高,关断时间逐渐减小,开关速度加大,微细加工所使用的电源向着高频窄脉宽的微能电源方向发展。 Pulse power is accompanied by the development of semiconductor power switching devices of the development, the overall trend is the increasing frequency power source, the off-time decreases, the switching speed increase, the power used for micromachining toward the high-frequency micro-short pulse width development can supply directions. 使用高频、窄脉宽脉冲电源是电解加工工艺成为微细加工手段的重要条件。 High-frequency, narrow-width pulse power supply electrolytic process to become an important means of micro-machining conditions. 高频、窄脉宽脉冲电源在电解加工过程中会使加工间隙中出现特殊的物理、化学特性,其电流能导致集中蚀除能力的加强和散蚀能力的减弱,这就使得电解加工在尺寸精度、形状精度、表面质量、加工效率、加工过程稳定性方面有很大的提高。 High-frequency, narrow pulse width pulses will power the special physical and chemical properties appear in the electrochemical machining process in the machining gap, which could lead to the weakening current strengthening capacity and bulk erosion erosion concentration ability, which makes electrochemical machining size precision, shape precision and surface quality, processing efficiency, the process has greatly improved stability. 脉冲宽度小时加工误差小,即加工精度高,随脉冲宽度增大,误差迅速增大,加工精度下降。 H machining error is small pulse width, i.e., high precision, with the pulse width increases, the error increases rapidly, machining accuracy is deteriorated. 当脉冲宽度小时,压力波在通电期间充分发挥了其改善流场的搅拌作用,这种波动效应能显著提高表面的活化程度,扩大活化溶解范围与钝化溶解范围,使阳极产生从钝化状态向超钝化状态转化的电流密度比直流条件下高得多,从而可以减小电导率不均匀分布和提高加工成形精度和重复精度,采用较窄的脉冲宽度与较大的脉冲间隔能加强脉冲条件对阳极过程优化作用。 When the pulse width is small, the pressure wave during its full energization stirring effect of improving the flow field, the wave effect can significantly improve the degree of activation of the surface, to expand the range of active dissolution and passivation dissolution range, is generated from the anode passivated conversion to the current density is much higher than superblunting state under DC conditions, the conductivity can be reduced so that uneven distribution and improved molding accuracy and repeatability, processing, using a narrow pulse width and a pulse interval of greater pulse can enhance optimization of effect of the anodic process. 当脉冲宽度增加时,通电时间增长,压力波振荡幅值逐渐减小,搅拌作用减弱,则加工精度降低,不难想象,当脉冲宽度无限增大时就转变成直流电解加工,也就不存在压力波的搅拌作用了。 When the pulse width increases, the energization time increases, the pressure wave oscillation amplitude decreases gradually, stirring weakened, reducing the machining accuracy, is easy to imagine, when the pulse width is increased to an unlimited processing solution is converted into direct current, does not exist agitation of the pressure wave. 通过合理调整脉宽和脉间,在很短的脉冲加工时间内反应产物就很少,使极间电解液在脉冲间歇时间内极易得到更新和恢复,从而使加工精度和加工更小尺寸工件的能力有很大的提高。 By reasonable adjustment between the pulse width and, in a very short processing time of the pulse reaction product rarely the electrolyte between the electrodes can easily be updated and restored within the pulse interval of time, so that the machining precision and a smaller size of the workpiece the ability has greatly improved.

2、选择合理的电解液。 2, a reasonable choice of electrolyte. 通常在选择电解液时应考虑两个条件:一足阳极活化电位和稳定电位之间差异应尽可能大。 Two conditions are normally considered when selecting an electrolyte: a sufficient difference between the anode potential and stable potential activation should be as large as possible. 在两电位间的区域内,电极处于钝化状态,有放氧反应,金属不发生溶解。 In the region between the two potentials, the electrode is passivated with oxygen evolution reaction, metal dissolution does not occur. 二是钝化膜破坏后,金属开始溶解,此时金属开始离子化反应的超电压应很小,而放氧反应超电压应剧烈增大,以保证阳极活化电位大于稳定电位时电流效率随电流密度急剧上升。 Second, after the destruction of the passive film, the metal begins to dissolve, when the metal ions begin overvoltage reaction should be small, and the overvoltage oxygen evolution reaction should increase vigorously to ensure that the anode potential is greater than the activation current efficiency stable potential with the current density increased dramatically. 另外,电解液成分的不同也会对电解加工的精度产生影响,电解液常分为活性电解液和钝化性电解液。 Further, various electrolyte components will affect the accuracy of the electrochemical machining, the electrolytic solution often divided active electrolyte and passivating electrolyte. 微细电解加工中,常采用钝化性电解液,以利于阳极表面生成可溶性覆盖膜而产生不完全钝化,所以可获得均匀、光滑的表面。 EMM, the passivating electrolyte is often used to facilitate the formation of soluble anode surface is not completely covered with the passivation film is generated, so as to attain a uniform, smooth surface. 浓度也是电解液的一个重要特性,通过降低电解液的浓度,工具阴极和工件阳极之间的间隙可小至数微米。 The concentration of the electrolytic solution is an important characteristic, by reducing the concentration of the electrolyte, the gap between the tool and the work piece cathode anode may be small to a few micrometers. 本发明在加工铁基材料时,采用NaClO3进行实验。 The present invention in processing the iron base material, experiments using NaClO3. 这是因为NaClO3电流效率最低,散蚀能力弱,在反应过程中杂散腐蚀较轻,所以其复制精度最高。 This is because the lowest current efficiency NaClO3, weak bulk erosion, corrosion during the reaction stray light, so that its replication highest accuracy.

3、工件阳极的旋转速度。 3, the rotational speed of the workpiece is the anode. 常规电解是通过循环泵送过来的具有一定压力的流动电解液带走加工间隙的电解产物,加工间隙内的电解液得到更新补充,而在电解车削加工过程中,加工间隙和工具电极都很微小,不适合使用冲刷电解液,但可以通过工件的旋转来更新间隙中的电解液。 Conventional electrolytic machining gap is taken away by the electrolysis products pumping cycles over a certain pressure of the flowing electrolyte, the electrolyte in the machining gap supplemented updated, while turning in the electrolysis process, the machining gap and the tool electrode are minute , not suitable for flushing the electrolyte, but the electrolyte may be updated by gap workpiece rotation. 工件旋转是加工回转体的关键,工件的旋转有利于电解液的更新,使加工稳定进行。 Machining the workpiece rotation is a key body of revolution, rotation of the workpiece in favor update electrolytic solution, so that the processing stably. 通过工件的旋转,能够在加工区产生强烈的搅拌作用,随着工件转速的提高,更有利于电解产物的排除,使微小加工间隙内电解液流场稳定,电极间产生的氢气泡能够迅速排出,新鲜的电解液得以充分供应。 By rotating the workpiece, it is possible to produce a strong stirring action in the processing area, with the increase of the rotational speed of the workpiece, is more conducive to exclude products of electrolysis, the electrolyte flow field stabilization processing a minute gap generated between the electrodes of the hydrogen bubbles can be discharged quickly , is an adequate supply of fresh electrolyte. 但是工件转速的选择不是随意的,因为当转速太高时由于离心力作用将导致工件发生抖动,从而影响加工精度,加工间隙变大,而且严重时甚至可能使微细工件遭到破坏,所以不易采用过高的转速。 However, the selected workpiece speed is not random, as when the rotation speed is too high due to the centrifugal force will cause the workpiece jitter occurs, thus affecting the machining accuracy, the machining gap becomes large, and may even cause severe destruction of the fine work, it is too difficult to use high speed.

4、加工间隙。 4, the machining gap. 加工间隙是直接影响加工精度的核心工艺参数,间隙大小对工件材料的去除有着非常大的影响。 Machining gap parameters directly affects the processing accuracy the core size of the gap has a very large effect on the removal of workpiece material. 间隙值愈小,反馈作用愈强,成形精度就高,微细加工的效果就越好。 Smaller clearance value, the stronger the feedback, the forming accuracy is high, the better microfabrication. 当加工间隙增大到一定值时,其对提高加工精度的反馈作用虽然下降,但间隙适当增大可使流动条件得到改善,其作用也具有压力波搅拌作用的效果而使加工精度提高。 When the machining gap is increased to a certain value, the feedback effect on improving machining accuracy falls but the gap can appropriately be increased to improve flow conditions, their effect has an effect of stirring the pressure waves to improve machining accuracy. 综合比较,小间隙加工对于提高加工精度的作用更为显著,因为在此条件下不仅加工精度高,而且加工效率也高,且表面粗糙度低。 Comprehensive comparison, a small gap effect processing for improving the machining accuracy of the more significant, not only because in this condition of high precision processing, and processing efficiency is high, and low surface roughness. 因此,推荐在小间隙条件下进行脉冲电流电解加工。 Thus, the current recommended pulse electrochemical machining conditions in a small gap. 在微细电解加工中,加工间隙应控制在50μm以下。 In electrochemical micromachining, the machining gap should be controlled at 50μm or less. 目前,通过降低加工电压和电解液浓度,已成功地将加工间隙控制在10μm以下。 Currently, the machining voltage and by decreasing the concentration of electrolyte, has been successfully controlled in the machining gap 10μm or less. 加工间隙的控制取决于主轴的伺服控制系统,该系统可以进行短路检测,在未发生短路的情况下,可以控制工件做进给运动;如果发生短路,则控制工件进行回退,然后伺服系统继续进行加工过程监测,从而保证加工过程的顺利进行。 Control from the spindle servo control system of the machining gap, the short detection system can, in case of a short does not occur can be controlled to make the workpiece feed motion; if a short circuit occurs, a control workpiece backoff, then continues to servo system machining process monitoring, in order to ensure the smooth progress of the process.

Claims (7)

  1. 1.电解车削加工方法,它包括以下步骤将工具阴极(1)固定在电解液槽(10)内,电解液槽(10)固定在可移动的机床工作台上,工件阳极(5)固定在机床上;使工具阴极(1)和工件阳极(5)接触;设置工具阴极(1)与工件阳极(5)的加工间隙,在间隙处有由电解液泵(8)提供的循环电解液流过,工具阴极(1)与工件阳极(5)之间的工作电流流过加工间隙的电解液,通过溶解工件阳极(5)进行加工;其特征在于工件阳极(5)固定在机床的主轴(4)下端,工件阳极(5)在加工时高速旋转。 1. Turning electrolytic machining method, comprising the steps of a cathode tool (1) is fixed in the electrolyte tank (10), an electrolyte tank (10) is fixed on a movable machine table, workpiece anode (5) is fixed the machine; the cathode of the tool (1) the anode and the workpiece (5) in contact; cathode setting tool (1) the anode and the workpiece (5) of the machining gap, an electrolyte circulation provided by the electrolyte pump (8) at the gap flow over an operating current between the cathode tool (1) the anode and the workpiece (5) to flow through the electrolyte in the machining gap, machining a workpiece by dissolving anode (5); characterized in that the anode piece (5) fixed to the spindle of the machine tool ( 4) the lower end of anode (5) at the time of high speed rotation processing.
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的电解车削加工方法,其特征在于主轴(4)的转速由机床伺服系统(7)控制,机床伺服系统(7)的运作由工控机(9)控制,工具阴极(1)的移动位置和电解液泵(8)的运转由工控机(9)控制。 2. The electrolytic machining method according turning claim 1, characterized in that the spindle (4) the rotational speed (7) controlled by a machine tool servo system, the operation of the machine tool servo system (7) controlled by a industrial computer (9), a cathode tools operation (1) the position and movement of electrolyte pump (8) (9) controlled by the IPC.
  3. 3.根据权利要求1所述的电解车削加工方法,其特征在于加工前设置电压、电流、脉冲电源频率、脉宽和脉间大小。 3. The electrolytic machining method according turning claim 1, characterized in that provided between the voltage, current, frequency pulse power, pulse width and pulse size before processing.
  4. 4.根据权利要求1所述的电解车削加工方法,其特征在于加工过程中通过电流短路检测系统(6)检测流过电解液的电流,电流短路检测系统(6)由工控机(9)控制,当工具阴极(1)与工件阳极(5)无加工间隙而发生短路则工具阴极(1)回退一定距离后重新加工。 4. The electrolytic machining method according turning claim 1, characterized in that the short-circuit current by processing the detection system (6) of the electrolyte current, short-circuit current flowing through the detection system (6) is controlled by a industrial computer (9) when the cathode tool (1) the anode and the workpiece (5) without machining gap is short-circuited cathode tool (1) takes place after the re-backoff processing certain distance.
  5. 5.根据权利要求1所述的电解车削加工方法,其特征在于通过溶解工件阳极(5)进行加工的操作为循环操作,工控机(9)控制循环次数。 5. The electrolytic machining method of turning according to claim 1, characterized in that the processing operation performed by anodic dissolution of the workpiece (5) is a cyclic operation, IPC (9) number of control cycles.
  6. 6.根据权利要求1所述的电解车削加工方法,其特征在于所述的电解液的电解质为NaClO3。 6. The method of turning the electrolysis according to claim 1, wherein said electrolyte is electrolytic solution NaClO3.
  7. 7.根据权利要求1所述的电解车削加工方法,其特征在于进行微细加工时所述的加工间隙小于10μm。 The electrolytic machining method according turning claim 1, wherein said fine processing when the machining gap is less than 10μm.
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