CN101001186A - Monitoring system based on sensor-based network technology - Google Patents

Monitoring system based on sensor-based network technology Download PDF

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CN101001186A
CN101001186A CN 200610098063 CN200610098063A CN101001186A CN 101001186 A CN101001186 A CN 101001186A CN 200610098063 CN200610098063 CN 200610098063 CN 200610098063 A CN200610098063 A CN 200610098063A CN 101001186 A CN101001186 A CN 101001186A
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node
sensor
data
monitoring
gateway
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程伟明
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程伟明
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Abstract

This invention relates to a monitoring system based on the sensing network technology composed of a digital sensing node, a sensing gateway accumulating, interfusing and carrying out protocol conversion and a monitor service terminal including the function of carrying out information issuance, system control and statistic analysis, in which, the digital sensing node is connected with the sensing gateway via wire/wireless network, and the gateway is connected with the monitor service terminal by the WLAN. This invented units operate independently and can coordinate to each other, the entire monitor system can require for hardware exchange according to the change of production.

Description

基于传感网络技术的监控系统 Sensor Network Monitoring System Based on

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及一种通过将数字传感节点配置在监视控制区域内、利用有线/无线技术将数据传输到监控中心等步骤,形成的智能监控系统,属于传感网络技术和监控技术的交叉应用领域。 The present invention relates to a digital sensor disposed in the node monitoring control area, using a wired / wireless technology to transmit data to the monitoring center step, forming the intelligent monitoring system, the application belonging to the cross-art sensor network technology and monitoring technology .

背景技术 Background technique

传感网络是由一组传感器以自由配置方式构成的有线或无线网络,其目的是协同地感知、采集和处理网络覆盖的地理区域中感知对象的信息,并汇聚给观察者。 Sensor network consists of a set consisting sensor arrangement configured wired or wireless network, which is cooperatively sensing object, the object information acquisition and processing geographic area covered by the network-aware, and aggregation to the observer.

传感器、网络技术和信息处理是传感网络的三个基本要素;一组传感器协同地完成感知任务;有线/无线网络在传感器之间、传感器和控制中心之间传输数据、控制命令;在对原始数据的统计、分析的基础上形成决策和控制,以实现信息处理的功能。 Sensor network technology and information processing are three basic elements of the sensor network; a set of sensors sensing the completion of tasks cooperatively; wired / wireless network between the sensor, between the sensor and the control central transmission data, a control command; in the original statistics form the basis of decision-making and control analysis, in order to realize the function of information processing.

监控技术是使用信息手段对感兴趣对象进行异地监视、控制和管理的自动化系统。 Monitoring the use of information technology is a means to an object of interest for off-site monitoring, control and management of automated systems. 随多媒体技术、数字图像处理及网络技术不断发展,目前市场上的监控系统主要是对现场的视频监控,由信息采集、数据传输和远端监控中心等部分组成。 With multimedia technology, digital image processing and development of network technologies, current monitoring systems on the market mainly for video surveillance site, the information collection portion of the data transmission and remote monitoring center and so on.

检索发现,申请号为CN200310112037.5、名称为《无线网络视频监控系统及方法》的中国发明专利公开了一种无线网络视频监控系统及方法,该系统包括一网络服务器、一视频服务器、一无线网络、一数据库、多个监控端计算机、多个摄像机。 Search finds application No. CN200310112037.5, entitled "Wireless Network Video Monitoring System and Methods" Chinese invention patent discloses a wireless network video surveillance system and method, the system comprising a network server, a video server, a wireless network, a database, multiple monitor client computers, multiple cameras. 网络服务器用于根据存储于数据库的用户信息判断接收的用户名及密码是否正确,如果用户名及密码正确则获取一系统主界面。 The network server for storing the received information to determine the user database user name and password are correct, if correct user name and password are acquired a main interface. 视频服务器用于按照无线连接请求连接相应的摄像机,接收来自摄像机的无线视频信号并转化成视频信号,将视频信号转化成特定格式的视频数据,传送视频数据至监控端计算机。 The wireless video server for connecting the respective camera connection request, receiving a wireless signal from the video camera and converted into a video signal, the video signal is converted into video data in a specific format, video data is transmitted to the computer terminal monitor. 监控端计算机安装有一视频播放器,通过该视频播放器可在视频窗口播放视频数据。 Monitoring client computer has a video player, a player can play the video data through the video in the video window. 据介绍,利用该发明的系统及方法,可提供网络的行动性并节省成本。 According to reports, using the system and method of the invention, the network can provide operational and cost.

检索还发现,申请号为CN200410015216.1、名称为《通过无线网络实现远程无线监控的方法及其设备》的中国发明专利公开了一种通过无线网络实现远程无线监控的方法及其设备,该方法首先向无线监控设备设置用户手机号码、报警参数;然后用户手机通过无线网络向无线监控设备发送短消息命令;最后无线监控设备收到短消息命令后进行判断,然后执行相应的命令。 Retrieving also found application No. CN200410015216.1, titled "wireless remote monitoring via wireless network method and apparatus" Chinese invention discloses a method and apparatus for wireless remote monitor through a wireless network, the method first, monitoring device to the wireless set a user mobile phone number, alarm parameters; phone users to send short messages and commands to the wireless device over the wireless network to monitor; after the last judgment wireless monitoring device receives the short message command, then execute the appropriate command. 所述设备包括电源模块,用于向家用电器发送红外控制信号的遥控器,用于接收监测探头的信号、发送报警数据并可向遥控器发送控制信号的I/O控制模块,数据采集模块,语音处理模块,射频模块,主控制模块。 The apparatus includes a power supply module, configured to send to the home appliance remote infrared control signals, the reception monitoring signal for the probe, transmits alarm data and transmits the control I / O module control signal to the remote controller, a data acquisition module, voice processing module, the RF module, the main control module. 利用本发明的方法和设备能在非常隐蔽的情况下、通过网络了解到无线监控设备周围的情况,并可实现有声的警铃报警或无声的短消息报警,同时还能够实现远程抄表及对家用电器的远程控制。 Using the method and apparatus of the present invention can be in a very subtle case, the wireless network understand the situation surrounding the monitoring device, can be realized with a bell sound or silent alarm short message alarm, and also for remote meter reading can be achieved remote control of home appliances.

分析可知,以上监控系统采用了常规的监控设备,如监控探头、网络服务器,系统架构采用客户/服务器形式,这种系统主要是以视频监控为主,应用方面表现为功能单一;在配置方面需要预先安装,不能移动,应用场合受限。 Analysis, monitoring system uses more conventional monitoring equipment, such as surveillance cameras, network servers, system architecture uses a client / server form, this system is mainly based video surveillance based, application performance single function; required in the configuration pre-installed, you can not move, limited applications.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明要达到的目的是:针对以上现有技术存在的缺点,提出一种应用场合不受限制、监控内容灵活的的基于传感网络技术的监控系统。 To achieve the object of the present invention is: for the above shortcomings of the prior art, a technology is proposed based sensor network system for monitoring application is not limited, to monitor the content of flexible.

为了达到以上目的,本发明的总体技术方案为--基于传感网络技术的监控系统主要由以下部分组成:--采集信息的数字传感节点;--对节点采集数据进行融合并对数据可靠传输的传感网关;--进行包括信息发布、系统控制、统计分析功能的监控服务终端;--由以上设备组成的监控系统结构。 To achieve the above object, the technical solution of the present invention generally is - Monitoring System Based on sensor network technology consists of the following components: - digital acquisition sensor node information; - fusing the collected data and the data reliability node sensing the gateway transmissions; - for including information distribution system control, statistical analysis of the monitoring service terminal; - the device monitor system of the above composition. 所述数字传感节点以总线结构,通过有线/无线网络与传感网关连接,形成对节点群的汇聚,并可进行多路扩充;所述传感网关以点到点结构,通过广域网与监控中心的监控服务终端连接;所述数字传感节点作为系统中最基本设备单元由嵌入式单片机MCU部分、传感器、通信模块和电源四部分构成;--所述节点MCU部分,带小型嵌入操作系统用以负责节点设备的任务调度与管理;--所述传感器用以实现环境信息的采集,(根据采集对象的不同,可选择不同类型的传感器),并将采集的模拟量转变为数字量;--所述通信模块用以实现短距离的数据传输;--所述电源为自带电源用以向节点各工作部分供电;--所述数字传感器有三种工作模式:常规模块、空闲模式和睡眠模式,通过嵌入操作系统的电源管理模块进行管理。 The digital sensing node to the bus structure, via a wired / wireless network and the gateway connected to the sensor, the convergence of the nodes in the cluster is formed, and can be expanded multiplexing; gateway to the sensing point configuration, and monitoring a wide area network monitoring service center terminal; said digital sensing node equipment unit as the basic system consists of four portions of the embedded microcontroller MCU, sensors, communications, and power supply module; - the MCU node portion, with a small embedded operating system management is responsible for task scheduling and the node device; - a sensor to realize the collection of the environmental information, (depending on the collected objects, select different types of sensors), and the converted analog acquisition is digital; - the communications module for short-distance data transmission; - the power source is configured to supply their own power supply node to the working part; - the digital sensor has three operating modes: a conventional module, an idle mode, and the sleep mode, the operating system managed by the embedded power management module.

所述传感网关作为系统的枢纽设备,实现系统数据汇聚和可靠传输功能,由嵌入式CPU、通信接口和传输模块构成;--所述网关嵌入CPU和小型操作系统,用以实现网关节点的任务调度与管理;--所述通信接口以总线方式实现与数字传感节点的通信;以点对点方式通过Internet网络实现与监控服务终端的通信;--所述传输模块用以完成对节点采集数据的融合,并实现数据可靠传输;--所述网关采用外供电方式;所述监控服务终端以计算机或笔记本电脑为硬件平台,带有与Internet网络连接的通信接口,含有系统运行监控和管理模块;--所述硬件平台用以通过本通信接口接收数字传感节点采集的数据,交由监控管理模块进行处理;--所述监控和管理模块由对原始数据进行提取、分析、归类的各功能单元构成管理空间,所述提取、分析、归类功能单元用以按照信息发 The sensing system as a hub for the gateway device and system for implementing reliable transmission of data aggregation function, by the embedded CPU, a communication interface and transmission modules; - the gateway embedded CPU and small operating system to implement the gateway node task scheduling and management; - the communication interface to enable communication with a bus way digital sensing node; point to point manner with a monitoring service communication terminal through the Internet; - said transmission module to complete the data acquisition node fusion, and to achieve reliable data transmission; - the gateway with external power supply; the monitoring service terminal or laptop computer as hardware platform, with a communication interface connection to the internet network, and the operation monitoring system comprising management module ; - the hardware platform for the present data communication interface receives the digital sensor node collected, referred monitoring module for processing; - the monitoring and management module is extracted from the raw data, analyzed, classified each functional unit configuration management space, the extraction, analysis, classification function unit configured to send information according to 布、系统控制、统计分析的要求实现各自的功能,其相互之间的数据流构成数据空间;--所述功能单元之间通过信息交互连接成环状结构,用以支持一对多和多对多实时自律分布。 Cloth requirements, system control, statistical analysis to achieve their respective functions, data flow between their mutual configuration data space; - between the functional units connected by information exchange in a ring structure, and to support many multiple Real-time multi-discipline distribution.

在本发明中,各个单元都在独立自主地运行并可进行相互协调,这样不仅在子系统的层次上可作到在线扩展和更新,而且在每个系统内部软件层次也使用了平等自治的机制,各个软件模块之间的耦合关系较为松散,可实现在线更新、升级。 In the present invention, the individual units are run independently and can be coordinated, not only at the level of the subsystem can be done online expanded and updated, and each level within the software system also uses a mechanism to equality and autonomy, the coupling between the various software modules looser, enabling online updates, upgrades. 因而基于这一概念的监控系统可按照生产的变化要求进行硬件更换,软件的更新、调整,从而使其适应新的要求。 Thus the concept of the monitoring system can be carried out in accordance with changes in hardware requirements of the production-based replacement, software updates, adjustments to adapt to new requirements. 可以看出,这种监控系统是一种动态的系统,与以往的监控系统相比具有更大的灵活性。 As can be seen, such a monitoring system is a dynamic system, compared with the conventional monitoring system having greater flexibility.

本发明与以上现有技术的监控系统相比,出现了在应用上的新特点,主要表现在以下几个方面:(1)监控内容增加。 Monitoring system of the present invention as compared with the above prior art, the emergence of new features on the applications, mainly in the following aspects: (1) Improved monitoring content. 采用不同的传感器件,可以监测的不同的物理对象,配以视频设备,可以突破传统监控系统中以图像媒体信息为主的现象,实现独特而形象化的现场监控管理。 Using different sensors, you can monitor the different physical objects, together with the video equipment, can break through the traditional monitoring system to image-based information media phenomenon, to achieve unique and visualize the scene monitoring and management.

(2)智能化程度增强。 (2) intelligence enhancement. 可监控设备、环境等对象的物理指标,也能自动预置与监控对象相关的特定事件,也能实现感知任务的自动配置和感知场合的自适应性,以适应系统动态变化和扩展要求,具有智能化的功能。 Adaptive automatic configuration and index-aware applications can be physical objects monitoring equipment, environment, etc., can be automatically preset and monitoring objects related to a specific event, but also to achieve the task of perception, in order to adapt to the dynamic changes and system expansion requirements, have intelligent functions.

(3)系统配置灵活方便。 (3) system configuration flexibility. 以传感网络替代单一的监控探头,可以方便地增加监控区域和监控密度,特别是可以采用有线和无线网络技术,系统安装方便,组网和扩充灵活。 In an alternative a single sensor network monitoring probe, can easily increase the density of the monitoring and surveillance region, in particular, may be employed wired and wireless network technologies, easy installation, network flexibility and expansion.

(4)应用领域范围扩大。 (4) expand the scope of applications. 可以应用民用、军用等不同场合,可对陆地、空中和水中的被监控设施进行设防、布控,可以放置在人员不宜到达的恶劣环境。 Can be applied to civilian, military and other different occasions, it can be fortification of the monitored facilities on land, air and water, dispatched personnel should not be placed in the arrival of harsh environments.

本发明将传感网络技术应用到监视、控制系统中,采用带有有线/无线通信接口的数字传感节点,实现对环境信息(如物理量:温度、湿度、压力、流量、能见度、风速等)和监控对象信息的采集,实现与监控对象相关的事件的预置;利用自由组网技术、数据融合技术和优化的路由协议,实现数据异地传输;通过监控中心的数据分析和处理系统,实现系统控制和管理过程。 The present invention is applied to a monitoring sensor network technology, the control system, with a digital sensor nodes wired / wireless communication interface, to achieve information on the environment (e.g., physical quantities: temperature, humidity, pressure, flow, visibility, wind speed, etc.) and monitoring target information collection, to achieve the object related to monitoring the preset events; free use of network technology, data fusion and optimized routing protocol to implement remote data transmission; data analysis and processing by the monitoring center, the system for implementing control and management processes.

本发明基于传感网络技术的监视、控制系统在国民经济的工业、农业、航空航天、军事国防等各个领域均有广阔的应用前景,从陆地到海洋,从天空到太空,从各种复杂的工程系统到生活的衣食住行,几乎每一个现代化项目都离不开各种类型的传感控制及网络系统。 The present invention is based on monitoring sensor network technology, industrial control systems in all areas of the national economy, agriculture, aerospace, military defense has broad application prospects, from land to ocean, from the sky into space, from a variety of complex engineering system to the basic necessities of life, almost every modernization projects are inseparable from the various types of sensor and control network system. 因此本发明可以应用在:(1)、生物领域:生物科学研究、生物工程;医学研究、医疗诊断、生理医疗测控系统等。 Therefore, the present invention can be applied to: (1) biological areas: biological science, biological engineering; medical research, medical diagnosis, medical physiological measurement and control systems.

(2)、通信、交通运输领域:公路、铁路、航道等监控、安全预报;机场、港口、车站管理。 (2), communications, transportation areas: roads, railways, waterways and other monitoring, forecasting security; airports, ports, railway stations management.

(3)、设施农业领域:动植物生长、检验检疫温室、加工厂、储藏库等传感技术计算测量控制系统。 (3), agriculture facilities: plants and animals, quarantine greenhouse, plants, and other sensing technology repository computing system measurement control.

(4)、信息安全和消防领域:网络安全防护;建筑物防火、防盗、防爆、防毒等遥测、报警系统;监视、监听设备系统等。 (4), information security and fire protection areas: network security; building fire, theft, explosion-proof, anti-virus and other telemetry, alarm system; surveillance, monitoring systems and other equipment.

(5)、军事应用。 (5), military applications.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1为本发明基于传感网络技术的监控系统的结构示意图。 1 a schematic structural diagram based monitoring system sensor network technology of the present invention.

图2为本发明有线数字传感节点的总线型配置结构示意图。 Bus structure configuration diagram of digital cable sensor node of FIG. 2 of the present invention.

图3为本发明无线数字传感节点的拓扑结构示意图。 FIG 3 is a schematic wireless digital sensor node topology of the present invention.

图4为发明服务器中数据处理流程和系统自律结构示意图。 Fig 4 a schematic data flow and processing system for the self-configuration server to the invention.

图5为本发明一个实施例-交通环境控制监视系统结构示意图。 Environment monitoring system schematic structure of vehicle control - figure 5 an embodiment of the present invention.

图6为图5实施例的功能模块图。 FIG 6 is a functional block diagram of FIG. 5 embodiment.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

下面结合附图和实施例对本发明的总体技术方案作进一步的详细说明。 The overall technical solution of the present invention will be described in further detail below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and embodiments.

本发明将传感网络技术应用到监视、控制系统中,采用带有有线/无线通信接口的数字传感节点,实现对环境信息(如物理量:温度、湿度、压力、流量、能见度、风速等)和监控对象信息的采集,实现与监控对象相关的事件的预置;利用自由组网技术、数据融合技术和优化的路由协议,实现数据异地传输;通过监控中心的数据分析和处理系统,实现系统控制和管理过程。 The present invention is applied to a monitoring sensor network technology, the control system, with a digital sensor nodes wired / wireless communication interface, to achieve information on the environment (e.g., physical quantities: temperature, humidity, pressure, flow, visibility, wind speed, etc.) and monitoring target information collection, to achieve the object related to monitoring the preset events; free use of network technology, data fusion and optimized routing protocol to implement remote data transmission; data analysis and processing by the monitoring center, the system for implementing control and management processes. 本发明的系统结构图如图1所示:1.数字传感节点配置系统中最基本的设备单元是数字传感节点。 The present invention is a system configuration diagram shown in FIG. 1: 1 digital sensing node configuration system the basic sensor equipment unit is a digital node. 数字传感节点由四部分组成,以嵌入式MCU和小型操作系统为核心,加上传感器、通信模块和电源。 Digital sensing node consists of four parts, and small MCU embedded core operating system, with a sensor, a communication module and a power supply. 操作系统负责节点设备的任务调度与管理;传感器实现环境信息的采集,可根据采集对象的不同,选择不同类型的传感器;通信模块实现短距离的数据传输。 The operating system is responsible node scheduling and management apparatus; a sensor implemented collection environment information collected according to different objects, choose different types of sensors; a communication module for data transmission over short distances. 由于节点在无线通信方式时没有外供电源机制,所以各单元模块需要低功耗,以便维持无线数字传感节点的生命周期。 Since there is no external power supply node in a wireless communication system mechanisms, so that each unit module requires low power consumption, in order to maintain the life cycle of a wireless digital sensor node.

系统中数字传感节点对固定的对象进行监控,不存在移动问题。 Digital sensor node in a fixed system monitoring the object, moving the problem does not exist. 它们通过底层的有线/无线传输手段,建立节点之间的物理逻辑互联关系,即网络中的拓扑结构,这种拓扑结构是一种相对固定的结构。 They through a wired / wireless transmission means underlying network to establish the logical relationship between the physical nodes, i.e., the topology of the network, this topology is a relatively fixed structure.

在有线传输方式下,采用总线型的配置方式,如图2所示。 In cable transmission, bus-type configuration, as shown in FIG. 2. 每个数字传感节点带有地址标记。 Each digital sensing node with the address tag. 在完成对监控节点的配置后,传感网关节点首先启动内部拓扑发现程序,其通信模块采用广播方式向所属范围内的监控节点发出地址请求命令,数字传感节点收到消息后,报告自己的地址标记,以形成系统的节点数据库。 After completion of the configuration monitoring node, the gateway node first starts an internal sensing the topology discovery procedure, which broadcasts the communication module issues an address request command to the monitoring node is within their digital sensor node after receiving the message, the report their address mark, to form node database system.

在无线传输方式下,中间数字传感节点的通信模块同时也转发网关节点的命令(如图3中的节点c、b、e),以使得距网关节点较远的节点(如图3中的节点a、d)也能收到消息。 In the wireless transmission, the communication module of the intermediate node also digital sensing forward command gateway node (node ​​c in FIG. 3, b, e), so that the gateway node from the nodes far (FIG. 3 node a, d) can also receive messages. 同样在回报节点自己地址的过程中,相关节点(如节点c、b、e)的通信模块也转发其它节点的地址信息,以使得距网关节点较远的节点(如节点a、d)的回报信息也能被网关节点收到。 Also during the return of its own node address, the correlation node (e.g., node c, b, e) forwarding the address information of the communication modules of other nodes, so that the node farther from the gateway node (e.g., node a, d) return information can also be a gateway node receives.

网关节点将收集到的信息整理成网络的拓扑结构表,并将拓扑信息发给节点,根据收到的拓扑信息,节点各自建立与网关节点的物理传输路径,并记录在本节点中。 The collected information to the gateway node topology table organized into a network and the topology information for a node, each of the physical transmission path established with the gateway node according to the received topology information, node and the present node record.

通过以上数字传感节点的配置和拓扑结构发现方法,构成监控系统的传感信息传输的路径。 The method found by the configuration and topology of the sensor nodes above figures, constituting the sensor information transmission path monitoring system.

2.传感网关传感网关是组成传感网络的重要设备,传感数据的汇聚和融合,协议转换都是在传感网关上实现的。 2. The sensing device is an important gateway Gateway sensor consisting of a sensor network, the sensor data aggregation and fusion, are implemented in the protocol conversion on the sensing gateway.

传感网关也是以嵌入式CPU和小型操作系统为核心,加上通信接口和协议转换模块等组成。 Sensing the gateway is embedded CPU and small operating system as the core, with the communication interface and protocol conversion modules and other components. 操作系统实现网关节点的任务调度与管理;通信接口完成对数字传感节点的数据收集和监控服务终端的通信。 Task scheduling and management of the operating system implementation gateway node; a communication interface to complete the communication of the digital data collection and sensor node monitoring service terminal. 协议转换模块完成对节点采集数据的融合,并实现可靠数据通信。 Protocol conversion module to complete the integration of data collection nodes, and to achieve reliable data communication.

2.1数据的融合方法数据融合是将数字传感节点采集信息中的相类似信息合并,或是去除信息中的冗余部分。 2.1 Data Fusion Fusion is the digital data sensor nodes collect similar information is merged, or to remove redundant information section. 越是对信息提前融合,越能节省发送能量。 The more advanced integration of information, the more it can transmit energy savings. 如果相类似的信息节点配置在同一层次的结构中,就能够实现高效的数据融合。 If the information node configuring a similar structure at the same level, it is possible to realize efficient data fusion.

如原始森林火灾监控的温度传感器节点说明其测试温度的高/中/低信息特征,相邻的温度相近的节点尽量形成同一簇,这样有利于数据的高效融合。 The virgin forest fire monitoring temperature sensor nodes is illustrated in which the temperature of the test node high / medium / low-feature information, as much as possible close to the temperature of the adjacent cluster is formed with, so enabling the efficient integration of data.

本发明中数据的融合在网关节点中实现,采用的方法是在数据帧层面上引入“数据属性值”的命名机制来归并相关数据,同时也用反向汇聚转发的层次型结构进行数据匹配检查。 Fusion of the present invention is implemented in the data gateway node, the method used is the introduction of "Data attribute value" naming scheme on the level of the data frame to merge data, while the data matching inspection for hierarchical aggregation reverse forwarded .

相关数据的合并,首先是将相同信息特征的数据归类,再将同类数据合并成帧。 Merger-related data, the data is first of all the same features of classified information, and then merge similar data framing. 为此节点在原始的数据中说明其测试获得数据的特征,如[Type=pressure,Location=NE,Pressure=1003],表示位置在东北,压力为1003Pa的压力传感器的采集数据,再用两位码表示,如“温度数据”属性值可以表示为01、“压力数据”属性值可以表示为02等,在数据融合点就可以将相关的对象数据归并为01帧或02帧向数据最终汇聚点传送。 Characterized in that the node described in the original test data obtained for this data, such as the [Type = pressure, Location = NE, Pressure = 1003], indicates the position in the northeast, a pressure of 1003Pa pressure sensor to collect data, and then two code, such as "temperature data" attribute value may be represented as 01, "pressure data" attribute value may be represented as 02, etc., data fusion point may be associated object data merged into 01 or 02 to the data of the last convergence point transfer.

同时网关通过数字传感节点向网络传播监测任务,监测任务含有时标和梯度等参数,形成从数据源(Node)到汇聚点(Gateway)的梯度。 While the gateway to the network monitoring tasks propagated through the digital sensor node, comprising monitoring tasks and timing parameters such as the gradient, a gradient from a data source (Node) to the convergence point (Gateway) is. 在路径中间上的节点,缓存监测和转发任务,符合匹配查询的数据通过任务梯度路径,经从Node--中间节点--Gateway的层次结构发向汇聚节点。 The intermediate nodes on the path, and forwarding the cache monitoring task by task gradient compliant data path, via an intermediate node from the hierarchy Node-- --Gateway sent to the sink node matches the search query.

2.2数据的可靠传输由于监控环境的多样性和节点资源受限等,数据的可靠转发即路由协议的优化是本系统实用化的重要条件。 2.2 reliable transmission and the diversity of the data resource constrained nodes to monitor the environment, and the like, i.e., forwards the optimized reliable routing protocol data is an important condition of the present system is practical.

传统评价路由协议性能的度量值是路由跳数、端到端延迟和位置稳定性。 Evaluation of conventional routing protocol metric performance is routing hops, end to end delay and positional stability. 在无线网络中,这些度量可能导致过多地使用一小部分节点的能量资源,由中心节点被过度使用而使得网络被分割,降低系统吞吐量并使得目的节点不可达。 In a wireless network, these measurements may lead to excessive use of a small portion of the energy resources of the node, the central node is excessively used so that the network is partitioned, and reduce system throughput such that the destination node is unreachable.

本发明采用基于能量的路径维护和传输协议,以节点能源、最简传输路径为基本依据,在时间和空间的尺度上均衡地分布网络的能量消耗的方法,以最大限度地延长网络和节点寿命,保证数据传输的可靠性。 The present invention takes the path of energy and maintenance based transport protocol, the node energy, a transmission path for most simple fundamental basis, the energy consumed in the method of time scale and spatial distribution of the balanced network, and to maximize network lifetime node , to ensure the reliability of data transmission.

由于能量和处理能力的约束,数字传感节点不能也不需要获取整个网络所有节点的信息,但节点可以随时了解本身的能量情况。 Due to the constraints of energy and processing power, digital sensor nodes can not and need access to information across all network nodes, but a node can keep abreast of the energy situation itself. 在第1节中所述的监控节点拓扑结构的基础上,构建反向路径,每个节点针对下游节点记录以该节点(下游节点)为数据源到汇聚点的所有路径中的节点可用能量信息。 Basic topology monitoring node in the section 1 constructed on the reverse path, each node records for the node to a downstream node (downstream node) all paths for the data source to the rendezvous point node in the energy information available . 节点的可用能量是指它当前能量值和最大能量的比值,当节点可用能量值低于某一数值,视节点不能工作。 Available energy of the node which is the ratio of the current and the energy value of the maximum energy, when the node is below a certain value of the available energy value, depending on the node can not work. 节点工作时间越长,节点可用能量值越低。 The longer the operating time the node, the node value lower available energy. 当到达告警值时,将及时通知上游节点,并按照递归的方式逐级向远离汇聚点的反向传输。 When the value reaches the alarm will notify the upstream node, and progressively away from the point of convergence reverse transmission according to recursively. 这样每个节点都可以知道下游路径上能量的情况,可以选择有利于整个网络生存期的数据传输路由。 So that each node can know the situation on the path downstream of the energy, may be selected in favor of data transmission across the network route lifetime.

当系统使用时间较长,传输路径上的某个节点的能量耗尽,原有的路径记录将变为过期的记录,原有的路径体系被打破,系统需要进行路经的更新和维护。 When the system using a longer time, the energy of a node on the transmission path is exhausted, the original path of the recording will become outdated record, the original path system is broken, the system needs to pass updates and maintenance. 路经更新过程如下:当源节点有数据要向目的节点发送时,它首先检查路由缓存中是否已经包含到目的端的、未过期的路由,若有,则使用下一小节的路由选择标准来选择路由发送数据;否则,广播路由请求包(RREQ)发起路由发现过程。 Path update process is as follows: when the source node has data to be transmitted destination node, it first checks whether the cache has been included in the route to the destination, the route has not expired, and if so, use the routing criteria to select the next section routed data; otherwise, broadcasts a route request packet (the RREQ) to initiate route discovery process.

当路由反馈包(RREP)被发送回发起路由请求的源节点时,每一个转发该路由反馈包的中间节点都会把它的当前状态写入包的数据段中,为源节点选择路由提供帮助。 When the routing feedback packet (the RREP) is sent back to the originating source node routing requests, each intermediate node forwards the feedback packet route will write it to the current state of packet data segments, to help the source node to route. 被送回源节点的信息包括:1)转发的中间节点名字;2)MAC层提供的直到最近一次传输成功前的重传次数;3)节点的可用能量信息。 Information is sent back to the source node comprising: 1) the name of the forwarding intermediate node; 2) MAC layer provides until the number of retransmissions before the last transmission successfully; energy information available 3) nodes.

得到各转发的中间节点的信息后,源节点对其进行权重计算,进行排序并取排在最前的一条路径作为传输路径,其后的另外一条路径做为候补路径。 After obtaining forwarding information of each intermediate node, the source node calculates its weight, and sorted in a row to take the best path as a transmission path before, followed by another path as a candidate path. 数据包在传输路径上传输,这是因为权重越小的路径往往意味着该路径上有着更多的剩余能量,每一跳消耗的能量更低,路径周围的无线信道不是那么的拥塞和更多的可利用带宽。 Packets transmitted on the transmission path, because the path of the smaller weight often means that the path has more residual energy, the lower the energy consumption of each hop, then the radio channel is not congested path around and more available bandwidth. 网络传输1比特信息所消耗的能量被有效降低,网络寿命被延长,在时间和空间的尺度上均衡消耗能量的目标得以实现。 1-bit information transmission network energy consumption is effectively reduced, the network lifetime is prolonged in time and space scale equalization target energy consumption is achieved.

3.监控服务终端监控服务终端位于监控中心,通过Internet网络与传感网关进行数据通信。 3. Monitoring service terminal is located in the monitoring center monitoring service terminal performs data communication through the Internet gateway and sensing. 监控服务终端根据应用场合的不同,本身的硬件平台可以是计算机,也可以是工作站或小型机,也可以移动电脑,配以监控应用软件,组成监控服务终端的硬件、软件体系。 Monitoring service terminal Depending on the application, the hardware platform itself can be a computer, it can be a workstation or minicomputer, PCs can also be moved, together with the monitoring application software, consisting of hardware, software, system monitoring service terminals.

监控服务终端的通信接口模块完成对传感的数据收集,按照“从对象中产生数据、从数据中挖掘知识、向用户恰当地表达知识、提供优化策略和决策支持”的思路,形成系统的数据处理流程;应用软件实现信息发布、系统控制、统计分析等功能,按照决策、控制、发布和告警的管理分工,形成单元自律分散(ADS:AutonomousDecentralized System)结构,如图4所示。 Monitoring service terminal communication interface module for sensing the completion of data collection, in accordance with the "data is generated from the object, knowledge from data mining, knowledge representation to the user appropriately, providing an optimization strategy and decision support" the idea forming system data process flow; application software release information, system control, statistical analysis and other functions, in accordance with the decision, control, alarm management and publishing division, dispersion forming unit autonomous (ADS: AutonomousDecentralized system) configuration, as shown in FIG.

图4所示的结构不再基于传统的C/S模型,而是由数据环和若干独立单元组成。 Structure shown in FIG 4 is no longer based on the conventional C / S model, but by a ring and a number of independent data units. 数据环构成数据空间,各独立单元构成管理空间,不同的任务由不同的单元系统来完成,它们通过信息交互连接成一环状的结构,以支持一对多和多对多实时自律分布,并通过可协调性来实现现场过程的监视和控制。 Data rings data space, each space management units independently, different tasks carried out by different units of the system, connected by the information exchange at an annular structure, to support many-to-many and real-time autonomous decentralized, and by coordination can be achieved on-site monitoring and control process.

在网络和传输机制的支持下,数据采集、数据挖掘、数据表述和数据决策等过程形成环状的处理流,各个子系统不断向数据空间以广播方式发送信息,同时又根据各自需求接收来自数据空间的信息以为自己服务。 In support of network and transport mechanism, data collection, data mining, data representation and data decision-making process during the formation of an annular flow, continue to send information to each subsystem data space in a broadcast manner, while according to their needs to receive data from information space thought he was serving. 单元之间没有直接连接关系,它们只对数据域中的信息内容感兴趣而不必知道此信息来自何处。 There is no direct connections between cells, they are only interested in the contents of the data field information without having to know this information comes from. 因此,在数据空间中流动的信息都包含一个内容码(Content Code)来标志其属性,各单元也正是通过识别内容码来决定自己是否需要此信息的。 Thus, the flow of information in the data space contains a content code (Content Code) to mark its properties, each unit is also determined by the content identification code if they need this information.

在本发明中,各个单元都在独立自主地运行并可进行相互协调,这样不仅在子系统的层次上可作到在线扩展和更新,而且在每个系统内部软件层次也使用了平等自治的机制,各个软件模块之间的耦合关系较为松散,可实现在线更新、升级。 In the present invention, the individual units are run independently and can be coordinated, not only at the level of the subsystem can be done online expanded and updated, and each level within the software system also uses a mechanism to equality and autonomy, the coupling between the various software modules looser, enabling online updates, upgrades. 因而基于这一概念的监控系统可按照生产的变化要求进行硬件更换,软件的更新、调整,从而使其适应新的要求。 Thus the concept of the monitoring system can be carried out in accordance with changes in hardware requirements of the production-based replacement, software updates, adjustments to adapt to new requirements. 可以看出,这种监控系统是一种动态的系统,与以往的监控系统相比具有更大的灵活性。 As can be seen, such a monitoring system is a dynamic system, compared with the conventional monitoring system having greater flexibility.

实施例一:用于交通控制的监控系统利用本发明的上述总体技术方案,结合交通控制的实际应用需求,可以设计完成基于传感网络技术的交通控制监视系统如图5所示:在图5中,系统除摄像头等传统的监控设备外,还有散布在指定感知区域内的数字传感节点,组成传感网络(Sensor Network)。 Example a: a traffic control system for monitoring the overall use of the above-described aspect of the present invention, the actual traffic control applications, can be designed to complete the traffic control monitoring system based sensor network technology shown in Figure 5: 5 in FIG. , the system in addition to conventional cameras monitoring equipment, as well as interspersed in the specified digital sensing nodes within the sensing area, the composition of the sensor network (sensor network). 数字传感节点收集数据,并通过“多跳”路由方式把数据传送到传感网关(Sensor Gateway),传感网关汇集传感数据流,再通过Internet或无线公用网GSM/CDMA与控制中心通讯。 Digital sensor nodes collect data, and transmits the "multi-hop" to the sensing data routing gateway (Sensor Gateway), a gateway sensor sensing data streams together, and then through the Internet or a wireless public network GSM / CDMA communication with the control center .

以上描述了传感采集、网络传输与信息处理和控制相互连接组成一个系统的关系,整个系统构架基本分为以下三个层次:第一层次数据采集层。 Collecting sensor described above, network transmission control is connected with the information processing and the relationship between the composition of a system, the overall system architecture is divided into three basic levels: a first level data collection layer. 以传感器集合为核心,包括感知器件、嵌入式处理器与存储器、通信器件、嵌入式操作系统等。 In the core set of sensors, comprising a sensing device, an embedded processor with memory, communication devices, embedded operating system. 数字传感节点对各被控对象形成数据采集群,各监控对象的状态通过装置的输入端口输入,数字传感节点中的单片机进行数据的初处理;控制指令由输出端口输出到设备的执行控制机构;通信接口作为节点设备与控制中心进行数据交换的接口。 Digital data acquisition sensor node is formed for each group of the controlled object, the state of each object to be monitored at the beginning of the process data input device through the input port, single-chip digital sensing node; control instruction output to an execution control device means; communication interface node device and the control center as an interface for data exchange. 对感知对象采集信息进行初处理,并传输和发布。 Perception of objects collected information early processing, and transmission and distribution.

第二层次网络通信层。 A second communication network layer level. 通过节点的拓扑发现建立传感器网络的基础结构,无线和有线网络方式实现监控系统的数据异地传输,这个网络通信层将整个系统中的设备联成一个整体,是远程监控系统依赖的媒介。 Establishing a node topology discovery sensor network infrastructure, wireless and wireline networks manner remote data transmission of the monitoring system, the network layer communication device in the entire system into a whole, the remote monitoring system is dependent on the medium. 运行在传感网关设备中的路由协议是系统数据流动的核心。 Gateway routing protocol running sensing device is the core of the system data flow. 系统的数据分为两个数据流,采集的原始数据从低层向控制中心流动,命令数据从控制中心向监控执行机构流动。 The system is divided into two data streams, raw data collected from the lower central flow to the control command data to the control center to monitor the flow from the actuator. 路由协议实现传感器与传感器、传感网络与广域网络之间的数据传输,支持多传感网络协作完成大型感知任务。 Routing protocol data transfer between the sensor and the sensor, the sensor network and a wide area network, the sensor network supports multi collaborate on large-aware task.

第三层次处理控制层。 The third level processing control layer. 原始的信息通过网络传输到本层,通过实时分布式数据流管理、查询及分析功能,对数据进行分析处理,并分发出相关的控制、告警和显示等动作命令,通过网络再发送到相关的执行机构执行。 Original information transmitted over the network to the current layer, by real-time distributed traffic management, query and analysis functions, data analysis, and transmits the relevant sub-like control, alarm, and display operation command, and then sent through the network to the relevant execution agency. 并提供一种环状结构的自律系统,以支持普适应用的开发支持,如应用功能改换、功能扩展、系统升级、重复再利用等性能的实现。 And to provide a system for self-ring structure, to support the development of universal support applications, such as application function change, function expansion, system upgrades, etc. to achieve repeated re-use performance.

系统的功能:系统的功能主要包括:信息采集功能、信息处理与发布功能、控制功能、告警处理功能、报表统计与打印功能、查询功能、自动数据备份和系统恢复功能、系统自诊断功能、联网功能及网络管理功能。 System functions: functions of the system include: information collection function, information processing and publishing functions, control functions, alarm processing, reports, statistics and print functions, query function, automatic data backup and system recovery function, the system self-diagnostic function, networking functions and network management functions. 图6是“智能环境监控系统”的功能模块图。 Figure 6 is a "smart environment monitoring system," the functional block diagram.

(1)信息采集功能:交通流量数据、交通状况图像信息、外场设备工作状态的反馈信息、紧急求救信息、隧道环境信息和隧道火灾报警信息。 (1) information collection functions: traffic data, traffic conditions image information, feedback device is operating outside the field, emergency information, environmental information and tunnel tunnel fire alarm information.

(2)信息处理与发布功能:交通数据的综合分析和统计,并在分析和统计后与各自的阀值进行比较,予以越限报警、进行模拟显示,通过图形界面,对各种数据、可变情报板、综合交通信息诱导屏、可变限速标志显示内容进行显示;(3)控制功能:对交通信号灯、各种可变信息标志、风机、照明、消防、给排水等设备进行控制;根据交通信息的处理结果自动提出控制方案、对各种可变信息标志发布的内容进行人工编辑与发布、遥控摄像机的云台上下左右旋转、镜头变焦聚焦等动作;(4)系统自诊断功能:对关键设备(包括中心计算机网络、所有外场设备硬件的关键部分)进行循环检测,并具有报警能力。 (2) information processing and dissemination functions: a comprehensive analysis of traffic data and statistics, and after analysis and statistics with the respective threshold comparison, to be more alarm, simulated display, through the graphical interface, various data can be variable information boards, integrated traffic information guidance screen, variable speed limit signs display content for display; (3) control: traffic lights, a variety of variable message signs, fans, lighting, fire, water supply and drainage equipment control; automatic processing is proposed based on the results of traffic information control scheme, the contents of variable message signs posted all kinds of manual editing and publishing, about PTZ camera remote control up and down the rotation of the zoom lens focusing and other actions; (4) system self-diagnosis function: key equipment (network includes a central computer, a key part of all the hardware devices of field) loop detection, and an alarm capability. 系统软件同样具有自诊断和系统自恢复功能,并具有不间断连续工作的能力。 The system software also has a self-diagnosis and self-recovery systems, and has the ability uninterrupted continuous operation.

(5)告警功能:根据环境的情况和系统运行的情况分别向不同的级别的机构进行多种方式的告警提示。 (5) Alarm function: an alarm prompted a variety of ways to different levels of organization based on ambient conditions and system operation, respectively.

除上述实施例外,本发明还可以有其他实施方式。 In addition to the above-described embodiment exceptions, the present invention is capable of other embodiments. 凡采用等同替换或等效变换形成的技术方案,均落在本发明要求的保护范围。 Where the use of equivalent replacement or equivalent transformation formed aspect, the invention all fall within the scope of the present claims.

Claims (5)

1.一种基于传感网络技术的监控系统,其特征在于:主要由以下部分组成:——采集信息的传感节点;——对数据进行汇聚和融合、并进行协议转换的传感网关;——进行包括信息发布、系统控制、统计分析功能的监控服务器;——所述传感节点通过有线/无线网络与传感网关传输连接,所述传感网关通过广域网与监控中心的监控服务器传输连接;所述传感节点作为系统中最基本设备单元由嵌入式节点CPU、传感器、通信模块和电源四部分构成————所述节点CPU嵌入小型操作系统,用以负责节点设备的任务调度与管理;——所述传感器用以实现环境信息的采集;——所述通信模块用以实现短距离的数据传输;——所述电源用以向节点各工作部分供电;——所述传感器的信号输出端接CPU的对应输入端,所述CPU的信号输出端接通信模块的对应输入端。 1. A monitoring system based sensor network technology, wherein: mainly consists of: - collecting information of sensor node; - data aggregation and fusion, and sensing protocol conversion gateway; - for including information distribution system control, monitoring, statistical analysis of the server; - the sensing node via a wired / wireless network and the gateway connected to the sensor, said sensor monitoring server via a wide area network gateway transmission and monitoring center ; said sensor node as the task scheduler node CPU ---- small embedded operating system, is responsible for the basic system of the node device equipment unit consists of four parts embedded node CPU, sensors, communications, and power supply module and management; - collection environment used to implement the sensor information; - the communications module for short-distance data transmission; - the power supply to the node to the working part; - the sensor corresponding to the input signal output end of the CPU, a signal output corresponding to the input end of the communication module CPU. 所述传感网关作为传感网络的枢纽设备,由嵌入式网关CPU和通信接口模块构成;——所述网关CPU嵌入小型操作系统,用以实现网关节点的任务调度与管理;——所述通信接口模块加载通信协议软件,用以完成对传感节点的数据收集,实现与监控服务器的数据传输;所述监控服务器以计算机或小型工作站为硬件平台,带有与WAN连接的通信接口,含有内部运行监控管理模块;——所述硬件平台用以通过与WAN连接的通信接口接收传感节点采集的数据,交由监控管理模块进行处理;——所述监控管理模块由对原始数据进行提取、分析、归类的各功能单元构成管理空间,所述提取、分析、归类功能单元用以按照信息发布、系统控制、统计分析的要求实现各自的功能,其相互之间的数据流构成数据空间;——所述功能单元之间通过信息交互连接成环状结构,用 The sensor as the gateway sensor network hub device is constituted by an embedded CPU and a communication interface gateway module; - the gateway CPU embedded small operating system to achieve the task scheduling and management of the gateway node; - the the communication interface module loading software communication protocol to complete the data collection of sensor nodes, to achieve data transmission monitor server; the monitoring server computer or workstation hardware platforms small, with a communication interface connected to the WAN, comprising internal monitoring module operation; - the hardware platform via a data communication interface for receiving sensor nodes connected to the WAN is acquired, referred monitoring module for processing; - the monitoring module is extracted from the raw data , analysis, classification of functional units constituting the management space, the extraction, analysis, classification function unit for realizing the respective functions in accordance with the information distribution system control, statistical analysis requirements, data flow between their mutual configuration data space; - between the functional units connected by information exchange in a ring structure, with 支持一对多和多对多实时自律分布。 Many-to-many real-time support and self-distribution.
2.根据权利要求1所述基于传感网络技术的监控系统,其特征在于:所述传感节点在有线传输方式下,采用总线型的配置方式,每个传感节点带有地址标记,所述通信模块同时用以采用广播方式向所属范围内的监控节点发出地址请求命令,报告自己的地址标记。 1 according to the sensor network technology based monitoring system as claimed in claim, wherein: said sensor node in a wired transmission mode, using a bus-type arrangement, with each sensor node address mark, the said communication module also issues an address for broadcast mode request command to the node is within their monitoring, reporting own address tag.
3.根据权利要求1所述基于传感网络技术的监控系统,其特征在于:所述传感节点在无线传输方式下,中间传感节点的通信模块同时用以转发网关节点的命令,相关节点的通信模块同时用以转发其它节点的地址信息。 1 according to the sensor network technology based monitoring system as claimed in claim, wherein: said sensor node in a wireless transmission mode, the communication module while the intermediate sensor node forwards a command to the gateway node, a node associated a communication module for forwarding the address information while other nodes.
4.根据权利要求3所述基于传感网络技术的监控系统,其特征在于:所述网关节点用以实现数据融合。 4. The monitoring system of claim 3 based sensor network technology, characterized in that: the gateway node to achieve data fusion.
5.根据权利要求3所述基于传感网络技术的监控系统,其特征在于:所述传感网关汇集传感数据流后,通过Internet或无线公用网GSM/CDMA与控制中心通讯联系。 3 5. The sensor network technology based monitoring system according to claim, wherein: said sensor after the sensor data flow collection gateway, a wireless public network through the Internet or GSM / CDMA communication link with the control center.
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