CN100594701C - Notification system - Google Patents

Notification system Download PDF


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CN100594701C CN 01809514 CN01809514A CN100594701C CN 100594701 C CN100594701 C CN 100594701C CN 01809514 CN01809514 CN 01809514 CN 01809514 A CN01809514 A CN 01809514A CN 100594701 C CN100594701 C CN 100594701C
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CN 01809514
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CN1429364A (en
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Priority to US18980100P priority Critical
Priority to US60/189,801 priority
Priority to US09/596,348 priority
Priority to US09/595,401 priority patent/US7417650B1/en
Priority to US21229600P priority
Priority to US21229300P priority
Priority to US09/595,401 priority
Priority to US09/596,365 priority
Priority to US60/212,293 priority
Priority to US09/596,364 priority patent/US6601012B1/en
Priority to US09/596,348 priority patent/US6513026B1/en
Priority to US60/212,296 priority
Priority to US09/596,365 priority patent/US7249159B1/en
Priority to US09/596,364 priority
Application filed by 微软公司 filed Critical 微软公司
Priority to PCT/US2001/008711 priority patent/WO2001069387A2/en
Publication of CN1429364A publication Critical patent/CN1429364A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN100594701C publication Critical patent/CN100594701C/en



    • G06Q10/00Administration; Management
    • G06Q10/10Office automation, e.g. computer aided management of electronic mail or groupware; Time management, e.g. calendars, reminders, meetings or time accounting
    • G06Q10/107Computer aided management of electronic mail
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/02Details
    • H04L12/16Arrangements for providing special services to substations
    • H04L12/18Arrangements for providing special services to substations for broadcast or conference, e.g. multicast
    • H04L12/1895Arrangements for providing special services to substations for broadcast or conference, e.g. multicast for short real-time information, e.g. alarms, notifications, alerts, updates
    • H04L51/00Arrangements for user-to-user messaging in packet-switching networks, e.g. e-mail or instant messages
    • H04L51/12Arrangements for user-to-user messaging in packet-switching networks, e.g. e-mail or instant messages with filtering and selective blocking capabilities
    • H04L51/00Arrangements for user-to-user messaging in packet-switching networks, e.g. e-mail or instant messages
    • H04L51/36Unified messaging, e.g. interactions between instant messaging, e-mail or other types of messages such as converged IP messaging [CPM]
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/16Service discovery or service management, e.g. service location protocol [SLP] or Web services
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/18Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/24Presence management
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/26Push based network services
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/30Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications involving profiles
    • H04L67/306User profiles
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/32Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications for scheduling or organising the servicing of application requests, e.g. requests for application data transmissions involving the analysis and optimisation of the required network resources
    • H04L67/322Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications for scheduling or organising the servicing of application requests, e.g. requests for application data transmissions involving the analysis and optimisation of the required network resources whereby quality of service [QoS] or priority requirements are taken into account
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/32Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications for scheduling or organising the servicing of application requests, e.g. requests for application data transmissions involving the analysis and optimisation of the required network resources
    • H04L67/325Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications for scheduling or organising the servicing of application requests, e.g. requests for application data transmissions involving the analysis and optimisation of the required network resources whereby a time schedule is established for servicing the requests
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/32Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications for scheduling or organising the servicing of application requests, e.g. requests for application data transmissions involving the analysis and optimisation of the required network resources
    • H04L67/327Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications for scheduling or organising the servicing of application requests, e.g. requests for application data transmissions involving the analysis and optimisation of the required network resources whereby the routing of a service request to a node providing the service depends on the content or context of the request, e.g. profile, connectivity status, payload or application type
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/36Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications involving the display of network or application conditions affecting the network application to the application user
    • H04L51/00Arrangements for user-to-user messaging in packet-switching networks, e.g. e-mail or instant messages
    • H04L51/26Prioritized messaging
    • H04L69/00Application independent communication protocol aspects or techniques in packet data networks
    • H04L69/30Definitions, standards or architectural aspects of layered protocol stacks
    • H04L69/32High level architectural aspects of 7-layer open systems interconnection [OSI] type protocol stacks
    • H04L69/322Aspects of intra-layer communication protocols among peer entities or protocol data unit [PDU] definitions
    • H04L69/329Aspects of intra-layer communication protocols among peer entities or protocol data unit [PDU] definitions in the application layer, i.e. layer seven


The present invention relates to a system (10) and methodology (170, 173, 180, 400, 600, 1000) to enable a variety of information associated with one or more notification sources (26-28) to be directed to one or more notification sinks (36-38) via a notification platform architecture (10). The architecture (10) includes a context analyzer (22) for determining a user's state such as location and attentional focus, wherein the user's state is employed by a notification manager (24) to make decisions regarding what, when and how information generated by the notification sources (26-28) should beforwarded to the notification sinks (36-38), for example. These decisons can include a cost benefit analysis wherein considerations are given as to whether the benefits of notifying the user are outweighed by the costs of disrupting the user. Decision-theoretic policies (177, 180) and/or somewhat less formal heuristic policies (177) can be employed to enable the decision-making process within thenotification manager (24).


一种通知系统 A notification system that

技术领域 FIELD

本发明一般涉及计算机系统,并更特殊地涉及一种系统和方法,能提供有利于接收的一种总体结构和由各种设备和应用程序产生的传送到一个用户的提醒通知。 The present invention relates generally to computer systems, and more particular, to a system and method can provide beneficial to the overall structure and receiving a notification to a user alert generated by a variety of devices and applications.

背景技术 Background technique

现在许多计算机用户从许多不同的信息源接收信息,并且为了存取这些信息利用许多不同的设备或程式。 Many computer users receive information from many different sources, and to access information using a number of different devices or programs. 例如, 一个用户可以接收计算机上的电子邮件和即时消息,寻呼机上的寻呼,电话上,例如蜂窝电话("小区"或陆线电话)的话言邮件,和计算机上的新闻。 For example, a user can receive email and instant messaging on a computer, a pager on a page, on the phone, such as cellular telephones ( "cell" or landline telephone), then made messages, and news on the computer. 随着可用信息量的日益增多,和传递这些信息的众多的程式,用户很难依照用户碰巧所处的地方,头脑的构思或用户所处的状态,及所述用户可以存取的通信程式来接收和处理信息。 With the increasing amount of information available, a number of programs and information transmission, the user is difficult to place in accordance with the user happens to located, concepts or state of mind of the user is located, and the user may access a communication program to receive and process information.

例如, 一个用户可以远离他或她的计算机,但需要接收一个重要的电子邮件。 For example, a user may be away from his or her computer, but need to receive an important e-mail. 然而在许多场合下,用户或许只能使用蜂窝电话或寻呼机。 However, in many cases, users may only use a cellular phone or pager. 这样,经过一种程式(例如电子邮件)传送的信息不能自动地转送或传递给另一种程式。 Thus, after one of these programs (e.g., electronic mail) messaging is not automatically transferred or transmitted to another program. 因此,在用户确切接收到该信息前,流失了重要的时间。 Therefore, before the user receives exactly the information lost important time. 在某些场合,因为消息本身要求用户在给定的期限内响应或作出动作,在他们确切收到消息之前,消息可能已变成无用的消息。 In some cases, because the message itself requires users within a given period of time or in response to action until they receive the exact message, the message may have become useless messages. 举另一个例子,用户或许正在计算机上工作,已经关掉电话上的振铃器和话音邮件指示器,以避免在计算机上专心工作时受到干扰。 As another example, the user may be going to work on the computer, turn off the ringer already and voicemail indicator on the phone, in order to avoid interference to concentrate on working on the computer. 然而,如果在这段时间丢失了重要的话音邮件,用户就没有办法知道是否收到重要的消息,除非他们按常规检査该话音邮件。 However, if you lose an important voice mail during this time, there is no way of knowing whether users receive important news, unless they check the voice message as usual.

和不响应于重要消息或提醒的情况相反,收到的许多消息/提醒或许对用户是不重要的。 And without many messages in response to important messages or reminders contrast, received / remind the user may be unimportant. 例如,接收用户的经理或同事的电子邮件的优先级应比接收或查看最新的体育得分的优先级高。 For example, a user receives an e-mail manager or colleague priority should be a higher priority than the reception or view the latest sports scores. 这样,在消息或提醒中含有的信息价值就应该与干扰用户相关联的成本相平衡。 In this way, the value of the information contained in the message or reminder should be relevant to interfere with the user costs associated equilibrium. 然而,成本和价值或许对上下文是敏感的。 However, perhaps the cost and value of context sensitive. 这可以包括用户碰巧所处的位置,用户当前参与的活动,和用户已经访问的通信程式。 This may include the location of the user happens to be located, the user is currently involved in activities, and communications programs the user has access. 除了管理上述的通信和相关的程式外,用户还要接收和随后处理各种其他消息和/或提醒。 In addition to the above-described communication management programs and the associated outer, the user also receives and then processes the various other messages and / or alert. 例如,这可以包含来自数量的增加的服务、出错消息和辅助的计算机化开价的提醒。 For example, this may include increasing the number of services from, to remind offer computerized error messages and auxiliary.

本发明简述 Description of the present invention

下面叙述本发明简化的概要,以便提供本发明某些方面的基本理解。 The following describes a simplified summary of the present invention, in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects of the present invention. 本概要不是本发明的广泛概述。 This summary is not an extensive overview of the invention. 既不打算鉴别本发明的关键或临界要素,又不打算描述本发明的范畴。 The present invention is not intended to identify key or critical elements nor delineate the scope of the present invention is intended. 它的唯一目的是以简化的格式介绍本发明的某些概念,作为下面提供的更详细描述的序幕。 Its sole purpose is to introduce a simplified form some concepts of the present invention, as described in greater detail below prelude provided.

本发明涉及一种系统和方法,能提供通知平台用的总体结构。 The present invention relates to a system and method that can provide the overall structure with notification platform. 按照本发明的一个方面,总体结构包括:上下文分析器或部件; 一个或多个通知源和接收器;和通知管理器。 According to one aspect of the present invention, the overall structure comprising: a context analyzer or member; one or more notification sources and receivers; and a notification manager. 上下文分析器储存有关用户通知参数(例如用户的缺省通知优先级)的用户配置文件信息,并提供用户上下文认别和更新服务。 Context analyzer store user profile information about a user notification parameters (e.g., the user's default notification priority), and provides a user context recognition site and update service. 通知源产生为用户指定的通知,而通知接收器把通知提供给用户。 Notification source generates a notification for the user-specified, the receiver notifies the notification to the user. 通知管理器依据上下文分析器储存的和确定的信息,和提供的或推断的有关通知紧急性的信息,将信息源产生的通知转送或引导到接收器。 A context analyzer according to notification manager information determined and stored, and information about the urgency of the notification provided or inferred, the notification information generated by the source or direct transfer to the receiver. 例如,通知管理器能够存取或推断用户的上下文(例如,用户的当前位置和关注焦点)。 For example, a notification manager can be accessed by the user or inferred context (e.g., the user's current location and focus). 这可以依据考虑上下文信息的多个源而达到。 This can be based on multiple sources of information to consider the context and reach. 例如,这样的信息源可以包括用户的上下文配置文件,用户的在线日历,时刻,关于世界的事件,机构,系统,和/或用户的活动。 For example, such information source may include a user's context configuration file, the user's online calendar, time, about world events, institutions, systems, and / or user activity. 然后经过上下文的分析和信息紧急性能够确定通知。 Then after analysis and contextual information to determine the urgency of the notification. 这种分析包括确定哪条通知应当转送给用户,经过哪个接收器,和使用接收器提供的哪种方式或程式。 Such analysis includes determining which of the notifications should be forwarded to the user, which method or program which receiver, and through the use of the receiver provided.

按照本发明的其他方面,例如,用户可以接收电子邮件提醒,如果需要的话,还使该电子邮件自动地引导给蜂窝电话。 In further aspects of the present invention, for example, the user may receive an e-mail alert, if desired, also makes the e-mail is automatically directed to the cellular phone. 相似地,当由通知管理器适当地确定时,可以把话音邮件引导给桌上型电脑。 Similarly, when appropriately determined by the manager notification, voice mail can be guided to a desktop computer. 这样,通知管理器处理从通知源来的通知,并确定是否应当通知用户。 Thus, the notification manager notification processing from the notification source, and determines whether the user should be informed. 如果管理器确定应通知用户,则管理器还确定应该怎样通知用户。 If the manager determines that the user should be notified, then the manager should also determine how to notify the user. 这可以基于储存在用户配置文件中的信息,包括诸如用户优先级和当前的上下文之类的信息以便通知所需的。 This may be based on the information stored in the user profile, including information such as a user priority and the current context or the like in order to inform desired. 例如,接收器能包括桌上型电脑,蜂窝电话,寻呼机(paper)和/或其他设备/应用禾呈序(application). For example, the receiver can include a desktop computer, a cellular telephone, a pager (Paper), and / or other devices / applications as a sequence Wo (application).

此外,实际上可以把通知平台的总体结构归纳成任何通知,例如包括与通过在桌上型或移动设置中的软件部件提供的潜在服务相关联的那些通知。 Further, the overall structure can in fact be grouped into any notification notification platform, software components including for example by providing a desktop or mobile settings of those services associated with the notification of potential. 这样的通知包括: Such notifications include:

关于服务的提醒,所述服务诸如那些:搜索而自动地提供帮助,或提示用软件应用程序和/或通过检査用户关注焦点的电子邮件而自动地执行调度程序的用户; About service reminders, such as those of the service: search help automatically, or prompt the user and / or e-mail by examining the focus of the user and automatically executed by the scheduler software applications;

*提醒:通知用户即将到来的约会或约定; * Reminder: notify the user of an upcoming appointment or agreement;

*提醒:转发朋友和同事的位置,接近度,或关注状态的重要变化;及*提醒:依据由用户编排或查看的正文,发出后台询问,并将这种后台搜索的结果提供给用户。 * Reminder: friends and colleagues forward position, proximity, or significant changes in the state of interest; and * Reminder: according to the text by the user or view the schedule, issue the background inquiry and provide the results of this search back to the user.

如上所述,上下文分析器确定用户当前的上下文,例如用户当前的位置和关注状态。 As described above, the context analyzer determines the current context of the user, such as user interest and the current location state. 例如,能够应用所确定的上下文来确定是、何时和如何传送打算供用户使用的通知。 For example, the determined context can be applied to determine whether, when and how to send notifications intended for the user. 依照本发明的其他方面,经过下列的一种或多种方式确定上下文:由用户直接说明;用一个或多个传感器直接测量;用户可修改的指明上下文的配置文件; 一个或多个潜在的用户可修改的指明上下文的规贝(h和/或利用一个模型。(例如贝叶斯模型或统计模型)的推论分析。这样,在将通知传递给用户中,能利用用户的上下文,包括用户的位置和关注状态(或,焦点)。 In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, through one or more of the following ways determine the context: Description directly by a user; directly measured with one or more sensors; user modifiable profile specified context; one or more potential users. analysis can modify the rules specified in the context of shellfish (h and / or using a model (e.g., Bayesian models or statistical models) inferences. Thus, the notification is transmitted to the user, the user can take advantage of the context, including the user's the location and the state of interest (or focus).

按照本发明的另一个方面,通知管理器能运用决策理论分析来确定:应当把通知源来的哪一条通知应当传递给用户,和经过与通知接收器相关联的一种或多种方式中的哪种方式。 According to another aspect of the present invention, a notification manager can be determined using decision theory: It is the notification source to which a notification should be delivered to the user, and linked via one or more ways associated with the notification receiver which way. 为通知接收器和有关方式确定一个价值,等于通知内含有的信息的预期价值,低于经过接收器方式的中断传递通知的预期成本,低于用户独自了解通知含有通知不含有通知的信息的预期价值,并低于经过该方式和接收器传递通知的实际成本。 To inform the receiver and about ways to determine a value equal to the expected value of some notice contains information, is lower than that of the receiver mode interrupt delivery notification of the expected costs, lower than expected user alone understand the information contained in the notice of the notification does not contain notice value and less than the actual cost of the way through the receiver and the transmission of the notification. 例如,如果该价值大于预定的传递阈值,那末,经过具有最高价值的接收器方式来传送该通知。 For example, if the value is greater than a predetermined threshold value is transmitted, then, after the receiver has the highest value in a manner to transmit the notification. 按照本发明另一个方面,通知管理器可以应用直观推确定应该把从通知源接收到的哪一条通知传递给用户,以及经过有关通知接收器的哪一种方式。 According to another aspect of the present invention, the notification manager may determine the application should pass directly push received from a source to which a notification to notify the user, and the way through which the notice receiver.

下面的描述和附图详细地阐明本发明的某些说明性的方面。 The following description and set forth certain illustrative aspects of the present invention are shown in detail. 然而,这些方面仅表现出各种应用本发明原理方法中的几种,而本发明倾向于包括所有这样的方面和他们的相类似的方面。 However, only few of the various aspects of performance of the present invention, application of the principles of the method, but the present invention is intended to include all such aspects and their similar aspects. 当联系附图考虑时,本发明的其他优点和新颖功能将从下面的本发明的详细描述中变得更明白。 When contacting DRAWINGS Other advantages and novel features of the present invention from the following detailed description of the present invention will become more apparent.


7图1是示意性的系统框图,描述按照本发明一个方面的通知平台总体结构。 7 FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram of the system, according to an aspect of the description of the overall structure of the present invention, the notification platform.

图2是示意性框图,描述按照本发明一个方面的上下文分析器。 FIG 2 is a schematic block diagram, described in the context analyzer according to an aspect of the present invention.

图3是示意性框图,描述按照本发明一个方面的通知源和接收器。 FIG 3 is a schematic block diagram description of notification sources and receivers according to one aspect of the present invention.

图4是图表,描述按照本发明一个方面的通知曲线的实用性。 FIG 4 is a graph depicting the notifications in accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the curve of the utility.

图5是图表,描述按照本发明一个方面的一个用户说明界面。 FIG 5 is a graph, in accordance with a user interface description explains one aspect of the present invention.

图6是图表,描述按照本发明一个方面的上下文信息源。 FIG 6 is a graph depicting the context information sources in accordance with one aspect of the present invention.

图7是图表,描述按照本发明一个方面的用于确定上下文的基于规则 FIG 7 is a graph depicting the context is determined in accordance with one aspect of the present invention is based on the rule

(mles-based)的系统。 (Mles-based) system.

图8是示意性框图,描述按照本发明一个方面的用于确定上下文的基于 FIG 8 is a schematic block diagram, described according to a determination based on the context of the present invention for the aspect

推论的系统。 Inference system.

图9是描述按照本发明一个方面的用于确定上下文的推论模型图。 Figure 9 is a model diagram determine a context inference according to one aspect of the present invention. 图10是描述按照本发明一个方面的用于确定上下文的瞬时推论模型图。 Figure 10 is determined in accordance with one aspect of the context of the present invention inference model for transient FIG. 图11是流程图,描述按照本发明一个方面的用于确定上下文的方法。 FIG 11 is a flowchart describing a method of determining a context according to one aspect of the present invention. 图12是流程图,描述按照本发明一个方面的通知决策的方法。 FIG 12 is a flowchart describing a method in accordance with one aspect of the notification decision-making of the present invention. 图13是流程图,描述按照本发明一个方面为通知平台提供决策理论分析的方法。 FIG 13 is a flowchart describing the theoretical analysis provided a method of decision notification platform in accordance with one aspect of the present invention.

图14是描述按照本发明一个方面的示范性显示器的图。 FIG 14 is a description of the exemplary display of FIG accordance with an aspect of the present invention.

图15是流程图,描述按照本发明一个方面的提供可变显示的方法。 FIG 15 is a flowchart describing a method in accordance with one aspect of the present invention to provide a variable display.

图16是描述按照本发明一个方面的价值对时间的图。 FIG 16 is described in terms of a value of the aspect of the invention versus time.

图17是流程图,描述按照本发明一个方面的提供流循环的一种方法。 FIG 17 is a flowchart, a method for providing a circulating flow of the aspect of the present invention as described.

图18是描述按照本发明一个方面的示范性流循环显示的图。 FIG 18 is a diagram describing a display according to an exemplary aspect of a circulating stream of the present invention.

图19是描述按照本发明一个方面的示范流堆栈显示的图。 FIG 19 is a diagram describing an exemplary flow of stack display according to an aspect of the present invention.

图20是更详细图,描述按照本发明某一方面的示范性流堆积显示。 FIG 20 is a more detailed diagram depicting stacked display according to an exemplary aspect of the present invention, a stream.

图21是流程图,描述按照本发明一个方面的提供流堆积的一种方法。 FIG 21 is a flowchart, a method for providing bulk flow according to one aspect of the present invention will be described.

图22是描述按照本发明一个方面的示范性显示器的图。 FIG 22 is a description of the exemplary display of FIG accordance with an aspect of the present invention.

图23是示意性框图,描述按照本发明一个方面的合适的操作环境。 FIG 23 is a schematic block diagram, described in suitable operating environment in accordance with one aspect of the present invention.

实现本发明的方式 Implementations of the present invention.

本发明涉及一种系统和方法,能把与一个或多通知源相关联的各种信息,经过通知平台总体结构引导到一个或多个通知接收器(例如,用于接收信息的程式(modality))。 The present invention relates to a system and method, various information can notify one or more associated with the source, through the internet notification directed to the overall structure of the one or more notification receiver (e.g., a program for receiving information (modality) ). 总体结构包括一个上下文分析器,用于确定用户的状态,例如位置和关注焦点,例如,通知管理器应用用户的状态做出决定-将通知源产生的何种信息,在什么时候,以及怎样传递到通知接收器。 The overall structure includes a context analyzer for determining the status of the user, such as the position and focus, for example, the notification manager application user state decision - what kind of information the notification generated by the source, at what time, and how to transfer notification to the receiver. 这些决定可以包括成本收益分析,其中,要考虑到通知用户的收益是否超过干扰用户的成本。 These decisions may include cost-benefit analysis, which, taking into account the cost of informing the user whether the benefits exceed the interference of the user. 能应用决策理论策略和/或稍微不正规的直观推使通知管理器内能进行决策处理。 Decision theory can be applied to policies and / or slightly irregular intuitive push to enable decision-making process within the Notification Manager.

首先参考图1,系统10描述按照本发明一个方面的通知总体结构。 Referring first to FIG. 1, the system 10 notifies the overall structure is described according to one aspect of the present invention. 系统IO包括:上下文分析器22;通知管理器24 (也称为事件代理人(broker)); 一个或多个通知源(例如,提供信息的程式)1到N, 26, 27, 28;和一个或多个通知接收器,1到M, 36, 37, 38,其中,N和M分别为整数。 IO system comprising: a context analyzer 22; Notification Manager 24 (also referred to as event agents (Broker)); one or more notification sources (e.g., information programs) 1 to N, 26, 27, 28; and notify the one or more receivers, 1 M, 36, 37, 38, where, N and M are integers. 源称为事件发行人(publisher),而也把接收器称为事件用户(subscriber)。 Source called the event the issuer (publisher), but also put the receiver called an event user (subscriber). 可以有任意个接收器和源。 There may be any number of sources and receivers. 一般,部分基于上下文分析器22储存和/或存取的参数信息,通知管理器24将通知从信息源26至28传递到接收器36到38,也把通知称作为事件或提醒(alert)。 In general, the analyzer 22 based in part on the context storage and / or access parameters information, notification manager 24 notifies the information transfer from the source to the receiver 26 to 28 36 to 38, also referred to as the notification event or reminder (alert).

上下文分析器22储存/分析有关影响通知决策的用户变量和参数。 Context analyzer 22 storage / analysis of the influence notification decision variables and parameters of a user. 例如, 参数可以包括上下文(context)信息,例如用户的典型位置和关注焦点或每时亥涵活动(activity per time of day)和星期几(the day of the week) 的活动;和以这些参数为条件的附加参数,例如,在不同场所用户倾向于访问的设备。 For example, the parameters may include a context (context) information, such as the user's typical locations and the focus of the or each time Hai Han activity (activity per time of day) and day (the day of the week) activity; and these parameters additional parameters conditions, for example, tend to place the device in different user access. 这些参数也可以是经一个或多个传感器自动得到的观察的函数。 These parameters may be a function observed by one or more sensors automatically obtained. 例如,根据了由全球定位系统(GPS)子系统提供的关于用户的位置信息,根据有关正在使用的设备的类型和/或设备的使用图案的信息,和用户最后一次访问的特殊类型设备,可以选择或修改一个或多个配置文件profile (未示出)。 For example, according to the position information on the user provided by a global positioning system (GPS) subsystem, using the pattern information according to the type of the device being used and / or equipment, and a special type of equipment the user last accessed, can to select or modify one or more configuration files profile (not shown). 此外,如下面将详述的,也可应用自动推论,以动态地推论例如位置和关注之类的参数或状态。 Furthermore, as will be detailed below, it may also be deduced automatically applied, for example, to dynamically infer parameters or states such location and attention. 可以储存配置文件参数作为可以由用户编辑的用户配置文件。 Profile parameters may be stored as a user profile may be edited by the user. 除了依靠预先确定的配置文件或动态推论的设置外,通知结构能够使用户实时地指明他或她的状态,例如,在以后的"X"小时内,或直到一个给定时间内,除重要的通知外,用户不可得到任何其他信息。 In addition to relying on pre-determined profiles or dynamic inference settings, notification structure enables the users in real time indicated to his or her state, e.g., within the next "X" hours, or until a given time, but significant outside the notification, the user can not get any other information.

参数也能包括缺省通知优先级参数,该缺省参数是关于按不同设置的由不同类型的通知中断的用户优先级的,通知管理器24可以用这些参数作为通知决策的根据,并且用户能根据这些参数启动转换(initiate changes)。 Parameters can also include default notification priority parameter, which is the default parameters by the user on different types of interrupt notification settings of different priorities, notification manager 24 can use these parameters as a basis for making the notification, and the user can Based on these parameters starts conversion (initiate changes). 参数可以包括关于用户希望在不同的情况(例如,诸如用蜂窝电话,寻呼机)怎样通知他的缺省参数。 Parameters may include information about how the user wishes to inform him of default parameters in different situations (for example, such as a cellular phone, pager). 参数能包括与按不同的设置,以不同方式提醒相关联的中断成本评估的参数。 Parameters can include parameters evaluated and disruption costs in different ways reminder associated with different settings. 该参数还包括表示可能性的上下文参数,和表示在给定时间内用户希望怎样通知他的通知参数,该可能性上下文参数表示用户在不同位置的可能性,使用不同设备的可能性,和在给定时间内他或她关注状态的可能性。 The parameters also include the possibility of representing context parameters, and a given time represents what the user wishes to inform him of the notification parameters, the parameter indicates the possibility of a user context in the possibility of different positions, the possibility of using different devices, and in possibility within a given time of his or her attention to the state.

按照本发明一个方面,由上下文分析器22储存的信息可以包括由分析器确定的上下文信息。 According to one aspect of the present invention, the information stored by the context analyzer 22 may include context information determined by the analyzer. 如同在下面的描述章节更详细地描述的,分析器22根据一个或多上下文信息源(未示出)鉴别用户的位置和关注状态而确定上下文信息。 As the analyzer 22 is determined according to a context information or context information source (not shown) identifying the user's location and the state of interest described in the following sections describe in greater detail. 例如,上下文分析器22经过作为用户汽车的一部分的全球定位系统(GPS)或蜂窝电话,能够精确地确定用户的实际位置。 For example, the context analyzer 22 via a global positioning system (GPS) as the user part of the car or cellular telephone, the user can determine the actual position accurately. 分析器也可能应用统计模型,通过考虑背景评估资料和/或通过考虑诸如用户日历中的日期的类型,时刻,日期这样的信息收集的观察资料,和有关用户活动的观察资料, 以确定用户在给定的关注状态的可能性。 Analyzer may also use statistical models to assess the observations data and / or the date by considering the type of user, such as calendar, time, date observations of such information collection, and related user activity by considering the background to identify users given the possibility of state concern. 所给定的关注状态包括用户是否开启接收通知,忙和不能开启接收通知,并能包括其他的考虑因素,如周日, 周末,假日,和/或其他场合/时期。 Given the state of interest include whether the user is open to receive notifications, busy and not open to receive notifications, and can include other considerations, such as Sunday, weekends, holidays, and / or other occasions / periods.

信息源26至28产生打算供用户/或其他实体使用的通知。 Information sources 26-28 generate notifications intended for the user and / or other entity. 例如,信息源26至28可以包括通信,例如因特网和基于网络的通信,基于本地桌上型电脑通信,和电话通信;以及软件服务,如智能帮助,背景询问,和自动调度。 For example, information source 26 to 28 may include a communication such as the Internet and a communication network based on a local desktop communication, and telephone communication; and software services, such as intelligent help BACKGROUND interrogation, and automatic scheduling. 一般,这儿定义通知源为能产生事件的源,也能称作为通知和提醒,打算给用户,或用户的代理人提醒有关信息,服务,和/或一个系统或世界事件。 Generally, here defined as the energy source to produce the notification source of the event, also known as notifications and alerts, intended to give the user or user agent to remind the information, services, and / or a system or world events. 一个通知源称为事件源。 A source notification called event source.

例如,电子邮件通知源可以产生电子邮件作为通知,这样就被列入优先地位,其中,产生通知的一个应用程序或系统把相应于电子邮件对于用户的可能的重要性或紧急性的优先级赋予该电子邮件。 For example, e-mail notification e-mail as a notification source can generate, so it was included in the priority in which an application or system to produce the corresponding notification to the possible importance or urgency of a user of the priority given to e-mail the e-mail. 也可以不考虑对用户的相对重要性发送该电子邮件。 You may not consider the relative importance of sending the e-mail users. 桌面中央通知能包括自动化对话,带有提醒用户的目的,提醒他或她可能希望执行(例如从一个消息的调度)的潜在有价值服务,提醒用户可能希望检阅(例如得自背景询问)的信息,或错误和/或由桌上型电脑产生的其他提醒。 Desktop Central notification can include automated dialogue, with the purpose of alerting the user to remind him or she may want to do (for example, a message from the dispatcher) of potentially valuable service to alert the user may wish to review the information (for example, from a background inquiry) of or errors and / or other reminders generated by desktop computers. 因特网关联的服务能包括含有用户预订信息的通知,例如,如偶尔性当前新闻标题,和股票价值。 Internet related services can include booking a notification containing user information, such as the occasional sex current news headlines, and stock value.

其他的通知能包括背景询问(例如,当用户正在工作时,可以检阅用户当前正参与的工作的文本,使阐述有关文本中背景询问要阐明的和发送给搜索引擎),以及来自调度和/或其他程序的调度任务。 Other notification can include background inquiry (for example, when the user is working, you can review the text that the user is currently involved in work to make elaborate about text in the background, asking them to clarify and sent to the search engine), as well as from the scheduler and / or scheduling tasks other programs. 通知源26至28本身可以是推型或拉型的源。 26 to 28 to notify the source itself may be of the push or pull-type sources. 推型源是那些没有相关的请求就能自动产生和发送信息的源,如标题新闻和其他因特网相关联的服务,该服务器在预订后能自动地发送信息。 Push-type sources are those who are not related to the request can be automatically generated and sent source information, such as headline news and other Internet services associated with the server can automatically send information after booking. 拉型源是那些能响应请求而发送信息的源,如在询问到邮件服务器后接收的电子邮件。 Pull-type sources are those that send information source in response to the request, such as e-mail to the inquiry after receiving the mail server. 其他的通知源还包括下列各项-*诸如日历系统之类的电子邮件的桌面应用程序; Other news sources also include the following - * desktop applications such as e-mail system calendar and the like;

*计算机系统(例如,该系统可以用消息提醒用户,所述消息是有关系统的动作或问题的提醒信息): * A computer system (e.g., the system may alert the user with a message, the message is a reminder information about the operation of the system or issue):

*因特网关联的服务,约会信息,调度询问; *在一个或多个共享文件夹中改变文档或某种类型文档数; *响应于固定或持久信息询问的可用的新文档;和/或, *有关人员和他们到场的信息的信息源,他们位置的改变,他们的近邻情况(proximity)(例如,当我旅行时,让我知道在离我10英里内是否有其他的同事或朋友),或他们的可用性(例如,让我知道何时可与Steve谈话,并且他在能支持全电视电信会议的高速链路附近)。 * Internet related services, appointment information, scheduling inquiry; * change the document or some type number of documents in one or more shared folders; * fixed or in response to persistent questioning information available to a new document; and / or * the persons concerned and they arrived at the scene of the information source information, their position changed, their neighbors circumstances (proximity) (for example, when I travel, let me know if there are other colleagues or friends from within me 10 miles), or their availability (for example, so I know when to be talking to Steve, and he was in the vicinity of high-speed links to support full TV teleconferencing).

通知接收器36至38能向用户提供通知。 Notification receiver 36 to 38 can provide notification to the user. 例如,这样的通知接收器36至38可以包括计算机,例如桌上型和/或膝上型计算机、手提型计算机、蜂窝电话、陆线电话(handline phone)、寻呼机(papers)基于自动化的(automotive-based)计算机以及其它有价值的系统/应用程序。 For example, such notification receiver 36 to 38 may comprise a computer, such as a desktop and / or laptop computers, handheld computers, cellular phones, landline telephones (handline phone), a pager (Papers) based automation (Automotive -based) computers and other valuable system / application. 应注意:某些接收器36至38能比其他接收器传送更丰富的通知。 It should be noted: Some receivers 36 to 38 can be transmitted notification richer than other receivers. 例如,桌上型电脑典型地配有扬声器和连接有相对较大的彩色显示器,以及具有较宽的带宽,用于当连接到局域网或因特网时接收信息。 For example, a desktop computer typically has speakers and a connector with a relatively large color display, and a wide bandwidth for receiving information when coupled to a local area network or the Internet. 这样,桌上型电脑能以相当多的方式将通知传送给用户。 As such, desktop computers can be quite a way to send a notification to the user. 相反地,例如,许多蜂窝电话只有较小的黑白式显示器,并以相对较窄的带宽接收信息。 In contrast, for example, many cellular telephones only a small black and white display, and to receive information relatively narrow bandwidth. 相对地,例如,与由蜂窝电话传送的通知相关联的信息一般可能比较短,以与电话的接口能力相匹配。 In contrast, for example, information related to the notification transmitted by the cellular telephone may be relatively short generally linked to the telephone interface capabilities match. 这样,依据通知是传送给蜂窝电话,还是传送给桌上型电脑,通知的内容可能是不同的。 Thus, pursuant to a notice is sent to the contents of a cell phone, or transferred to a desktop computer, the notification may be different. 例如,按照本发明的一个方面,通知接收器能涉及到哪一个经过事件预订服务预订了事件或通知。 For example, according to one aspect of the present invention, the notification can be directed to the receiver through the event to which the event booking reservations or notifications.

通知管理器24存取由上下文分析器储存和/或确定的信息,并确定从信息源26至28收到的哪一条信息要传送到接收器36至38中的哪一个。 Notification manager accessed by the context analyzer 24 is stored and / or determined information and determine which source information received from the 26 to 28 to be transmitted to the receiver which is 36 to 38. 此外, 根据已经选择的向接收器36至38中的哪一个发送信息,通知管理器24能确定怎样给它传送通知。 Further, according to the notification manager 24 can determine to transmit a message in which 36 to 38 how the receiver has selected it to send notifications. 例如,在将通知提供给选择了的接收器36至38之前, 确定应将通知进行概括。 For example, prior to notification to selected receivers 36 to 38, the notification shall be determined summarized.

本发明不限制于管理器24怎样作出关于哪一条通知传送到哪一个通知接收器,及按哪种方式传送通知的确定。 The present invention is not limited to how to manage 24 on which a determination is made as to which a notification delivery notification recipients, and send a notification according to which way. 按照本发明的一个方面,能够利用一个决策理论分析。 According to one aspect of the present invention, it can be analyzed by a decision theory. 例如,通知管理器24能适合于有关变量的重要的不确定性, 这些变量包括:用户的位置,关注,设备可用性,及如果没有提醒,直到用 For example, notification manager 24 can be adapted to the relevant variables important uncertainties. These variables include: the user's location, attention, equipment availability, and if there is no reminder, until with

户能存取信息前的时间量。 Users can access the amount of time before information. 然后,通知管理器24能作出有关是否给用户提醒一条通知的确定,假如这样的话,要确定摘要的性质和用于中继转送通知的合适的一台设备或多台设备。 Then, the notification manager 24 can make a determination as to whether an alert notifying the user, if so, to determine the nature and suitable summary of one or more devices relay transfer device notifications. 通常,通知管理器24确定一条通知的净期望价值。 Typically, the notification manager 24 determines the net expected value of a notification. 在这样做的过程中,应考虑下列情况: In the process of doing so, should consider the following:

*每个可用的通知接收器的保真度和传输可靠性; * Each available notification receiver fidelity and transmission reliability;

*注意干扰用户的成本; * Note that the cost of interfering users;

*送给用户的信息的新颖性; * Information to the novelty of the user;

*直到用户査阅他或她自已的信息的时间; * Until the user access to his or her own time information;

*信息的潜在上下文敏感性值;和/或: * Potentially context-sensitive value of the information; and / or:

*在包含在通知内的信息的时间内,增加和/或减少的价值; * In the time information included in the notice of increase and / or decrease in value;

例如,这样,可以产生有关未确定性作出的推论作为预期的可能性价值, 诸如使用给出用户的某些关注状态的特殊设备的特殊方式而干扰用户的成本。 For example, so you can not generate inferences about the uncertainty as to the possibility that the expected value, such as to interfere with the user's cost of special equipment using a special way of some concern given the state of the user. 通知管理器24能够按照下列一项或多项作出确定: Notification manager 24 can make a determination in accordance with one or more of the following:

*用户当前正在关注和做的事(例如,依据上下文信息) * Attention and the user is currently doing (eg, depending on the context information)

*用户当前在什么地方; * What the user is currently in place;

*信息的重要程度是如何的; * How important is the degree of information;

*延迟通知的成本是多少; * How much is the cost of delay notification;

*应怎样分散通知; * What should disperse notice;

*到达用户的可能性是什么程度;及, * The possibility of reaching the user what extent; and,

*与使用指定的通知接收器的指定方式相关联的保真度损失是多少; 因此,通知管理器24能执行等待的和激活的通知的分析,例如决策理论分析,评估由信息接收器和信息源提供的有关上下文依赖的变量,及推论所选取的未确定性,例如,直到用户可以查阅信息前的时间和用户的位置及当前关注状态。 * Fidelity loss associated with the use of designated specify notification receiver how much; therefore, the notification manager 24 can perform analysis and wait for the notification of activation, such as decision theory analysis to assess the information received and information variables related to the context-dependent, and reasoning provided by the selected source is not certainty, for example, until the user can review the information before the time and location of the user and the current state of interest.

如这儿所用的,推论一般涉及从经过事件和/或数据获捕的一组观察值系统10的有关状态或推论状态的理由的;环境;和/或用户的处理。 As used here, it relates to a general inference or inferences from a reason relating to the state of the state through a set of observations system events and / or data capture of 10 eligible; environment; and / or user processes. 用户的处理。 Handling users. 例如,能用推论识别特殊的上下文或动作,或能对状态产生一个概率分布。 For example, use a particular context or action inferences identification, or can generate a probability distribution state. 该推论可以是概率统计的一即,基于数据和事件的考虑,在感兴趣的状态上的概率分布的计算。 The inference can be one that is based on consideration of data and events, calculate the statistical probability of a probability distribution over states of interest. 推论也能涉及一些技术,用于从一组事件和/或数据组成高层事件。 Inference can also involve some technology for from a set of events and / or data composed of high-level events. 这样的推论导致从一组观察的事件和/或储存的事件数据构成新的事件或动作,不管这些事件是否在紧接的接近中(in close te即oal proximity)相关,及不管这些事件和数据是否来自一个或几个事件和数据源。 Such inference results in the construction of new events or actions from a set of observed events and / or stored event data, whether or not these events immediately in (in close te namely oal proximity) related to proximity, and whether the events and data whether from one or several event and data sources. 此外,通知管理器24能够通过上下文分析器22存取(access)储存在用户配置文件中的信息,替代或支持人格化的决策理论分析。 Further, the notification manager 24 can be in the user profile information stored by the context analyzer 22 Access (Access), instead of or in support of decision theory personified analysis. 例如,用户配置文件可以指明:在给定的时间,并且在通知有某一预定分类(例如,重要性)等级时,用户更喜欢通过寻呼机通知他,。 For example, users can specify the configuration file: at a given time, and there is a predetermined classification notice (eg, importance) level when the user prefers notify him by pager. 利用这样的信息作为基线, 从那儿开始启动决策理论分析,或可以是这种方式,通知该方式通知管理器确定怎样和是否通知用户。 With this information as a baseline, from where started decision theory analysis, or can be this way, notice the way the notification manager determines how and whether to notify the user.

按照本发明的一个方面,可以将通知平台总体结构10配置成一层,该层驻留在事件消息基础结构上。 According to one aspect of the present invention, the overall structure can notify the platform 10 is configured as a layer, which layer resides on the event messaging infrastructure. 然而,本发明并不限制于任何特殊事件基础结构。 However, the present invention is not limited to any particular event infrastructure. 这样的事件和消息系统和协方可以包括: Such events and messaging systems and covariance may include:

*如技术领域中已知的超文本传送协议(HTTP)或HTTP扩展; * As known in the art hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), or HTTP extensions;

*如技术领域中已知的简单目标访问协议(SOAP); * As known in the art Simple Object Access Protocol (the SOAP);

*如技术领域中已知的窗口管理指令(WMI); * As known in the art window management instruction (the WMI);

*如技术领域中己知的Jini;及 * As known in the art the Jini; and

*实际上任何类型的通信协议,例如,诸如基于包交换技术协议的通信协议。 * Virtually any type of communications protocol, e.g., such as a communication protocol based on packet switching protocol.

此外,如技术上一般熟练的那些人员所理解的,可以把总体结构配置为驻留在灵活分布的计算基础结构上的一个层。 Moreover, as those who are ordinarily skilled technically appreciated, the overall structure can be configured as a layer on a flexible distributed computing infrastructure resident. 这样,通知平台总体结构能够利用一个 In this way, the overall structure of the notification platform to take advantage of a

下面的基础结构作为源发送通知,提醒和事件;并作为接收器接收通知,提醒和事件的一种方式的一种方式。 The following infrastructure as the source send notifications, alerts and events; as a receiver to receive notifications, alerts and events in a way a way. 然而,本发明不受这样的限制。 However, the present invention is not so limited.

现在参考图2,将更详细地描述先前描述章节中详细描述的通知总体结构的上下文分析器22。 Referring now to Figure 2, will be described in detail previously described in the context of the overall structure of the analyzer of the notification section 22 described in detail. 图2中描述的上下文分析器22包括一个用户通知优先级存储器52, 一个含有用户上下文配置文件存储器55和白色书写板57的用户上下文模块54。 Figure 2 depicts a context analyzer 22 includes a user notification priority memory 52, a user context comprises user profile memory 55, and a whiteboard 57 of the module 54 context. 能够将按照本发明一个方面的上下文分析器22实现成来自其中的机器可读介质(如存储器)的,计算机的处理器能执行的一个或多个计算机程序。 According to one aspect can be the context of the present invention from the analyzer to achieve 22 wherein the machine-readable medium (e.g., memory), one or more computer programs can be executed by a computer processor. 优先级存储器52存储用户的通知参数,例如用户的缺省通知优先级,例如用户的配置文件(profile),用户可编辑和修改这些参数。 The priority memory 52 stores user notification parameters, such as the user's default notification priority, such as a user profile (Profile), the user can edit and modify these parameters. 可以把优先级存储器5 可看作储存影响怎样通知用户的参数信息的存储器。 5 can be regarded as the priority memory storage on how notification information of the user parameter memory. 用户上下文模块54依据白色书写板57上公布的一个或多个上下文信息源,确定用户的当前上下文。 User context module 54 to write one or more contextual information sources based on published on the white plate 57, determine the user's current context. 用户上下文配置文件存储器55储存用户的上下文参数,例如,用户缺省上下文设置,用户可以编辑和修改这些参数。 User context profile store 55 stores the user's context parameters, e.g., the user's default context settings, the user can edit and modify these parameters. g卩,用户上下文模块54通过从配置文件存储器55存取的信息,和/或经一个或多个上下文源60,用动态检测更新在存储器55中一套预先的信任设置,提供有关用户当前上下文信息的最佳推测或估计。 Jie g, 54 by the user context module 55 of the access information from the profile memory, and / or via one or more context sources 60, updates the trust in the memory 55 is provided with a set of pre dynamic testing, provides information about the user's current context information or best guess estimate. 例如,可以把配置文件存储器55看作为存储用户在什么地方的先验值,和用户在干什么的存储器。 For example, memory 55 can be regarded as the configuration file is stored in the user where a priori, and the user doing the memory.

用户上下文配置文件存储器55可以是一个预估计和/或预确定的用户配置文件,该配置文件捕获这样的信息作为一个确定性的或概率的配置文件(profile)。 User context profile store 55 may be a pre-estimate and / or pre-determined user profile, the profile captures such information as a deterministic or probabilistic profile (profile). 该配置文件可以是一般的位置,活动,设备的可用性,和不同类型通知的成本和价值,作为例如时刻,日期类型,以及用户和一个或多个设备的相互作用的观察之类的。 The configuration file may be a general location, cost value and availability activities, equipment, and the different types of notification, such as, for example observed interaction time, date type, and one or more user and device. 观察值的函数,例如,日期类型可以包括周日,周末和假日。 Function of observations, for example, the date type may include Sun, weekends and holidays. 那末,用户上下文模块54可以动态地确定或推论用户上下文或状态的情况(aspects),例如用户当前或将来的位置和关注状态。 Case (Aspects) then, the user context module 54 may be dynamically determined or inferred user context or state, such as the user's current or future location and the state of interest. 此外,可经过白色书写板57从上下文信息源60直接存取上下文的实际状态,和/或可以通过如贝叶斯之类的推论方法从多种观察中推导出上下文的实际状态,如下面将详细描述的。 Furthermore, access through the whiteboard 57 from the source 60 directly to the actual context information of the context state, and / or may be derived from a variety of observations by the actual state of the context as Bayesian inference or the like, as will be detailed description.

上下文信息源60经过有关用户的关注状态和位置的白色书写板57把信息提供给上下文模块54,从这些信息中,模块54作出关于用户当前上下文(例如,用户当前关注状态和位置)的确定。 Context information source 60 through the white state of interest and the location of the user of the tablet 57 information to the context module 54, from this information, module 54 a determination is made regarding the user's current context (e.g., the user's current attention status and location). 此外,本发明不限制于上下文源60 的特定数量或类型,也不限制于由用户上下文模块54推论或存取的信息类型。 Further, the present invention is not limited to a particular number or type of context source 60 is not limited to the type of information provided by the user context module 54 inference or accessed. 然而,上下文源60可以包括若干桌面(desktop)信息和事件,例如鼠标信息, 键盘信息,应用程序信息(例如,哪个应用程序目前正在接收用户的焦点), 周围声音和发言的信息,桌上型电脑窗口中的文本信息。 However, the context of the source 60 may include a number of the desktop (desktop) and event information, information such as a mouse, keyboard information, application information (for example, which application is currently receiving a user's focus), information about the surrounding sounds and speak, desktop text information computer window. 白色书写板57可以包括通用存储区,上下文信息源60可在该区内出版信息,并且包含信息源和上下文模块54的若干部件,也能从该通用存储区存取该信息。 Whiteboard 57 may include a general storage area, the context information may be published information source 60 within the zone, and comprising a plurality of information sources and the context module member 54, and also from the general storage area access information. 也称作为通知或提醒事件, 一般可包括关于一个或多个世界状态的观察的信息。 Also known as event notifications or reminders, may generally include information about one or more observable state of the world. 这样的状态能包括系统部件的状态,用户的行动,和/或关于环境的测量,此外,可以通过测量设备和/或事件源的动态轮流检测产生事件,通过接收在根据变化发送的信息,和/或每一恒定的(per a constant)或变化的事件跳动(varying event heartbeat)时发送的信息而产生事件。 Such state can include the state of system components, user actions and / or measurements about the environment, in addition, can polling event is generated by the dynamic measurement apparatus and / or event source, by receiving the information change transmission, and / or each constant (per a constant) or variations of the event information transmitted when jitter (varying event heartbeat) generated event.

其他类型的上下文源60包括用户信息的个人信息管理器(PIM) (personal-information of the user),例如,该管理器一般能提供有关用户的时间表的调度信息。 Other types of context information source 60 includes a user's personal information manager (PIM) (personal-information of the user), for example, the scheduling manager generally provide information about the user's schedule. 当前时刻,以及用户的位置一例如,由全球定位系统(GPS),和/或用户的蜂窝电话,PDA,或能本地确定的膝上电脑的接入而确定的一也是上下文源60的一些类型。 The current time, and a position of the user, for example, by the Global Positioning System (GPS), and / or the user's cell phone, PDA, or laptop computers can access the determined local determination of a context is some type of source 60 . 此外,实时移设备使用是上下文源60的一种类型。 In addition, the use of real-time shifting device 60 is a type of context source. 例如,象蜂窝电话之类的移动设备能够确定是否当前用户正在进行存取,以及设备方位和倾角(例如,表明有关设备的使用信息),和加速度及速度(例如,表明有关用户是否正在移动的信息)。 For example, mobile devices such as cellular phones can determine whether the user is currently being accessed, as well as device orientation and tilt (e.g., that the use of information about the device), and acceleration and speed (e.g., whether the relevant user is moving information).

现参考图3,更详细地描述上述的通知源。 Referring now to Figure 3, the above-described notification sources described in more detail. 通知源26至28 —般产生传送给通知管理器24的通知,该管理器确定何时应发生通知,及,假如这样的话, 应当把哪条通知传送给通知接收器36至38中的哪一个,并按怎样的顺序传送。 Notification Source 26 to 28 - as generated is transmitted to notify the notification manager 24, the manager determines when notifications should occur, and, if so, should the which of the notifications to notify the receiver which of the 36 to 38 a and delivers the kind of order.

按照本发明的一个方面,通知源26至28可以有标准属性描述和关系中的的一个或多个下述参数,这儿称为通知源模式或源模式(source schema)。 According to one aspect of the invention, notification sources 26 to 28 can have standard attributes and relationships described in one or more of the following parameters, here called the notification source schema or source schema (source schema). 注意,可以对于上述的源,接收器,上下文信息源提供源模式。 Note that, the above-described mode can provide a source of the source, the receiver, the context information source. 这种源模式提供有关不同元件的说明信息,并能启动源26至28,通知管理器24,接收器36至38,上下文分析器22,以彼此共享语义学的信息。 This mode provides a source of information about the different elements of instructions, and can start the source 26 to 28, notification manager 24, the receiver 36 to 38, the context analyzer 22, in order to share information with each other semantics. 这样,不同的源模式提供关于与通知相关的特性,紧急性和设备信令形态(device signaling modalities)的信息。 Thus, the different source modes provide emergency signaling device and form (device signaling modalities) associated with the notification information about the characteristics. 也就是, 一般能把源模定义为确定通知和事件的结构的类别和类别间关系的一种集合,例如,含有的信息包括事件或通知类别, 源,目标,事件或通知语义学(semantics),实质内容信息,观察可靠性,和实质上任何服务质量属性。 That is, the source can generally defined as a set of mold category and category inter-relationship between the event notification and to determine the structure of, e.g., containing information including event or notification of categories, the source, target, event or notification semantics (semantics) The substance of information, observe reliability, quality of service, and virtually any property.

通知源模式的参数(未示出)可以包括一种或多种:消息类别;相关性; 重要性;时间临界;新颖性;内容属性;保真度权衡(fidelity tradeoffs), 和/或源信息的摘要信息。 Parameters (not shown) notification source schema can include one or more of: message class; correlation; importance; time critical; novelty; content attributes; fidelity tradeoff (fidelity tradeoffs), and / or source information summary information. 由通知源产生的通知的消息类别,表明通知的通信的类型,例如,电子邮件,瞬时消息,数字财务更新,和桌面服务。 Notification message classes generated by the notification source, indicating the type of communication to inform, for example, e-mail, instant messaging, digital financial updates, and desktop services. 由通知源产生通知的相关性,表明对于一个或多个指定的上下文(context)通知内含有的信息是相关的可能性。 Generates a notification by the notification source correlation shows that for one or more specified context (context) information contained within the notification is related to the possibility. 例如,能由逻辑标志提供相关性,表明该源是否与给出的上下文相关联。 For example, the correlation can be provided by a logical flag indicating whether the context associated with a given source. 通知的新颖性表示用户已经知道通知含有的信息的可能性。 Novelty notice indicates the possibility of a notification containing the information of the user already knows. 即,新颖性是该信息对用户是是新的。 That is, the novelty is that the information the user is new. 还是过时的(表示如果用户现在知道该信息,而如果有过的话,用户将会了解该信息而不需要向用户提醒它)。 Or obsolete (indicate if the user now know this information, and if ever, users will understand the information without the need to remind it to the user).

与通知相关联的保真度权衡表示,例如,由所指定允许的不同格式的切断和/或概要化产生的通知中的信息的价值的损失。 Fidelity tradeoffs associated with the notification means, for example, by a specified different formats allow cutting and / or loss of value of the summary information of the generated notification. 为了将通知传送到某种类 In order to send a notification to some class

型的通知接收器36至38要求这样的切断和/或概要化。 Type notification receiver 36 to 38 such cutting and / or of the summary. 这类通知接收器可以具有通知的带宽和/或其他的限制,防止接收器接收如原来产生的完整。 Such notification receiver may have a bandwidth and / or other restrictions notification, prevents the receiver as originally generated complete. 保真度一般是指与一个通知相关联的原始内容的性质和/或完整度。 Generally it refers to the fidelity of the original content associated with a notification and / or integrity properties. 例如,可能切断一条长的电子邮件消息,或否则概括为蜂窝电话所允许的100个字符的最大值,招致保真度的损失。 For example, it may cut off a long e-mail message, or otherwise summarized to a maximum allowed by the cellular phone 100 characters, leading to loss of fidelity. 同样,当经过只具有文本能力的设备发送时,含有文本和图形内容的原始信息的保真度受到损失。 Similarly, when the device passes only a transmission text capacity, fidelity of the original information containing text and graphics content suffer. 另外, 一种设备可能只能描写从源上可得到的完整分辨率的一部分。 Further, an apparatus may describe only a portion of the full resolution available from the source. 保真度权衡是指一组按照序列(例如,按首先反映图形,然后声音的重要性次序)和/或成本函数中任一项规定的源的保真度优先级。 Fidelity tradeoffs refer to a set of sequences in accordance with (e.g., by reflecting the first pattern, then the order of importance of sound) and / or the cost function in any of a predetermined fidelity source priority. 所述成本函数指出通知内容的总价值怎样随保真度的改变而减少。 The total value of the cost function indicates how the content of the notification of change with reduced fidelity. 例如,保真度权衡能够描述与完整的电子邮件消息的发送相关联的全价值怎样随切断量的增大而变化。 For example, it can weigh fidelity and complete e-mail message sent the whole value associated with how to cut the amount of increase varies description. 例如,内容属性可以包括内容性质的摘要,表示这种信息为核心消息是否含有文本,图形,和音频成分这样的信息。 For example, the content attributes may include the nature of the summary content, such information indicates whether the core message containing such information as text, graphics, and audio components. 内容本身是组成通知的消息内容的实际图形,文本和/或音频。 The actual content itself is composed of the graphic content of the message notification, text and / or audio.

通知的重要性是指通知含有的信息对用户的价值,假定该信息是与当前上下文有关的。 The importance of notification is the value of user information contained in the notification, it is assumed that the information is relevant to the current context. 例如,重要性表示为该信息对用户的价值相当于一美元价值。 For example, the importance of that information represents the equivalent of a dollar value on the value of the user. 时间临界性表示一个通知中含有的信息的价值与时间有关的变化--即,信息的价值怎样随时间变化。 It represents the value of time-critical and time-dependent changes in the information contained in a notice - that is, how the value of information changes over time. 在大部分但不是全部情况中,通知的信息价值随时间而衰减。 In most but not all cases, the value of information notified decay over time. 这在图4的曲线图中描述。 This is depicted in the graph of FIG. 4. 曲线图80描述在时间上通知的实用性。 APPLICABILITY graph 80 is described in the notification time. 在曲线图中的点84处,表示初始时间,表明该通知的重要性,而曲线86指明其实用性随时间的衰减。 84 point in the graph, representing the initial time, demonstrating the importance of the notification, and the curve 86 indicating its usefulness decay over time.

返回参考图3,可以在例如图2的存储器52之类的用户通知优先级存储器中存储器中存储的通知配置文件中获得不同通知源或信息源类型的缺省属性和源模式模板。 Referring back to FIG. 3, may notify the priority of the memory stored in the memory of the default notification profile obtained attribute information different notification sources or source type and source mode, for example, a user template in the memory 52 of FIG. 2 or the like. 能引导这样的缺省模板代替由通知源提供的价值,或当这些价值从由源提供的源模式中丢失时,能用该缺省模板提供属性。 This guide can replace the value of the default template provided by notification sources, or when these values ​​are missing from the source model provided by the source, can you use the default template provided property. 源的摘要信息能使一个信息源邮递信息状态的一般摘要和从一个源上得到的潜在的通知。 Source summary information enables a source of information of state information of a general summary of postal and potential notifications available from a source. 例如,从消息源来的源摘要信息可以包括有关至少有某些优先级的关于未读消息的总数量的信息,所述未读消息具有至少某种优先权;人们尝试与一个用户通信的状态;和/或其他摘要信息。 For example, a message from a source to the source may include summary information about at least some of the priority information about the total number of unread messages, the unread message has at least some priority; people try to communicate with a user of a state ; and / or other summary information.

通知接收器36至38实际上可以是任何一种设备或应用程序,可以通过这些接收器向用户或其他实体通知中含有的信息。 Notification receiver 36 to 38 can be virtually any device or application, may contain information to a user or other entity through which the receiver notification. 通知管理器24确定使用哪个接收器或哪些接收器传送特殊通知的选择。 Notification manager 24 determines which receiver or receivers which use special notification transmitted.

通知接收器36至38可以有在源模式内提供的一个或多个下列的参数。 Notification receiver parameters 36 to 38 can be provided in a source mode or more of the following. 例如,这些参数可以包括一种设备类别;发信号(提醒)的方式;及,对于相关联的方式,包括保真度/绘制能力,传输可靠性,通信的实际成本,和/ 或干扰关注的成本。 For example, these parameters may include one device class; signaling mode (alert); and, for the associated mode, fidelity including / rendering capabilities, transmission reliability, actual cost of communication, and / or interference of interest cost. 对于适合于提醒属性参数化控制的设备,设备的源模式能另外包括提醒属性和控制属性的参数的描述,和其他属性(例如,传输可靠性,分配的成本)随提醒属性的不同设置而变化的函数。 For parameters describing properties of the parameters suitable for the alert source mode device, the control device can further include a reminder properties and control properties, and other properties (e.g., transmission reliability, cost of distribution) with a different set alert properties varies The function. 通知接收器的源模式(schema)提供通信方式,通过这种方式,通知设备能与通知管理器24 和/或系统的其他部件传送有关他们的性质和能力的语义信息。 Source mode notification receiver (schema) providing communication, in this way, the notification 24, and / or other components of the transfer system and device capable notification manager semantic information about their nature and capabilities. 可以在储存在用户通知优先级存储器(例如,如先前章节描述的图2中的存储器52)中的设备配置文件中获得不同设备类型的缺省属性和源模式(schema)模板。 The notification may be stored in memory priority user (e.g., as described in the previous section in FIG. 52 in the memory 2) in the device configuration file to obtain different device types and default attributes of the source pattern (schema) template. 可引导这种缺省模板替代由设备提供的值,或当从由这种设备提供的源模式中丢失属性时,该缺省模板可提供这些属性。 Such default templates can direct substitute values ​​provided by the device, or when the property is missing from the source pattern provided by such apparatus, the default template can provide these properties.

现在逐项描述每个模式参数。 Each mode is now described by one parameter. 例如,设备类别是指诸如蜂窝电话,桌面计算机,和膝上计算机之类的设备的类型。 For example, the device class of the device refers to the type such as cellular telephones, desktop computers, laptop computers, and the like. 类别也可以是为更普通的,例如移动的或固定的(stationery)设备。 Category may be a more common, such as a mobile or stationary (Stationery) devices. 信令的方式是指给定设备向用户提醒有关通知的方式。 Signaling mode refers to a given device reminder notice to the user mode. 设备可以有一种或多种通知方式。 Device can have one or more notification ways. 例如,蜂窝电话可能只有振动,可只有某种音量的振铃,禾卩/或它可以既有振动又有振铃。 For example, a cellular phone may be vibration, volume can only some ringing, Jie Wo / or it may have both vibration ringing. 此外,提醒系统的桌面显示器可以分解成几种独立的方式(例如,在显示器右上角上的小的通知窗口对屏幕上部的小的略图一带或不带声音预示)。 In addition, desktop monitor reminder system can be broken down into several independent manner (e.g., a small notification window in the upper right corner of the display screen of the upper portion of the small thumbnail area predictive or without sound). 在限制于一组预定的行为以外, 一个设备能使方式带有是参数函数的提醒属性,作为设备定义的一部分。 Be limited to a predetermined set of behavioral outside, a device can remind embodiment with a function attribute parameter, defined as part of the device. 对于一种方式这种连续提醒参数把这样的控制表示为音量(例如在桌上型电脑上以该音量播放提醒,在蜂窝电话上按该音量振铃)以及提醒窗口的大小。 One way for such a continuous reminder to such a control parameter representation (e.g. to alert the playback volume on the desktop, the press ring volume on a cellular phone) and a reminder of the volume window size.

通知接收器36至38的方式的传输可靠性表示用户接收有关通知的通信提醒的可能性,经过接收器按该方式将该通知传送给用户。 Transmission of the notification receiver 36 to 38 indicates the reliability of the possibility of the user receiving a communication alert notice, after receiving the notification in this manner is transmitted to the user. 因传输可靠性可以取决于设备的可用性和用户的上下文(context),所以在诸如用户的位置和关注这样的上下文属性上,能够调节某设备的不同方式的传输可靠性。 Due to availability and transmission reliability may be dependent on the user's device context (context), so the user, such as the location and attributes of interest such contexts, can be adjusted in different ways of transmission reliability of a device. 也能够指定一个或多个唯一的上下文状态的传输可靠性,通这些属性的交叉乘积定义为唯一位置和唯一关注状态,定义为由这样属性的抽取而创建的分离 It is possible to specify one or more unique context state transmission reliability, these properties through the cross product is defined as a unique location and status only concern, this property is defined by extraction separation created

(例如对于离开家的任一位置,和上午8点后和中午前的任一时间段)。 (For example, any position away from home, and after 8 am and before any one time period at noon). 例如,根据用户当前所在的地方,发送给蜂窝电话的信息或许不总是会到达用户,特别是如果用户在具有间断的复盖地区中,或在该位置处用户趋向于没有蜂窝电话(例如,家庭假日)。 For example, depending on where the user is currently located, information is sent to the cell phone may not always reach the user, especially if the user has interrupted the coverage area, or in the location of the cellular telephone user does not tend to be (for example, family holidays). 因为环境噪声和/或其他掩蔽或上下文的分离特性(distracting properties),上下文也可能影响发送的可靠性。 Since ambient noise and / or other separation characteristics (distracting properties), it may also affect the reliability of the transmitted context masking or context.

通信的实际成本表示当传送给接收器的通知内含有信息时,把该信息传送给用户的实际成本。 The actual cost of communication indicates when the information contained in the notification sent to the receiver, transmits the information to the user's actual cost. 例如,该成本可以包括与蜂窝电话发送相关联的成本。 For example, the costs may include cost associated with the transmission of a cellular telephone. 在一个特殊的上下文中,中断成本包括与中断相关联的关注(attentional)的成本,该中断与由设备特殊方式所用的提醒相关联。 In a particular context, the interrupt with an interrupt costs include concern associated (attentional), which is interrupted by the alert device associated with the particular mode used. 关注成本通常对用户关注的特殊焦点是敏感的。 Special focus is usually on the cost of the user concerned is sensitive. 保真度/绘制能力描述(description)设备(也是给定的模式)的文本,图形,和声音/触觉的能力。 Fidelity rendering capability descriptor / (Description) devices (also given pattern) text, graphics, and audio / tactile capabilities. 例如,对于蜂窝电话的任何单条信息,其文本限制于100个字符,且电话或许没有图形能力。 For example, any single piece of information for the cellular phone, which is limited to 100 characters of text, and the phone may not have graphics capabilities.

现在转到图5,界面90描述用户选择的上下文说明,能被上下文分析器用于确定用户当前的上下文。 Turning now to FIG. 5, described in the context describes the user interface (90) selected, the analyzer can be used to determine the context of the current user context. 描述由用户,和/或用户可修改的配置文件直接指明的用户上下文的确定。 Determining a user context described by the user, and / or modify the user's profile may be specified directly. 用户上下文能包括用户的关注焦点一即,用户当前是否适合于接收通知的提醒一以及用户的当前位置。 User context can include a user's focus of interest i.e., whether the current user and is adapted to alert a user to receive notification of the current position. 然而,本发明不受这样限制。 However, the present invention is not so limited.

用户的上下文的直接说明能使用户表明他或她是否能够接收提醒,和用户希望在什么地方接收提醒。 Directly explain the context of the user enables the user to indicate whether he or she can receive alerts, and where users want to receive alerts. 能使用缺省的配置文件(profile)(未示出)来表明缺省的关注意状态,和用户能接收提醒的缺省位置。 You can use the default profile (Profile) (not shown) to indicate a default attentional state OFF, and the default position of the user can receive alerts. 如所希望的,用户能够修改缺省的配置文件。 As desired, the user can modify the default configuration file.

参考图5,按照本发明的一个方面,界面90描述怎样能实现上下文的直接说明。 Referring to FIG 5, according to one aspect of the present invention, the interface 90 can be achieved directly described illustrate how context. 例如,窗口91具有关注焦点部分92和位置部分94。 For example, window 91 and a portion 92 having a focus position of portion 94. 在焦点部分92 中,用户能检查一个或多个检查框96,例如,表明用户是否总是能接收提醒; 用户是否总是不能接收提醒;和,用户是否仅能接收重要性等级大于预先确定阈值的提醒。 In the focus section 92, the user can check one or more check boxes 96, for example, it indicates whether the user is always able to receive alerts; if the user can not always receive reminders; and, if the user receives only the importance level greater than a predetermined threshold value reminder. 应当理解,可以提供其他可利用的选择。 It will be appreciated, may be provided to select other available. 如图5所述,可以按美元来度量阈值,但这仅用于示范性目的,因此本发明不受这样限制。 As shown in Figure 5, may be dollar metric threshold, this is for exemplary purposes, and therefore the invention is not so limited. 用户能通过直接输入一个新值来增加方框98中的阈值,或能通过箭头100增加或减少该阈值。 The user can directly enter a new value to increase the threshold in block 98, by arrow 100, or to increase or decrease the threshold.

在位置部分94中,用户能检查一个或多个检查框102,以表明用户希望使提醒传送到什么地方。 In the position of section 94, the user can check one or more check boxes 102 to indicate that the user wishes to transmit a reminder to where. 例如,用户能使提醒在桌上型电脑上,通过电子邮件,在膝上电脑上,在蜂窝电话上,在他或她的汽车里,在寻呼机上,或在个人数字助理(PDA)设备上,等等设备上传送。 For example, a user can make a reminder on the desktop, on laptops, on a cellular phone in his or her car, on a pager, or a personal digital assistant (PDA) devices via e-mail , transmission equipment and so on. 应当明白,这些仅仅是示范例,然而本发明本身不受这样限制。 It should be understood that these are merely exemplary embodiments, but the present invention itself is not so limited.

可以把窗口91 (其中可能是选择部分92的检查框96和方框98及选择部分94的检查框102的预置缺省值)。 The window 91 may be (part of which may be selected check boxes 96 and 92 of the block 98 and section 94 to select the preset default value of the check box 102). 看作一个缺省的用户配置文件。 As a default user profile. 该配置文件是用户可修改的,用户能用他或她自己希望的选择复盖缺省的选择。 The configuration file is a user-modifiable, the user can use his or her own desired selection covering the default choice. 按照本发明,也可利用其他类型的配置文件。 According to the present invention, it may also be utilized other types of profiles.

现在参考图6,例如,按照本发明描述,用一个或多个传感器通过直接测量而确定用户的上下文。 Referring now to FIG. 6, for example, according to the present invention is described, the context of the user is determined using one or more sensors by direct measurement. 用户的上下文可以包括用户的关注焦点,以及他或她的当前的位置。 Context of the user can include the user's focus, as well as his or her current location. 然而,本发明本身不受这样限制。 However, the invention itself is not so limited. 上下文的直接测量表示可以应用传感器检测用户当前是否适合于接收提醒,并检测用户目前在什么地方。 Direct measurement of context indicates whether the user can apply a current sensor adapted to detect the received alert, and detects where the user is currently in. 按照本发明的一个方面,能利用推论性分析和直接测量来确定用户的上下文,如下说明书的下面章节所描述的。 According to one aspect of the present invention, using inference can be directly measured and analyzed to determine the context of the user, as described in the following sections of the specification.

参考图6,描述能实现用户上下文直接测量的系统110。 Referring to FIG 6, a direct measurement of user context can be described in the system 110 implemented. 系统110包括上下文分析器112,和通信耦合到该分析器的许多传感器114至120,也就是, 例如蜂窝电话114,视频摄影机115,麦克风116,键盘117,个人数字助理(PDA) 118,车辆119,和全球定位系统(GPS) 120。 The system 110 includes a context analyzer 112, and a plurality of sensors communicatively coupled to the analyzer 114 to 120, i.e., such as cellular telephone 114, video camera 115, microphone 116, a keyboard 117, a personal digital assistant (PDA) 118, vehicle 119 , and global positioning system (GPS) 120. 图6所述的传感器114 至120只作示范性目的,并不表示对本发明本身的限制或约束。 The sensor in FIG. 6 114-120 for exemplary purposes, does not mean that the invention itself is limited or restricted. 这里所用的术语传感器是普通的和极度概括性的术语,是指上下文分析器112能用来确定用户目前的关注焦点,和/或用户目前的位置的任何设备或方式。 The term sensor as used herein is extremely common and general terms, the context analyzer 112 refers to any device or can be used to determine how users current focus, and / or the current location of the user.

例如,如果用户有通电的蜂窝电话,这表明用户能够在蜂窝电话114上接收提醒。 For example, if the user has powered cellular telephones, which indicates that the user can receive alerts on the cell phone 114. 然而,如果用户当前正在用蜂窝电话114交谈,则这能够表明用户有他或她的别的关注焦点(即,当前电话呼叫),致使目前不能用通知提醒打扰用户。 However, if the user is currently talking with a cell phone 114, this indicates that the user can have his or her other focus (ie, the current telephone call), so that the current can not disturb the user with a reminder notice. 例如,摄像机115能在用户的办公室内,检测用户是否在他或她的办公室里(即,用户的位置),和是否还有别人也在他或她的办公室里, 暗示他们在开会,这样用户也不应受到打扰(即,用户的焦点)。 For example, the camera 115 can be in the user's office, to detect whether the user is in his or her office (ie, the user's location), and if someone else is in his or her office, suggesting that they are in a meeting, so users should not be disturbed (ie, the user's focus). 相似地, 麦克风116也可以在用户的办公室里,检测用户是否在跟某个其他人谈话, 这样,用户也应当不受到打扰,如正在敲击键盘(例如,经过键盘发出的声音),这样用户目前也不应受到打扰。 Similarly, the microphone 116 may be in the user's office, to detect whether the user is talking with some other people, so that the user should not be disturbed, as are typing on the keyboard (for example, the sound emitted through the keyboard), so that the user At present, this should not bother. 也能用键盘117确定用户目前是否正在键盘上面击打,例如,如果用户正在非常快地击打,这或许表明用户正集中与计算机相关的活动,并且不应当过度地受打扰(和,也能表明用户在他或她自已的办公室内的事实)。 117 keyboard can also be used to determine whether the user is currently being hit above the keyboard, for example, if a user is hit very quickly, which may indicate that the user is focusing on computer-related activities, and should not be unduly disturbed (and, also the fact that the user within his or her own office).

如果用户正在访问PDA设备118,这能表明用户能在设备118上接收提醒一也就是,通知要传送到的地方就是设备118所在的位置。 If a user is accessing PDA device 118, which can indicate that the user is able to receive a reminder on the device 118, the notification to be sent to the location where the device 118 is located. 能够利用设备118 确定用户目前的关注焦点。 Device 118 can be utilized to determine the current focus of the user. 能利用车辆119确定用户当前是否在车内一也就是,用户目前是否正在开车。 The user can use the vehicle 119 determines whether a current that is, whether the user is currently driving in the car. 此外,例如能考虑车辆的速度来确定用户的焦点。 Further, for example, to consider the vehicle speed to determine the user's focus. 例如,如果速度大于预定的速度,那末,这或许可以确定用户正集中精力开车,不应当受通知提醒的打扰。 For example, if the speed is greater than a predetermined speed, then, perhaps you can determine whether the user is concentrating on driving, notification alerts should not be disturbed by. 全球定位系统(GPS)设备也能用于确定用户目前的位置,如本技术中所知的。 A global positioning system (GPS) devices can also be used to determine the current location of the user, as is known in the art.

在下列的详细描述的章节中,将描述按照用户可修改规则的用户上下文的确定。 In the following detailed description section, the user can modify the rules in accordance with the determined user context will be described. 用户的上下文可以包括用户的关注焦点,以及他或她目前的位置。 Context of the user can include the user's focus, as well as his or her current position. 然而,本发明不受这样限制。 However, the present invention is not so limited. 经规则确定的上下文表明能遵循如果一那么规则的分级组来确定用户的位置和/或关注焦点。 Determined by the context of the show to follow the rules that if a hierarchical set of rules to determine the user's location and / or focus.

参考图7,框图描述规则130的示范性分级次序组。 Referring to Figure 7, a block diagram depicts an exemplary rule set 130 in hierarchical order. 例如,该规则130的组描述规则132、 133、 134、 135、 136、 137和138。 For example, the rule that describes a rule 130 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137 and 138. 应当注意也可以相似地配置其他规则。 It should be noted also be configured similar to other rules. 如图7所示,规则133和134服从132,而规则134服从规则133,规则138服从规则138。 7, the 133 and 134 subject to the rules 132, rules 134 and obey the rules 133, rules 138 138 obey the rules. 按排规则的次序,其中,首先测试规则132; 如果发现是真的,那么测试规则133,并且如果发现规则133是真的,那么测试规则134,等等。 Row in the order of the rules, wherein the rules of the first test 132; if found to be true, then the test rules 133, rules 133 and if found to be true, then the test rules 134, and the like. 如果发现规则133是错的,那么测试规则135。 If the rule 133 is wrong, then the test found 135 rules. 如果发现规则132是错的,那么测试规则136,如发现这是错的,那么引起规则137的测试,如发现这里真的那么引起规则138的测试。 If you find that rule 132 is wrong, then the test rule 136, which is found to be wrong, then the cause rule 137 of the test, then the cause is found here is really a test of rule 138. 这些规则是用户理想地可创建的和/或可修改的。 These rules are and / or modify the user ideally be created. 在规则130组中也可能包括其他类型的规则(例如, 如果发现如果一那么(if-then)规则是错的,则其他类型的规则正在控制)。 It may also include other types of rules (e.g., if it is found that if a (if-then) the rule is wrong, the other type of rule is controlling) in the rule set 130. 这样,用户能够组成规则组,以致确定用户的上下文。 Thus, the user can group consisting of rules, determining that the user's context. 例如,相应于位置,该规则组可是这样的,第一条规则测试当天是否是周日,如果是的,则服从第一条规则第二条规则,测试当前的时间是否在上午9点和下午5点之间,如果是的,则第二条规则指出用户在他或她的办公室里,否则用户在家里。 For example, corresponding to the position, but the rule is set like this, the first rule whether the test day was Sunday, and if yes, then obey the first rule of the second rule, test the current time is at 9 am and afternoon between 5:00 If yes, then the second rule states that the user in his or her office, or at home users. 如果发现第一条规则是错的一即,当天是周末而不是周日一则另一条规则可以指出用户在家里。 If you find a first rule is that is wrong, that day is Sunday weekend instead of a user may indicate another rule at home. 应当注意到这个例子不是本发明本身的限制性的或约束性的例子,其中还可以相似地配置一个或多个其它的规则。 It should be noted that the examples are not limiting example of the invention itself or a binding, which may be configured similarly to one or more other rules.

在说明书的下列章节中,将描述通过推论分析(例如应用统计和贝叶斯模型)来确定用户的上下文。 In the following section of the specification, to determine the context of the user by the inference analysis (e.g. using statistical and Bayesian model) will be described. 应当注意:经过推论分析确定的上下文能依赖其他确定的某些方面,例如经传感器直接测量,如已描述过的。 It should be noted: After deduction analysis can rely on the determined context to determine certain other aspects, such as direct measurement via the sensor, as already described. 这里所用的推论分析涉及许多输入变量的推论过程,以产生一个输出变量,即用户的当前上下文。 Inference analysis used herein relates to a number of input variables of the process of inference, to produce an output variable, i.e. the user's current context. 分析可以包括在统计模式和/或贝叶斯模式利用的一个方面。 One aspect of the analysis may include statistical model and / or the use of Bayesian models.

参考图8,按照本发明的一个方面,描述系统140框图。 Referring to Figure 8, a block diagram in accordance with one aspect, system 140 of the present invention. 在框图中,推论引擎142执行推论分析以确定用户上下文144。 In the block diagram, the inference engine 142 performs inference analysis to determine user context 144. 在一个方面,推论引擎142是由计算机处理器从其上的计算机的可读介质上(例如内部存储器)执行的一个计算机程序。 In one aspect, the inference engine 142 is a computer program by a computer processor (e.g., internal memory) executed from a computer readable medium on. 用户上下文114可以看作为推论引擎142的输出变量。 User context 114 can be seen as an inference engine 142 of the output variable.

推论引擎142能处理一个或多个输入变量以作出上下文的决定。 Inference engine 142 can process one or more input variables to make a context decision. 这种输入变量能包括一个或多个传感器148,例如,在说明书的前面章节中,连同用于上下文确定的直接测量方法一起已经描述过的传感器;以及当前的时间和日子,如时钟150,和日历152所示;例如在用户的调度或个人信息管理器(PIM) 计算机程序,和/或在用户个人数字助理(PDA)设备上可以访问的。 Such input variables can include one or more sensors 148, e.g., in the previous section of the specification, together with the direct measurement method for determining the context has been described with a sensor; and the current time and day, such as a clock 150, and calendar 152 shown; for example, a user scheduling or personal information manager (PIM) computer program, and / or on the user's personal digital assistant (PDA) device can access. 也可以把其他的输入变量看作图8所述的变量以外的变量。 It may be considered as input variables the other variables than the variables of FIG. 8. 图8的变量不是指对本发明本身的限制或约束。 Variable does not refer to FIG. 8 limitation or restriction on the invention itself.

现在参考图9和图10,按照本发明描述一个例如由统计和/或贝叶斯模型提供的,通过上述的推论引擎执行的示范性推论模式。 Referring now to FIGS. 9 and 10, according to the present invention is described, for example, provided by a statistical and / or Bayesian model, an exemplary mode of inferences performed by the above inference engine. 一般,计算机系统可能是稍微不能确定用户的详细状态。 In general, the computer system may be somewhat state of the user can not determine the details. 因此,可构成概率性(probabilistic) 模型,推论在未确定下的用户关注点或其他状态。 Therefore, it may constitute a probabilistic (probabilistic) model, inferences user concerns in undetermined or other status. 贝叶斯定理模式能够推论用户关注焦点的概率分布。 Bayesian inference probability model can focus the user's profile. 这样的关注状态可公式化成一组典型情况(Prototypical situation)或一组由用户编址的可感知的复杂问题的独特分类的更抽象表达。 Such a state of interest can be formulated into a typical set of circumstances (Prototypical situation) or a set of more abstract representation of a complex problem can be perceived by the user of addressing the unique classification. 换句话说,模型能够公式化,使它能推论有关关注焦点的连续测量,和/或对不同类型的通知直接推论整个中断成本的概率分布。 In other words, the model can be formulated so that it can infer about the focus of continuous measurement, and / or for different types of notification immediate consequence of the overall cost of interruption probability distribution.

基于有关用户活动和位置的一组观察,可以应用贝叶斯定理网络推论交替活动的上下文或状态的概率。 A set of observations about the user, and location-based context probability may be applied or a state of alternation Bayesian inference network. 作为一个例子,图9显示了用于推论单个时间周期的用户关注焦点的一个贝叶斯网络。 As an example, Figure 9 shows a Bayesian network inference time period for a single user's focus. 一个变量的状态,关注焦点156, 指的是桌上型电脑和非桌上型电脑的上下文。 The state of a variable focus 156, referring to the context and non-desktop desktop computer. 例如,在该模式中考虑的示范性的关注上下文包括情况了解,捕获,非特定的后台任务,聚焦内容的产生或查看,光内容产生或査看,查阅(browse)文档,办公室内会议,办公室外会议,听介绍,私人时间,家庭时间,个人焦点,临时谈话和旅行。 For example, an exemplary concern for consideration in this context includes model to understand the situation, capture, non-specific background tasks, focusing generated content or viewing, or viewing light generated content, access (browse) documents, the office meeting, office outside the meeting, listen to reports, personal time, family time, personal focus, temporary conversation and travel. 贝叶斯网 Bayesian Network

络154表明用户当前关注和位置受用户安排的约会158,时刻160,和截止时间邻近162的影响。 Network 154 indicate the user's current location and attention by users schedule appointments 158, time 160, and the deadline neighboring affect 162. 例如,用户关注的概率分布也受办公室内监测的环境声音信号164状态摘要的影响。 For example, the probability distribution of user attention is also affected by ambient sound signal monitoring office 164 status summary of influence. 随时间的环境声音信号分段提供关于存在活动和谈话的线索/输入。 Provide clues about the presence and activities of conversation / input with ambient sound signal segments of time. 软件应用程序的状态及配置和由用户与计算机相互作用产生的正在进行的用户活动流也提供关于用户关注的证据源。 Status and configuration software applications and ongoing user activity stream generated by a user interacts with the computer also provides a source of evidence about the user's attention.

如在网络154中所描绘的,当前在操作系统或其他环境中的高层焦点166 处的软件应用程序影响用户焦点和任务的性质,并且用户关注的状态和焦点处的应用程序, 一起影响计算机中心的活动。 As the network 154 depicted, the current software application 166 top focus in the operating system or other environment impact nature of the user focus and task, and the user interest state and application at the focus together influence computer center activity. 这种活动包括用户的动作流, 这种动作流在稍宽阔的时间范围上,由鼠标和键盘动作和应用程序使用的较高层图案的顺序构成。 Such activities include the user's operation flow, the operation of this flow on a slightly wide time range, higher layer pattern sequence used by the mouse and keyboard actions and application configuration. 这种图案包括电子邮件中心和字处理机中心,并涉及包含多种应用程序交错运行方法的典型活动类别。 This pattern includes a word processor and a central mail center, and to the event type typically comprises a plurality of applications running interleaving method.

图10描述在不同时间周期处的上下文变量中的用户关注焦点的贝叶斯模型168。 FIG 10 is described in the context of user variables at different periods of time in the Bayesian model 168 focus. 由模型168描述一组马尔可夫瞬时相关性(Markov te即oral d印endences),其中在用户状态的当前确定中考虑上下文变量的过去状态。 168 Markov model described by instantaneous correlation set (Markov te i.e. oral d print endences), wherein the variables considered in the context of the current user state determining past states. 在实时中,这种贝叶斯模型168考虑例如由在线(online)日历提供的信息, 和关于房间声音的观察流和由事件,感知系统(未示出)报告的用户活动, 并且继续提供关于用户关注的概率分布的推论结果。 In real time, this Bayesian model 168 Consider, for example by the online (online) information provided by the calendar, and observations about the room sound and flow by the event, sensing system (not shown) report user activity, and continues to provide information on users concerned about the inference probability distribution of results.

图11, 12, 13, 15, 17和21描述按照本发明的一种方法,该方法用于提供通知结构的一部分,例如,上下文分析器,通知管理器和用户接口(界面)。 11, 12, 13, 15, 17 and 21 describe a method according to the present invention, the method for providing a portion of the structure of the notification, for example, the context analyzer, and a user interface notification manager (interface). 而为了简化解说的目的,按一系列的动作示出和描述该方法,应当明白和理解:本发明不受动作顺序的限制,按照本发明,某些动作或许会按不同的顺序发生,和/或与这儿示出和描述的其他动作同时地发生。 And illustrated for simplicity purposes, according to a series of acts of the method are shown and described, it will be appreciated and understood that: the invention is not limited by the order, in accordance with the present invention, some acts may occur in different orders, and / or or other actions occur simultaneously as described here and shown. 例如,那些技术熟练的人员将懂得和理解:作为选择,可将该方法表示为一系列相互联系的状态或事件,例如在一个状态图中。 For example, those skilled in the art will understand and appreciated: Alternatively, the method may be represented as a series of interrelated states or events, such as in a state diagram. 而且,并非所有描述的动作都要求执行按照本发明的一种方法。 Moreover, not all described acts are required to perform a method according to the invention.

该方法在某些方面可以是由计算机执行的。 In certain aspects the method may be executed by a computer. 希望实现一种计算机执行的方法,至少使一部分成为在有希望使计算机上运行的一个或多个程序, 一即, 作为一个由计算机处理系统从计算机可读介质(例如内部存储器)执行的程序。 A computer-implemented method of performing desirable, at least in a portion become desirable to have one or more programs running on a computer, i.e. a program executed as a readable medium (e.g., internal memory) from the computer by the computer processing system. 有希望将程序存储在例如软盘或光盘驱动器(CD-ROM)之类的机器可读介质上,用于在另一台计算机上配置和安装及执行。 Promising for example, a program stored in a floppy disk or CD-ROM drive (CD-ROM) a machine-readable medium for configuring and installation and execution on another computer. 该程序或多个程序可以是计算机系统或计算机的一部分,例如下面连同图23 —起描述的。 The program or programs may be part of a computer system or computer, e.g. below in conjunction with Figure 23 - from below.

参考图11,流程图170描述按照本发明确定的用户上下文。 Referring to Figure 11, a flowchart 170 is described to determine user context according to the present invention. 处理包括在171中确定用户位置,和在172中确定用户焦点。 The processing includes determining the position of the user 171, and 172 determines that the user focus. 可以由先前描述的一种或多手段完成这些动作。 It can be done by means of one or more of the actions previously described. 例如,能够应用一个配置文件;用户能指明他或她的上下文;能够利用上下文的直接测量;能够遵循一组规则;也能够执行推论分析,例如通过贝叶斯或统计模型的推论分析。 For example, you can apply a configuration file; the user can specify his or her context; to take advantage of direct measurement context; able to follow a set of rules; inference analysis can be performed, for example, or by inference Bayesian statistical analysis of the model. 应当理解:可以应用其他分析确定用户的上下文。 It should be understood: You can apply additional analysis to determine the context of the user. 例如,可能有一个综合视频摄像机源,记录是否有人在计算机前面和他或她是否正看着计算机。 For example, there may be an integrated video camera source, whether it was recorded in front of the computer and whether he or she is looking at the computer. 然而,应当注意,该系统可以用或不用摄像机而操作。 However, it should be noted that the system can operate with or without a camera. 对于所有的源,该系统实质上能与任意一个可用的输入源一起工作,不需任何特殊源来推论上下文。 For all of the sources, the system can operate with substantially any input source available, without any particular source to inference context. 此外,在其他方面,可以有集成加速度计,麦克风,和在小型个人数字助理(PDA)上的邻近探测装置,该探测装置给出用户的位置和关注点的检测。 Further, in other aspects, there can be integrated accelerometers, microphones, and proximity detection means in the small personal digital assistant (PDA), which gives the detection device detecting the position of the point of interest and the user.

现在参考图12,流程图173描述按照本发明一个方面的通知管理器的决策处理。 Referring now to Figure 12, a flowchart of the decision process 173 described notification manager according to one aspect of the present invention. 在174处, 一个或多个源产生由通知管理器接收的通知。 In 174, one or more sources generate notifications received by the notification manager. 在175处, 上下文分析器产生/确定关于用户的上下文信息,这些信息在176中由通知管理器接收。 In 175, the context analyzer generates / determines context information about the user, the information received by the notification manager 176. 即,按照本发明的一个方面,在175处,上下文分析器存取表明用户当前关注状态和位置的用户上下文信息配置文件,和/或从一个或多个上下文信息源中估算关于用户当前关注状态和位置的实时信息,如已在说明书的前面章节中所描述。 That is, according to one aspect of the present invention, at 175, the context analyzer accesses indicates the current state of interest and a location of the user context information of the user profile, and / or estimates regarding the current state of the user of interest from one or more context information sources and real-time information about the position, as already described in the previous section of the specification.

在177处,通知管理器部分地根据从上下文分析器收到的上下文信息, 确定要把哪一条通知传送到哪一个通知接收器。 At 177, the notification manager in part on the context information received from the context analyzer, which should determine where to transfer a notification, a notification receiver. ,通知管理器也可根据由上下文分析器储存的有关用户的通知参数的信息作出决定。 The notification manager may decide based on the information notification parameters stored by the context analyzer about the user. 即,按照一个方面, 在177中,管理器执行一个决策理论分析,该决策是关于是否向用户提醒给出的通知,和应当怎样通知用户。 That is, according to one aspect, at 177, manager executes a decision theoretical analysis, the decision about whether a reminder notice is given to the user and how the user should be informed. 如在下面将详细描述的,在177处,可以应用决策理论和/或渐进分析,确定和策略。 As will be described in detail, at 177, decision theory can be applied and / or progressive analysis, and strategy. 可以利用关于用户的通知参数, 通过填入丢失的值或通过重写在源或接收器模式(schema)中提供的参数, 使该分析人格化。 The user can use the notification parameters, or by filling the missing values ​​by overriding parameters provided in the source or receiver mode (schema) of the personification of the analysis. 通知优先权也能够提供用于代替决策理论分析的的策略(例如,渐进式)。 Priority notification can also be used in place of decision theory provides policy analysis (eg, progressive). 在178处,根据这个确定,通知管理器将通知传送给接收器。 In 178, based on this determination, the notification manager notification to the receiver.

这里到现在为止已经描述了适用于用户的本发明的各个方面。 Until now there have been described various aspects of the present invention are applicable to the user. 然而,本发明本身不受这样限制。 However, the invention itself is not so limited. 即本发明基本上可适用于任何类型的实体,包括用户。 Namely, the present invention is basically applicable to any type of entities, including the user. 例如,实体的其他类型包括媒介(agents),处理,计算机程序,线索(thread),服务,服务器,计算机,机器,公司,机构(organizations), 和/或商业(businesses)。 For example, other types of entities, including vectors (agents), processing, computer program, lead (thread), services, servers, computers, machinery, companies, institutions (organizations), and / or commercial (businesses). 例如,媒介可以是软件媒介,一般能定义为计算机程序。 For example, the media can be a software media, it is generally defined as a computer program. 该程序执行用户的后台任务,并向用户报告该任务在何时完成或发生了某些期望的事件。 The program performs the user's background tasks, and users report that the task is completed or when some unexpected event occurred. 如那些技术熟练的人员所理解的,在本发明中还包含其他类型的实体。 As those skilled in the art will appreciate, the present invention also include other types of entities. 例如,能够使按照本发明另一个方面的上下文分析器归纳为基本上适合于任一种类型的实体的部件(component)。 For example, can be made according to the present invention is summarized as a context analyzer adapted to another aspect of the member substantially any type of entity (component). 作为另一个例子, 通知接收器能够产生有关除用户之外的实体的通知,提醒和事件。 As another example, the receiver can generate a notification notified entities other than the user, and an event reminder. 相似地, 通知接收器能接收有关除了用户之外的实体的通知、提醒,和事件。 Similarly, the notification receiver can receive notification about an entity other than the user, reminders, and events.

现在返回到图13,流程图180描述。 Returning now to FIG. 13, a flowchart 180 is described. 如按照本发明一个方面的通知管理器所能执行的决策理论的确定。 As determined in accordance with a decision-making theoretical aspect of the present invention, a notification manager can be executed. 在182处,接收到一条或多条通知。 In 182, one or more notification is received. 通知经过与通知接收器相关联的一种模式提供能传送送给用户的信息。 After notification provide a model capable of transmitting and receiving the notification information to the associated user. 在184处, 在许多接收器的多种方式上,为在182处接收的通知执行决策理论分析。 In 184, in a variety of ways on many receivers, decision theory analysis for the implementation of the notification received at 182. 该分析经过与接收器相关联的方式合乎需要地产生传送通知的净价值。 Analysis of the way through the associated receiver desirably produces a net value to deliver the notification. 能够利用概率模式(例如贝叶斯网络)可以进行分析。 A probability model can be utilized (e.g., Bayesian networks) can be analyzed.

按照本发明的一个方面,在184处依照的接收器的方式确定传送通知的净价值包括执行图13中的186, 188, 190和192。 According to one aspect of the present invention, in accordance with the embodiment of the receiver 184 determines to deliver the notification comprises performing net value in FIG. 13 186 188, 190 and 192. 在186处,确定在给用户的通知内含有的信息的预期价值。 At 186, to determine the expected value of some notice containing information on to the user. 如果通知了他或她,则这是对用户产生的信息的价值。 If you notice him or her, this is the value of the information generated by the user. 在188处,确定中断给用户传送通知的一个预期成本。 At 188, to determine the expected cost to the user to interrupt a transfer notice. 这是干扰用户传送通知的成本一例如,用户可能忙于开会,这样用通知干扰用户导致用户的成本。 This is the interference cost the user transmits a notification e.g., meeting the user may be busy, so that interference with the user notifies the user resulting in cost. 在190处,确定用户独自了解通知中含有的信息的用户预期价值而无需实际地传送通知。 In 190, the user determines the user alone understand the expected value of the information contained in the notice without actually send notifications. 这个价值可能小于在186中确定的价值,因为用户或许独自在比通知他或她注意信息较迟的时间了解信息。 This value may be less than the value determined in 186, because users may notice alone in his or her attention to information later than the time to understand the information. 在188处,确定将通知传送给用户的实际成本。 At 188, the actual cost is determined notification delivered to the user. 例如,经过寻呼机发送消息可能导致来自用户的寻呼机公司的用户承担的通信成本,其中,公司在每次寻呼的基础上对这种寻呼收费。 For example, after transmitting a pager message communication cost may result from the user's pager user undertaken, wherein such paging company charges based on each paging.

在184处,通过从在186中确定的信息预期价值减去在188中确定的预期中断成本,在190中用户独自了解信息的预期价值,和192中通信的实际成本,可以确定经接收器方式将通知传送给用户的净价值。 In 184, the expected value expected from the information determined in 186 determined by subtracting the cost of interruption in the 188, 190 in the user alone understand the actual cost of the expected value of the information, communication and 192, can be determined by the way the receiver the notification to the net value of the user. 在194处,确定实际上任一个接收器的任一方式的净价值是否大于预定的传送阈值。 In 194, it is determined whether any of a receiver is actually a net value of any one of greater than a predetermined threshold value transfer. 例如, 在按美元($)度量净价值的地方,预期的传送阈值可以为零。 For example, where a measure of net worth in US dollars ($), the expected transfer threshold may be zero. 如果通知的净价值大于该接收器的方式的阈值,那么,196对于这种通知处理转到,的196,其中,经过对于该通知具有最高净价值的接收器的方式,将这种通知传送给用户。 If the net value of the notification threshold value is greater than the receiver mode, then processing proceeds to 196 for such notification, 196, wherein, after the highest value of the net to be notified to the receiver, such notification to user. 否则,对于具有的净实际上不比价值为任一接收器的任一方式的阈值大的那些通知,当时不向用户通知这种通知中含有的信息,并且对于这种通 Otherwise, for having a large net fact that notification threshold value better than any one of a receiver is any value, then the notification information is not contained in such a notification to the user, and for this pass

知处理过程转到198,以执行后处理,来自196的处理过程也转到该处理。 Known to process 198, to perform the post treatment, 196 from the process can also go to the process.

本发明不受在198中执行的后处理方式的限制。 Limiting embodiment of the present invention, the post-processing is not performed in 198. 按照本发明的一个方面, 假定执行了196,就可以删除在196中传送给用户的通知能将它删去。 According to one aspect of the present invention, assuming performed 196 can be deleted in the transmission 196 is able to inform the user of it omitted. 在另一方面,依据用户事实上已经接收到通知所述通知来自通知所传送到的通知接收器的接收确认,从将通知传送到的通知接收器中,将这样的通知删除。 On the other hand, according to the fact that the user has received the notification from the notification reception confirmation notification transmitted to the receiver of the notification, the notification is transmitted from the receiver to the notification, the notification thus deleted. 如果已经确定通知已传送到的通知接收器对于所利用的接收器的方式具有一个大于阈值价值的发送可靠性,则在传送后也可以删除该通知。 If it is determined notification was sent to the receiver to inform the receiver of the embodiment utilized with a transmission reliability greater than a threshold value, then after transmitting the notification may be deleted. 此外,应注意: 可以按预定的间隔,和/或当接收到新的通知时,能够重复图13的处理。 Further, it is noted: the predetermined interval may be, and / or when a new notification is received, the processing can be repeated 13 of FIG. 例如,因为如在184中确定的通知的净价值是与时间有关的,或许具有比传送阈值小的净价值的一个指定的通知,现在或许具有的净价值高于后来的那个阈值,然后发送该通知。 For example, because the net worth notice as determined in 184 is related to time, perhaps having a specified notice than the net value of the transferred threshold of small value, and now perhaps has a net worth than later that threshold, then send the Notice. 一种替代的情形也能是真的。 An alternative scenario could be true. 这样,在图13中描绘的处理描述能执行决策理论分析以确定是否经过接收器的方式把通知传送给用户的方式,致使可以按要求重复该分析。 Thus, the described process is depicted in FIG. 13 can be analyzed to determine whether the receiver manner through the notification to the user mode, so that the analysis can be performed repeatedly as required decision theory.

应注意,已经描述了图13所示的处理过程。 It should be noted, it has been described processing shown in FIG. 13. 该处理有关对于多个通知接收器的多个方式的通知的决策理论分析的性能的。 The processing performance decision theory of multiple notifications for the plurality of receivers embodiment of the analysis of the notification. 然而,本发明本身不受这样的限制。 However, the invention itself is not so limited. 例如,对任一个或所有的接收器或许只隐含有一种这样的方式。 For example, any one or all of the receivers may have only one such way implied. 如此,在接收器上进行对通知的分析,而无需明显地关注该方式。 Thus, the analysis of the notification at the receiver, without the need to clearly focus on the way. 此外,如已经注意到的,可以按下一描述章节所述的方法进行有关接收器方式的通知净价值的确定。 Further, as already noted, a pressing method can be described in the section relating to the receiver for determining the net value of the mode notification.

按照本发明的一个特殊方面,能按下面章节所述的方法实现说明书的先前章节中所述的决策理论通知,虽然本发明不受这样限制。 Described in the previous section notification decision theory, can be achieved by the description of the methods section below according to a particular aspect of the present invention, although the invention is not so limited. 例如,可以应用一个迭代的"贪婪(gready)"决策理论分析。 For example, decision theory analysis "greedy (gready)" can be applied to an iterative process. 在分析期间,要考虑当前上下文和传送一个提醒相关联的预期价值。 During the analysis, taking into account the current context and convey an expected value associated with the reminder. 执行有关未来的推论,考虑未来时间, 上下文,和相关联的预期价值的一个范围的较少近似的,更精确的决策理论分析可以利用这种模型,如动态贝叶斯定理网络,或称之为隐含的马尔可夫模型(HMM's)的动态贝叶斯网络的近似。 Inferences about the implementation of the future, consider the future time, less the approximate range of the expected value of a context, and associated, more accurate decision-theoretic analysis can use this model, such as dynamic Bayesian network, or call it Markov model is implicit (HMM's) approximate the dynamic Bayesian network. 基于"预报"未来状态的欠"近视(myopic)"分析,能应用这种技术作出通知确定。 Based on "forecast" future state owes "myopia (myopic)" analysis, this technique can be applied to give notice OK. 在技术上,已知过归纳近视分析为过(richer)、欠近视分析。 Technically, known through the analysis summarized myopia too (richer), less myopic analysis. 对于通知平台,这些"欠贪婪"分析使用额外的计算量。 For notification platform, these "less greedy" analysis of the use of additional computation. 在一个方面,基于考虑现在能用的或即将能用的计算, 把通知管理器配置成每次监视可用计算资源的状态,就能转入欠近视方式。 In one aspect, based on the consideration of the calculation can now or will be usable, the notification manager is configured to monitor each state available computing resources, will be able to transfer less myopic way. 艮卩,本发明不受所述食婪方法的限制。 Gen Jie, the present invention is not restricted to the food greed method. 通过预报这些上下文的可能性和设备的可用性,对于通知的理想时间的欠近似、欠贪婪的最佳化能考虑未来上下文的范围和设备关联的可用性。 By forecasting availability of these devices and the possibility of contexts, the ideal time for notification of less approximate, less greedy optimization can be associated with the device and consideration of the availability of future context.

可将在时刻t的通知N的预期价值看作通知的当前价值。 The current value can be regarded as a notification of the expected value of the notification time t N. 将一个通知的信息价值看为敏感于上下文和用户的知识。 Information will be worth a look for the notification sensitive to context and the user's knowledge. 上下文包括像用户的位置和关注状态,用户目的,和上下文(例如,用户刚好打开电子邮件)这样的上下文信息。 Context includes as the state of interest and the user's location, the user object, and context (e.g., the user opens the email just) such context information. 在上下文C中的通知N的初始价值就是当信息源首次产生通知时上下文中通知的价值(例如,能按美元度量),用户不熟悉该信息的概率使该价值变小。 The initial value of the notification in the context of C, N is the value at the time when the notification is generated source of information for the first time in the context of the notification (for example, to measure in dollar terms), the user is not familiar with the probability, and that the value becomes smaller. 把用户不熟悉该信息的概率称作为信息的新颖性。 The probability that the user is not familiar with the information referred to as the novelty of information. 该概率是基于证据E的(如信息的类型和干扰信息方式)(例如,新闻故事经其他通道随时间变成已知的,而这样,该证据可包括新闻故事的特点和时代)。 The probability is based on the evidence of E (interference information such as the type and mode information) (for example, a news story through other channels over time become known, and so the evidence can include characteristics of the times and news stories).

如果当已经知道信息的价值为零时,考虑该信息的价值,则通知的价值 If you already know the value when the information is zero, consider the value of the value of the information, the notification of

为: for:

&7/"/0 k"層e〗/ ^ xf ,《。 & 7 / "/ 0 k" layer〗 e / ^ xf, ". J f" J f "

通过调节上下文C上的价值可以引入上下文说明的概念(notion),并依据上下文估计该价值: The concept may be introduced (Notion) by adjusting the value of the context described in the context C, and estimates the value depending on the context:

Ka7/"/bf A , - p广/7oye7 / f y> x KaJtfe广乂, & , ^ J 广刃在某一新时刻t,依据价值的时间相关性,可以改变发送通知的价值: Ka7 / "/ bf A, - p wide / 7oye7 / f y> x KaJtfe wide qe, &, ^ J wide blade at a new time t, based on the time correlation value, the value may be changed notifications sent:

可表达为看作自变量的时间差或时迟的随时间变化的函数,该时间差或时迟是由通过取为自变量的与时间相关的函数通知管理器发送或接收一个提醒的时间和当时时间之间的时间差别。 It can be expressed as a function later time varying when seen as an argument a time difference when the time difference or later is transmitted or received by time-dependent function notifies the manager takes as arguments a reminder of the time and the current time time difference between. 或延迟可以表示价值函数,其中表示时迟表示为f一^。 Delay or cost function can be expressed as late as f ^ represents wherein one o'clock. 例如,这种函数可以包括表明价值时迟损失的线性,指数,和反曲函数。 For example, such function may include a loss of time later that the value of the linear, exponential, and sigmoidal functions. 更复杂的函数包括线性,指数,和反曲函数的串联,例如表示保存限期的函数。 More complicated functions include linear, exponential, and a series of sigmoidal function, for example, represents a function of shelf life. 该保存限期是指,发送或接收一个提醒之后,在信息价值改变(例如,开始衰减)之前,该价值没有发生变化时的时间周期。 It refers to the shelf life, after sending or receiving an alert, changing the value before the information (e.g., begins to decay), the value of the cycle time is not changed. 其他函数也能捕获一个具有某些延迟量的提醒能变得更有价值的概念(notion)。 Other functions can also capture a certain amount of delay can become more valuable with a reminder of the concept (notion).

按照本发明的一个方面,要考虑到在一个新时刻也能使上下文改变和不同。 According to one aspect of the present invention, taking into account in a new context change time can be different. 这样,能用C(t〉重写公式(3),或将上下文陈述为总是当前的上下文。 在上下文不确定的情况下,将不同的潜在上下文累加。这样,信息的预期价 Thus, can be C (t> rewrite Equation (3), or to always set forth context the current context. Where the context of uncertainty in the context of different potential accumulated. Thus, the expected value of information

值是: Values ​​are:

〜PWJ/7/b广〃jj = pf層eJ / 巧ra7〃e(" ^ , 一t J ;?/ ^ ~PWJ / 7 / b = pf wide 〃jj layer eJ / Qiao ra7〃e ( "^, a t J;? / ^

这是用户在上下文C的某个时刻t接收到通知的全部内容的价值。 This is the value of all the contents of the user t received the notification at some point in the context of C. 保真度的损失使传递具有设备的M模式的信息的预期价值减少所述保真度与绘制和考虑当用上下C文中的M模式发信号时,是否已经把信息发送给用户相关联。 Loss of fidelity that the information transmitted with the expected value of the M-mode device is reduced and the fidelity with consideration when drawing signal, whether the text transmitted by the upper and lower C M-mode information to the associated user. 为了简单起见,假定捕获的发送保真度为变量,没有发送内容的。 For simplicity, assume that send the captured fidelity is variable, did not send content. 全部发送上下文的之间的范围内变化。 All changes which come within the range between the transmission context. 按照本发明的其他方面,考虑到更详细的实用模式,这些模式能捕获丢失初始内容的一个或多个成分的额外的详细损失,和按各种方式(例如,由电子邮件全文的某一总百分比切断一或其他的概括手段一压縮成更小,更紧凑的消息用于在有限的蜂窝电话显示屏上显示)切断和概括上下文的额外的详细损失。 In further aspects of the present invention, more detailed consideration of the useful mode, these mode captures additional loss of detail loss of one or more components of the initial content, and a variety of ways (e.g., a total of the e-mail text percentage of one or the other of the cutting means generalization compressed into a smaller, more compact message to the cellular telephone over a limited display screen) cutting losses and broadly additional detailed context. 在一般情况下,与在设备的M模式上发送信息相关联的保真度是与上下文有关的;例如,在吵杂的环境中就很难听见声音内容的声音部分。 In general, the fidelity of transmission information associated with the device on the M-mode is a context-sensitive; for example, in a noisy environment, it is difficult to hear the sound part of the sound content.

也要考虑到已经把信息发送给用户的概率。 Also taking into account the probability has to send a message to the user. 一般情况下,这也与上下文有关。 Under normal circumstances, this is also related to the context. 因为这种依赖性通常比保真度的上下文的依赖性更显著,所以可以把这指明得更清楚。 Because of this dependence is usually more significant than the context-dependent fidelity, this can be more clearly indicated. 将作为用户已经接收到信息的信息发送概率表达为p6^cej>ed/#,C《e人其中e表示有关用户响应于一个通知的附加证据, 例如一个暂停、鼠标点中(over)、交互作用。 Has been received as the user information of transmission probability information is expressed as a p6 ^ cej> ed / #, C "e people where e represents the relevant user in response to the additional evidence of a notification, such as a pause, a mouse point (over), the interaction effect. 接着,按下列公式确定通知通信的预期价值: Next, determine the expected value of the notification of the communication according to the following formula:

应注意:在公式(5)中,根据通知的信息预期价值写入通信的预期价值。 It should be noted: in the formula (5), the expected value of the written communication of the information notice of the intended value. 这类似于 This is similar to

在一个方面,可以使用在公式(5)和(6)中包含的通信的预期价值作为如说明书的在先前章节中所述的给用户的信息的预期价值。 In one aspect, it can be used in equation (5) and (6) the expected value contained in the communication as the expected value of the information in the previous section, such as to a user specification. 另一方面,信息的预期价值可以是不考虑保真度和其他参数的预期价值一即,如 On the other hand, the expected value of the information can not be considered a value that is expected fidelity and other parameters, such as

27ExpValInfof M.入然而,本发明不限制于这些手段。 Into 27ExpValInfof M. However, the present invention is not limited to these methods.

接着,考虑信息的成本。 Next, consider the cost information. 与中断相关联的成本取决于发送模式和上下文, 大多数经过用户关注的上下文。 Costs associated with the interruption of the transmission mode and depending on the context, most of the attention after the user context. 在一个方面,对每条上下文的用户中断的预期成本可按美元来度量,等于用户愿意付的数量,以避免与经过M模式的信息发送相关联的中断。 In one aspect, the expected cost per user interrupt context can measure in dollars, equal to the number of users willing to pay to avoid interruption associated with the transmission of information through the M mode. 在一般情况下,这也可能取决于要发送的内容的细节。 In general, it may also depend on the details to be sent. 然而,按照一个方面,应特别考虑在上下文不确定下的不同成本。 However, according to one aspect, special consideration should be different from the cost in the context of uncertainty. 这样,对于M模式的中断的预期成本是: Thus, the expected cost of interruption for the M model is:

现在经过M模式用通知发信号给用户的价值在信息的价值和成本间是不同的。 Now, after the M-mode notification signal to a value between the user and the value of cost information are different. 也要考虑到例如发送比特的实际通信的美元成本,例如每次服务收费。 Also taking into account such as dollar cost to send bits of actual communication, for example, every service charges. 这可以是通知内容和所选择的方式的函数。 This may be a function of the content of the notification and the manner selected. 也把这称作为(实际的)通信成本,(ComCost(N,M))。 This is also referred to as (actual) communication cost, (ComCost (N, M)).

接着,可以考虑如果没有用通知给用户动态地发信号,但是当他或她有空去查阅信息或主动地从例如电子邮件存储器之类的存储器搜索信息,或为了一般的目的,从潜在的通知存储器中搜索信息(在保存信息直到用户有机会查阅它们),则该(净)价值不等于零。 Next, consider if not used to notify the user to dynamically signal, but when he or she is free to look up information such as the memory or actively search for information like email storage, or for general purposes, from the notification from the underlying memory search information (stored in the information until the user a chance to review them), then the (net) value is not equal to zero. 把这称为搜索通知中含有的信息的预期价值,ExpValSeek,在说明书的先前章节中称作为无需通知的用户独自了解信息的预期价值。 This is called the expected value of the information contained in the notification of the search, ExpValSeek, said in the previous section as a user specification without notice alone is expected to understand the value of information. 通过考虑直到用户查阅通知含有的信息为止的时间而确定该价值。 The value is determined by taking into account the time until the information contained in the notification until the user has access to. 这个时间是典型地对上下文敏感的,例如,直到用户从这样一个存储器中搜索信息为止的时间取决于位置,时刻,和当前关注的焦点。 This time is typically context sensitive, e.g., until the user from a memory until such time search depends on the focus position information, time, and current concern. 可认为信息的新颖性是可以变化的和或许是已经悬挂通知的时间量的函数。 May be considered novelty of information can vary the amount of time and perhaps already suspended the notification function. 为了简化起见,当用户搜索信息时,可以把保真度看成完美的一然而,在一般情况下,用户只能通过提供较低保真度的设备搜索信息。 For simplicity, when a user searches for information, the fidelity as a perfect, however, in general, the user can search for information equipment providing low fidelity. 当用户将在关注状态动态地追踪信息时,也能假定与搜索信息相关联的中断成本约为零。 When the user dynamically tracking information on the state of interest, it can be assumed with interruption costs associated with the search for information about zero. 这样, such,

/?U^W肠e, f一KaJ〃e沐,G, t鹏J/?fG /《 C /? U ^ W intestinal e, f a KaJ〃e Mu, G, t Peng J /? FG / "C

应注意,相对于确定通知的时间和直到搜索为止的时间之间的等待时间, 有几种手段用于执行和确定公式(8)。 It should be noted, with respect to determining the latency between the time of notification and the time until the search, and there are several means for performing determination formula (8). 在一个方面,可以假定用泊松分布t, 而搜索时间是从分析时间起直到用户查看通知存储器为止的存储器不足(memory less)平均时间。 In one aspect, it can be assumed with a Poisson distribution t, and the search time is from memory until the user view the lack of notification until memory (memory less) the average time from the analysis time. 能把等待时间确定为在那时间和通知时间之间的差。 Can wait time is determined as the difference between that time and the time of notification. 此外,可以利用贝叶斯网络或其他概率模型来推论在査阅电子邮件,或一个更普通的通知存储器的不同平均时间上的概率分布。 In addition, you can use a Bayesian network or other probabilistic models to infer probabilities at different mean time check e-mails, or a more general notice of distribution memory. 如上所述的,也可以应用贝叶斯网络或其他概率模型来确定在用户关注焦点,位置上的概率分布。 As mentioned above, you can also use a Bayesian network model to determine the probability or other user in focus, the position on the probability distribution.

这样,用M模式传递通知N的通知通信的的净预期价值,NetExpValCom Thus the net expected value, the communication delivery notification by the notification N M modes, NetExpValCom

为: for:

淑细Ka7C咖沐,AJ:&pKa7C。 Mu Shu fine Ka7C coffee, AJ: & pKa7C. /z7化,#J -御Co""j',/?tf O -这就是在说明书的先前章节中被称作为净价值的。 / Z7 of, # J - Royal Co "" j ', / tf O -? This is referred to as the net value in the previous section of the specification.

为了作出确定,对于实际上所有设备的实际上所有的M模式,要考虑到进入NetExpValCom的通知考虑具有最大正的净预期通信价值(NetExpValCom) 的设备(即,假定零美元的预定的传送阈值,在说明书的先前章节中描述该术语)。 In order to determine, for virtually all devices virtually all M models, taking into consideration the net NetExpValCom notified by the expected value of communication (NetExpValCom) device has the largest positive (ie, assuming zero dollar predetermined transfer threshold, this term is described in the previous section of the specification). 如果一个以上的设备的(例如,通知接收器)净预期通信价值 If more than one device (e.g., notification receiver) communication net expected value

(NetjExpValCom)是正的,选择具有最高价值的设备并且用该设备发信号给用户。 (NetjExpValCom) is positive, with the highest value of the selection device and using the signal to the user equipment. 如果对实际上所有的设备的实际上所有方式,该值是负的,能够推迟通知,和可以记入日记供以后查阅。 If fact, virtually all the way all the equipment, the value is negative, it is possible to defer the notification, and can be recorded in a diary for later reference. 在一个方面,继续要重新考虑再现 In one aspect, continue to be reconsidered reproduction

(rendering)通知的价值,但通过更新随时间变化的变量。 Value (rendering) notice, but over time by updating the variables. 这些变量包括当前时间;直到用户査阅他或她的电子邮件,或,更一般地,他或她的通知存储器为止的预期时间;和作为当前上下文和信息的新颖性的这样的变量。 These variables include the current time; until the user access to his or her e-mail, or, more generally, the expected time until his or her notice memory; and as the current context and information such variables novelty. 如已经在说明书的先前章节中所描述,可以把这样的重新考虑作为后处理的一部分来执行。 As already described in the previous section of the specification, this can reconsider part of post-processing is performed.

应注意,这种关于现在对以后的迭代推理是在本发明一个特殊方面执行的一种决策理论分析。 It should be noted that this relates to a decision theory is now performed on subsequent iterations reasoning in a particular aspect of the invention analysis. 它是一种贪婪判定决策策略。 It is a greedy determination decision strategy. 然而,依靠稍微更复杂的考虑在未来时间的动态通知的价值和成本的预报模型,能够使欠贪婪策略公式化。 However, relying on a slightly more complex considerations in value and cost forecasting model of dynamic notification of future time, enabling less greedy strategy formulation. 例如,可以应用一个概率模型来预报用户的将来关注状态,并能利用这样的预报,按日益欠贪婪的方式来推理。 For example, you can apply a probabilistic model to predict the future state of the user's attention, and can take advantage of such a forecast, growing by less greedy way of reasoning.

此外,即使在发出单一时间信号后,在某些方面,不是立即丢弃该通知(即,删除)。 Further, even after a single time signal is sent, in certain aspects, it is not immediately discards the notification (i.e., deleted). 例如, 一旦重现了通知, 一般也不能保证该信息已经送到用户处。 For example, once the notification to reproduce, in general there is no guarantee that the information has been sent to the user. 然而,如果在用户和系统间的共享的理解地方,系统有一个处理过程, 这种保证是可能的。 However, if there is a process shared between the user and the system understand the local system, such assurances are possible. 例如,用户使光标覆盖桌上型电脑情况(scenario)中的再现通知上就是一种方式,用户通过这种方式向系统表示"是,我得到了",或以某些其他方法,通过自动监视通知的存取。 For example, the user causes the cursor to cover the case where the reproduction desktop notifications (Scenario) is in one way, the user indicates to the system in this way, "Yes, I got", or some other method, by automatic monitoring access notifications. 后面的例子正在监视用户是否已经检查了他或她的蜂窝电话上消息。 Examples of the latter are monitoring whether the user has checked his or her cell phone messages. 这种监视的报告可以是对所接的收通知的确认,如说明书的先前章节中所提到的。 Such reports may be monitored to confirm that the received notification contact, as in the previous section of the specification mentioned.

考虑接收器的方式作为在该上下文中具有上下文敏感传输可靠性的(也 Consider the receiver as having a context-sensitive manner in this context transmission reliability (also

简称为传输可靠性(transrel))方式,transrel (M. C) 。 Referred to as transmission reliability (transrel)) mode, transrel (M. C). g卩,对于该方式, 和对于该上下文,传输可靠性给出用户已经根据该再现的通知观察到通知的可靠性。 g Jie, for this embodiment, and has been observed that the notification according to the notification of the reproduction to that context, the user is given the reliability of transmission reliability. 如已经提到的,例如在能够接收到传输可靠性为1.0的确认的时间处,用通知或覆盖在通知上的鼠标的交互作用,这样用中已经观察到传输可靠性为lO的信志信息。 As already mentioned, for example, a transmission can be received at the time to confirm the reliability of 1.0, with mouse interaction or cover notification in the notification, so that the transmission has been observed with the reliability information of the letter chi lO . 在其他时间能够依靠方式和上下文的传输可靠性。 At other times and transmission reliability mode can rely on context.

在每次发送后,更新用户己经收到的每条通知的信息p(receive)的可能性。 After each transmission, the possibility that the user has received information p (receive) of each update notification. HA(Ni)指的是一条特殊的,已经悬挂在内部盒子内的通知的提醒历史。 HA (Ni) refers to a special, alert history has suspended within the interior of the notification box. 该提醒历史表明尝试通知的序列,其中 History shows that attempts to sequence the reminder notice, which

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A(Ni,M)指的是关于具有M模式的通知〜的一个提醒。 A (Ni, M) refers to a notification about ~ M having a pattern of a reminder. 给出的一个通知的历史,主、就能够确定当前通知的新颖性,p(notification unseen|HA, E, e)。 Historically, a primary notification is given, it is possible to determine the novelty of this notification, p (notification unseen | HA, E, e). 包含有这种因子使查看通知的预期价值适当地减少。 This factor includes the expected value view notifications appropriately reduced.

更特殊地,首先,更新的预期通信价值(ExpValCom)和预期搜索价值(ExpValSeek)是 More specifically, first, it is expected to update the communications value (ExpValCom) and the expected value of search (ExpValSeek) is

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接着,按先前相似的方式确定净预期通信价值(NetExpValCom),但是具有这些新的ExpValCom和预期搜索信息价值(ExpValSeeklnfo)的价值。 Then, it is determined in a similar manner as previously expected net communications value (NetExpValCom), but with these new ExpValCom search information and expected value (ExpValSeeklnfo) value. 这样, such,

30J^5"ee仏/b " J - C。 30J ^ 5 "ee Fo / b" J - C. /z?C。 / Z? C. st化.,(13) 另外, 一般要更新通知的新颖性,p(notification unseenl #, E, e), 按照本发明的一个方面,在作出提醒的新的尝试后(通知的再现,或通知的传送),通过把该尝试看作为一个伯努利试验,能够确定这种新颖性,例如, 如现在所描述的,给出一个提醒历史, st of., (13) Moreover, generally updated novelty notification, p (notification unseenl #, E, e), according to one aspect of the present invention, the new attempt to alert (reproduction notification or notification transfer), by the attempt to see as a Bernoulli experiment, can determine the nature of this novel, for example, as is now described, given the history of a reminder,

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/7-;?6"ece/ved C(V《A"x... x frece"edC^V, e" (14) 也应注意到,通知可以是大块的一即,聚合在一起作为一组通知,经给定的通知接收器的一种给定方式发送一通过考虑包括一组同时发生的通知的通知组。 / 7 - ;? 6 "ece / ved C (V" A "x ... x frece" edC ^ V, e "(14) should also be noted that, the notification may be a bulk i.e., polymerized together as a set of notification, given by way of a transmission method of notifying a receiver of a predetermined group comprising a notification by considering a set of simultaneous notification of.

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加WCm7 KJ - £^AS"eeAi/7o, j -C。/z?C。" , #J_7 -细0?"Z^r〃/3t fv)/乂J (15) 这样,考虑通知的价值和成本的总和,其中注视着一次中断的罚款。 在说明书的本章节中,介绍了先前章节描述的本发明各方面的各种扩展。 首先,应注意到,在一个方面可以编辑和/或近似决策理论策略成为较简单的规则和策略。这能利用将这样的决策理论分析编辑成策略的正规的方法。 此外,例如,有诸如直观推之类的各种策略,如下面将详细描述的,该策略能执行粗略成本利益分析。 Plus WCm7 KJ - ". EeAi / 7o, j -C./z?C" £ ^ AS, # J_7 -? Fine 0 "Z ^ r〃 / 3t fv) / Yi in J (15) Thus, in view of the value of notification and the sum of the costs, which looked fine interrupt in this section of the specification describes various aspects of the expansion section of the present invention previously described. first, it should be noted that, in one aspect can be edited and / or approximately policy decision theory become simpler rules and policies. this enables the use of formal methods such as edit decision theory strategies. Further, for example, a variety of strategies such as visual push the like, as will be described in detail below, this strategy can perform rough cost-benefit analysis.

此外,可以把决策理论策略用于"拉信息"的情况。 In addition, the policy decision theory for the case of "pull information". g卩,当用户从系统请求信息时(包括在桌上型电脑以及在移动情况期间的请求),考虑为零的可闻性干扰成本,及可使信息相关于发送给用户的下一条最有价值的通知的信息。 g Jie, when a user requests information from the system (including desktop computers and requesting the case during the movement), consideration of the audible interference cost may be zero, and the information can be related to a user at a most information notifications value. ' 可以通过下一个最高价值使这样的信息排序,或为了识别的目的把该信息分类编组。 'Such information can sort through the next highest value, or for purposes of identification information to the grouping classification. 例如,能够检查下一个"n"最高价值的通知,这样, 一个命令与按该次序的编排通知流有关,或与等待在预期的实用程序次序中的"下一条通知" 的请求有关系。 For example, a notification can be checked next highest value of "n-', so that, according to a command notification arrangement relating to the order of the stream, or the expected waiting requests program order in a practical" next notice "a relationship.

作为替代,可以根据信息源的类型使信息关联,例如基于含有具有最高 Alternatively, the information can be made according to the type of information associated with the source, for example, based on the highest containing

31预期实用性的通知的源的次序。 Order source of practical notice of 31 expected. 在信息源类型可以继续中继传播的通知,直到在移进含有具有下一个最高价值的通知的源之前达到预期价值的一个阈值为止,然后重复该处理过程。 In the notification information may continue Zhongji source type spread, containing up until the shift into the expected value of a threshold is reached before the notification source having the next highest value, and then the process is repeated. 作为替代,能够经过源的预定次序(例如,话音邮件第一,接着是瞬时消息,接着是电子邮件,然后是财务通知)中继传播信息,然后从每个信息源中继传播通知,通过预定的实用程序储存在类型中间,直到预定应用程序中那个类型的阈值为止,然后继续处理。 Alternatively, the source can pass through a predetermined order (e.g., voice mail of the first, followed by instant messaging, e-mail is followed, then the financial circular) relay dissemination of information, and the information from each source relay notification spread by a predetermined utility program stored in the intermediate forms, until a predetermined threshold that type of application, and then continue processing.

可以利用通知的预期价值来制作当前情况的高级摘要。 You can take advantage of the expected value of a notification to make high-level summary of the current situation. 例如,可越过信息源推论而建立悬挂通知的文本到语音的摘要,用于经过蜂窝电话传递的当前通知情况。 For example, inferences can be established across the information source suspended notification to the summary text speech for the current notification via a cellular telephone transmission case. 另外,也可以利用预期价值的确定来完成高速缓冲存储。 In addition, it can also be done using the cache to determine the expected value. 通过假定用户对最高预期价值内容最感兴趣,例如,对提高移动和桌面设置中的对话能力,也可以利用该预期价值的确定来通知语音认别系统更好地收听。 By assuming that the user of the highest expected value content are most interested in, for example, to improve your speech and mobile and desktop settings, it can also be determined using the expected value of voice recognition to notify other systems better listen.

此外,已经描述过的本发明的另一个扩展是可以使用源类型中的预期价值来制作摘要。 In addition, another extended has been described the present invention may be used is the expected value of the source type to produce a summary. 这样的摘要可以出现在用于中继传播每个源的通知状态概要的持久性摘要中。 Such abstract may occur in a persistent state repeater for notifying Summary propagation outline of each source. 例如, 一个电子邮件摘要可以象下面的例子:"32条未读消息;9条高度紧急消息;来自Andy的'今天下午开会,的最紧急消息"。 For example, an email can digest as the following example: "32 unread messages; 9 highly urgent message; 'afternoon meeting from Andy, the most urgent message."

现在按照本发明描述能由通知管理器执行的渐进通信确定和策略。 It will now be described and can be determined by the policy manager notification progressive communication performed in accordance with the present invention. 例如, 能够绕过较正规的决策理论分析而利用粗略成本利益分析。 For example, to bypass the more formal analysis and decision theory use a rough cost-benefit. 可以把这种策略和有关的通知部件及接口看成决策理论策略的近似或渐进版本。 This can inform policy and related components and interfaces as approximate or progressive version of the theory of policy decisions. 在这种手段(approach)中,可以把通知经过源一或经过用户指定的通知配置文件(例如, 消息和/或消息类的每种属性)标记成高的,标准的,和低的紧急性(或紧急性的任何范围)。 In this approach (Approach) may be notified via the user-specified source or via a notification profile (e.g., messages and / or each message class attributes) labeled to high, standard, and low urgency (urgency or any range). 把条件列表创建成关于用户何时可能处于接收通知和执行上下文粗略监视的状态中,以认别用户可能用最小的中断接收通知的状态。 Create the list of conditions may be a state when a user is about to receive notifications and coarse monitored execution context, to identify the user may not receive notifications with minimal interruption state. 把这些状态称作"可能自由的(likely free)"状态。 These states as "possible freedom (likely free)" status.

该列表可以包括一项或多项下列的内容(和其他状态): The list may include one or more of the following content (and other states):

*用户已经出席和打字并刚暂停打字达x秒钟 * User has attended just pause and typing and typing of x seconds

*用户刚保存了一个文件并暂停达x秒钟 * User just saved a file and paused for x seconds

*用户刚发送一个电子邮件并暂停达x秒钟 * User just send an e-mail and paused for x seconds

*用户刚关闭一个应用程序 * User just shut down an application

*用户刚从一个应用程序转换到另一个应用程序 * User just one application to another application conversion

同样,可为紧急等级设置一个最大的延迟时间。 Similarly, you can set a maximum delay time of an emergency level. 例如,前初,可内部设置一个示范性表如下-*最大的延迟(高优先级):2分钟*最大的延迟(标准优先级):7分钟*最大的延迟(低优先级):15分钟 For example, beginning before, may be provided inside an exemplary table follows - * Maximum delay (high priority): 2 minutes * maximum delay (standard priority): 7 minutes * maximum delay (low priority): 15 minutes

这可以由用户设置,或作为选择的,由系统研制人员设置为缺省操作-用户可以或不可以修改。 This may be set by the user, or alternatively, the art developed by the system to default operation - the user may or may not be modified.

另外,用可以列出例如例外的或如接收瞬时通过的紧急事情。 Further, using, for example, can be listed as exceptions or by receiving instantaneous urgent matter. 下面是一个本发明每个方面的示范性算法: The following is an exemplary algorithm of the present invention, each aspect:

*当接收到一个通知时,把它的年龄设置成零,记录它的优先级,并检查例外情况列表。 * When a notification is received, it's age is set to zero, recording its priority, and check the list of exceptions.

*如果在那种紧急性的最大延迟时间前,通过监视用户活动观察到一个自由状态,则给用户发送一个通知。 * If the maximum delay time before the kind of urgency, a free state is observed by monitoring user activity, a notification is sent to the user.

*否则,当达到该通知的最大自由状态时,中继该通知。 * Otherwise, when the maximum free status of the notification, the notification relay. 平均起来, 一般大多数的通知会在最大延迟时间以前传送。 On average, most of the general notification will be sent in the maximum delay time ago. 然而,当接收通知时,用户对于接收在他们较空间发生的通知要比得到简单地传递的通知更为高兴。 However, when receiving the notification, the user is more than happy to receive notification of their occurrence in space than simply pass get a notification. 这样,将要达到空间状态的概率随时间而增加。 In this way, the probability to reach state space increases with time. 因为可能存在空间状态的概率随时间量的增加而增加,所以在这些可能的空间状态期间将倾向于以较高的可能性发生低优先级的消息,中断的概率将随消息优先级的增加而增加。 Because there may be a probability space state increases with increasing amounts of time, it will tend to be higher likelihood of low priority messages in space possible during these states, the probability of interrupt priority increases with message increase.

这种方法可归纳如下:按照一个方面,能使通知显示包括已在等待的多个,或组合的通知,以致给用户发送一个含有大块的成组的通知的单个通知。 This method can be summarized as follows: According to one aspect, the notification can include the display has a plurality of waiting, or a combination of a notification, a notification that contains chunks of transmission groups to the user a single notification. 这种程序块能描述在例如按最大优先级,最大年龄,或最大组的优先级次序的列表中的块通知。 This block can be described by the maximum priority, the priority order of the list of maximum age, or the maximum group in the block, for example, notification. 例如,如果尚未看到可能的空间状态,并且高优先级通知已经达到最大延迟时间,则在高优先级通知达到该最大延迟的时刻,在分组通知中含有有关悬空的低优先级的通知。 For example, if it is not possible to see the state space, and high priority notification has reached the maximum delay time, the high priority notification reaches the maximum time delay, lower priority notifications about vacant packet containing the notification. 这就是在该时刻低优先级通知仍然还未达到他们自己的最大延迟。 This is a low priority at the time notice is still not yet reached their maximum delay.

另外,可以允许一个连续的范围(例如,0至100)替代几个等级的优先级,表示紧急性的分数,并且使最大延迟成为通知优先级的函数,包括各种线性和非线性函数(例如,随优先级的增加而指数衰减的最大延迟时间)。 Further, it is possible to allow a continuous range (e.g., 0 to 100) instead of several levels of priority, a score indicating the urgency and the maximum delay priority becomes notification function, including a variety of linear and nonlinear functions (e.g. , with the priority increases exponentially decaying maximum delay time). 例如: E.g:

(最大延迟(优先级)二e-"优先级;x 15分)或 (Maximum delay (priority) two e- "priority; x 15 min), or

(最大延迟(优先级)——x最大延迟(0优先级)) 用户可从下一个x分钟内获悉空闲时间的概率。 (Maximum delay (priority) - x maximum delay (priority 0)) is the probability of idle time the user can learn from the next x minutes. 这可通过査阅可能的空闲状态的频率和直到下一个可能空闲状态为止的预期时间而得到。 This can be obtained by a time it might be expected under review possible frequency and the idle state until the idle state. 从用户的活动可以确定直到下一个可能空闲状态为止的预期时间,以及自动设置通知优先级类别的最大延迟时间,以致用户能指定用户会被中断的优先级的概率来代替最大延迟时间。 From the user's activities to determine the expected time until a possible idle state, and automatically sets the maximum delay time of notification until next priority class, so that the user can specify the priority of the probability of the user is interrupted instead of the maximum delay time. 即,用户指定该优先级级类型的中断的目标"容许的概率",并且该系统能够设置该类型的最大延迟时间。 That is, the user specifies the interrupt priority level of the target type of "permissible probability", and the system is able to set the maximum delay time of that type. 即,用户(或,另一方面,系统开发者,通过缺省值)按一种方式配置了一个通知系统,例如, 我容认的高优先级通知被中断的概率为0.5,标准优先级消息被中断的机会为0.25,但是,低优先级通知被中断的概率为0.05。 That is, the user (or, on the other hand, system developers, by default) by way of a notification system configured, for example, the probability I Acceptance, high priority interrupt notification is for 0.5, the standard priority message 0.25 chance of being interrupted, however, the probability is low-priority interrupt notification is 0.05.

下面,将描述按照本发明各方面的用户界面的概况。 Here, before the user interface according to aspects of the present invention will be described. 图14中描述这样一种界面的例子。 Examples of such a screen 14 described in FIG. 其中,在计算机显示器(例如膝上电脑、桌上型电脑或其他显示器)的桌面屏300上提供一个预定区域302 (例如,为用户的交互作用, 用于显示输出和/或为用户交互作用而提供)。 Wherein provided on the desktop computer monitor screen 300 (e.g. a laptop computer, a desktop computer, or other display) of a predetermined area 302 (e.g., the user's interaction, for displaying the output and / or the user interacts provide). 如图14所描述的,该预定区域302位于显示屏300的右上角,然而,应当理解,也可使用显示屏的其他区域(例如,左下角,右边)。 The predetermined region 302 depicted in Figure 14 the upper right corner of the display screen 300, however, it should be understood that other areas of the display may also be used (e.g., bottom left, right). 例如,在后面描述中描述的本发明的流堆栈(stream-stacking)方面,区域302可以是显示屏300右手边的一个列。 For example, the stack flow (stream-stacking) of the present invention is described in terms of later description, region 302 may be a display column 300 of the right hand side. 理想地,显示屏300使用户能控制其上的光标304的移动,如与一个图形用户界面一起应用。 Ideally, the display screen 300 which enable the user to control the movement of the cursor 304, such as application with a graphical user interface. 在图14中描述的光标304是箭头指示器,然而,应当理解, 也可以应用其他的光标。 Cursor 304 depicted in FIG. 14 is an arrow indicator, however, it should be appreciated that a cursor can be applied to other.

能够利用预定区302显示与本发明各个方面有关的信息。 The predetermined display area 302 can utilize information relating to the various aspects of the present invention. 如这儿所用的, 信息涉及单条信息,和/或多条信息。 As used here, the information relates to a single piece of information, and / or pieces of information. 按照本发明的一个方面,信息包括通知提醒,也称作为提醒或通知,如在前面已经描述的。 According to one aspect of the present invention, it includes a notification alert information, also referred to as reminders or notifications, as already described. 这样,把本发明的各个方面引向在上面所述的桌面屏300的预定区域内显示这样的信息。 Thus, the various aspects of the present invention is directed in a predetermined area of ​​the screen 300 above the desktop display such information. 在一个方面,用户能够应用该桌面屏300,用于基本任务一例如工作于一个字处理文档, 一本电子表格工作簿,或其他的应用程序。 In one aspect, the user can use the desktop screen 300 for a basic tasks such as working in a word processing document, a spreadsheet workbook, or other applications.

然而,在区域302显示的信息可以与基本任务没有联系。 However, there is no contact with the basic tasks in the information display area 302. 作为一个例子, 所显示的信息可以是用户未请求的信息。 As one example, the displayed information may be information the user does not request. 例如,该信息或许给用户提醒一个电子邮件,这样当已经在预定分类的阈值(例如,按照重要性分类的信息)上请求传送给他和/或她的电子邮件时,用户没有请求(也称作为"未请求的") For example, this information may give the user a reminder e-mail, so that when a predetermined threshold has been categorized (for example, the importance of information in accordance with the classification) requesting the transfer to his and / or her e-mail, the user does not request (also known as as the "unsolicited")

也在区域302上显示该电子邮件。 The e-mail is also displayed on the area 302.

显示屏300可以是提供通用化再现(rendering)的显示器的一部分,例如,包括按照超文本链接标示语言(HTML)格式格式化的内容。 Portion of the display screen 300 may be generalized to provide a reproduction (Rendering), e.g., including labeling information formatted by language (HTML) in accordance with the hypertext links. 另外,多个信息源是能发送的"丰富(rich)"界面,包括按键,链路,动画,声音,等等,(例如,为源标记),这样,在这儿所述的用户界面的约束和较高级的设计惯例和风格惯例内再现(be rendered)该信息。 Further, the plurality of information sources is "rich (Rich)" interface that can be sent, including buttons, links, animations, sounds, etc., (e.g., source flag), so that, here, the constraints of a user interface and in the more advanced design practices and style conventions reproduction (be rendered) the information. 然而,本发明本身不受这样限制。 However, the invention itself is not so limited.

在说明书的下列章节中,将描述本发明的脉冲方面,本发明的流循环方面,和本发明的流堆栈方面。 In the following section of the description, the pulse will be described aspects of the invention, the flow cycle of the present invention, the stack and the flow aspects of the invention. 这些是特殊的方面,例如,通过这些方面,能在桌面显示屏300的预定区域302上显示信息。 These are particular aspect, for example, these terms can display information displayed on the desktop 300, a predetermined area 302. 应当注意,下面的章节描述这些方面的至少一个例子,然而,本发明本身不限制于这些例子。 It should be noted that the following section describes at least one instance of these aspects, however, the present invention itself is not limited to these examples. 此外,可以有脉冲调制方式,流循环方式,和流堆栈方式的组合,其中,用户能够在这些方式中转换。 Further, there may be a combination of pulse-modulation, current circulation mode, and stream mode stack, wherein the user is able to convert these manners. 例如, 一个系统可以包括一个显示器, 一个处理系统,和机器可读介质。 For example, a system may include a display, a processing system, and machine-readable media. 在该介质中储存可由系统执行的导致输入这些方式中的一种方式的计算机程序。 Stored in the medium may cause the input system executing a computer program embodiment of these ways.

例如,在用户在这些方式中间转换之外的一个方面,如上所描述的一个通知管理器能够实行转换的决定。 For example, in one embodiment of these aspects of the user outside of the intermediate conversion, a notification manager can be implemented as described above decision conversion. 在一个方面,用户或通知管理器也能够在指定方式内(例如在脉冲,流循环,和/或流堆栈方式内)作出关于可转换特性确定。 In one aspect, the notification manager or the user can be specified in a manner (e.g., in the pulse stream is recycled, and / or flow stack mode) determination is made available conversion characteristics. 在一个方面,存在或不存在声音预报也可以是授给用户和/或通知管理器的一个确定。 In one aspect, the presence or absence of sound forecasts may be granted to users and / or to determine a notification manager.

现在参考图15,按照本发明描述脉冲方面的一个方法400的一个流程图。 Referring now to Figure 15, according to an aspect of the present invention the method described pulse of a flowchart 400. 在401处,接收信息。 At 401, the received information. 如已经描述的,该信息可以是与用户的基本任务没有关联的未请求的信息。 As already described, the information may be associated with the basic information without the user's task of unsolicited. 该信息可以包括一个通知提醒,例如具有一个赋予的分类,例如一个大于一个阈值的与此有关的重要性值,该阈值例如由一个预定阈值所定义。 This information may include an alert notification, e.g. having a given classification, for example, a value greater than the importance associated therewith a threshold value, the threshold value is defined by, for example, a predetermined threshold value. 重要性值的度量不受本发明的限制,也不受该阈值的限制。 Measure the importance of the value of the present invention is not limited, it is also not limited to the threshold value.

在402处,将信息淡入显示器的预定区域。 At 402, the information of the predetermined area of ​​the display fade. 在一个方面,通过在预定区域内显示该信息并按一给定的速率将显示在预定区域中的该信息的a值(例如,与显示像数有关的亮度值)增加到第一个预定等级而淡入该信息。 In one aspect, by displaying in a predetermined area of ​​the press at a rate given a value displayed in a predetermined area of ​​the information (e.g., the number associated with the display image luminance value) increases to a first predetermined level the fade in the information. 该第一个预定等级可以是基于由重要性值所定义的该信息的重要性的。 The first predetermined level may be based on the importance value defined by the importance of the information. 例如,该等级可以与信息的重要性成正比。 For example, the level may be proportional to the importance of information. 随着信息的a值的增加,在预定区域中的信息显示暗度也增加。 With the increase of a value of information, the information is displayed in a predetermined area increases the darkness. 这样,根据信息的重要性使cc值到一个级别意味着的增加 Thus, according to the importance of the information cc value to a mean level of increase

以较大的暗度显示更重要的信息一即,用低的半透明度一与较不重要的信息相 Is in large darkness i.e. a more important information, with a low translucency and phase information is less important

比。 ratio. 然而,在一个方面,预定的等级低于100%--即,小于100%的暗度。 However, in one aspect, the predetermined level is lower than 100% - i.e., less than 100% darkness. 此外, 在402处也可以播放声音预报以给用户提醒淡入在预定区域中的信息。 Further, at 402 may play a sound alert to the user to fade prediction information in a predetermined area. 声音预报可以是一种预定的声音或多种声音,其中信息的重要性值可以与声音的各个方面(例如,基于重要性的音量高或低,基于重要性的较多的或较少的声音)相关联。 Sound prediction predetermined sound may be a sound or more, wherein the value of the importance of various aspects of the information may be voice (e.g., based on the sound volume is low or high importance, based on the importance of more or less )Associated.

在404处,根据信息重要性存在时间长度的延迟。 At 404, the length of the delay time according to the importance of information exists. 例如,时间长度可以与信息重要性成正比。 For example, the length of time may be proportional to the importance of information. 延迟是这样地合乎需要,将向用户显示信息的时间长度。 The delay is desirable, length of time to the user information. 这样,较重要的信息能比重要性较低的信息显示更长的时间。 In this way, the more important information can be lower than the importance of the information displayed longer. 在一个方面,在所延迟的时间长度期间,执行处理过程400的406, 408, 410和412, 虽然本发明不受这样的限制。 In one aspect, the length of time during the delay, the process 400 performs 406, 408, 410 and 412, although the present invention is not so limited.

在406处,检测第一个预定的用户手势,该手势与在显示器的预定区域的淡入的信息相关联。 At 406, a first detecting predetermined user gesture, the gesture fade predetermined region of the information associated with the display. 例如,这第一个手势可以是在显示器(例如,用户通过利用如鼠标之类的指向设备而产生这样的移动)的预定区域内的光标移动, 虽然本发明本身不受这样限制。 For example, this may be a first gesture on a display (e.g., movement of a user is generated by using such a pointing device such as a mouse) cursor movement within a predetermined area, although the invention itself is not so limited. 另一个手势能包括检测的用户的特殊语音或话音。 Another gesture can include user specific voice or speech detection. 在408处,响应于第一种手势,执行第一个动作。 At 408, in response to a first gesture, performing a first action. 在一个方面,该动作包括使在预定区域显示的信息的值增加到比第一个预定等级高的第二个预定等级,例如100%。 In one aspect, the action includes value information displayed in a predetermined area is increased higher than the first predetermined level a second predetermined level, such as 100%. 这样第一个手势能使该信息变得更不透明。 Such information enables the first gesture becomes more opaque. 在另一个方面,在408处,响应于第一个手势,在显示器预定区域显示更详细的信息, (例如,与提醒有关的信息)。 In another aspect, at 408, in response to the first gesture, displaying detailed information in a predetermined display area (e.g., information related to the alert).

在410处,检测第二个预定的用户手势,该手势与在显示器的预定区域的淡入的信息衰变相关联。 At 410, the second predetermined detected user gesture, the gesture fade predetermined region of the display information associated with the decay. 例如,这第二种手势可以是在显示器区域内的光标移动,致使光标不再在显示器的预定区域(例如,用户通过利用如鼠标或键移动之类的指向设备产生这种移动)。 For example, this second gesture may move the cursor within the display area, so that the cursor is no longer in a predetermined area of ​​the display (e.g., the user generates such movement, such as moving the mouse or button pointing device or the like by using). 另一种手势是检测的用户的话音特殊的语音。 Another gesture detected user's voice is a particular voice. 在412处,响应于第二种手势,执行第二个动作。 At 412, in response to the second gesture, performing the second operation. 该动作可以包括减少在预定区域显示的信息的oc值,使其从在408中先前调整的第二个预等级返回到第一个预定等级。 The action may include reducing the oc value information displayed in a predetermined area, from 408 to return the previously adjusted to a second predetermined level the first predetermined level. 按照本发明的另一个方面,由在402中先前淡入的信息代替在408中在显示器的预定区域中己经显示的更详细信息。 According to another aspect of the invention, more detailed information in a predetermined area of ​​the display 408 has the display 402 is replaced by the information in the previously fade.

在414处,当已经经过404的延迟时,从显示器预定区域淡出信息。 At 414, when the delay has elapsed 404, the display information from the predetermined area fade. 例如,在一个方面,这包括按给定速率使在预定区域显示的信息的cc值减少,然后,在预定区域不再显示该信息。 For example, in one aspect, it comprises at a given rate so that the value of cc information displayed in a predetermined area reduction, then, no longer displays the information in a predetermined area. 如416所指出的,可以重复在400中所描述的处理。 416 As noted, the process 400 may be repeated as described. 即,在401中能够接收新的信息,该信息或许有一新的重要性, 这样在402中新信息淡入显示器的预定区域内。 That is, 401 can receive new information which may have a new importance, so that within a predetermined area 402 displays the new fade information. 应当注意,在一个方面,如能理解的,信息的淡入和淡出预定的区域是这样的,已经在预定区域显示的无论什么内容都还显示在那儿。 It should be noted, in one aspect, As can be appreciated, fade in and out of a predetermined area of ​​the information is such that, no matter what the content also shows there has been displayed in a predetermined area. 即,把淡入预定区域的信息显示在已经显示在那儿的内容的顶高级别一对于该级别,增加淡入信息的a值的等级,这样确定该输入信息的半透明度或不透明度是多少,并且因此而确定用户能够观看到多少信息。 That is, the information fade predetermined display area has been shown at the top where the content of the high-level one for that level, increasing the level of a value of the fade information, and determines the translucency of the input information or opacity is much, and thus to determine how much information the user can view. 特别能够观看该信息(虽然不能全部在空间内传播)。 In particular, be able to view this information (although not all spread in the space).

把在图15中描述的处理称作为脉冲方面,因为用"脉冲"把信息输入送到确定的a。 The process described in FIG. 15 is referred to as pulse aspect, since a "pulse" of the information input to determine a. 对于与提醒或通知的类型(例如,重要性值)相关联的确定的时间长度。 Determining the length of time for the type (e.g., importance value) with reminders or notifications associated. 参考图16描述该过程,在图中,按照本发明的一个方面,描述这样一个脉冲502的图表500。 This process is described with reference to FIG. 16, in the figure, according to one aspect of the present invention, describe such a graph 500 pulse 502. 脉冲502有一个高度506,表示a值的等级,在预定区域显示的信息增加到该等级,表示时间长度的长度504,在该时间内,信息以这种a值的等级显示在预定区域内,第一个斜坡508表示该信息淡入到该a值等级的速率,而第二斜坡510表示该信息从该等级淡出的速率。 Pulse 502 has a height 506, represents a level value, information is displayed in a predetermined area of ​​the increased level, length 504 indicates the length of time, in which time information is displayed in a predetermined region of such a level value, the first ramp 508, the information rate of the fade to a value level, while the second ramp 510 represents the information rate from the fade level. 在一个方面,高度506和长度504是基于用脉冲输送的信息的重要性的(例如,在一个方面,致使该高度与重要性成正比)。 In one aspect, the length 504 and height 506 is based on the importance information using pulsed (e.g., in one aspect, so that the height is proportional to the importance). 在一个方面,斜坡508和/或斜坡510 为常量,虽然,本发明本身不受这样的限制,斜坡508和510能互相相类似。 In one aspect, the ramp 508 and / or ramp 510 is constant, although the invention itself is not so limited, ramps 508 and 510 can be similar with each other.

在本发明的一个方面,在显示器上有跳格键,按键,和/或其他元件,能使用户通过选择该元件而导致立即显示下一条通知。 In one aspect of the present invention, there Tab key, button, and / or other elements on the display, the user can select the element caused by displaying a notification immediately. 例如,点击按键指明用户想查看下一条通知,即使这条通知本身还未达到显示的重要性值或阈值。 For example, click the button indicating a user wants to view the next notification, even though this notice itself has not reached the threshold value or importance displayed. 例如,这样一条通知或许不具有大于独立显示的阈值的重要性。 For example, such a notification may not be of importance greater than the threshold value displayed independently.

现在转到图17,流程图描述按照本发明的一个流循环方面的一种方法600。 Turning now to FIG. 17, a flowchart depicts a process flow according to an aspect of the present invention, loop 600. 在601处,相应数目的不同信息包(例如,与来自通知源的通知或提醒相关联的信息)具有确定的相关联的显示时间。 At 601, a corresponding number of different information packets (e.g., with a notification from the notification or alert source associated information) associated with a display time determined. 信息包的显示时间是这条信息能在显示器的预定区域显示的时间长度。 The display time information packet is the length of time this information can be displayed in a predetermined area of ​​the display. 在一个方面,该时间长度是基于该信息的重要性的,其中,把重要性值各个信息包赋予。 In one aspect, the length of time is based on the importance of the information, wherein the value of the importance given to each packet. 例如,显示时间与重要性成正比,虽然本发明不受这样限制。 For example, the display time is proportional to the importance, although the invention is not so limited. 此外,如已经描述的,该信息可以与用户的基本任务无关的未请求信息。 Further, as already described, the task of the user information may be substantially independent of unsolicited information. 该信息包括一条通知提醒。 This information includes a notification alerts.

在602处,在一个方面(即,602是选项),为各个信息包确定周期性。 At 602, in one aspect (i.e., 602 is an option) to determine the periodicity for each packet. 信息包的周期是,将在所给定的时间周期上在显示器预定区域中显示的时间数目。 Packet periods, the number of display time to be displayed in a predetermined region in a given period of time. 例如,该周期可以基于分类和按照预定协议显示(例如,与分类成比例地相关联)。 For example, classification may be based on the period and displayed in a predetermined protocol (e.g., associated with classification into the proportion). 在一个方面,周期性是基于信息的重要性的;例如,它可以与重要性值成正比。 In one aspect, the periodicity is based on the importance of information; for example, it may be proportional to the importance value. 这样,在给定的时间周期内,与较不重要的信息相比,可以更频繁地显示较重要的信息。 Thus, within a given period of time, compared with less important information can be displayed more important information more frequently. 在本发明的一个方面,其中,可不执行602,各个信息包可以有一个约等于l的周期一即,对于给定的时间周期,能够显示每条信息一次。 In one aspect of the present invention, wherein 602 may not be performed, each information packet may have a period approximately equal to a l That is, for a given time period, the information can be displayed once each. ,

在604处,对于给定的时间周期,对于约等于显示时间的时间长度,各个信息包在显示器预定区域内显示约等于它的周期的时间数。 At 604, for a given period of time, approximately equal to the length of time for the time the respective packet displayed within the display region is approximately equal to a predetermined number of time periods it. 这样,能够显示第一个信息包,然后第二个信息包,等等,直到在这段给出的时间周期内已经显示了基本上所有的信息。 Thus, to display the first information packet and the second packet, and so on, until a given period of time this has been shown to substantially all of the information. 在一个方面,可以使各个信息淡入,然后淡出预定区域,有一个约等于显示时间期间的延迟,如在说明书的先前章节中所描述的(例如,通过升高a值,延迟,然后降低cc值)。 In one aspect, the respective information can fade in and fade out the predetermined area, there is a delay approximately equal to the display period of time, as in the description described in the previous section (e.g., by increasing the value of a delay, and reduced value cc ). 如已经描述的,按照本发明这样一个方面,第一个预定等级(把信息分组的a值增加到该等级)可以基于信息的重要性。 As has been described, according to this aspect of the invention, a first predetermined level (a value of the information added to the packet level) may be based on the importance information. 即,对于约等于显示时间的时间长度,最终把a值设置成第一个预定等级。 That is, approximately equal to the length of time of time, the final value is provided to a first predetermined level. 在一个方面,还播放一个音频预报,向用户提醒所显示的各个信息,或作为选择,提醒超过阈值的信息,例如超过一个预定阈值的信息。 In one aspect, an audio player further forecasts, each alert information displayed to the user, or alternatively, information about exceeding the threshold value, for example more than a predetermined threshold information. 音频预报可以是如上所述一种预定的声音或多种声音。 Audio forecast as described above may be more predetermined sound or voice. 在一个方面,在给定的时间周期内(对此,本发明不特别限定),执行处理600中的606,608, 610和612,虽然本发明本身不受这样的限制。 In one aspect, during a given period of time (In this regard, the present invention is not particularly limited), process 600 performs 606, 608, 610 and 612, is not so limited, although the invention itself.

在606处,检测第一个预定的用户手势,该手势与在显示器的预定区域显示的当前信息包相关联。 At 606, a first detecting predetermined user gesture, the gesture in the display area of ​​the predetermined display current information packet is associated with. 例如,这第一种手势可以是在显示器(例如,用户通过利用如鼠标之类的指向设备产生这样的移动)的预定区域内的光标移动。 For example, this may be a first gesture on a display (e.g., the user generates such movement by using a pointing device such as a mouse) cursor movement within a predetermined area. 另一个手势能包括由用户检测和/或处理的特殊的语音或话音。 Another particular gesture can include voice or speech detection by a user and / or processes. 在608中,响应于第一个手势,执行第一个动作。 At 608, in response to the first gesture, performing a first action. 在一个方面,该动作包括"保持"正在预定区域显示的当前信息,致使直到在610中检测到第二种手势为止,在预定区域中基本上不显示其他的信息。 In one aspect, the action includes the "hold" is displayed in a predetermined area of ​​current information, so that until detecting a second gesture 610, show essentially no additional information in a predetermined area.

艮P,对于时间长度等于使当前信息保持在预定区域中一直到在610中检测到第二手势为止期间的时间长度,临时有效地增加当前显示信息的显示时间,并增加给定的时间周期。 Gen P, so that the current time is equal to the length of the information held in the predetermined region up to the length of time during which the detected second gesture up in 610, the temporary display time effective to increase the currently displayed information, and increase for a given period of time . 在另一个方面,在608中执行的第一个动作包括使在预定区域中显示的当前信息的a值增加到比第一个预定等级高的第二个预定等级,例如100%。 In another aspect, the first operation performed in a 608 comprising a current value information is displayed in a predetermined area is increased higher than the first predetermined level a second predetermined level, such as 100%. 在这种方面,第一种手势因此而使所显示的当前信息变得更不透明。 In this regard, the first gesture Thus the current displayed information becomes more opaque. 在另一个方面,在608中,响应于第一个手势,在显示器预定区域中显示更详细的信息,(例如与提醒有关的信息)。 In another aspect, at 608, in response to the first gesture, displaying detailed information in a predetermined display area (e.g., alert related information).

在610处,检测第二个预定的用户手势,该手势与在显示器的预定区域中显示的当前信息相关联。 At 610, the second predetermined detected user gesture, the gesture is associated with the current information displayed on the predetermined region of the display. 例如,这第二个手势可以是光标到显示器的一个区域的移动,致使光标不再在显示器的预定区域上(例如,用户通过利用如鼠标之类的指向设备产生这种移动)。 For example, this may be a second gesture to move a cursor of the display area, so that no cursor (e.g., by a user using the generated mobile such as a mouse pointing device) on a predetermined area of ​​the display. 另一个手势是能认别的用户的特殊的语音。 Another sign is a special voice can recognize other users. 在612中,响应于第二种手势,执行第二个动作。 At 612, in response to the second gesture, performing the second operation. 在一个方面,第二个动作包括"释放"先前保持在预定显示区中的当前信息,这样,后来的信息能够继续依次显示在该预定区域中。 In one aspect, the second action including "release" current information previously held in a predetermined display area, so that information can then continues sequentially displayed in the predetermined region. 该动作可以包括减少在预定区域中显示的信息的cx值,使其从在608中先前增加或设置的第二个预等级返回到第一个预定等级。 The action may include reducing cx value information displayed in a predetermined area, from the previous increase to return or set the second predetermined level 608 to the first predetermined level. 在另一个方面,由如在602中先前显示的信息代替在608中显示器的预定区域中已经显示的更详细信息。 In another aspect, the information previously displayed as 602 in more details in the predetermined area 608 of the display has been displayed instead.

在614处,一旦基本上已经显示了所有信息给定的时间周期已经过去,就更新信息。 At 614, once the show has basically all the information given period of time has elapsed, updated information. 例如,614可以包括添加新信息,并删除旧信息。 For example, 614 may include adding new information and delete old messages. 例如,信息的删除可以。 For example, you can delete the information. 基于最低优先级的信息,已经显示了预定时间数的信息,等等。 Based on the lowest priority of the information, the information has been displayed a predetermined number of times, and so on. 相似地,要添加的新信息能包括其重要性超过与该信息的重要性相关联的一个预定阈值的信息。 Similarly, the new information can include information to be added its importance exceeds the importance associated with one of the predetermined threshold information. 然后重复图17的处理600,如由616所指出的。 FIG 17 then repeats the processing of 600, 616 as indicated by the. 这样,在601中,确定己经更新的各个信息包的新显示时间。 Thus, in 601, determining each information package has a new updated display time.

如连同图17的处理600 —起描述被称作为流循环的本发明的一个方面,因为在给定的时间周期内,信息是"流动的"一在预定区域显示的第一条信息,然后第二条,等等。 The process 600 in conjunction with FIG. 17 - description is called from a flow aspect of the present invention as a loop, because within a given period of time, information is "flow" in a first predetermined region of the display of the message, then the second two, and so on. 参考图18描述该情况,按照本发明的一个方面,在图中描述流循环轮702的图700。 The case described with reference to FIG 18, according to one aspect of the present invention, described circulation flow 700 in FIG wheel 702 in FIG. 轮702有许多槽口1到N (N是整数)704至708。 Wheel 702 has many slots 1 to N (N is an integer) 704-708. 例如槽口704相应于在给定时周期内显示一部分信息的一个例子。 For example in a notch 704 corresponding to the example of the display portion of the information to the timing period. 各个槽口具有相应于在给定时间周期内使一部分信息显示多长时间的延迟。 Each slot having a portion corresponding to the information displayed within a given period of time how long a delay. 例如,槽口706有一段由弧长710表示的时间延迟,其中,具有较长弧的槽口有更大的相应时间延迟。 For example, the notch 706 has a time delay represented by the arc length 710, which has a longer arc notch correspondingly greater time delay. 把各个信息分配到约等于该信息的周期的许多槽内。 Assigned to the respective information about a number of slots equal to the period information. 这样,对具有1个周期的信息分配1个槽。 Thus, a slot allocation information having a cycle. 应当注意,槽的数字和给定的时间周期可以都是动态的,这样当更新信息时,槽的数目可能增减到约等于基本上所有信息的周期总数,而这样的基本上显示了信息的所有实例给定的时间周期可以约等于实例的时间延迟的总和。 It should be noted that the digital groove and the given time period may be is dynamic, so that when update information, may increase or decrease the number of grooves is approximately equal to substantially all of the information of the total number of cycles, and this information is displayed substantially All instances of a given time period may be a time delay equal to about the sum of example.

轮700按箭头712所指的方向旋转,这样指向轮702的观察箭头714,在给定的周期内指向轮700的不同的槽口。 Wheel 700 referred to the direction of arrow 712 is rotated so that the arrow pointing observation wheel 702 714, directed to different wheel notches 700 within a given period. 箭头714正指向的槽口704含有当前在显示器的预定区域内显示的信息。 Arrow 714 is pointing to the slot 704 containing the information currently displayed in a predetermined area of ​​the display. 这样,当轮702在给定时间周期旋转时,箭头714指向不同的槽口,这样在预定区域显示不同的信息。 Thus, when the wheel 702 rotate in a given time period, the arrows pointing to 714 different notches, such display different information in a predetermined area. 轮702旋转的速率是这样的,使轮702在给定的时间周期内能完成一次完整的旋转。 The rate of rotation of the wheel 702 is such that the wheel 702 to complete one full rotation within a given time period. 应当注意,图18的轮702是本发明流循环方面的一个概念图,而在实际中,不必要提供这样的轮来实现这个方面。 It should be noted that the wheel 702 of FIG. 18 is a conceptual diagram stream is recycled aspect of the invention, but in practice necessary to provide such a wheel to achieve this regard.

按照本发明的一个方面,可以是流循环的一部分信息是摘要页面,这是含有当前循环中最紧急通知的高级摘要的信息,或是含有可能从大容量通知存储器中下载的最普通的大量通知高级摘要的信息。 According to one aspect of the present invention, may be part of the information flow cycle is a summary page, which contains high-level summary information in the current cycle of the most urgent notice, or it may contain a large number of the most common notification may be downloaded from the mass memory notifications high-level summary information. 由用户在该摘要中选择的特殊参考通知引起该通知的立刻显示。 Causing the notification by notifying the user specific reference in the summary of selected displayed immediately. 在一个方面,有多于摘要页页,其中各个页面页可以含有成群的通知组,包括与大块信息有关的一例如,基本上所有通信(例如,瞬时消息,电子邮件,来电电话呼叫)的摘要页面,和/或基本所有自动服务的一个摘要。 In one aspect, more than Summary Page, wherein each page may contain groups page notification group includes information relating to a chunk e.g., substantially all communication (e.g., instant messaging, e-mail, incoming phone call) the summary page, and / or a basic summary of all automatic services. 此外,按照本发明的另一个方面,能有明确的(explicit)控制组,使用户能停止信息的循环,通过循环快速地点击,并在他和/或她希望的地方暂停,和/或转向到别的信息。 In addition, according to another aspect of the invention, to have a clear (explicit) control group, so that the user can stop the circulation of information, and quickly click through the loop, and suspended and / or she wishes to place his, and / or steering to other information. 在一个方面,可以在单独的显示器上显示由流循环描述的该信息。 In one aspect, the information may be displayed by the circulation flow described on a separate display.

在说明书的下面章节中,描述本发明的流堆栈方面。 In the following sections of the specification, the description stream stack aspect of the present invention. 图19的图描述按照这样一种流堆栈方面的显示器800。 FIG. 800 described with FIG. 19 in accordance with a flow monitor stack area. 显示器800包括一个主通知窗口802, 一查阅窗口804,和许多源摘要窗口806,认为基本上所有这些都显示在显示器800的预定区域中(例如,其中的显示屏)。 A main display 800 includes notification window 802, a window 804 Now, the summary window 806 and a number of sources, all of which are considered to be essentially displayed in a predetermined area of ​​the display 800 (e.g., where the display screen). 有许多信息源,例如先前已经描述过的通知源。 There are many sources of information, such as has been previously described in the notification source. 各个信息源产生信息,例如未请求信息,该未请求信息能包含已经描述过的与用户基本任务不相关的信息,并在相应的源摘要窗口806上显示该信息。 Each information source generates information, such information is not requested, the information not requested can not contain information related to the user basic tasks already described, and displays the information in the summary window 806 corresponding source. 如也已经描述过的,该信息可以包括通知提醒。 As also already described, the information may include a notification alert.

可以给信息的各个部分信息赋于一个重要性值,该重要性值的度量不受本发明的限制。 Can give various portions of information assigns a significance value, the significance value is a measure of the present invention is not limited. 例如,按流循环方式显示在主通知窗口802中显示重要性大于阈值(例如一个预定阈值)的信息中显示。 For example, a cyclic manner by the flow in the main display window 802 displays a notification message of the importance greater than the threshold value (e.g., a predetermined threshold value) in the. 例如,流循环可按照已经描述过的本发明的流循环方面,其中使各个信息淡入主通知窗口802达一段时间长度,然后淡出。 For example, the flow circulating along the flow cycle of the invention may have been described aspect, wherein the respective light entered information notification window 802 of a length of time, then fades. 然而,本发明本身不受这样限制。 However, the invention itself is not so limited. 按流循环方式显示信息在这儿也称作为流显示信息。 Per-flow cycle information displayed here is also referred to as flow display information. 当在主通知窗802中显示时,在一个方面,该信息可以是比在一个信息源摘要窗口806中显示的更为详细的版本。 When the notification displayed in the main window 802, in one aspect, the information may be more detailed than the version information source is displayed in a summary window 806.

此外,在本发明的一个方面,可在查阅窗口804中,按照预定的标准,查阅已经在主通知窗口802中流显示的信息。 Further, in one aspect of the present invention, the inspection window 804, in accordance with predetermined criteria, inspection window 802 has notification information displayed in the main flow. 例如,当已经在主通知窗口802中显示信息的特殊部分时,可以将信息的一行摘要添加到查阅窗口804,这儿—般称作为査阅输入,这样窗口804显示这样的摘要的列表。 For example, when a particular part of the information has been displayed in the main window notification 802, a line of information can be added to the review summary window 804, here - is often referred to as access to inputs, so that the window displays a list of 804 such summary. 在一个方面,用户使窗口804的这一列表滚动,因此用户基本上能够检查已经在主通知窗口802中流显示的所有信息。 In one aspect, the user list window 804 so that the rolling, so the user can check the notification window 802 has all the information flowing in the main display.

按照本发明的一个方面,限定所查阅的的信息的预定标准,和/或添加到查阅窗口804的是已经由用户指出的已经由他和/或她查看的信息。 According to one aspect of the present invention, the defined inspection predetermined criterion information, and / or to the inspection window 804 is indicated by the user has been made and his / her information or viewing. 例如,用户通过执行一个预确定的用户手势(这种手势例如是使光标在主通知窗口,也将这称作为复盖(hovering))。 For example, the user performs a predetermined user gesture (e.g. gesture which is to move the cursor in the main window 802. The notification, also referred to as covering these (hovering)). 能够指出他和/或她,已经査看了当前已在主通知窗口802显示的信息。 Able to point out that he and / or she has reviewed the information currently displayed in the main window 802 notice. 查阅预定标准也可由用户控制。 Now the predetermined criterion can be user controlled. 一般,应用查阅捕获尝试给用户中继转播信息的全部历史。 Generally, an application to view the entire history of attempts to capture a live broadcast of the user information. 查阅输入可以包括信息源,高级的标题和/或摘要,和/或关于或许已经相对于通知或提醒采取的动作相关的信息。 Check input may include information sources, senior title and / or summary, and / or may have in relation to actions concerning notice or reminder to take the relevant information.

可以执行一个动作以响应于一个预定用户手势,该预定用户手势与主通知窗口802,信息源摘要窗口806上显示的,和/或在查阅窗口806上査阅的信息有关。 You may perform a predetermined action in response to a user gesture, the predetermined user gesture with the primary notification window 802, and / or on the window 806 to view information about accessible source of information displayed on the summary window 806. 例如,预定的用户手势可能导致光标在主通知窗口802,源摘要窗口806上移动,或在查阅窗口804上的一个实体,和选择在那里显示的信息。 For example, the predetermined user gesture may cause the cursor to move on the main notification window 802, source summary window 806, or an entity on the inspection window 804, and the selection information shown therein. 用户点击一个合适的输入设备的按键可以产生选择,虽然本发明不受这样的限制。 A user clicks on the appropriate key input device may generate the selection, although the present invention is not so limited. 响应该手势执行的动作不受本发明的限制。 In response to the operation of the gesture performed by the present invention is not limited. 然而,在一个方面,该动作包括显示进一步的信息,例如更详细的信息,涉及已经是相应的手势的主题的信息。 However, in one aspect, the further action comprises displaying information, such as more detailed information, to information relating to have a corresponding gesture.

在图20的图中描述这样的一个例子。 One example of such is described in FIG. 20. 在显示器卯0中,用户已经使光标904 (在图20中描述为一个指示器,虽然本发明不受此特别限制)在源摘要窗口806的一个信息源摘要窗口904上移动,并假定已经选择了信息源摘要窗口904上显示的信息。 D 0 in the display, the user has to move the cursor 904 (depicted as a pointer in FIG. 20, although the present invention is not particularly limited) is moved in a summary window 806 on the source of the summary window information source 904, and assumed to have been selected a summary source of information displayed on the window 904. 因为用户在窗口904的信息源上已经执行一个相应的手势,所以该信息源被称作为用户所希望的信息源。 Because the user information on the source window 904 to a corresponding gesture has been performed, so that the information source is referred to as a source of information desired by the user. 响应于该手势,已经执行了一个动作,特别,窗口906的显示,该显示可以包括有关在信息源摘要窗口904中显示的信息的更详细的信息。 In response to the gesture, an action has been performed, particularly, a display window 906, the display may include more detailed information about the information displayed in the summary window information source 904. 应当注意,当图20的例子是特定于对用户执行与在一个源摘要窗口806上显示的信息有关的一个手势时。 It should be noted that, when the example of FIG. 20 is a specific user performs a gesture with information relating to the source displayed on a summary window 806. 本发明本身不受这样的限制,而是该手势可能与主通知窗口802上显示的信息或与在查阅窗口804上查阅的査阅输入有关。 The invention itself is not so limited, but rather may be notified by the gesture on the display window 802 or information related to the inspection window 804 in such an inspection with the main input. 可以理解,如已经描述的和连同图19和20 —起己经描述的本发明的流堆栈方面适合于各种扩展。 It will be appreciated, as already described in conjunction with FIGS. 19 and 20, and - fluid from the stack already present invention suitable for various aspects described extension. 例如,可以在显示一个或多个各自的窗口802, 804和806中进行"简单方式"的切换。 For example, one or more respective display windows 802, 804 and 806 are switched "simple mode" on. 此外,用户可以增加或减少许多源摘要窗口806。 In addition, users can increase or decrease the number of sources summary window 806. 在一个方面,也能够使源摘要窗口806为最小,以使在这儿显示的信息是表示窗口806的信息源的一个图标,这样,复盖在特殊窗口806上的用户产生的光标引起显示相应源产生的信息。 In one aspect, it is possible to make the source of the summary window 806 is minimized, so that the information displayed here is a window icon information source 806, so that the user a cursor on a special cover window 806 generated due to the respective source display information generated.

现在参考图21, 一个流程图描述本发明的流堆栈方面的方法1000。 Referring now to Figure 21, a flow chart describing a method aspect of the invention the flow of stack 1000. 方法1000能与已经连同图19和20 —起描述的流堆栈方面结合在一起, The method 1000 can have, together with FIGS. 19 and 20-- the combined stream from stack aspects described together,

在1002处,显示从许多源来的信息。 In 1002, the display information from a number of sources. 在一个相应的源摘要窗口中显示从各个源来的信息。 Display information from various sources in a corresponding source Summary window. 该信息可以是与用户基本任务无关的未请求信息。 This information may be substantially independent of the tasks the user does not request information. 在1004中,在主通知窗口中流显示重要性大于阈值(例如一个预定阈值)的信息。 In 1004, the importance of displaying information greater than a threshold (e.g., a predetermined threshold value) in the main flow notification window. 在一个方面,在主通知窗口上显示的信息。 In one aspect, the information displayed on the main window notification. 可以是比在相应于信息源的源摘要窗口上显示的更为详细的信息。 May be on the source information corresponding to the source window displays a summary of the detailed information than others. 在1006处,按照一个预定的标准,可在查阅窗口上查阅己经流显示在主通知窗口上的信息,例如通过添加在其上的一个查阅输入。 At 1006, in accordance with a predetermined criterion, already available on the main flow of information displayed in the notification window inspection window, for example, by adding thereto a Now input.

如已经描述的,通过执行关于特殊(用户希望的)信息的一个预定用户手势,用户基本上能够相应于在任何源摘要窗口,主通知窗口上显示的,和/或在查阅窗口上査阅的基本上任何信息执行一个相应的动作。 As has been described, by performing a predetermined gesture particular user (user desired) information about the user corresponding to the display can be substantially of any source in the summary window, the Primary Notification window, and / or inspection on the inspection window essentially any information to execute a corresponding action. 这样,在1008中,检测关于特殊信息的一个用户手势,该特殊信息是在源摘要窗口,主通知窗口中之一上显示的,和/或在查阅窗口上具有查阅输入的。 Thus, in 1008, a user gesture detecting specific information about the particular source of information is the summary window, the notification window on one of the main display, and / or an inspection on the inspection window in the input. 响应于此,在1010中,执行一个与这条信息有关的动作。 In response to this, in 1010, performs a message associated with this operation. 例如,在本发明的一个方面能显示该信息的更详细的版本。 For example, in one aspect of the present invention can show a more detailed version of the information.

如在本说明书的本章节中已经描述的本发明的各个方面被称作为流堆栈,因为信息既可以是主通知窗口中的"流",也可堆积在源摘要窗口和查阅窗口两者。 The various aspects of the invention in this section of this specification have been described in the stack is referred to as flow, either because the information may be notified main window of the "flow", may be deposited in both the source window and the Summary Now the window. 这样,用户通过参考主通知窗口能够了解重要的信息,并能够通过参考查阅窗口中这条信息的相应的査阅输入而检査已经在主通知窗口中显示的过去的信息。 Thus, the user is notified by reference to the main window to understand important information and be able to check the information in the past and has been displayed in the main window to view the notification window of this review the appropriate input information by reference. 用户也能够通过参考给定源的源摘要窗口来观察由该源(例如一个通知源)产生的当前信息。 The user can observe the current reference to the information generated by the source (e.g., a notification source) to the source of the summary window given by the source. 能够不顾信息的重要性而显示源摘要窗口的信息,然而,更重要的信息一般显示在主通知窗口中和在查阅窗口中查阅。 Despite the importance of the information and can display summary information about the source window, however, more important general information display and access to the inspection window in the main notification window.

此外,在本发明的一个方面,高级的摘要信息是与各个源相关联的。 Further, in one aspect of the present invention, high-level summary information associated with the respective sources. example

42如,与电子邮件相关联的源可显示关于从该源来的所有信息的总的状态一这样,有十条带有给定优先级的未读信息,并且最高优先级信息来自关于一个 42 For example, the source associated with the email may display the overall status of all of the information from a source on this, there are ten with a given priority unread messages, and the highest priority from the information about a

特殊主题(subject)事件的一个特殊用户。 A special user special theme (subject) of the event. 然后,在源上点击或复盖能引起显示源应用程序,大多数新近的通知,等等的一个较宽的用户界面。 Then, click on the source or display cover can cause the source application, most recent notice, and so a wider user interface. 在本发明的另一个方面,在每个源显示内流过或循环信息,例如在说明书的先前章节中描述的本发明流循环方面的独立版本。 In another aspect of the present invention, or loop information flowing in each display source, such as an independent version of the stream is recycled in the present invention as described in the previous section of the specification aspects. 而且,在本发明的其他方面,其中包括一个更大的主通知窗口,击点或否则选择一个特殊源能引起显示更详细的源信息,致使集中这条信息。 Further, in other aspects of the invention, which comprises a larger main notification window, click or otherwise select a particular point source can cause display more detailed information source, so that this information is centralized. 这样,通知的接着的选择能引起显示这条信息的更进一层详情或该源的更宽的用户界面。 Thus, the next selected notification can cause display step further details of this information or a user interface of the wider source.

在说明书的先前章节中,已经描述了能给用户显示信息的不同方式,包括脉冲方式,流循环方式,和流堆栈方式。 In the previous section of the specification it has been described in different ways to give the user a display of information, including a pulse mode, the flow cycle mode, and stream mode stack. 在说明书的这一章节中,相对于用户经过各方式与所显示的信息交互作用的方法而提供进一步的描述。 In this section of the specification with respect to each of the user through interaction ways and the information displayed and further description is provided. 在本说明书的先前章节中已经注意到各种用户手势(gesture)和声音预报,说明书的本章节提供关于怎样达到用户的相互作用的更详细的描述。 In the previous section of this specification have been noted various user gesture (Gesture) and sound forecasts, this section provides a description of the specification on how to reach the user interaction in more detail.

例如,描述用于传递要求附加信息的用户持势,和回答提出的有关潜在链路和服务的问题的用户手势。 For example, the description for additional information transfer requires the user to hold potential, and answer questions about potential links and services proposed by the user gesture. 在一个方面,用户使光标复盖在流堆栈方式中的一个源上是给系统发信号,以提供关于该摘要的更详细信息,如已经描述,该摘要可以显示在一个弹出式窗口中。 In one aspect, the user causes the cursor overlies one embodiment the stack flow source is a signal to the system, to provide more detailed information on the digest, as already described, the summary can be displayed in a pop-up window. 这样,在这个方面,利用用户使光标复盖在窗口上,作为来自用户的暗示请求,请求显示有关该通知的更详细的内容。 Thus, in this aspect, the user using the cursor on the window covering, as implied request from a user, a request to show more detailed contents about the notification. 例如,如果存在天气预报,则光标复盖是用户询问更详细的天气情况(例如湿度,五天预报,等等)的一种方法。 For example, if the weather forecast, then the cursor is covering more detailed user query weather conditions (e.g. humidity, five days forecast, etc.) of a process.

按照本发明也可以检测其他手势。 According to the present invention may also detect other gestures. 例如,能够在不同的方式中应用,用户使光标定位在正在流动的信息上,然后选择该信息,例如通过点击一个指向设备(象鼠标)上的按键。 For example, can be applied in a different manner, the user causes the cursor is positioned on the information flow, and then select the message, for example by clicking a button on the pointing device (such as a mouse). 例如,在显示器上提供的全球资源定位地址的选择可以导致访问这些地址涉及的信息。 For example, select Universal Resource Locator address provided on the display can lead to access information related to these addresses. 点击信息显示器上的非指定区域提一个问题(例如,我能为你安排吗?)可以作为另一个例子,假定用"yes(是)" 回答来确认,用户倾向于接收一个服务,而无选择的缺省,可确定为"no(否)" 的回答。 Non-designated area on the display click on a question information (for example, I can arrange for you?) Can be used as another example, assume that a "yes (is) 'answer to confirm, users tend to receive a service without choice the default, can be identified as "no (No)" for an answer.

另外,将描述与应用程序,通知管理器通信,和/或提供关于用户知道通知的证据的动作和定时。 Further, the application will be described, a notification manager communications, and / or providing user knows about the operation and timing of the notification of evidence. 例如,用户可以在一条通知出现后的某时间内利用如键盘或鼠标这样的输入设备的提供用户手势以传送"告诉我这条通知的更详细情况"。 For example, users can use within a certain time after a notification appears to provide a user gesture input devices such as a keyboard or a mouse to deliver "tell me more details of this notice." 依据传送给用户的原始通知,利用如象鼠标之类的指向设备的摆动,或移动光标进入显示器的一个预定角用户手势,使用户向系统传送"那 According to the original notification to the user, using a pointing device such as a mouse swing, or move the cursor into the display to a predetermined angular user gesture, the system allows the user to transmit "that

是什么? What is? ","给我再看一次";或"告诉我有关这方面的更详细情况"。例如, 如果该通知是一个声音提醒,则可把这样一个用户手势(例如,如在显示器的一个角)翻译为用户问"那是什么? "" Give me another look "; or" Tell me more details in this regard. "For example, if the notification is a sound reminder, you can put such a user gesture (eg, as in a corner of the display). translation for the user asked, "What is that? ",按照已经描述的脉冲方式,导致在通知窗口显示该信息。 ", It has been described in accordance with the pulse mode, the information in the notification results in the display window.

在人机交互作用中也能应用手势来指示通知管理器,或更明白地,收集中继传送给通知管理器的用户已经看到一个通知的信息。 In the man-machine interaction is also applicable to a gesture indicating a notification manager, or more explicitly, collect user relay transmission to the notification manager has seen a message notification. 例如,用户可以使光标复盖在已经显示通知后的某段时间帧内的一条通知上,作为给通知系统指明用户已经看到这条通知的一种方法。 For example, a user may overlay the cursor on a certain time frame after the notification of the notification has been shown, as specified in the system to inform a user has seen a method for this notification. 这样,系统然后能够确定不需要再尝试给用户中继传送这条通知。 Thus, the system can then attempt to determine the user does not need to relay transmission of this notice. 一个更复杂的交互作用也能提供这种指示, 例如用户选择窗口中显示的一条链路。 A more complex interactions such indication can be provided, for example, the user selects a link displayed in the window.

接着将描述用户与一条通知查阅的交互作用,如在本说明的先前章节中已经描述的这样一种查阅。 Next will be described a notification Now user interaction, such an inspection as described in the previous sections of this have been described. S卩,如已经注意到的,可把通知摘要能够储存在本发明的流堆栈方式中的一个通知查阅器中。 S Jie, as already noted, may be capable of storing a summary of the notification in the notification flow stack embodiment of the present invention Now vessel. 这些摘要能够通过时间,通知源,消息类别,等等进行组织,并能使用户重新访问或查看早些时候或许已经丢失的通知。 These summaries can be organized by time, inform the source, message classes, etc., and enables the user to access or view again earlier this notice may have been lost. 这样,选择查阅输入能使用户重新显示通知。 In this way, the user can choose to re-enter to view display notifications.

按照本发明的另一个方面,将描述将现场声音用于增强信息的显示。 According to another aspect of the present invention, the sound field will be described for enhancing the display of information. 例如, 声音预报可以用于通知超过阈值(例如, 一个预定阈值)的通知的显示,例如, 并能应用于进一步调动用户对该条通知的注意。 Display, for example, be used to inform the sound prediction exceeds a threshold value (e.g., a predetermined threshold value) notified, for example, and can be applied to further mobilize the user's attention to the article notification. 另外,不同的声音可与不同类型的通知相关联。 Further, different sounds may be associated with different types of notification. 例如,与调度有关的通知可以与电子邮件有关的通知具有不同的声音。 For example, notification and scheduling can be associated with different sound-related notification e-mail.

还应注意,在本申请中,己经描述了用文本和/或文本和图形来显示信息, 但本发明不限制于文本和/或文本和图形。 It should also be noted that, in the present application, has been described with text and / or text and graphics to display information, but the present invention is not limited to text and / or text and graphics. 例如,在一个方面,可以用图形显示信息,其中利用不同的形状和颜色来表示信息的性质和优先级。 For example, in one aspect, the information may be displayed graphically, wherein using different shapes and colors to indicate the nature of and priority information. 作为另一外例子,所显示的目标与显示器中央越近,他们就越重要,其中,不同的颜色区域表示信息的不同的信息源。 As another goal of the display to the examples, the closer the center of the display, the more important they are, wherein different colors represent different regions of the information source information. 即,本发明不限制于与该信息相关联的高级图形或文本比喻的一个特殊概念。 That is, the present invention is not limited to a particular concept analogy with advanced graphical or textual information associated therewith.

在图23的示范性图中描述本发明另一个信息显示方面的一个例子。 Another description of the present invention shows an example of information in FIG exemplary aspect of FIG. 23. 按照 according to

本发明的这一方面,信息能显示在桌上型电脑屏300的预定区域302中,例如,图14所描述的。 This aspect of the invention, information can be displayed on the desktop screen 300, the predetermined area 302, for example, as described in FIG. 14. 此外,在一个方面,用户能在不同的方式中间切换,包括显示方式(scope mode)。 Further, in one aspect, the user can switch among different ways, including display (scope mode). 例如,一个系统能包括一个显示器,一个处理系统,和机器可读介质,该介质能储存一个由处理器执行的,导致进入一种方式(例如显示方式(the scope mode))的计算机程序。 For example, a system can include a display, a processing system, and machine-readable media, which can be stored for execution by a processor, cause to enter a manner (e.g., display mode (the scope mode)) computer programs. 此外,在一个方面,除了用户在方式中间切换外,例如,如已经在说明书的先前章节中描述过的,通知管理器能作出切换方式的确定。 Further, in one aspect, in addition to the user outside the switching mode in the middle, e.g., as used in the specification has been described in the previous section, the notification manager can make the switching determination method.

在图23描述的示范性显示(scope)界面中,利用不同的形状和颜色来表示信息的性质和优先级。 FIG 23 depicts an exemplary display (scope) interface, with different shapes and colors to indicate the nature of and priority information. 例如,在显示屏的角上能有分成一个或多个部分的一个圆形的显示物体1100 (例如,轮子)。 For example, at the corners of the display screen can have one or more portions into a circular display object 1100 (e.g., a wheel). 应注意,可以应用其它的形状。 It should be noted that other shapes may be applied. 各个部分可以有不同的颜色,并表示信息的不同类型或源。 Each portion may have different colors, and said different types or sources of information. 在显示物体1100 的各部分内的物体,例如圆,正方形,箭头,和直线,能够表示从各个部分的源,和/或各个部分的信息类型的源来的通知,优先级,和/或事件。 Objects in the display portions of the object 1100, such as a circle, a square, an arrow, and the straight line can be expressed from the source of each part, and / or source notification information type of each part, priority, and / or events . 物体离显示物体1100的中央越近,它们就越重要一即,已经赋予重要性值的通知, 消息和/或信息的其它类型。 Near the center of the object from the display object 1100, i.e. a more important they are, the notice has been given importance value, a message, and / or other types of information. 这样,在一个方面,在轮中的多个同心圆能够区分不同的优先级等级。 Thus, in one aspect, a plurality of concentric wheels can distinguish different priority level. 用光标复盖在目标上能引起显示有关目标的文本信息。 It can cause overlay display text information about the target on the target using the cursor. 例如,用光标复盖在一部分显示目标1100上(但是,不是复盖在显示目标中的一个目标上)能使文本信息为显示目标1100的那部分表明信息或信息源的类型。 For example, with the cursor overlay on the target display portion 1100 (however, not covering on a target display of a target) can indicate the type of information or text information to the display information source 1100 of the target portion. 例如,文本信息能够显示成一个刀头型。 For example, text information can be displayed as a bit pattern.

为了能提供本发明各个方面的上下文,图23和下列的讨论倾向于提供一个合适的计算环境的一般简要的描述,在这种环境中可以实现本发明的各个方面。 In order to provide context for various aspects of the present invention, Figure 23 provides a suitable computing environment in general and the following brief description of the discussion tends, in such an environment can implement various aspects of the invention. 虽然上面已经在可在一个计算机或多个计算机上运行的计算机程序的计算机可执行指令的一般情况描述了本发明,但是那些技术熟练的人员将认识到,本发明也可以在与其他程序模块相合的情况中执行。 While the above in the general computer program that can run on one computer or on multiple computer-executable instructions described in the present invention, those skilled in the art will recognize that the present invention may be matched with other program modules case execution. 通常,程序模块包括,能执行特殊任务和/或实现特殊抽象数据类型的例行程序,程序,部件, 数据结构,等等。 Generally, program modules include, to perform particular tasks and / or implement particular abstract data types routines, programs, components, data structures, and the like. 此外,那些技术熟练人员将理解,可以与其他计算机系统配置一起实现本发明的方法,该计算机系统包括:单个处理器或多个处理器计算机系统,微型计算机,大型计算机,以及个人电脑,手提式计算设备, 基于微处理器的或可编程用户电子设备,和类似的装置。 In addition, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the method of the present invention may be implemented with other computer system configurations, the computer system comprising: a single processor or multiple processor computer systems, minicomputers, mainframe computers, as well as personal computers, hand-held computing devices, microprocessor-based or programmable consumer electronics, and similar devices. 本发明描述的方面也可以在分布式的计算环境中实现,在该环境中,可以通过通信网络链接的远程处理设备来执行任务。 Aspects of the invention described herein may be practiced in a distributed computing environment, in the environment, tasks may be performed by remote processing devices linked to the communication network. 然而,如果不是本发明的所有方面,则本发明的某些方面可在单独的计算机上实现。 However, certain aspects of the present invention, if not all aspects, the present invention may be implemented on a separate computer. 在分布式的计算环境中,可以使程序模块位于本地的和远程的两种存储器设备中。 In a distributed computing environment, program modules can be made locally and remotely located memory device both. 参考图23,实现本发明各个方面的示范性系统包括一台计算机1220。 Referring to Figure 23, the various aspects of the present invention, exemplary system 1220 comprises a computer. 该计算机含有处理单元1221,系统存储器1222,和系统总线1223。 The computer comprises a processing unit 1221, a system memory 1222, and a system bus 1223. 该总线将包括系统存储器的各个系统部件连接到处理单元1221。 The various system components including the bus system memory 1221 to the processing unit. 处理单元1221可以是各种可大批量得到的中的任何一种。 The processing unit 1221 can be any of a variety of large quantities obtained. 应当理解,也可以应用双微处理器和其他多处理器结构作为处理单元1221。 It will be appreciated, may be applied Dual microprocessors and other multiprocessor architectures as the processing unit 1221.

系统总线可以是几种类型总线结构中的任意一种,总线结构包括使用各种可大批量得到的总线结构中的任一种的存储器总线,或存储器控制器,外围总路,和局域总线。 The system bus may be any of several types of bus structures, including a bus structure using any of a variety of bus structure obtained in large quantities in a memory bus or memory controller, a peripheral general line, and a local bus . 系统存储器可以包括只读存储器(ROM) 1224和随机存储器(RAM) 1225。 The system memory may include read only memory (ROM) 1224 and random access memory (RAM) 1225. 基本的输入/输出系统(BIOS),含有存储在R0M1224中的,例如在启动期间,帮助在计算机1220的各部件间传送信息的基本例行程序。 The basic input / output system (the BIOS), containing R0M1224 stored in, for example during start-up, the basic routines that help to transfer information between the respective components of the computer 1220.

计算机1220进一步包括硬盘驱动器1227,磁盘驱动器1228,例如可从移动磁盘上读写的,和一个光盘驱动器1230,用于在CD-ROM盘1231上读写, 或在其他光介质上读写。 The computer 1220 further includes a hard disk drive 1227, magnetic disk drive 1228, for example, read from a removable disk, a CD-ROM drive 1230 and for the 1231 CD-ROM disc read and write, or read-write on other optical media. 分别通过硬盘驱动接口1232,磁盘驱动接口1233, 和光盘驱动接口1234把硬盘驱动器1227,磁盘驱动器1228,和光盘驱动器1230 连接到系统总线1223。 By a hard disk drive interface 1232, a magnetic disk drive interface 1233 and an optical drive interface 1234 hard disk drive 1227, magnetic disk drive 1228, and optical disk drive 1230 are connected to the system bus 1223. 驱动器和他们相关联的计算机可读介质为计算机1220 提供数据,数据结构,计算机可执行指令,等等的非易失性存储。 The computer provides the data driver 1220 and their associated computer-readable media, data structures, computer-executable instructions, nonvolatile memory and the like. 虽然,上面描述的计算机可读介质涉及硬盘,可移动磁盘和CD,但是,那些技术熟练人员应当理解,在示范性的操作环境中可使用计算机可读的其他类型的介质, 例如,盒式磁带,快闪内存卡,数字视频盘,柏努利盒式磁盘,及类似的介质,用于示范性的操作环境中,并更进一步地,任何能含有计算机可执行指令的如此的介质都可以用于实现本发明的方法。 Although, computer-readable media described above relate to a hard disk, a removable magnetic disk and the CD, however, to those skilled in the art will appreciate that other types of computer-readable media may be used in the exemplary operating environment, e.g., cassette , flash memory cards, digital video disks, Bernoulli cartridges, and the like medium used in the exemplary operating environment, and further that any such media can contain computer-executable instructions can be used in the process of the present invention is implemented.

可以把许多程序模块储存在驱动器和RAM1225中,程序模块包括操作系统1235,—个或多个应用程序1236,其他的程序模块1237,和程序数据1238。 A number of program modules can be stored in the drives and RAM1225, program modules include an operating system 1235, - one or more application programs 1236, other program modules 1237, and program data 1238. 应当注意,在所描述的计算机中的操作系统1235基本上可以是任何合适的操作系统。 It should be noted that, in a computer operating system 1235 may be described as substantially any suitable operating system.

用户可以经过键盘1240和像鼠标1242之类的指向设备给计算机输入命令和信息。 Users can through a keyboard 1240 and a pointing device such as a mouse 1242 computer to enter commands and information. 其他的输入设备(未显示)可以包括麦克风,操纵杆,游戏垫, 圆盘式卫星天线,扫描仪,或类似的设备。 Other input devices (not shown) may include a microphone, joystick, game pad, satellite dish, scanner, or similar device. 这些和其他的输入设备经常经过耦合到计算机总线的串行口接口1246连接到处理单元1221,但也可以通过其他接口连接,例如并行口,游戏口,或通用串行总线USB连接。 These and other input devices are often coupled to a serial port through an interface bus of the computer 1246 is connected to the processing unit 1221, but may be connected by other interfaces, such as a parallel port, game port, or a universal serial bus (USB) connector. 监视器1247 Monitor 1247

46或其他类型的显示设备也经一个接口,例如视频适配器1248,连接到系统总线1223。 46 or other type of display device is also via an interface, such as a video adapter 1248 is connected to the system bus 1223. 除了监视器外,计算机典型地包括其他外围输出设备(未示出), 例如扬声器和打印机。 In addition to the monitor, computers typically include other peripheral output devices (not shown), such as speakers and printers.

计算机1220可以在逻辑地连接到一个或多个远程计算机(例如远程计算机1249)的网络环境中工作。 The computer 1220 may connect to one or more remote computers (such as remote computer 1249) work in a network environment logically. 虽然在图23中只描述了一个内存储器设备1250, 但是该远程计算机1249可以是工作站,服务计算机,路由器,同位体设备或其他通用网络节点,并典型地包括描述的与计算机1220有关的许多或所有的部件。 Although only one internal memory device 1250 in FIG. 23, the remote computer 1249 may be a workstation, a server computer, a router, a peer device or other common network node, and typically includes many described relating to the computer 1220 or All components. 图23中描述的逻辑连接器可以包括局域网(LAN) 1251和广域网(WAN) 1252。 Logical connectors described in FIG. 23 may include local area networks (LAN) 1251 and a wide area network (WAN) 1252. 在办公室,企业范围的计算机网络,企业内部互联网和因特网中,这些网络环境是普通的。 In offices, enterprise-wide computer networks, intranets and the Internet, these network environments are common.

当在局域网(LAN)连网环境中应用时,计算机1220可以经过网络接口或适配器1253连接到局域网1251上。 When used in a local area network (LAN) networking environment, the computer 1220 may be connected to the LAN 1251 through a network interface or adapter 1253. 当在广域网(WAN)连网环境中应用时, 该计算机1220 —般可以包括调制解调器1254,和/或连接到局域网(LAN)的通信服务器,和/或有用于在广域网1252 (例如因特网)上建立通信的其他装置。 When applied in a wide area network (WAN) networking environment, the computer 1220-- generally can include a modem 1254, and / or to a local area network (LAN) communications servers, and / or a wide area network 1252 (e.g., the Internet) established on communicating with other devices. 调制解调器1254,可以是内置式的或外置式的,可以经串行口接口1246 连接到系统总线1223。 Modem 1254, which may be internal or external, and may be connected to the system bus 1223 via the serial port interfaces 1246. 在网络环境中,相关于计算机1220描述的程序模块, 或其中的一些部分,可以储存在远程存储器存储设备中。 In a networked environment, program modules associated with computer 1220 described, or some portion, may be stored in the remote memory storage device. 应当理解,所示的网络连接器是示范性的,并可以应用在计算机之间建立通信链路的其他装置。 It should be appreciated that the network connections shown are exemplary and other means of establishing a communications link between the computers may be used.

按照计算机编程技术熟练人员的实践,参考由计算机执行(例如,计算机1220,除非另外指明)的操作的动作和符号表示法,已经描述了本发明。 According to the practice of those skilled in the art of computer programming, reference is executed by a computer (e.g., computer 1220, unless otherwise indicated) acts and symbolic representations of operations, the present invention has been described. 这些动作和操作有时称作为是计算机执行的(be computer-executed)。 These acts and operations are sometimes referred to as being computer-executed (be computer-executed). 应当理解,这些动作和符号表示的操作包括由处理由单元1221处理的表示数据比特的电信号,该处理能引起电信号表达式的转换或简化;并且在存储器系统(包括系统存储器1222,硬盘驱动器1227,软盘1229,和CD-R0M1231) 的存储器存储单元中保持数据比特,从而重新配置或改变计算机系统的操作; 以及信号的其他处理。 It should be understood that such acts and symbolic representations operation comprises a processing unit 1221 by the data representing the bit processing electrical signals, the conversion process can cause electrical or simplified expression; and a memory system (including the system memory 1222, hard disk drive 1227, floppy disks 1229, and CD-R0M1231) of the memory cell holding the data bits, thereby reconfigure or change the operation of the computer system; and other processing of signals. 保存这种数据比特的存储器存储单元是具有相应于数据比特的特殊电气,磁,或光学特性的物理单元。 This memory cell stored data bits corresponding to data bits having particular electrical, magnetic, or optical properties of the physical unit.

上面所描述的是本发明各个方面。 Described above are various aspects of the invention. 当然,为了描述本发明的目的,不可能描述每一种部件或方法的可能的组合,但是, 一个熟练普通技术的人员将认识到,本发明的许多进一步的组合和改变都是可能的。 Of course, the purpose of describing the present invention, not possible to describe every conceivable combination of components or methodologies, but a skilled person of ordinary skill will recognize that many further combinations and variations are possible in the present invention. 相应地,本发明倾向于包含所有这样的更改,修改和变化,这些均落在附加的权利要求的精神和范围内。 Accordingly, the present invention is intended to encompass all such alterations, modifications and variations which fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.

工业可用性 Industrial Availability

本发明在计算机,计算机软件和信息技术领域有工业可应用性。 The present invention has industrial applicability in a computer, computer software and information technology.

Claims (16)

1,一个通知系统,其特征在于,包括: 一个上下文分析器,确定与实体相关联的上下文以及访问和储存有关上下文信息和通知参数的信息;及一个通知管理器,至少部分地基于所确定的上下文,将一条或多条通知传送给所述实体; 至少一个通知源,以产生所述一条或多条通知;及至少一个通知接收器,以接收所述一条或多条通知,所述至少一个通知接收器具有与它相关的参数,所述参数是在传送有关通知管理器的性质和能力的语义信息的模式中提供的,所述参数表示: 所述通知接收器的通信成本,指明当接收传送给所述通知接收器的通知内所含有的信息时由所述实体接收信息时招致的通信成本;及所述通知接收器中断的成本,指明当接收传送给所述通知接收器的通知内含有的信息时,由所述实体接收信息时招致的中断成本。 1, a notification system, characterized by comprising: a context analyzer, determining context associated with an entity to access and store information and context information and notification parameters; and a notification manager, at least in part based on the determined context, the one or more notifications to the entities; at least one notification source, to generate the one or more notification; notification and at least one receiver for receiving the one or more notification, the at least one notification receiver has parameters associated with it, the parameters in the transmission capacity and semantic information about the nature of the notification manager mode provided, the parameter representation: the notification communication cost of the receiver, when receiving specified communication cost incurred by the entity information is received when the notification is transmitted to the notification information receiver contained; the notification and the cost of the receiver interrupt notification, indicating when receiving the notification sent to the receiver containing information on the cost incurred by the interrupt information is received by the entity.
2,如权利要求1所述的系统,其特征在于,所述实体包括下列的至少一项: 一个用户, 一个代理人, 一个处理, 一台服务器, 一台计算机, 一台机器, 一个公司,一个机构, 一笔业务, 一个计算机程序, 一次服务,和一条线索。 2. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein said entity comprises at least one of: a user, an agent, a handle, a server, a computer, a machine, a company, an institution, a business, a computer program, a service, and a clue.
3,如权利要求1所述的系统,其特征在于,打算把由至少所述的一个通知源产生的一条或多条通知,用于所述实体。 3. The system of claim 1, wherein the one or more intended generated by at least one notification of the notification source for the entity.
4,如权利要求1所述的系统,其特征在于,把由所述的至少一个接收器接收到的所述通知提供给所述实体。 4. The system of claim 1, wherein said notification received by said at least one receiver provided to the entity.
5,如权利要求1所述的系统,其特征在于,所述上下文分析器包括一个通知参数存储器,以储存所述实体的缺省通知优先级,作为一个配置文件。 5. The system of claim 1, wherein the context analyzer comprises a notification parameter memory to store a default notification priority of the entity, as a configuration file.
6,如权利要求1所述的系统,其特征在于,所述上下文分析器根据至少一个上下文源确定一个用户的当前上下文。 6. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the context analyzer determines the current context of the user according to a source of at least one context.
7,如权利要求6所述的系统,其特征在于,至少一个上下文源包括下列的一项或多项:所述用户的视觉信息,所述用户的桌上型信息,所述用户的个人信息管理器(PIM)的信息,当前时间和日子,所述用户的移动设备用途, 和所述用户的位置。 The user's personal information of the user visual information, the information of the user desktops,: 7, The system as claimed in claim 6, characterized in that the at least one context source comprises one or more of the following information Manager (PIM), the current time and date, the user uses the mobile device, and the position of the user.
8,如权利要求6所述的系统,其特征在于,上下文分析器根据至少一个上下文源通过使用下列的一项或多项: 一个统计模型、 一个配置文件、用户位置和动活的直接访问、和用户状态的实时用户说明,而确定所述当前上下文。 8. The system as claimed in claim 6, wherein the context analyzer by using the following one or more of at least one context of the source: a statistical model, a configuration file, user location and direct access movable flap, user status and real-time user instructions, determining said current context.
9,如权利要求1所述的系统,其特征在于,由所述至少一个通知源产生的所述通知包括下列中的一项或多项:电子邮件;即时信息;系统消息;自动助理;从持久的,正在询问的一个或多个搜索设施或服务来的结果;更新一个共享文件系统中可用文档的数量或内容;有关机构信息的更新;变成有用的与指定内容有关的信息;文档或主题;与因特网有关的信息和新的服务;人员的可用性;位置;近邻;调度询问;公司和机构的近邻和位置。 9. The system of claim 1, wherein said at least one of said notification comprises a notification source generates or more of the following: email; instant messaging; message system; auto attendant; from durable, one or more search facility or service is the result of the inquiry; update the contents of a shared file system or the number of available documentation; update information relevant agencies; into useful information related to the specified content; a document or themes; information and new services related to the Internet; the availability of staff; location; neighbors; scheduling inquiries; neighbor and position companies and institutions.
10,如权利要求l所述的系统,其特征在于,所述至少一个通知源含有一个或多个与它相关联的参数,这些参数表示下列的至少一项相关联:由所述通知源产生的当前通知的分类,指明在当前通知中含有的通知的价值;及由所述通知源产生的所述当前通知的时间临界性,指明在当前通知中含有的通知价值的与时间有关的衰落。 10. The system according to claim l, characterized in that the at least one notification source comprising one or more parameters associated with it, which indicates the following parameters associated with at least one of: said notification generated by source classifying the current notification, the value contained in the current specified in the notification of the notification; criticality and time of the notification by the notification of the current generated by the source, the value contained in the notification indicates the current time and notification related decline.
11,如权利要求l所述的系统,其特征在于,所述至少一个通知源含有与它相关联的参数,这些参数表示下列的至少一项相关联:由所述通知源产生的当前通知的一种信息类别,指明所述当前通知的通信类型;所述当前通知的关联性,指明在所述通知中含有的信息关联性的可能性; 所述当前通知的新颖性,指明一个实体是否已经知道所述信息的可能性;及所述当前通知的保真度,指明在所述信息中断时所述信息实体的价值损失。 11. The system of claim l, wherein said source comprises at least one notification with the parameters associated with it, which indicates the following parameters associated with at least one of: the current notification by the notification source generated an information category, indicating that the current communication type notification; association of the current notification information associated with the likelihood of a specified contained in the notification; novelty of the current notification indicating whether an entity the possibility to know the information; and fidelity of the current notification information indicating the loss of value of the entity at the time the information is interrupted.
12,如权利要求l所述的系统,其特征在于,所述至少一个通知源包括下列的至少一项: 一个拉型通知源,和一个推型通知源。 12. The system according to claim l, characterized in that the at least one notification source comprises at least one of the following: a pull-type notification source, and a push-type notification source.
13,如权利要求l所述的系统,其特征在于,所述至少一个通知接收器包括下列的至少一项或多项:桌上型电脑、个人数字助理、蜂窝电话、寻呼机、 和自动计算化设备。 13. The system of claim l, wherein said notification at least one receiver comprises at least one or more of the following: a desktop computer, a personal digital assistant, a cellular telephone, a pager, and automatic calculation of device.
14,如权利要求l所述的系统,其特征在于,所述至少一个通知接收器具有与它相关的参数,这些参数表示下列的至少一项:所述通知接收器的设备类别,指明所述通知接收器的设备类型;所述通知接收器的传输可靠性,指明一个实体接收一个通知内含有的信息的可能性,该通知是传送给所述通知接收器的;所述通知接收器的通信成本,指明当接收传送给所述通知接收器的通知内所含有的信息时由所述实体接收信息时招致的通信成本;及所述通知接收器中断的成本,指明当接收传送给所述通知接收器的通知内含有的信息时,由所述实体接收信息时招致的中断成本。 Notification indicating the device class receiver: 14. The system of claim l, wherein said receiver has at least one notification parameter associated with it, these parameters indicates at least one of the following device type notification receiver; the receiver of the notification of transmission reliability, indicating a possibility of some entity receives a message containing the notification that the notification is transmitted to the receiver; the receiver of the notification communication cost, communication cost is incurred when the received specified information is received by the entity when the notification is transmitted to the notification information receiver contained; cost of the receiver and the interrupt notification, indicating when receiving the notification sent to notification when contents of the receiver and some information, cost incurred interrupt information is received by the entity.
15,如权利要求l所述的系统,其特征在于,基于由所述上下文分析器储存的所述信息,所述通知管理器执行从所述至少一个通知源来的所述通知的决策理论分析,以确定应该把从所述至少一个通知源来的哪一条所述通知应当传送给所述至少一个通知接收器中的哪一个。 15. The system of claim l, wherein, based on the information stored by the context analyzer, the theoretical analysis and decision manager performs at least one notification from the notification source of the notification , should be to determine at least one notification from said source to which the notification should be transmitted to one of said at least one notification which a receiver.
16,如权利要求l所述的系统,其特征在于,基于由所述上下文分析器储存的所述信息,所述通知管理器执行从所述至少一个通知源来的所述通知的渐进分析,以确定应该把从所述至少一个通知源来的哪一条所述通知应当传送给所述至少一个通知接收器中的哪一个。 16. The system of claim l, wherein, based on the information stored by the context analyzer, the notification manager performing asymptotic analysis of the at least one notification from the notification source, should be to determine at least one notification from said source to which the notification should be transmitted to one of said at least one notification which a receiver.
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US09/595,401 2000-06-17
US09/596,365 2000-06-17
US60/212,293 2000-06-17
US09/596,364 US6601012B1 (en) 2000-03-16 2000-06-17 Contextual models and methods for inferring attention and location
US09/596,348 US6513026B1 (en) 2000-06-17 2000-06-17 Decision theoretic principles and policies for notification
US60/212,296 2000-06-17
US09/596,365 US7249159B1 (en) 2000-03-16 2000-06-17 Notification platform architecture
US09/596,364 2000-06-17
US09/596,348 2000-06-17
US09/595,401 US7417650B1 (en) 2000-03-16 2000-06-17 Display and human-computer interaction for a notification platform
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