CN100582657C - Three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method and apparatus - Google Patents

Three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method and apparatus Download PDF

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CN100582657C
CN100582657C CN200810046840A CN200810046840A CN100582657C CN 100582657 C CN100582657 C CN 100582657C CN 200810046840 A CN200810046840 A CN 200810046840A CN 200810046840 A CN200810046840 A CN 200810046840A CN 100582657 C CN100582657 C CN 100582657C
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image
focal plane
platform
dimensional
texture
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CN200810046840A
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CN101226052A (en
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吕植勇
严新平
彭雅芳
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武汉理工大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a three-dimensional micro-morphology oblique scanning method and a corresponding device. The method is characterized in that the position of a focus object is adjusted by three stepping motors controlled by a computer, ensuring the object always at the central place in the oblique scanning and obtaining image texture and high-level information of the focus surface of the object, then obtaining a lager three-dimensional morphology image through synthesis and restructure. The device comprises the computer, a microscope and a camera (1); wherein, the camera is arranged on the microscope, an object-carrying platform (13) of the microscope is provided with an object-carrying wedge-shaped platform (14), the object-carrying wedge-shaped platform and a drift angle of the object-carrying platform forms a oblique focus surface when the drift angle Beta is 5 to 40 degrees, the three-dimensional movement space coordinate of the object and the image of the camera at the space coordinate are inputted to the computer at the same time, then restructuring the three-dimensional micro-morphology high-level and texture information on the basis. The three-dimensional micro-morphology oblique scanning method and a corresponding device has the advantages of avoiding useless work in non-focus area, reducing scanning time and improving scanning speed and efficiency.

Description

Three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method and device

Technical field

The present invention relates to 3-D scanning, especially relate to a kind of three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method and device.

Background technology

At present, the 3-D view that adopts the focal plane principle can solve micro-cell is handled and reconstruct, utilize fluorescent microscope to adopt the method for deconvolution and blind deconvolution to handle the 3-D view of the fluorescence of biological cell, improve the resolution [2] of image, utilize this principle design to design patent " ZL 2005200967777.9 (notification number CN2804794) " and " 200510018921.1 (publication number CN1715987) ", these can be with the form record three-dimensional surface information of two-dimensional image sequence and one dimension altitude information, by obtaining three-dimensional surface information intuitively to these signal reconstructs, and then utilize the image split-joint method of three-dimensional surface, obtain the dark 3-D view pattern of microscopically panorama.But these methods adopt carries out vertical vertical scanning to an object, only is the 3-D view in a zone, in the process of scanning, can not carry out laterally moving,, need re-move a place if wish to obtain bigger 3-D view, again vertical vertical scanning, and then splice and obtain bigger 3-D view, in this process, the most of the time is that out-of-focus surface is scanned, lose time, efficient is low.

Summary of the invention

Technical matters to be solved by this invention is: a kind of three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method and device are provided, so that can realize continuous sweep to microcosmic three-dimensional appearance and new look texture, obtain the vertical information and the horizontal information of 3-D view by oblique scanning, cross stream component information by image can be analyzed, and by three stepper motors adjustment of computer control conglomeration body position, guarantee in the process of scanning, to focus on the object of observation all the time, obtain the three-dimensional appearance figure of bigger yardstick again by Flame Image Process.

The present invention solves its technical matters and adopts following technical scheme:

Three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method provided by the invention, specifically: be placed on the sample on the microscopical loading wedge shape platform, its microscopic appearance image through microscope after the camera imaging, be transported to the position that pattern process computer is analyzed the scope place, focal plane in this microscopic appearance image by image pick-up card, then by computer control X, Y and Z shaft step motor or driven by servomotor article carrying platform move along loading wedge shape platform, in loading wedge shape platform moving process, be transferred in the computing machine by the movable signal of displacement record instrument article carrying platform, obtain the value of the three-dimensional coordinate of article carrying platform, and should sit target value and gather the microscopic appearance image sequence and number set up one-to-one relationship; And focus on evaluation function by the computing machine utilization every width of cloth image focusing zone is divided, the focal zone of every width of cloth image is as the scope in the elevation zone of these image three-dimensional elements of a fix, and image texture constitutes whole reconstruct large scale image texture in every width of cloth focal zone scope; Image texture removes in the non-focusing regional extent, does not constitute whole reconstruct large scale image texture; Elevation information and image texture with every width of cloth focusing range is integrated into whole reconstruct large scale elevation map and image texture then, make in the focal plane each pixel color value and spatial value rebulid one-to-one relationship and be reconstructed, obtain a wider three-dimensional micro-morphology.

The scanister of the above-mentioned three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method of realization provided by the invention, comprise computing machine, microscope and be arranged on camera on the microscope, wherein: microscopical article carrying platform is by computer-controlled X, Y and Z shaft step motor or driven by servomotor, and this platform is equipped with loading wedge shape platform; The Data Input Interface of computing machine is connected with the data output end of camera through image pick-up card.

The present invention compared with prior art has following major advantage: tiltedly the focal plane scan method utilizes servomotor that the three-dimensional surface of article carrying platform is carried out continuous sweep, do not need to adopt the method for having avoided traditional that entire image is divided into a plurality of zones, then each zone is successively scanned, then the image of every layer focal plane scope and elevation are synthesized and obtain a regional 3-D view, at last that each is regional image is spliced into the image of large scale once more; But directly the focusing range body surface is carried out continuously 3-D scanning one by one, obtain the texture and the elevation map picture of three-dimensional surface by number processing and reconstruct, avoided doing useless work, reduced sweep time, improved sweep velocity and efficient in out-of-focus zone.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined platform scanner apparatus structure of a present invention synoptic diagram.

Fig. 2 is focal plane imaging of the present invention and object of observation index path.

Fig. 3 is for measuring processing flow chart.

Fig. 4 is oblique focal plane ripple scanning theory figure.

Fig. 5 goes up the warning line migration process for the focal plane touching.

Fig. 6 does not handle in normal zone, focal plane for the focal plane.

Fig. 7 is warning line migration process under the touching of focal plane.

Fig. 8 is adjacent two frame image focal planes splicing reconstruct.

Fig. 9 is an image claustra joining method.

Figure 10 is the word joining method of image.

Figure 11 turns one's head the multiple scanning joining method for image.

Figure 12 is oblique article carrying platform design proposal.

Among the figure: 1. camera; 2. image pick-up card; 3. pattern process computer; 4. driving servomotor controller; 5.X axle servomotor; 6.Y axle servomotor; 7.X axle rotation belt pulley; 8.Y axle rotation belt pulley; 9.X axle knob; 10.Z axle swiveling wheel; 11.Y axle knob; 12.Z axle servomotor; 13. article carrying platform; 14. loading wedge shape platform; 15. secondary light source; 16. focal plane camera imaging surface figure; 17. optical lens; 18. microscope field depth image; 19. focal plane regional extent image; 20. focal plane camera imaging surface figure texture; 21. warning line on the focal plane; 22. focussing plane normal region; 23. warning line under the focal plane; 24.D iFrame figure focal plane scope; 25.D I+1Figure focal plane scope; 26. lap; The band 27. splicing overlaps; 28. loading wedge shape platform upper surface.

Embodiment

The present invention adopts three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method, that is: microscopical object lens are moved along oblique article carrying platform, and control article carrying platform mobile space displacement, its displacement signal is transferred in the computing machine by displacement record instrument (as photoelectric encoder), obtain the coordinate P of article carrying platform, L, the value of H, P, L, H are respectively X, Y, the Z coordinates under the initial point O coordinate of microscope article carrying platform first width of cloth image that begins to measure; With the scanning of oblique focal plane, obtain the microscopic appearance image level of sample and the image of vertical direction focal plane by microscope and camera, obtain the focal plane range image of three-dimensional appearance again by Flame Image Process, and utilize the three-dimensional appearance of horizontal image focal plane synthetic body, utilize vertical picture content to obtain the object elevation information, whether break away from microscope what comes into a driver's scope according to the vertical residing scope in focal plane then, utilize servomotor to the three-dimensional tracking Control of article carrying platform, utilize computing machine to CCD gather that image series is handled, measurement and reconstruct.From collect camera image, be to utilize gradient operator (or claiming focal plane evaluation function) with the range image separation method of focal plane, the image of gathering is carried out convolution algorithm.Then convolution algorithm is obtained image and carry out binaryzation, then the binary image morphological image that expands is handled, obtain the scope of focal plane.

The invention will be further described below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing, but do not limit the present invention.

Three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method provided by the invention, specifically: be placed on the sample on the microscopical loading wedge shape platform 14, its microscopic appearance image through microscope after camera 1 imaging, be transported to the position that pattern process computer 3 is analyzed the scope place, focal plane in this microscopic appearance image by image pick-up card 2, then by computer control X, Y and Z shaft step motor or driven by servomotor article carrying platform 13 move along loading wedge shape platform 14, in loading wedge shape platform 14 moving process, be transferred in the computing machine by the movable signal of displacement record instrument article carrying platform 13, obtain the value of the three-dimensional coordinate of article carrying platform, and should sit target value and gather the microscopic appearance image sequence and number set up one-to-one relationship; And focus on evaluation function by the computing machine utilization every width of cloth image focusing zone is divided, the focal zone of every width of cloth image is as the scope in the elevation zone of these image three-dimensional elements of a fix, and image texture constitutes whole reconstruct large scale image texture in every width of cloth focal zone scope; Image texture removes in the non-focusing regional extent, does not constitute whole reconstruct large scale image texture; Elevation information and image texture with every width of cloth focusing range is integrated into whole reconstruct large scale elevation map and image texture then, make in the focal plane each pixel color value and spatial value rebulid one-to-one relationship and be reconstructed, obtain a wider three-dimensional micro-morphology.

Above-mentioned three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method specifically is to adopt the method (referring to Fig. 3) that may further comprise the steps:

The first step, sample is placed on the microscopical loading wedge shape platform 14, article carrying platform 13 is being with sample to do translation by computer-controlled X, Y and Z shaft step motor on X, Y, three directions of Z axle, and by artificial definite initial baseline coordinate, write down locus P, the L of first frame, the value of H, P, L, H are respectively X, Y, the Z coordinates under the initial point O coordinate; Wherein carry out translation according to 1/2~1/100 of the microscope depth of field in X-direction, carry out translation in Y direction according to the image and the doubling of the image 1/5~1/20, at the Z axle and keep in 2/3~3/4 zone of the centre of image on the images acquired moving direction of this focusing range in Y direction.

Second step, to the sample collection micro image:

Utilize camera 1 and microscope that sample is tiltedly scanned, obtain the microscopic appearance image of sample, and the article surface vein image is transferred to image pick-up card 2.When sample was tiltedly scanned, the camera collection route scanned according to the claustra mode, and image split-joint method also splices (referring to Fig. 9) according to the claustra mode; Perhaps the camera collection route according to the word mode scan, image split-joint method also according to the word mode splice (referring to Figure 10); Perhaps the camera collection route scans according to repetitive mode later, and image split-joint method also splices (referring to Figure 11) according to repetitive mode later, and numbering 27 is the splicing bands that overlap.

Tiltedly scanning route in focal plane can adopt and come flyback retrace line by line, also can adopt and sweep delegation's scanning that starts anew again, between every line scanning space D less than the width d of every width of cloth image, guarantee row and go between certain degree of overlapping is arranged.Many imaging belt carries out three-dimensional splicing reconstruct with oblique focal plane scanning consecutive image composing images three-dimensional plot image-tape, picture to the diverse location different focal planes is reconstructed, obtain reflecting the full image focal plane band of this all surfaces information and background information, the image between guaranteeing to be with and to be with is reconstructed and obtains big what comes into a driver's image.

The 3rd step, image pick-up card 2 is transported to pattern process computer 3 with image information and carries out Flame Image Process, utilize gradient operator such as Sobel operator, Krisch operator, Prewit operator, Laplacian operator or log operator that the image of gathering is carried out convolution algorithm, wherein the effect of Krisch operator, the processing of Prewit operator is relatively good, obtains the evaluation matrix of focal plane.

Set up two coordinate-systems of image zero point when image pick-up card 2 is transported to image information in the pattern process computer 3, one is to be coordinate-system O (X, Y, certain some F Z) of reference with the microscope n(X n, Y n, Z n), another is that the image of gathering from camera 1 is coordinate-system o n(x, y, z) certain the some F in n(a, b, H n), both coordinate transformation relations are:

X n=a n+P n

Y n=b n+L n

Z n=H n

Above-mentioned X n, Y n, Z nBe microscope volume coordinate, P n, L n, H n(X, Y, the Z) coordinate position in space, a, b are that certain points of focal plane regional extent image 19 scopes is at o at O for the upper left corner of the n width of cloth image gathered n(x, y, the z) coordinate position in space,

Rely on computing machine to control mobile article carrying platform to establish P, L, H value to servomotor, a, b value then rely on the computing machine coordinate range that analysis obtains the focal plane to image focal plane to establish, and then different elevations focal plane information and texture information are synthesized.

For camera collection to the focal plane need follow the tracks of, method is: because in the process of carrying out the scanning of image three-dimensional pattern, the surface imaging that is scanned can break away from the focal plane scope, need be in the process that scans, constantly adjust the locus of the Z axle of article carrying platform, guarantee that body surface is imaged on the detected zone, focal plane of camera.The focal plane area dividing is three security areas, asks for an interview Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, and the top that is positioned at warning line 21 on the focal plane is last security area, and the below that is positioned at warning line 23 under the focal plane is following security area, is focussing plane normal region 22 between them.Analyze the focal plane in what zone by the center of gravity location in space of analyzing focal plane regional extent image 19, the normal region scope must be enough big, guarantees that there are enough movings range the focal plane.If focal plane regional extent image 19 is in last or following warning region, then send control signal to servo control mechanism by computing machine, adjust the displacement of the Y-axis of article carrying platform 13, make that the focal plane is arranged in focussing plane normal region 22 in the image, and write down the locus of this platform.

Perhaps when Flame Image Process, should calculate the microcosmic side-play amount ρ of each pixel, the image-region of focal plane is divided into macroscopic view skew, macroscopical non-migration and macroscopic view skew down, and the microcosmic three-dimensional appearance is carried out Track In Track by Kalman Filter Technology, after the focal plane was offset out field range, by regulating servo control mechanism, skew compensated to macroscopic view, keep oblique focal plane in the field range of microscopical images acquired device, and calculate macroscopical side-play amount; At last, with microcosmic side-play amount and macroscopical side-play amount, and the compensation of the distortion error of optical system is coupled and image reconstruction, with zone, every width of cloth image focal plane as elevation information, with the texture of every width of cloth focal plane texture as entire image, the elevation information and the texture information of all image focal planes that collect are synthesized in the piece image, constitute large scale three-dimensional appearance.

The 4th step obtained image to convolution algorithm and carries out binaryzation, the binary image morphological image that expands was handled again, and obtained the scope binary image of focal plane, then the binary image morphological image that expands was handled, and obtained the scope of focal plane.In this process, when the centre-of gravity shift of focal plane regional extent image 19 to the center of microscope field depth image 18 time (referring to Fig. 4), drive X, Y and Z shaft step motor or driven by servomotor article carrying platform 13 by computer control system (driving servomotor controller 4), guarantee the center of the center of gravity of focal plane regional extent image 19 at microscope field depth image 18.

The 5th step, the scope binary image matrix of H elevation and focal plane is carried out matrix multiple, obtain the elevation matrix of focal plane.With the matrix of original image and the scope binary image matrix multiple of focal plane, obtain focal plane texture image matrix.

The 6th step, last time is obtained H elevation matrix and focal plane texture image matrix, with newly obtain H elevation matrix and focal plane texture image matrix, value according to coordinate P, L is added new elevation information in the elevation information and focal plane texture image that synthesized last time to, obtains new synthetic H elevation matrix and the focal plane texture image matrix of newly obtaining.

Referring to Fig. 8: overlapping if adjacent two frame image focal planes have, i.e. D iFrame figure focal plane scope 24 and D I+1During figure focal plane scope 25 overlaids, then their elevation information of lap 26 is got average, promptly both elevations are got average, or get previous frame image elevation information, or get two field picture elevation information up and down, and any focal plane of texture information gets final product.

The 7th step, the locus of rising article carrying platform, analyze the focal plane do the locus, whether the focal plane scope can break away from image focal plane T.

In the 8th step, if the focal plane scope can break away from image focal plane T,, the focal plane scope is moved on to the centre, and write down the value of coordinate P, L, H by adjusting article carrying platform Y-axis coordinate.

The 9th goes on foot, and judges whether to handle the image focal plane of all collections, if submit the elevation information figure and the microcosmic new look texture maps of the microcosmic new look of micro-object to, otherwise undertaken by following the tenth step.

In the tenth step, newly synthetic elevation information figure and texture maps matrix are composed in the last composite matrix, as the initial matrix of circular treatment next time.

Write down reference coordinate earlier, the upper left corner of first width of cloth image is O (0,0,0) reference coordinate, and image carries out layout according to this sequence then, wherein, the position N of coordinate (P, L, H).Every width of cloth image superposes according to coordinate position through the figure that obtains in the scope of horizontal focal plane after handling, and vertically the focal plane scope displacement obtains each pixel elevation information and is recorded in the elevation map picture according to the Z axial coordinate.

The invention provides a kind of scanister that can realize above-mentioned three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method, its structure is as shown in Figure 1: comprise computing machine, microscope, be arranged on the camera on the microscope, and X-axis servomotor 5, Y-axis servomotor 6 and Z axle servomotor 7 or stepper motor, these motors are controlled by the driving servomotor controller 4 of computing machine, and drive microscopical article carrying platform 13 by X-axis rotation belt pulley 7, Y-axis rotation belt pulley 8, Z axle swiveling wheel 10 respectively.For the ease of adjusting X-axis and Y-axis, below article carrying platform, locate to be provided with X-axis knob 9 and Y-axis knob 11.Loading wedge shape platform 14 also is housed on article carrying platform 13, and loading wedge shape platform 14 is generally 30 degree horizontal by the inclination angle of β=5~40 degree.Loading wedge shape platform 14 is done translation motion with article carrying platform 13 by computer-controlled X, Y and Z shaft step motor or driven by servomotor, X, the Y of loading wedge shape platform 14 and Z axle three-dimensional motion volume coordinate and camera collection are input in the Computer Database time the body surface image, set up one-to-one relationship.Above article carrying platform 13, be provided with the secondary light source 15 that links to each other with the microscope casing.The Data Input Interface of computing machine is connected with the data output end of camera through image pick-up card 2.

Fig. 2 is focal plane imaging of the present invention and object of observation index path.Among this figure, numbering 16 is focal plane camera imaging surface figure, and numbering 17 is an optical lens, and numbering 20 is a focal plane camera imaging surface figure texture, and numbering 28 is loading wedge shape platform upper surface.

There are two coordinate-systems in this system, sets up two coordinate-systems of image zero point when image pick-up card 2 is transported to image information in the pattern process computer 3, and one is to be coordinate-system O (X, Y, certain some F Z) of reference with the microscope n(X n, Y n, Z n), another is that the image of gathering from camera 1 is coordinate-system o n(x, y, z) certain the some F in n(a, b, H n), both coordinate transformation relations are:

X n=a n+P n

Y n=b n+L n

Z n=H n

Above-mentioned Xn, Yn, Zn are the microscope volume coordinate, and Pn, Ln, Hn are the upper left corner of the n width of cloth image the gathered coordinate position in the OXYZ space, and a, b are the coordinate position of certain point of focal plane regional extent image 19 scopes in the oxyz space.

Rely on computing machine to control mobile article carrying platform to establish P, L, H value to servomotor, a, b value then rely on the computing machine coordinate range that analysis obtains the focal plane to image focal plane to establish, and then different elevations focal plane information and texture information are synthesized.

The present invention also provides a kind of device that does not use loading wedge shape platform 14 on the basis of above-mentioned scanister, it is in the transformation process to simple microscope, transportable article carrying platform and surface level direction of scanning are the β angle on X, Y-axis, β=5~40 degree, constitute visual field, oblique focal plane, can realize three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method provided by the invention equally.

Specifically: referring to Figure 12, by of the three-dimensional appearance scanning of visual field, oblique focal plane to object, pass through image processing techniques, calculate the microcosmic side-play amount ρ of each pixel, the image-region of focal plane is divided into macroscopic view skew, macroscopical non-migration and macroscopic view skew down, and the microcosmic three-dimensional appearance is carried out Track In Track by Kalman Filter Technology, after the focal plane is offset out field range, by regulating servo control mechanism, skew compensates to macroscopic view, keep oblique focal plane in the field range of microscopical images acquired device, and calculate macroscopical side-play amount.At last, with microcosmic side-play amount and macroscopical side-play amount, and the distortion error of optical system compensation is coupled, and image reconstruction, obtains the three-dimensional appearance of large scale.

Microscopic quantity and the macroscopic quantity basic mathematic model that is coupled is as follows:

X nnCos β+x Macroscopic quantity n+ σ Xn

Y n=y n+ y Macroscopic quantity n+ σ Yn

Z nnSin β+z Macroscopic quantity n+ σ Zn

X n, Y n, Z nIt is the three-dimensional dimension of n band; x Macroscopic quantity n, y Macroscopic quantity n, z Macroscopic quantity nBe macroscopical offset; y nAxle microscopic measurement value for y n band; β is angle β=5~40 degree (Figure 12) of article carrying platform inclination angle and surface level direction of scanning; ρ nUltra-Left subject distance for microcosmic focal plane n band; σ Xn, σ Yn, σ ZnBe the calibration corrections of n band, determine according to focal plane position in the image.In the time of the three-dimensional structure of the cell of measuring some biosomes, above structure microscope tiltedly can be placed, guarantee that article carrying platform is concordant with surface level.

4) image focal plane of several different scanning bands carries out three-dimensional splicing reconstruct

This content mainly is how the large scale three-dimensional appearance to be divided into different sector scanning bands, how to utilize existing technology that three-dimensional marginal information and other three-dimensional marginal information are spliced.The scan mode that adopts according to this project is that oblique focal plane is scanned the micro-object pattern, can horizontal and vertically all take into account, thereby can lead the up-down adjustment article carrying platform because of looking profit according to three-dimensional appearance, guarantee that three-dimensional surface is within the field range of focal plane, the scope of scanning is bigger than longitudinal scanning scope, as Fig. 9 and shown in Figure 10.

According to coordinate two width of cloth images are carried out the algebraic operation of elevation, lap A+B elevation is got two-part mean value, and lap is not got elevation separately alone.

3) 3 D measuring method that vertically superposes.This method is gathered vertical focal plane video image of metal surface by monocular microscope, by deconvolution, threshold binary image cut apart, 3-D view splicing reconstruct under several different scenes, obtain microcosmic three-dimensional appearance image.And leak part and carry out mending-leakage, correction not measuring by morphological method, guarantee the integrality of measuring.Workflow as shown in Figure 3.

Subordinate list

Table 1

The space absolute coordinates N: image sequence number The displacement of X:X axial coordinate The displacement of Y:Y axial coordinate The displacement of Z:Z axial coordinate In the image relative coordinate N: image sequence number The displacement of x:x axial coordinate The displacement of y:y axial coordinate The displacement of z:z axial coordinate

Claims (10)

1. three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method, it is characterized in that: be placed on the sample on the microscopical loading wedge shape platform (14), its microscopic appearance image through microscope after camera (1) imaging, be transported to the position that pattern process computer (3) is analyzed the scope place, focal plane in this microscopic appearance image by image pick-up card (2), then by computer control X, Y and Z shaft step motor or driven by servomotor article carrying platform (13) move along loading wedge shape platform (14), in loading wedge shape platform (14) moving process, be transferred in the computing machine by the movable signal of displacement record instrument article carrying platform (13), obtain the value of the three-dimensional coordinate of article carrying platform, and should sit target value and gather the microscopic appearance image sequence and number set up one-to-one relationship; And focus on evaluation function by the computing machine utilization every width of cloth image focusing zone is divided, the focal zone of every width of cloth image is as the scope in the elevation zone of these image three-dimensional elements of a fix, and image texture constitutes whole reconstruct large scale image texture in every width of cloth focal zone scope; Image texture removes in the non-focusing regional extent, does not constitute whole reconstruct large scale image texture; Elevation information and image texture with every width of cloth focusing range is integrated into whole reconstruct large scale elevation map and image texture then, make in the focal plane each pixel color value and spatial value rebulid one-to-one relationship and be reconstructed, obtain a wider three-dimensional micro-morphology.
2. three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method according to claim 1 is characterized in that the concrete method that may further comprise the steps that adopts:
The first step, sample is placed on the microscopical loading wedge shape platform (14), article carrying platform (13) is being with sample to do translation by computer-controlled X, Y and Z shaft step motor on X, Y, three directions of Z axle, and by artificial definite initial baseline coordinate, write down locus P, the L of first frame, the value of H, P, L, H are respectively X, Y, the Z coordinates under the initial point O coordinate; Wherein carry out translation according to 1/2~1/100 of the microscope depth of field in X-direction, carry out translation in Y direction according to the image and the doubling of the image 1/5~1/20, at the Z axle and keep in 2/3~3/4 zone of the centre of image on the images acquired moving direction of this focusing range in Y direction;
Second step, to the sample collection micro image:
Utilize camera (1) that the article surface vein image is transferred to image pick-up card (2);
In the 3rd step, image pick-up card (2) is transported to pattern process computer (3) with image information and carries out Flame Image Process, utilizes gradient operator that the image of gathering is carried out convolution algorithm, obtains the evaluation matrix of focal plane;
The 4th step obtained image to convolution algorithm and carries out binaryzation, the binary image morphological image that expands was handled again, and obtained the scope binary image of focal plane, then the binary image morphological image that expands was handled, and obtained the scope of focal plane;
In the 5th step,, obtain the elevation matrix of focal plane if the scope binary image matrix of H elevation and focal plane is carried out matrix multiple; If, obtain focal plane texture image matrix with the matrix of original image and the scope binary image matrix multiple of focal plane;
The 6th step, last time is obtained H elevation matrix and focal plane texture image matrix, with newly obtain H elevation matrix and focal plane texture image matrix, value according to coordinate P, L is added new elevation information in the elevation information and focal plane texture image that synthesized last time to, obtains new synthetic H elevation matrix and the focal plane texture image matrix of newly obtaining;
The 7th step, the locus of rising article carrying platform, analyze the focal plane do the locus, whether the focal plane scope can break away from image focal plane T;
In the 8th step, if the focal plane scope can break away from image focal plane T,, the focal plane scope is moved on to the centre, and write down the value of coordinate P, L, H by adjusting article carrying platform Y-axis coordinate; The 9th goes on foot, and judges whether to handle the image focal plane of all collections, if submit the elevation information figure and the microcosmic new look texture maps of the microcosmic new look of micro-object to, otherwise undertaken by following the tenth step;
In the tenth step, newly synthetic elevation information figure and texture maps matrix are composed in the last composite matrix, as the initial matrix of circular treatment next time.
3. three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method according to claim 2 is characterized in that: in the 3rd step, gradient operator adopts Sobel operator, Krisch operator, Prewit operator, Laplacian operator or log operator.
4. three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: in the 4th step, by the center of gravity or the centre of form of calculating all focal plane regional extents, when the centre-of gravity shift of focal plane regional extent image (19) arrives the center of microscope field depth image (18), drive X, Y and Z shaft step motor or driven by servomotor article carrying platform (13) by computer control system, guarantee the center of the center of gravity of focal plane regional extent image (19) at microscope field depth image (18).
5. three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: in the 3rd step, when being transported to image information in the pattern process computer 3, sets up image pick-up card 2 two coordinate-systems of image zero point, one is to be the coordinate-system O (X of reference with the microscope, Y, certain some F Z) n(X n, Y n, Z n), another is that the image of gathering from camera 1 is coordinate-system o n(x, y, z) certain the some F in n(a, b, H n), both coordinate transformation relations are:
X n=a n+P n
Y n=b n+L n
Z n=H n
Above-mentioned X n, Y n, Z nBe microscope volume coordinate, P n, L n, H n(X, Y, the Z) coordinate position in space, a, b are that certain point of focal plane regional extent image (19) is at o at O for the upper left corner of the n width of cloth image gathered n(x, y, the z) coordinate position in space,
Rely on computing machine to control mobile article carrying platform to establish P, L, H value to servomotor, a, b value then rely on the computing machine coordinate range that analysis obtains the focal plane to image focal plane to establish, and then different elevations focal plane information and texture information are synthesized.
6. three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method according to claim 5 is characterized in that: overlapping if adjacent two frame image focal planes have, then elevation is got the average of two overlapping focal plane elevations.
7. three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: need follow the tracks of for the focal plane, method is: the locus that needs constantly to adjust the Z axle of article carrying platform, with the image division of gathering is last, in, following three security areas, guarantee that body surface is imaged on detected zone line, if the focal plane is in last or following warning region, then send control signal to servo control mechanism by computing machine, adjust the displacement of the Y-axis of article carrying platform (13), the position at place, focal plane is in the centre in the image, and the locus of writing down this platform;
Perhaps when Flame Image Process, the image-region of focal plane is divided into macroscopic view skew, macroscopical non-migration and macroscopic view skew down, and the microcosmic three-dimensional appearance is carried out Track In Track by Kalman Filter Technology, after the focal plane is offset out field range, by regulating servo control mechanism, skew compensates to macroscopic view, keeps oblique focal plane in the field range of microscopical images acquired device, and calculates macroscopical side-play amount; At last, with microcosmic side-play amount and macroscopical side-play amount, and the compensation of the distortion error of optical system is coupled and image reconstruction, with zone, every width of cloth image focal plane as elevation information, with the texture of every width of cloth focal plane texture as entire image, the elevation information and the texture information of all image focal planes that collect are synthesized in the piece image, constitute large scale three-dimensional appearance.
8. three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: camera (1) is gathered route and is scanned according to the claustra mode, and image split-joint method also splices according to the claustra mode; Perhaps the camera collection route according to the word mode scan, image split-joint method also according to the word mode splice; Perhaps the camera collection route scans according to repetitive mode later, and image split-joint method also splices according to repetitive mode later.
9. scanister of realizing the described three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method of arbitrary claim in the claim 1 to 8, comprise computing machine, microscope and the camera (1) that is arranged on the microscope, it is characterized in that: microscopical article carrying platform (13) is equipped with loading wedge shape platform (14), loading wedge shape platform and microscope article carrying platform β=5~40 degree, loading wedge shape platform (14) with article carrying platform (13) by computer-controlled X, Y and Z shaft step motor or driven by servomotor are done translation motion, the X of loading wedge shape platform (14), Y and Z axle three-dimensional motion volume coordinate and camera collection are input in the Computer Database time the body surface image, set up one-to-one relationship.
10. scanister according to claim 9 is characterized in that: do not use loading wedge shape platform (14), transportable article carrying platform and surface level direction of scanning are the β angle on X, Y-axis, and β=5~40 degree constitutes visual field, oblique focal plane.
CN200810046840A 2008-01-31 2008-01-31 Three-dimensional microcosmic appearance inclined scanning method and apparatus CN100582657C (en)

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