CN100578137C - Magnetostrictive displacement sensor - Google Patents

Magnetostrictive displacement sensor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100578137C
CN100578137C CN200710063721A CN200710063721A CN100578137C CN 100578137 C CN100578137 C CN 100578137C CN 200710063721 A CN200710063721 A CN 200710063721A CN 200710063721 A CN200710063721 A CN 200710063721A CN 100578137 C CN100578137 C CN 100578137C
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China
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signal
circuit
output
connects
power supply
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CN200710063721A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101038151A (en
Inventor
袁梅
孙东亚
孙可
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北京航空航天大学
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Priority to CN200710063721A priority Critical patent/CN100578137C/en
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Abstract

The present invention discloses a magnetoconstriction type displacement sensor which measures the displacement by using a time-difference displacement measuring method. A torsional wave is generated by crossing two different magnetic field and then the transmitting time of the torsional wave is computed, thus the displacement measuring can be performed indirectly and accurately. The magnetoconstriction type displacement sensor consists of a center control unit, a drive signal generator, a signal processing circuit, a high-speed timing circuit, a RS485 interface circuit, a power supply circuit and the wave guide filament.

Description

Magnetostrictive displacement sensor
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of displacement transducer, specifically, be meant a kind of high accuracy displacement sensor based on magnetostrictive technology.
Background technology
The measuring method of displacement has a lot, mainly contains mechanical measurement, pneumatic gauging method, electromagnetic measurement method, optical method measurement.Wherein, method for electromagnetically measuring can directly be exported electric signal, is convenient to realize the detection and the control of automatic controlization.The electromagnetic measurement method can be divided into forms such as potentiometer type, Hall-type, strain-type, inductance type, magnetic-grid-type, electric vortex type, condenser type, magnetostriction type again.
The potentiometer type displacement transducer, structure and circuit are simple, and cost is low, but physical construction is insecure; Slip formula displacement sensor sound construction, but rate variance differentiated, and noise is big; The strain-type displacement transducer, size is little, and cost is low, sensitivity resolution height, but the scope of measuring is very little, can not satisfy the demand of wide range application scenario.The Huo Ershi displacement sensor structure is simple, and dynamic response is good, and sensitivity resolution height can be used for non-cpntact measurement, still is subjected to medium and temperature effect big, non-linear also bigger; Inductive displacement transducer is highly sensitive, reliable in structure, firm, the temperature and humidity influence is little, the resolution height, can realize non-cpntact measurement, but the frequency response of difference induction formula is lower, there is residual voltage at zero in differential transformer type, electric vortex type is subject to the influence of measured conductor physical property, geometric configuration and size, and linear narrow range.Capacitive displacement transducer is simple in structure, and dynamic response is good, and is highly sensitive, and the resolution height can realize that noncontact surveys, but is subjected to medium and temperature effect big.
And magnetostrictive displacement sensor accuracy of detection height, linearity height, environmental suitability are strong, good stability, easy for installation, can realize multiparameter, long range measurements.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of magnetostrictive displacement sensor, this displacement transducer adopts time difference telemetry to come the capable measurement of contraposition shift-in, utilize two different magnetic fields to intersect and inspire torsional wave, calculate the travel-time of torsional wave, just can carry out displacement measurement indirectly exactly.
The present invention is a kind of magnetostrictive displacement sensor, is made up of central control unit, signal excitation generation circuit, signal processing circuit, high speed timing circuit, RS485 interface circuit, power supply circuit and waveguide filament; The RS485 interface circuit realizes and the communication of external unit that power supply circuit provides required power supply for sensor of the present invention.
Described central control unit is used for output drive generation signal f 0To signal excitation generation circuit, output signal processing control signals f 6Give signal processing circuit, output time reads solicited message f 7Give the high speed timing circuit; Central processing unit controls signal excitation generation circuit produces excitation pulse signal f 1, and the echo arriving signal f of received signal treatment circuit 8
Described signal excitation generation circuit is used to produce excitation pulse signal f 1The time, to high speed timing circuit output timing enabling signal f 2
Described signal processing circuit is used for to high speed timing circuit output stopping timing signal f 5, and output echo arriving signal f 8The notice CPU (central processing unit).
Described high speed timing circuit is used for the startup timing signal f that circuit output takes place in the received signal excitation 2, and do timing and handle; Received signal treatment circuit output stop timing signal f 5, and do to stop timing and handle; The time that receives central control unit output is read solicited message f 7, and according to this time information output value information f 3Give central control unit.
Described waveguide filament is used for being subjected to excitation pulse signal f 1The time, can produce magnetostrictive effect in the position of magnet ring, produce torsional wave signal f 4Give signal processing circuit.
The advantage of magnetostrictive displacement sensor of the present invention is: (1) high speed timing circuit has adopted high-precision differential detection mode, improves common-mode rejection ratio greatly, has improved measuring accuracy, and has strengthened antijamming capability.(2) signal processing circuit has adopted the digital processing technology of running mean and anti-impulse disturbances, has improved the anti-interference and the stability of sensing system.(3) the measuring accuracy height of sensor, resolution is better than 0.01%FS, has realized that high-precision location positioning in monitoring, has satisfied industrial occasions, to the high precision displacement Testing requirement.(4) adopt singlechip chip general, low-power consumption to design, reduced the power consumption and the cost of sensor greatly, improved cost performance.(5) digitized requirement is satisfied in digital quantity output.And have the RS-485 bus, conveniently transmit and control.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structured flowchart of magnetostrictive displacement sensor of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a central control unit circuit diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is RS485 interface circuit figure of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is high speed timing circuit figure of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is signal processing circuit figure of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is a signal excitation generation circuit diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 7 is power supply circuit figure of the present invention.
Embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.
The present invention is a kind of magnetostrictive displacement sensor, is made up of central control unit, signal excitation generation circuit, signal processing circuit, high speed timing circuit, RS485 interface circuit, power supply circuit and waveguide filament; The RS485 interface circuit realizes and the communication of external unit that power supply circuit provides required power supply for sensor of the present invention.The information transmission of each several part is as follows among the present invention:
One, CPU (central processing unit)
In the present invention, CPU (central processing unit) adopts the higher single-chip microcomputer (Atmega8L) of cost performance to realize the control of each intermodule in the magnetostrictive displacement sensor, wherein, and output drive generation signal f 0To signal excitation generation circuit, output signal processing control signals f 6Give signal processing circuit, output time reads solicited message f 7Give the high speed timing circuit; Central processing unit controls signal excitation generation circuit produces excitation pulse signal f 1, and the echo arriving signal f of received signal treatment circuit 8When echo arriving signal f8 arrived, CPU (central processing unit) is the time for reading information f from the high speed timing circuit 3, and calculate the high precision time amount by the digital filtering method of running mean and anti-impulse disturbances, and this time quantum is converted into displacement, export through the RS485 interface circuit.
The external interrupt input end 1 of single-chip microcomputer U8 connects with the pumping signal output terminal 26 of single-chip microcomputer U8, the LED control output end 23 of single-chip microcomputer U8,24,25 are connected with pilot lamp respectively, single-chip microcomputer reset signal end 29 connects with reset circuit, the bus grant output terminal 11 of single-chip microcomputer U6 holds 3 with the transmission permission of 485 bus module U12 respectively, the reception of 485 bus module U12 allows end 2 to connect, the serial data transmitting terminal 31 of single-chip microcomputer U8 connects with the data sending terminal 4 of 485 bus module U12, the serial data receiving end 30 of single-chip microcomputer U8 connects with the data receiver 1 of 485 bus module U12, the power supply input anode 4 of single-chip microcomputer U8,6,18 connect with+5V power supply respectively, the aanalogvoltage reference edge 20 of single-chip microcomputer U8 connects with+5V power supply, the power supply input negative terminal 3 of single-chip microcomputer U8,5,21 connect digitally.
Two, signal excitation generation circuit
In the present invention, signal excitation generation circuit is used for producing excitation pulse signal, and signal is carried out power amplification.The time and the type that produce signal are controlled by central control unit.At waveguide filament material behavior and concrete parameter, produce excitation pulse signal f 1, described excitation pulse signal f 1Can in waveguide filament, produce optimum torsional wave signal.When producing pumping signal, to high speed timing circuit output timing enabling signal f 2
The pumping signal output terminal 26 of single-chip microcomputer U8 connects with the signal input part 1 of phase inverter U13, and connects with+5V power supply by resistance R 5; The signal output part 2 of phase inverter U13 connects with the base terminal B of the base terminal B of triode Q1, triode Q3, and connects with+5V power supply by resistance R 6; The collector terminal C of triode Q1 connects with+5V power supply, the emitter terminal E of triode Q1 connects with the gate terminal 1 of emitter terminal E, the field effect transistor Q2 of triode Q3, the collector terminal C ground connection of triode Q3, drain electrode end 3 ground connection of field effect transistor Q2, the source terminal 2 of field effect transistor Q2 directly connects with the magnetostrictive waveguide silk, sends pumping signal to the magnetostrictive waveguide silk.
Three, signal processing circuit
In the present invention, signal processing circuit is used for the torsional wave signal is received and handles, the extracting position signal.Signal processing circuit adopts integrated instrument to carry out the high cmrr amplification with difference amplification chip.Signal through after amplifying accurately extracts echoed signal by high-speed comparator.When extracting echoed signal, to high speed timing circuit output stopping timing signal f 5, and output echo arriving signal f 8The notice CPU (central processing unit).
The output plus terminal 2 of the first coil P2 connects with the positive input 2 of instrumentation amplifier U3, the output negative terminal 1 of the first coil P2 connects with the output plus terminal 2 of the second coil P4 and ground connection, and the output negative terminal 1 of the second coil P4 connects with the reverse input end 3 of instrumentation amplifier U3; The gain control end 1,8 of instrumentation amplifier U3 connects with the two ends of resistance R 3 respectively, and the gain of pair amplifier is controlled and regulated; The power supply of instrumentation amplifier U3 input anode 7 with+the 5V power supply connects after filter capacitor C5 ground connection, the power supply of instrumentation amplifier U3 input negative terminal 4 with-the 5V power supply connects after filter capacitor C7 ground connection, output reference edge 5 ground connection of instrumentation amplifier U3, the output terminal of instrumentation amplifier U3 connects with the normal-closed end 3 of analog switch U4, finishes the amplification of two-way differential signal; Chang Kaiduan 1 ground connection of analog switch U4, the power positive end of analog switch U4 connects with+5V power supply, the power supply negative terminal ground connection of analog switch U4, the control end 6 of analog switch U4 connects with the analog switch control signal output terminal 27 of single-chip microcomputer U8, and the output terminal 2 of analog switch U4 connects with the positive input 3 of high speed operation amplifier U5; The reverse input end 2 of amplifier U5 is through resistance R 2 ground connection, and connects with the output terminal 6 of amplifier U5 through resistance R 1, carries out the control to gain amplifier; The power supply of amplifier U5 input anode connects with+5V power supply and by capacitor C 6 ground connection, and the power supply of amplifier U5 is imported negative terminal and connected with-5V power supply and pass through capacitor C 8 ground connection, and the output terminal 6 of amplifier U5 connects with the positive input 3 of high-speed comparator U6; The reverse input end of comparer U6 is through resistance R 9 ground connection, and connects with+5V power supply through resistance R 8, and resistance R 8, resistance R 9 is formed bleeder circuits provides the comparative voltage benchmark for comparer U6; The power supply of comparer U6 input anode connects with+5V power supply, and the power supply of comparer U6 is imported negativing ending grounding, and the output terminal 6 of comparer U6 connects with the input end 2 of Schmidt trigger U7; Schmidt trigger U7 inside comprises two Schmidt trigger modules; Input end 1 ground connection of Schmidt trigger U7, the power supply of Schmidt trigger U7 input anode 16 connects with+5V power supply, power supply input negative terminal 8 ground connection of Schmidt trigger U7, the reset terminal 3 of Schmidt trigger U7 connects with+5V power supply, the output pulse width control end 14,15 of Schmidt trigger U7 connects with the two ends of capacitor C 9 respectively, the output pulse width control end 15 of Schmidt trigger U7 connects with+5V power supply by resistance R 20, and capacitor C 9, resistance R 20 are finished the adjusting to the output pulse width of a schmidt trigger module; The forward output terminal 13 of Schmidt trigger U7 connects with the input end 10 of Schmidt trigger U7, and the pulse that the output terminal 13 of Schmidt trigger U7 is produced outputs to the input end 10 of Schmidt trigger U7; Input end 9 ground connection of Schmidt trigger U7, the reset terminal 11 of Schmidt trigger U7 connects with+5V power supply, the output pulse width control end 6,7 of Schmidt trigger U7 connects with the two ends of capacitor C 10 respectively, the output pulse width control end 7 of Schmidt trigger U7 connects with+5V power supply through resistance R 4, and resistance R 4, capacitor C 10 are finished the control to the output pulse width of another Schmidt trigger module; The output terminal 5 of Schmidt trigger U7 allows latching of end 11, the second latch U10-2 to allow the external interrupt input end 32 of end 11, single-chip microcomputer U8 to connect with latching of the first latch U10-1 respectively; The end ground connection of magnetic bead R11, the other end as digital circuit are digitally realized simulation ground and isolation digitally.
Four, high speed timing circuit
In the present invention, the high speed timing circuit is used for the travel-time of torsional wave is carried out accurate timing.The startup timing signal f of circuit output takes place in this circuit received signal excitation 2, and do timing and handle; Received signal treatment circuit output stop timing signal f 5, and do to stop timing and handle; The time that receives central control unit output is read solicited message f 7, and according to this time information output value information f 3Give central control unit.This time is proportional to the distance between magnet ring and the sensor head.So can utilize this time indirect to obtain the exact position of magnet ring.
The voltage input end 3 of step-down chip U15 connects with+5V power supply, and through capacitor C 13, capacitor C 14 ground connection, capacitor C 13, capacitor C 14 are formed electric source filter circuits; Earth terminal 1 ground connection of step-down chip U15, the voltage output end 2 of step-down chip U15 connects with the power input 1 of crystal oscillator U16, and through capacitor C 15, capacitor C 16 ground connection, capacitor C 15, capacitor C 16 are formed electric source filter circuit; Earth terminal 3 ground connection of crystal oscillator U16, the output terminal of clock 4 of crystal oscillator U16 connect with the input end of clock 1 of the first counter U9-1, the input end of clock 1 of the second counter U9-2 respectively, for timing circuit provides clock signal.
The power supply of first counter U9-1 input anode connects with+5V power supply, the power supply input negative terminal 6 of the first counter U9-1 connects digitally, the eight bit data incoming line of 8 position datawires of the first counter U9-1 and the first latch U10-1 links, the master reset of the first counter U9-1 connects with+5V power supply, the synchronous reset end 19 of the first counter U9-1 connects with the pumping signal output terminal 26 of single-chip microcomputer U8, the parallel input counting of the first counter U9-1 allows end 18 to connect signal ground, the input trigger end 17 of the first counter U9-1 connects signal ground, the carry output terminal 15 of the first counter U9-1 connects with the input trigger end 17 of the second counter U9-2, the counting direction input end 14 of the first counter U9-1 connects with+5V power supply, the parallel input of the first counter U9-1 allows end 13 to connect with+5V power supply, the sheet choosing end 12 of the first counter U9-1 connects digitally, and the output of the first counter U9-1 allows termination digitally; The power supply of second counter U9-2 input anode connects with+5V power supply, the power supply input negative terminal 6 of the second counter U9-2 connects digitally, the eight bit data incoming line of 8 position datawires of the second counter U9-2 and the second latch U10-2 links, the master reset of the second counter U9-2 connects with+5V power supply, the synchronous reset end 19 of the second counter U9-2 connects with the pumping signal output terminal 26 of single-chip microcomputer U8, the parallel input counting of the second counter U9-2 allows end 18 to connect signal ground, the counting direction input end 14 of the second counter U9-2 connects with+5V power supply, the parallel input of the second counter U9-2 allows end 13 to connect with+5V power supply, the sheet choosing end 12 of the second counter U9-2 connects digitally, and the output of the second counter U9-2 allows termination digitally; The output of the first latch U10-1 allows end 1 to connect digitally, the power supply of first latch U10-1 input anode 20 connects with+5V power supply, the power supply input negative terminal of the first latch U10-1 connects digitally, and the 8 bit data output lines of the first latch U10-1 connect with the 8 bit data incoming lines of the first shift register U11-1; The output of the second latch U10-2 allows end 1 to connect digitally, the power supply of second latch U10-2 input anode 20 connects with+5V power supply, the power supply input negative terminal of the second latch U10-2 connects digitally, and the 8 bit data output lines of the second latch U10-2 connect with the 8 bit data incoming lines of the second shift register U11-2; The power supply of first shift register U11-1 input anode 16 connects with+5V power supply, the power supply input negative terminal of the first shift register U11-1 connects digitally, the displacement control end 15 of the first shift register U11-1 connects with the displacement control signal output ends 13 of single-chip microcomputer U8, the reset terminal 9 of the first shift register U11-1 connects with the reset shift register signal output part 12 of single-chip microcomputer U8, the input end of clock 6 of the first shift register U11-1 connects digitally, the input end of clock 7 of the first shift register U11-1 connects with the shift register clock output terminal 17 of single-chip microcomputer U8, the data input pin 1 of the first shift register U11-1 goes out end 13 with the serial of the second shift register U11-2 and connects, and the serial output terminal 13 of the first shift register U11-1 connects with the serial data receiving end 16 of single-chip microcomputer; The power supply of second shift register U11-2 input anode 16 connects the second shift register U11-2 with+5V power supply power supply is imported negative terminal and is connect digitally, the displacement control end 15 of the second shift register U11-2 connects with the displacement control signal output ends 13 of single-chip microcomputer U8, the reset terminal 9 of the second shift register U11-2 connects with the reset shift register signal output part 12 of single-chip microcomputer U8, the input end of clock 6 of the second shift register U11-2 connects digitally, the input end of clock 7 of the second shift register U11-2 connects with the shift register clock output terminal 17 of single-chip microcomputer U8, and the data input pin 1 of the second shift register U11-2 connects with the serial data output terminal 15 of single-chip microcomputer.
Five, waveguide filament
In the present invention, waveguide filament adopts magnetostriction materials to make, and can be Ni-Fe-Co series magnetostriction materials or Fe-Ga alloy silk or Terfenol-D, and its chemical formula is Tb 0.27Dy 0.73Fe 1.95Waveguide filament is connected between signal excitation generation circuit and the signal processing circuit, and it is being subjected to excitation pulse signal f 1The time, can produce magnetostrictive effect in the position of magnet ring, produce torsional wave signal f 4Give signal processing circuit.
Six, RS485 interface
In the present invention, the RS485 interface circuit has higher antijamming capability and transmission range far away, is suitable for the requirement of the distributed measurement of industrial occasions.
The power supply of 485 bus module U12 input anode 8 connects with+5V power supply, and through capacitor C 11 ground connection, power supply input negative terminal 5 ground connection of 485 bus module U12, the output terminal 6,7 of 485 bus module U12 connects with the two ends of resistance R 7 respectively, and connects with external bus.
Seven, power supply circuit
The anode of outside+24V power supply connects with the voltage input anode 2 of a DC/DC power module U1, the voltage input anode 1 of the 2nd DC/DC power module U2 respectively behind diode D1, and the negative terminal of outside+24V power supply connects with the voltage input negative terminal 1 of a DC/DC power module U1, the voltage input negative terminal 2 of the 2nd DC/DC power module U2 respectively.The voltage output plus terminal 3 of the one DC/DC power module U1 connects with the anode of the negative terminal of diode D2, electrochemical capacitor C1, an end of capacitor C 2, for magnetostrictive displacement sensor provides+5V voltage, the voltage output negative terminal 4 of the one DC/DC power module U1 and the voltage output plus terminal 4 of the 2nd DC/DC power module U2 connect with the anode of diode D2, the negative terminal of diode D3, the negative terminal of electrochemical capacitor C1, the anode of electrochemical capacitor C3, the other end of capacitor C 2, an end of capacitor C 4, as the simulation ground (being voltage reference) of magnetostrictive displacement sensor.The voltage output negative terminal 3 of the 2nd DC/DC power module U2 connects with the anode of diode D3, the negative terminal of electrochemical capacitor C3, the other end of capacitor C 4, for magnetostrictive displacement sensor provides-5V voltage.Diode D2, diode D3 form the reversed polarity output protection, and electrochemical capacitor C1, electrochemical capacitor C3, capacitor C 2, capacitor C 4 are formed electric source filter circuit.

Claims (1)

1, a kind of magnetostrictive displacement sensor comprises central control unit, signal processing circuit, RS485 interface circuit and power supply circuit, it is characterized in that: also comprise signal excitation generation circuit, high speed timing circuit and waveguide filament;
Described central control unit is used for output drive generation signal f 0To signal excitation generation circuit, output signal processing control signals f 6Give signal processing circuit, output time reads solicited message f 7Give the high speed timing circuit; Circuit takes place and produces excitation pulse signal f in the excitation of central control unit control signal 1, and the echo arriving signal f of received signal treatment circuit 8
Described signal excitation generation circuit is used to produce excitation pulse signal f 1The time, start timing signal f to the output of high speed timing circuit 2
Described signal processing circuit is used for to high speed timing circuit output stopping timing signal f 5, and output echo arriving signal f 8The notice central control unit;
Described high speed timing circuit is used for the startup timing signal f that circuit output takes place in the received signal excitation 2, and do timing and handle; Received signal treatment circuit output stop timing signal f 5, and do to stop timing and handle; The time that receives central control unit output is read solicited message f 7, and according to this time information output value information f 3Give central control unit;
Described waveguide filament is used for being subjected to excitation pulse signal f 1The time, can produce magnetostrictive effect in the position of magnet ring, produce torsional wave signal f 4Give signal processing circuit.
CN200710063721A 2007-02-08 2007-02-08 Magnetostrictive displacement sensor CN100578137C (en)

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CN100578137C true CN100578137C (en) 2010-01-06

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