CN100562708C  Sixfreedom degree articulated flexible COMERO high precision calibration method  Google Patents
Sixfreedom degree articulated flexible COMERO high precision calibration method Download PDFInfo
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 CN100562708C CN100562708C CNB2007103026041A CN200710302604A CN100562708C CN 100562708 C CN100562708 C CN 100562708C CN B2007103026041 A CNB2007103026041 A CN B2007103026041A CN 200710302604 A CN200710302604 A CN 200710302604A CN 100562708 C CN100562708 C CN 100562708C
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Abstract
Description
Technical field
The invention belongs to the measurement of coordinates technical field, be specifically related to the scaling method of articulated flexible COMERO.
Background technology
Articulated flexible COMERO normally constitutes openchain structure by each gage beam each rotary joint (abbreviation joint) of connecting, and the end of this openchain structure is the gauge head of measuring machine.Each joint can be rotated around the axis of himself, is the angle that rotate in the record joint, need be on the joint setting angle sensor, as angular transducer, highprecision round grating is one of to select.There is one degree of freedom in each joint, and the articulated flexible COMERO of six degree of freedom then has six joints.When using measuring machine to carry out measurement of coordinates, the coordinate of measuring machine gauge head is the function of measuring machine structural parameters and its six joint angles.
Not proven articulated flexible COMERO probe location error is often very big, can not satisfy request for utilization, and in order to ensure the overall precision of measuring machine, an important job is that measuring machine is demarcated and revised.Wherein, the process of demarcation is the process that obtains measuring machine precise geometrical parameter, correction be the structure applications that will demarcate in the measuring machine system to obtain more accurate coordinates.The error of flexible coordinate measuring machine mainly comprises construction geometry error (geometric errors) and nongeometric error (nongeometric errors), the former is meant measuring machine based on the structural parameters error of measuring equation, and the latter mainly is meant the error that measuring machine joint space, distortion etc. cause.
A kind of existing scaling method, be that machine to be calibrated is placed the more measurement space of highprecision coordinate surveying instrument (such as normal coordinates measuring machine, laser tracker etc.), form two coordinate systems, one is the conventional coordinates of highprecision coordinate surveying instrument, and another is a machine coordinate system to be calibrated.At first set up machine coordinate system to be calibrated at the initial point of articulated type coordinate measuring machine to be calibrated (being called for short machine to be calibrated) as measuring workpieces.The joint angles that changes machine to be calibrated corresponding to each placing attitude, obtains the coordinate figure of gauge head in conventional coordinates to adjust the space arrangement attitude of machine to be calibrated, and the measurement coordinate of gauge head in coordinate system to be calibrated; With standard coordinate with measure coordinate, for all sampled datas that obtained, by calculating the error parameter that obtains machine to be calibrated as sampled data.
Though abovementioned existing scaling method can be realized parameter recognition, but there is defective in they on sampling policy: " the calibration technique research of Flexible ThreeCoordinate Measuring Arm " (XI AN JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY Subject Index, 2006.3 pp284286) sampling policy of taking in (being designated hereinafter simply as document 1) is " evenly choosing 12 points in the gage beam work space "; " structural system of Flexible Threecoordinate Measuring Machine and error correction demarcate analyze " (tool technique, 2006.40, pp7678) do not provide concrete sampling policy in (being designated hereinafter simply as document 2); And " articulated flexible COMERO parameter identification method " (agricultural mechanical journal, 2007.7, pp129132) (being designated hereinafter simply as document 3) has then adopted singlepoint to bore the scaling method of nest, an awl nest is fixed on a position of measurement space, uses articulated flexible COMERO awl nest summit continuous sampling 200 points.These scaling methods have been ignored the coordinate measuring machine space error regularity of distribution of this form bar none.From measuring the equation analysis, the error size difference of the diverse location measuring machine in the spherical measurement space that measuring machine can reach, the transport function of corresponding each parameter are also different.Error burst is a spheroid, and is also different at the diameter of space different measuring point tolerance ball.The main error component of measuring machine is the precision of scrambler, and the error of the different coding device of the indexing position that scrambler uses changes the error difference that has determined any point, space, and this has determined varying in size of measurement space any point error spheroid.Found also that in actual calibration process timing signal effect in a certain interval, space is better, can make complete machine reach degree of precision, the complete machine effect is then relatively poor in another is interval.So, if between measurement zone and inconsistent between calibration zone, finally caused the measuring machine realistic accuracy not high.
In addition, existing demarcation mode is because when sampling random big, and sampling density is not enough, such as record in document 1 be " in the gage beam work space, evenly choosing 12 points ", but this is far from being enough; Document 3 is positions that an awl nest are fixed on measurement space, uses articulated flexible COMERO to awl nest summit continuous sampling 200 points, and a such point can not be represented the performance of articulated type coordinate measuring machine in whole measurement space; It is undesirable that this reason causes demarcating effect, and distinct issues are the precision can not guarantee actual measurement in other area of space time of the demarcation in a certain area of space.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is for avoiding abovementioned existing in prior technology problem, a kind of sixfreedom degree articulated flexible COMERO high precision calibration method being provided, with further raising parameter recognition precision, and then the overall precision of raising measuring machine.
The technical scheme that technical solution problem of the present invention is adopted is:
Sixfreedom degree articulated flexible COMERO high precision calibration method of the present invention is to be machine to be calibrated with the articulated type coordinate measuring machine, select to use to have more highprecision three coordinate measuring machine and be the standard machine, described machine to be calibrated is placed in the measurement space of standard machine; Form two coordinate systems, one is the conventional coordinates of three coordinate measuring machine, another is to set up machine coordinate system to be calibrated at the initial point of articulated type coordinate measuring machine, the joint angles that changes machine to be calibrated is to adjust the space arrangement attitude of machine to be calibrated, corresponding to each placing attitude, obtain the standard coordinate of gauge head in conventional coordinates respectively, and the measurement coordinate of gauge head in coordinate system to be calibrated; With described standard coordinate with measure coordinate,, use least square method to obtain the error parameter of machine to be calibrated for all sampled datas that obtained as sampled data;
The characteristics of the inventive method are:
The sampling density of setting sampled data be each joint of machine to be calibrated at least weekly in 360 on two angle positions of five equilibrium, the different placing attitude that make up formed machine to be calibrated with different angle positions by six joints are at least 64 kinds;
Standard coordinate and measurement coordinate for resulting at least 64 probe location of sampling, get the coordinate figure of wherein any two points respectively, calculate distance between two points, obtain two groups of line values that characterize distance between two points, every group is at least 2016 line values, and the difference of corresponding line value is the calibrated error value.
The characteristics of the inventive method also are:
Described sampling density is separated by in weekly for each joint on two angle positions of 180 degree, and the different placing attitude that makes up formed machine to be calibrated with two angle positions separately by six joints is 2 ^{6}Promptly 64 kinds.
Described sampling density is separated by in weekly for each joint on three angle positions of 120 degree, and the different placing attitude that makes up formed machine to be calibrated with three angle positions separately by six joints is 3 ^{6}Promptly 729 kinds.
Described sampling density is separated by in weekly for each joint on four angle positions of 90 degree, and the different placing attitude that makes up formed machine to be calibrated with four angle positions separately by six joints is 4 ^{6}Promptly 4096 kinds.
Compared with the prior art, beneficial effect of the present invention is embodied in:
1, the approximate whole measurement space that evenly distributes of sampled point of the present invention can fully extract the control information of joint measurment machine in effective measurement space, and the overall precision of machine to be calibrated is guaranteed.
2, actual when data processing what use is the data volume of any 2 distance in the present invention, and this data volume is far longer than the data volume of sampled point itself, is about (n1)/2 times of former sampled point quantity n, and a large amount of sampled data like this makes stakingout work more accurate.
3, the present invention can trigger the automatic acquired signal of gauge head by adopting coordinate measuring machine, guarantees the stability at all sampled points.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is positioned a certain attitude synoptic diagram to be measured for machine to be calibrated in the inventive method.
Number in the figure: 1 pedestal, 2 adjustable poles, 3 anchor clamps, 4 gage beams, 5 joints, 6 gauge heads.
Below pass through embodiment, and in conjunction with the accompanying drawings the inventive method is described further.
Embodiment
Machine to be calibrated shown in Figure 1 is a sixfreedom degree articulated flexible COMERO, on pedestal 1, constitutes openchain structure by six rotatable joints 5 of two sections gage beams, 4 series connection, and the end of this openchain structure is the gauge head 6 of measuring machine.Each joint 5 can be rotated around the axis of himself, and the angle for rotate in the record joint is equipped with highprecision round grating angular transducer on the joint, and the attitude of measuring machine is to be positioned by anchor clamps 3 by adjustable pole 2.
Theory and practice all shows, for machine to be calibrated, have only reliablely and demarcate in big interval, could be more reliable during its actual use, therefore select the measuring machine error interval from small to large, extract whole audience control information, simultaneously, utilize the principle of least square that the information of extracting is carried out data processing, thereby make complete machine error and minimum maximum error all more approaching, the realization highprecision calibrating.
For selecting the grating sensor that takes measurement of an angle, the grating error of division is very important, and according to the rule of the grating error of division, its component of degree n n is a fundamental component, is the principal element of the error of division.It is that oneperiod is 2 π sine functions.According to nyquist sampling theorem, in order to extract a component information of the error of division, minimum need the sampling in two positions of all interior focusing grid.Present embodiment utilizes this principle to be provided with, and becomes different attitudes to extract a component information of each grating error of division at space arrangement the articulated type three coordinate measuring machine, needs at least machine to be calibrated is put into 2 ^{6}Promptly 64 kinds of different attitudes are listed as table 1, so can finish the sampling to whole six the angular transducer grating signal error of division one component of degree n ns.
If increase sampling density five equilibrium sampling or 4 points weekly at 3, machine to be calibrated like this need put 3 altogether ^{6}Promptly 729 or 4 ^{6}I.e. 4096 kinds of different attitudes.
Calibration process is as follows:
1, set sampling location such as table 1 corresponding to each grating of the joint anglec of rotation:
Table 1: two fens angles of six joint gratings and corresponding grating
In the table 1, the grating sequence number of 16 corresponds respectively to each the angular transducer sequence number on six joints.
2, be that machine to be calibrated is placed on the worktable with normal coordinates measuring machine of high measurement accuracy more with the sixfreedom degree articulated flexible COMERO that supports by pedestal 1 shown in Figure 1, make the demarcation machine place the measurement space of normal coordinates measuring machine.
3, use the anchor clamps 3 that support by adjustable pole 2, machine to be calibrated is positioned on the attitude of specified angle correspondence, promptly rotate each joint, make each joint by angle position shown in the grating of angular transducer such as the listed first column number group (0,0,0 of table 2,0,0,0), fastening clips keeps this machine attitude to be calibrated.
4, use normal coordinates measuring machine is measured the gauge head coordinate (X under this attitude, Y, Z), write down the gauge head that function determined measurement coordinate and six angle vectors that joint angles constitutes thereof in machine to be calibrated simultaneously by machine structural parameters to be calibrated and its six joint angles as standard coordinate;
5, press the listed order of table 2, change the angle of the 6th, 5,4,3,2, No. 1 grating successively, and articulated type coordinate measuring machine clamping is fixed; Measure and write down the standard coordinate under each different attitude of machine to be calibrated and measure coordinate and angle vector, until finishing listed whole 64 samplings of table 2.
6, for the standard coordinate of resulting 64 probe location of sampling, the standard coordinate value of getting wherein any two points is calculated distance between two points, obtains to characterize the standard lines value of distance between two points, obtains the individual standard lines value of 2016 (=64 * 63 ÷ 2) thus; For the measurement coordinate of resulting 64 probe location of sampling, get the measurement coordinate figure of wherein any two points, calculate distance between two points, obtain two groups of slotted line values that characterize distance between two points, every group is 2016 slotted line values.
7, the difference of corresponding standard lines value and slotted line value is the calibrated error value.
Can draw the geometric parameter modified value of articulated type coordinate measuring machine by the calibrated error value of above process acquisition.
Show 2:64 pairing six joint angles of sampling attitude
Data handling procedure:
According to 64 probe location point standard coordinate values that three coordinate measuring engine measurement obtains, calculate distance between any 2 i and the j as the gauged distance value, have 2016 gauged distance value L _{1J}
2, prior art shows, the measurement coordinate of gauge head in articulated flexible COMERO is the function of the structural parameters vector of the angle vector value of corresponding attitude and machine to be calibrated, therefore, by distance between any 2 i of the measured gauge head of articulated flexible COMERO and the j also is the function of the structural parameters vector A of these 2 angle vector value θ i, θ j and machine to be calibrated
Count: P _{Ij}=F (θ i, θ j, A).
3, ask the structural parameters vector A of the machine to be calibrated that the angle demarcated
Set P _{Ij}=L _{IJ}Promptly have: F (θ i, θ j, A)=L _{1j}
F(θ _{1}，θ _{2}，A)＝L _{12}???????(1)
F(θ _{2}，θ _{3}，A)＝L _{23}???????(2)
......
F(θ _{63}，θ _{64}，A)＝L _{6364}???(2016)
At listed each attitude of table 2, the different values of i and j, can obtain to have the big system of equations of 2016 equations, in this system of equations, the structural parameters vector A that has machine to be calibrated only is uncertain, also is unique parameter to be calibrated, utilize the gaussnewton method in the nonlinear optimization method to find the solution to this largescale system of equations, can obtain the exact value of the parameter vector A of articulated flexible COMERO, thereby it is realized demarcating, improve the precision of measuring machine.
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