CN100562376C - The pyrolysis charring method and the device of municipal refuse - Google Patents

The pyrolysis charring method and the device of municipal refuse Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100562376C
CN100562376C CNB2006100149986A CN200610014998A CN100562376C CN 100562376 C CN100562376 C CN 100562376C CN B2006100149986 A CNB2006100149986 A CN B2006100149986A CN 200610014998 A CN200610014998 A CN 200610014998A CN 100562376 C CN100562376 C CN 100562376C
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China
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pyrolysis
gas
rubbish
charring
oven
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CNB2006100149986A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1903457A (en
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张书廷
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天津大学
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Abstract

The invention belongs to environmental technology field, particularly a kind of pyrolysis charring method and device of municipal refuse.The pyrolysis charring method of municipal refuse, at least comprise following process: the pyrolysis charring process of rubbish, the pyrolysis gas that produces in the pyrolysis charring process remove acid gas process, pyrolysis gas firing process, the high-temperature gas after the burning transmits the process of heat to rubbish in pyrolysis oven.Pyrolysis is carried out under the arbitrary temp between 250 ℃ to 650 ℃.Through the processing of above-mentioned pyrolysis charring technology, can realize the resource of rubbish, minimizing, innoxious, accomplish the utilization of resources of rubbish, simultaneously energy-conservation as much as possible again, also avoided operational issue that condensing of tar class material bring and to the corrosion of pyrolysis oven.Can low-cost pyrolysis charring municipal refuse, gained pyrolysis charring thing is saved non-renewable fossil fuel as the substitute utilization of coal, has good society and environmental benefit.

Description

The pyrolysis charring method and the device of municipal refuse

Technical field

The invention belongs to environmental technology field, particularly a kind of pyrolysis charring method and device of municipal refuse.

Background technology

Contain a lot of organic substances of fermentation easily in the municipal refuse,, place and then can produce stink and contaminative percolate, influence environment, and the volume of rubbish is big without processing, occupied ground, so, must in time handle making it innoxious, minimizing and resource.So, through after the pyrolysis processing, can store for a long time, so that various occasion is used with smaller volume.

On the other hand, use the place of coal a lot of in China, as power and the heating power workshop or the heat production device of boiler, large-scale factories and miness, cement industries etc. will consume a large amount of fuel such as coal.If in these devices, do fuel, then can need set up various purifiers when directly burning owing to existing harmful substance in the rubbish with municipal refuse.And directly make incineration firing, calorific value is low, and original device is difficult to adapt to requirement.So, remove harmful substances such as chlorine through the pyrolysis of rubbish, and its heat energy is increased, make its performance near coal, then can in various existing apparatus, directly use.Particularly China south lacks the coal area, and economy is relatively more flourishing again, and it is more to produce rubbish, makes solid fuel and replaces coal as it being carried out low-cost pyrolysis processing, then both can partly solve energy problem, can reach the processing intent of rubbish again.Simultaneously, the northern area of China temperature in winter is low, needs supply heating installation, and heating also needs to consume a large amount of fuel.Rubbish if can be used for the heating in winter, then can both save fuel such as coal, can reach the purpose of handling municipal refuse again.

Therefore, the pyrolysis charring of municipal refuse is innoxious, the minimizing of municipal refuse and the effective way of resource, but will make its real practicability then must improve calorific value to rubbish, remove harmful substance and the pyrolysis charring that can store is for a long time handled.And the pyrolysis charring process relates to the processing and the utilization of pyrolysis gas again, effective utilization of heat, concrete technical problems such as the structure optimization of retort.Therefore, realize low cost, pollution-free, the pyrolysis charring of stable operation just must find the method and apparatus that solves these concrete technical problems.

Summary of the invention

The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of pyrolysis charring method and device of municipal refuse.Wherein, the pyrolysis charring method of municipal refuse comprises following process at least: the pyrolysis charring process of rubbish, the pyrolysis gas that produces in the pyrolysis charring process remove acid gas process, pyrolysis gas firing process, the high-temperature gas after the burning are transmitted the process of heat to rubbish in pyrolysis oven.Pyrolysis is carried out under the arbitrary temp between 250 ℃ to 650 ℃.

In addition, the pyrolysis gas of deriving from thermal decomposition coke oven directly enters burner combustion without cooling, and be exported to by thermal decomposition coke oven that the pyrolysis feed channel that enters before the burner or device are incubated or the measure of heating realizes, to guarantee the noncondensing of tar class material, the problems such as obstruction of having avoided tar to condense and bring.The pyrolysis temperature degree that promptly enters burner is greater than the gas temperature that equals the pyrolysis charring outlet of still.May contain HCl etc. in the pyrolysis gas that the pyrolysis charring process of rubbish produces, as directly entering burner and chuck meeting etching apparatus, therefore must be with its removal before entering these equipment.And should the removal process be under the condition that pyrolysis gas is not lowered the temperature, to carry out, avoid many operational issues of condensing and being brought of tar class material in the temperature-fall period thus equally.Higher when pyrolysis temperature, under the still higher operating condition of the thermal source gas temperature after in pyrolysis oven, conducting heat, the device except that acid gas can directly be set in the exit of pyrolysis oven chuck, import drying device except that behind the acid gas, rubbish is carried out drying.

Pyrolysis oven is a core apparatus of realizing the refuse pyrolysis charing, pyrolysis oven structure of the present invention, be illustrated in figure 4 as the cylinder of horizontally set, screw propulsion mechanism is housed in the cylinder advances rubbish to move, cylinder outer wall is a heating jacket 22, in chuck, be provided with dividing plate vertically or along the circumferential direction, heating jacket is divided into several chambers; Be respectively equipped with outlet 25 of garbage inlet 24 and carbide and pyrolysis conductance outlet 23 on the cylinder, be respectively equipped with gas feed 26 and outlet 27 on the heating jacket.The propelling slurry of screw propulsion mechanism is made up of the short limb 21 and the long wing 20 that are fixed on the rotating shaft 19, and the long wing is close to a barrel wall, and short limb maintains a certain distance with the bucket wall; The wing shape of length is the planform that produces forward propulsion, and the short limb and the long wing of the rotation wing all can adopt continuous or discontinuous type.General best of breed is that short limb is continuously, and the long wing is discontinuous structure, or short limb is discontinuous, and the long wing is continuous structure.So just guaranteed in the practical operation, rotated when promoting rubbish and moving, the heat transfer efficiency of rubbish in pyrolysis oven and mobile smoothly by motor 18 driven rotary axles 19.

In addition, for improving in the pyrolysis oven by the heat transmission speed of thermal medium to rubbish, the part high-temperature flue gas of pyrolysis gas firing is imported in the thermal decomposition coke oven, contact with rubbish directly and directly heat, carry out in the time of promptly direct heating and indirect to rubbish transmission heat.

The solid fuel temperature height of discharging from thermal decomposition coke oven if cool off naturally then speed is slow, not only can cause solid-fuelled oxidational losses, but also understand loses heat, and pollute the environment with water-cooled.The present invention adopts the air cooling, and hot-air is used for drying garbage and combustion air, can not only cool off but also recyclable heat on fast speed ground.Described herein being meant artificially with air cooling feeds the carbide of discharging from thermal decomposition coke oven with machinery with air, and carbide is implemented the process of cooling, but not with air contact naturally cool off naturally.

Behind the domestic waste pyrolysis charring that obtains through sorting and approaching through its calorific value of carbide and the colm of cooling, its physical characteristic is also near with coal facies, therefore the solid fuel of colm use as an alternative.

Owing to contain more water in the rubbish, in pyrolytic process, can evaporation become steam, consumption of calorie and influence pyrolysis, so, before entering pyrolysis oven, rubbish is carried out the effective ways that drying is a raising pyrolysis efficient.But drying is the very big unit process that consumes energy.Therefore, used thermal source and method are again very important.It is the tail gas behind the pyrolysis gas firing or the solid-fuelled refrigerating gas of pyrolysis charring that the present invention adopts thermal source, and dried rubbish is without cooling procedure, cooling device by special setting, or not that the holding vessel that is provided with for continued operation smoothly directly enters pyrolysis oven, so just reach energy-conservation as much as possible, create conditions for reducing processing cost.

Through the processing of above-mentioned pyrolysis charring technology, can realize the resource of rubbish, minimizing, innoxious, accomplish the utilization of resources of rubbish, simultaneously energy-conservation as much as possible again, also avoided operational issue that condensing of tar class material bring and to the corrosion of pyrolysis oven.Can low-cost pyrolysis charring municipal refuse, gained pyrolysis charring thing is saved non-renewable fossil fuel as the substitute utilization of coal, has good society and environmental benefit.

Figure of description

Fig. 1: embodiment 1 accompanying drawing;

Fig. 2: embodiment 2 accompanying drawings;

Fig. 3: embodiment 3 accompanying drawings.

Fig. 4: the structural representation of thermal decomposition coke oven.

Wherein: house refuse 1, sorting machine 2, disintegrating machine 3, drier 4, thermal decomposition coke oven 5, useless flue gas 6, waste gas 7, pyrolysis hot-air heater 8, acid separator 9, burner 10, high-temperature gas 11, solid fuel holding vessel 12, air 13, solid fuel 14, hot gas 15, squeezer 16, motor 18, shaft 19, the long wing 20, short limb 21, chuck 22, pyrolysis gas outlet 23, garbage inlet 24, carbide outlet 25, heating thermal source import 26, thermal source waste gas outlet 27.

The specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with embodiment the present invention is done further to discuss in detail:

Example 1: as shown in Figure 1, with domestic waste 1 collect handle after, use sorting machine 2 sortings, sub-elect the combustible component of rubbish, with disintegrating machine 3 it is crushed to 10mm then, and sends into drier 4.The useless flue gas 6 that the chuck of thermal decomposition coke oven 5 is discharged feeds in the drying devices 4 directly contact with rubbish and heats, is controlled between 80-120 ℃ from the temperature of the waste gas 7 of drying device discharge, and emptying after simple deodorization (deodorization device is not represented).Dried rubbish enters thermal decomposition coke oven 5, at first section 250 ℃ rubbish is carried out pyrolysis earlier, and second section that enters thermal decomposition coke oven then in 350 ℃ of dechlorinations and pyrolysis.The pyrolysis gas of discharging from thermal decomposition coke oven 5 enters the part high-temperature gas heating that pyrolysis hot-air heater 8 burned devices are discharged, improve and to enter the acid separator 9 that calcium oxide and calcium carbonate granule are housed after 10-50 ℃ of the temperature and remove and import burner 10 behind the sour gas in the gas and mix with air and burn, the high-temperature gas 11 that burning produces enters the chuck of pyrolysis oven, rubbish is carried out indirect make the refuse pyrolysis charing.The solid fuel that pyrolysis charring produces enters solid fuel holding vessel 12, and the air 13 that is imported into is cooled to back below 90 ℃ and discharges, and uses as solid fuel 14.The heated air of discharging from the solid fuel holding vessel imports burner 10, as the hot-air use of burning.After pyrolysis hot-air heater 8 hot gas 15 of discharging and the useless flue gas 6 of discharging from the pyrolysis oven chuck converge, send into drying device 4, rubbish is carried out drying.Export to the pipeline and the acid separator that enter before the burner from pyrolysis oven and all implement insulation.

Example 2: as shown in Figure 2, with domestic waste collect handle after, use the sorting machine sorting, sub-elect the combustible component of rubbish, with disintegrating machine 3 its fragmentation is crushed to 10mm with it then.After further it being squeezed the moisture of removing wherein with squeezer 16, the hot-air that useless flue gas 6 that input drying device 4 and pyrolysis oven 5 chucks are discharged and the solid fuel holding vessel after the charing are discharged directly contact and carries out drying, is controlled between 80-140 ℃ from the temperature of the waste gas 7 of drying device 4 discharges and also discharges.Dried rubbish enters thermal decomposition coke oven 5, in 480 ℃ of dechlorinations and pyrolysis, pyrolysis gas enters acid separator 9 and removes and import burner 10 behind the sour gas in the gas and mix with air 17 and burn, the high-temperature gas 11 that burning produces enters the chuck of thermal decomposition coke oven 5, rubbish is carried out indirect, and a part of high-temperature gas directly feeds and directly heats pyrolysis in the pyrolysis oven simultaneously.The solid fuel that pyrolysis charring produces enters solid fuel holding vessel 12, and the air 13 that is imported into is cooled to back below 100 ℃ and discharges, and uses as solid fuel 14.The heated air of discharging from the solid fuel holding vessel imports drying garbage device 4, as the drying source use of rubbish.Export to the hot gas that the pipeline that enters before the burner 10 and acid separators 9 all use burner to discharge from thermal decomposition coke oven 5 and heat, make pyrolysis temperature degree be higher than the pyrolysis oven outlet more than 20 ℃.

Example 3: as shown in Figure 3, with domestic waste 1 collect handle after, use the sorting machine sorting, sub-elect the combustible component of rubbish, with disintegrating machine 3 it is crushed to 5mm then.Import drying device 4 then, the useless flue gas 6 of discharging with the chuck of thermal decomposition coke oven 5 directly contacts with thermal source gas as drying after acid separator 9 is removed acidic materials in the gas and carries out drying, is controlled between 80-150 ℃ from the temperature of the waste gas 7 of heater discharge.Dried rubbish enters thermal decomposition coke oven 5, in 450 ℃ of dechlorinations and pyrolysis.The pipeline of the pyrolysis gas of discharging from thermal decomposition coke oven 5 by insulation enters burner 10 to be mixed with the heated air of solid fuel holding vessel discharge and burns.The high-temperature gas 11 that burning produces enters the chuck of thermal decomposition coke oven 5, and rubbish is carried out indirect, and a part of high-temperature gas directly feeds and directly heats pyrolysis in the pyrolysis oven simultaneously.The solid fuel that pyrolysis charring produces enters solid fuel holding vessel 12, and the air 13 that is imported into is cooled to back below 100 ℃ and discharges, and uses as solid fuel 14.The heated air of discharging from the solid fuel holding vessel imports the drying garbage device, as the drying source of rubbish.High-temperature flue gas behind the pyrolysis gas firing imports burner 10 and uses for burning.The useless flue gas 6 of discharging from the chuck of thermal decomposition coke oven 5 imports and imports drying device 4 as dry with thermal source after acid separators 9 are removed sour gas the gas, and rubbish is carried out drying.

Claims (5)

1. the pyrolysis charring method of a municipal refuse, the charring process that it is characterized in that rubbish comprises following process at least, the pyrolysis charring process of rubbish, the pyrolysis gas that produces in the pyrolysis charring process remove acid gas process, the combustion process of pyrolysis gas, the High Temperature Gas behind the pyrolysis gas firing are transmitted the process of heat to rubbish in pyrolysis oven; And the arbitrary temp of pyrolysis between 250 ℃ to 650 ℃ carries out; The acid gas process of removing of pyrolysis gas is to remove acid gas to carry out under the condition that pyrolysis gas is not lowered the temperature, or the pyrolysis gas firing, and does not carry out special cooling after the heat transfer of warp-wise rubbish, and directly enters the device that removes acid gas; The pyrolysis gas of pyrolysis charring process directly enters burner combustion without cooling, and is exported to the pyrolysis feed channel that enters before the burner or device by thermal decomposition coke oven and is incubated or heats and realize; Dried rubbish directly enters thermal decomposition coke oven without cooling procedure and carries out pyrolysis charring.
2. refuse pyrolysis charing method as claimed in claim 1, a part that it is characterized in that the combustion product gases of described pyrolysis gas imports in the pyrolysis apparatus and directly heats.
3. refuse pyrolysis charing method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that described rubbish carried out drying before entering thermal decomposition coke oven, its dry used thermal source is the tail gas behind the pyrolysis gas firing, or the carbide that thermal decomposition coke oven is discharged carries out heated gas in the cooling procedure.
4. pyrolysis oven of realizing the pyrolysis charring method of the described municipal refuse of claim 1, it is characterized in that described pyrolysis oven is the cylinder of horizontally set, screw propulsion mechanism is housed in the cylinder advances rubbish to move, cylinder outer wall is a heating jacket, in chuck, be provided with dividing plate vertically or along the circumferential direction, heating jacket is divided into several chambers; Be respectively equipped with rubbish import and outlet and gas export mouth on the cylinder, be respectively equipped with gas feed and outlet on the heating jacket.
5. pyrolysis oven as claimed in claim 4 is characterized in that described screw propulsion mechanism advances slurry to be made up of the short limb and the long wing, and the long wing is close to a barrel wall, and a short limb and a barrel wall maintain a certain distance; The wing shape of length is the planform that produces forward propulsion, and the short limb and the long wing of the rotation wing all adopt continuous or discontinuous type.
CNB2006100149986A 2006-07-28 2006-07-28 The pyrolysis charring method and the device of municipal refuse CN100562376C (en)

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Families Citing this family (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101786095A (en) * 2010-04-06 2010-07-28 杨成志 Energy recovery type household waste disposer
CN101831338B (en) * 2010-05-28 2013-02-13 桂林电子科技大学 Production flow process and production line for manufacturing fire coal products from garbage
CN102191090A (en) * 2011-04-12 2011-09-21 中国科学院广州电子技术研究所 Method and structure for preventing tar condensation in biomass gas transmission pipeline
CN102909208A (en) * 2011-08-02 2013-02-06 沈阳金利洁科技有限公司 Organic garbage processing apparatus
CN103484137B (en) * 2012-06-12 2014-11-19 丁泽明 Carbonizing apparatus and carbonizing method for waste solid organic matters
CN103911168B (en) * 2014-04-09 2015-09-02 江苏河海科技工程集团有限公司 The technique of integration fast charring process municipal wastes
CN105344692A (en) * 2014-08-20 2016-02-24 福建正仁环保有限公司 Process for preparing quick lime from garbage pyrolysis gas
CN104942954B (en) * 2015-05-27 2017-03-15 台山市合利生物质科技有限公司 A kind of wood type rubbish gas retort
CN105910414B (en) * 2015-11-27 2018-10-09 湖南鼎玖能源环境科技有限公司 A kind of rotary drying equipment and drying process
CN106479527A (en) * 2016-11-15 2017-03-08 东南大学 One kind carries out rubbish charcoal processing system using straw burning heat release
CN108822878A (en) * 2018-06-29 2018-11-16 湖南景翌湘台环保高新技术开发有限公司 A kind of anaerobic cracking technology of organic solid waste

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