Summary of the invention
General knowledge is told us, and in solar energy utilized, how carrying out cheap intelligent-tracking was a very major issue.Because elevation angle is to influence the most important factor of solar radiation: from the geographic latitude position, because the difference of sun altitude causes earth surface to be divided into the torrid zone, temperate zone and frigid zone; From season, because the conversion of sun altitude causes annual spring, summer, autumn and winter Seasons Change; From the time, still because the variation of sun altitude causes the Luo Feng of morning, noon and afternoon every day temperature to change.Tracking can make sun altitude remain maximization (90 °); Tracking can make the effective area that receives solar radiation maximize all the time; (make the length of design area and wide projection then remain constant); Tracking can make the effectual time maximization that receives solar radiation, and (just not following could only be best in bright front and back time-division at high noon of eyeball summer, misses noon, almost misses whole day! )---in short, follow the tracks of, promoted influences the main artificial controllable factor that solar energy utilizes comprehensively.The topmost characteristics of this patent are cheap (without computer and electronic equipments), and reliable, purposes is wide, applicable to all helioplants---solar panel, and solar water heater, solar energy stove, lens and their various forms of integrated combinations.Can follow in real time, also can indiscriminately ad. as one wishes follow by the period, both can omnidirectional tracking also can folk prescription to tracking.Both can be fixed in ground and follow, also can on object that moves such as military vehicle naval vessel, follow, can certainly on reservoir that floats at random and ocean surface, follow, more can be applied to the space, for example follow the Application of Solar Energy aspect of spaceship and fire balloon.
Solar intelligent tracking device among the present invention comprises quiet sensor, dynamic sensor, quiet sensor is made of transparent glass cover and first photo resistance that is contained in the transparent glass cover, having or not of quiet sensor senses sunlight, its relay of controlling is a master switch control whole circuit; Dynamic sensor comprises two opaque, the parallel semicircle thin slice and second photo resistance of closely settling, wherein second photo resistance is contained in described two diameter narrow slit parts that semicircle thin slice constituted, and the arc narrow slit of two semicircle thin slices part is partly used not saturating name material package with transparent material encapsulation, diameter narrow slit; Dynamic sensor has two, and two dynamic sensors are placed in respectively on the perpendicular tracking axis and horizontal tracking axis of quadrature; Horizontal tracking axis is installed on the perpendicular tracking axis, and perpendicular tracking axis is finished tracking earlier preceding, horizontal tracking axis again on the basis of perpendicular tracking axis rotation rotation follow the tracks of; Be equipped with the control rotation amplitude of fine-tuning position and the travel switch of flex point on each tracking axis; Settle diascope on perpendicular tracking axis and the horizontal tracking axis.
The tracking of the orientation tangent plane of elevation angle also can be selected transverse axis except that can selecting vertical pivot (Z); When selecting the Z axle, tracking direction is followed successively by Dong-Nan-Xi, (for the Northern Hemisphere, then be east-north-Xi) for the Southern Hemisphere, and when selecting transverse axis, the tracking direction of the orientation tangent plane of elevation angle then is east-zenith-Xi.Elevation angle is followed the tracks of and is then had no option, and has only transverse axis (X or Y-axis).
The various flexible transformation of intelligence vertical pivot transverse axis combining form: coil by vertical pivot drive garden, put water heater, cell panel on the dish of garden, solar cooker etc., similar lazy Susan shape [Fig. 6] (water heater of putting on the dish, cell panel, solar cooker also can be faced upward the tracking of bowing under the supervision of sensor); Drive intelligent transverse axis [Fig. 7] by intelligent vertical pivot, hanging on the transverse axis and can face upward bow folding water heater, cell panel, solar cooker; Be exclusively used in street lamp [Fig. 8], be exclusively used in [Fig. 9] of cell panel, [Figure 11] of the great achievement of collection all kinds diascope aims at the mechanical driving device [Figure 10] that intelligent transverse axis designs.
The present invention comprises that also multiple axle (has axle in the axle, in the axle pipe arranged; The axle in multitube is arranged) design, use.
Below, the technical scheme to patent of invention in conjunction with the accompanying drawings is described in detail.
The specific embodiment
Patent of the present invention is made up of specially designed quiet sensor, dynamic sensor and Circuits System, mechanical system.Fig. 1 is quiet sensor construction: the structure of quiet sensor is that a photo resistance 2 (other photoelectric components also can as photodiode) is installed in a transparent very little hemispherical can 1.When solar radiation and no solar radiation were arranged, resistance can great changes will take place, plays an automatic switch effect in circuit.Quiet sensor only needs one.
Fig. 2 is the dynamic sensor structure: insert and put a photo resistance 2 in the middle of thin slice 1 bottom, two parallel opaque sealing smaller part gardens, be the encapsulation of garden arcuate slots 3 usefulness transparent materials, the linear slit encapsulates with opaque material.The radius of distance and half garden book sheet is determined according to tracking accuracy or frequency, tracking characteristics between the two book sheets.It calculates principle, is according to rotational-angular velocity of the earth and revolution feature.In a word, nearer at interval between the book sheet, radius is bigger, and tracking accuracy is higher, and tracking frequency is also higher.Also can be determined by experiment.In the perception solar radiation whether its function is identical with quiet sensor, also be, plays on-off action by its change in resistance, just the application target difference.The former is quiet, the former is used for the having or not of perception sunlight, control be to close the open type relay, have light to connect circuit, unglazed (or arriving to a certain degree a little less than the light) cuts off subsequent conditioning circuit, is placed in diascope (equipment such as the solar panel that need follow the tracks of, water heater, solar cookers etc.) other, (or maintain static on it and not by the place of shading) is as one of plug connector of diascope.The latter is installed on and follows the tracks of on the rotating shaft, moves, and the light time tracking aiming sun is being arranged, moving disconnected closed type (or conversion hysteria) relay of control, in case the aiming sun, (or conversion) motor circuit of feeling that the irradiation of light is cut off at once, the unglazed motor circuit of promptly connecting makes its tracking aiming sun.Two of dynamic sensors, be installed on respectively on two mutually perpendicular tracking rotating shafts, or the extension site of axle or parallel with axle and with this some annex that keeps rotating synchronously on---only otherwise shading and keep rotating synchronously (same angular speed rotation) with this corresponding rotating shaft and get final product.
Even two same dynamic sensors, its aiming tracking characteristics yet are not quite similar, and one is to follow the tracks of of east-west direction, characteristics are obvious, and identical with rotational-angular velocity of the earth, amplitude is big, day is changeed about 180 °, (can select the Z axle also can the select a certain transverse axis) cycle short (only daytime); Another aiming zenith direction vertical with it, large period long (about a year), amplitude is little, and about 47 °, the minor cycle is day, and amplitude is in 90 °, and the big minor cycle is overlapped nested.(emphasize once more, the aiming east-west direction has two kinds of selections, a kind of is to change 180 ° around vertical pivot Z, and planting in addition is to select Y-axis or X-axis to change 180 °, please refer to Fig. 4), (illustrate: be outstanding explanation emphasis, the ratio of the dynamic sensor among Fig. 3 has been done suitable amplification even distortion, on the other hand, also only is the schematic diagram for cooperating the specification literal to draw, non-professional various view, the more non-figure that designs and produces.)
Fig. 3 is an intelligent-tracking axle construction schematic diagram, parts 1 expression dead axle, parts 2 expression moving axis, parts 3 expression dynamic sensors, the quiet sensor of parts 4 expressions, parts 5 expression motor shaft extensions, parts 6 expression travel switch installation sites.
Among Fig. 3 on the dead axle 1 decide sensor 4 unglazed according to the time resistance very big, the relay (J1 among Fig. 5) of its control is disconnected, all do not have in the subsequent conditioning circuits.Otherwise when illumination was arranged, switch closure was connected subsequent conditioning circuit.Dynamic sensor 3 on the moving axis 2 unglazed when injecting narrow slit the relay of (just not aiming at the solar time) its control will connect motor 5 and start, just shut down up to the aiming sun.After a while, sunlight has departed from the narrow slit of dynamic sensor again, and motor starts tracking again, so go round and begin again ... until sunset, tomorrow is a new day ...Moving axis 2 is controlled moving axis rotation amplitude and flex point with 6 on the travel switch at dead axle 1 junction surface.Amplitude is different with season because of regional latitude with flex point, and desirable local extreme value is set.
The mechanical rotation of the intelligent-tracking frame support system that Fig. 4 is made up of three intelligent-tracking axle Fig. 3 is chosen two (combination arbitrarily, ZX, ZY, XY formations) wantonly by spatial triaxial in the practicality.The selection of this diaxon need be considered the own characteristics of user's geographic latitude of living in and diascope again.Diascope is divided into two kinds substantially, and a kind of is focal, and as solar cooker, another kind is afocal, as solar panel and solar water heater.These two kinds respectively have characteristics.No matter have or not focus, during tracking, only consider that the direction of its side to light gets final product.
Fig. 5 is a Circuits System, by quiet sensor (control J1 relay), two dynamic sensors (control J2, J3 relay), travel switch (control J4, J5 relay), microminiature Ultra-Low Speed micro machine compositions such as (M1, M2), the travel switch that is hidden in the rotating shaft is controlled the rotating and the sequential of motor with the relay that it is controlled, thereby controls the rotation amplitude and the flex point of thermoconverter indirectly.
Fig. 6-Figure 11 is the concrete application example of intelligent-tracking.Fig. 6 is the uniaxiality tracking schematic diagram, and the big garden of dining table formula dish 1 is attached on the intelligent-tracking axle 2, and big garden dish is gone up and settled various diascopes, diascope also can be designed to as required to face upward to bow.Big garden dish double as transmission gear shift wheel shaft is driven by motor 3.
The all-around intelligent tracking means that Fig. 7 is made up of three intelligence axles, a vertical pivot 1 is holding in the palm two transverse axis 2, can settle various diascopes on two transverse axis.
Fig. 8 is solar cell street lamp, garden lamp schematic diagram, and intelligent vertical pivot Z is supporting bulb 2 and solar panel 1, and cell panel 1 can be around the ab of support 3 transverse axis (imaginary axis) intelligent-tracking.
Fig. 9 is the intelligent tracking device that aims at the solar panel design, is settling transverse axis ab on the vertical pivot Z, is being placed in solar panel 1 on the ab transverse axis.
Figure 11 is the great achievement of collection Fig. 6 Fig. 7: (the 1st, solar panel, the 2nd, solar water heater, the 3rd, solar energy stove, the 4th, vertical pivot drive motors shaft extension, the 5th, dynamic sensor, the 6th, quiet sensor).Existing cell panel 1 has water heater 2 again, also has new-type solar cooker 3 (fix-focus type---can check relevant patent).Catchment thermoelectricity, self-power supply.Obtained bigger reception solar radiation area with less area (floor space), made traditional unit are solar radiation implication obtain new annotation.Greatly improved utilization rate with improving.
Figure 10 is the crankshaft connecting rod system schematic diagram that is used for intelligent transverse axis.Ab is an intelligence axle that is placed in diascope (as cell panel or water heater) quality middle part, but 4. the motor shaft extension move on to, with 4. driving wheel 3, connecting rod 2 drag the diascope intelligent-tracking (only do necessary by a small margin face upward bow).Figure 10 device is used for the diascope intelligent-tracking on the transverse axis.
Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 is multiple axle design diagram, as the supplementary notes on the performance of intelligent turning cylinder (Fig. 3).For making Fig. 3 simple and clear, omitted this part among the figure.Because have only multiple axle just can make the used electric wire of diascope in the practicality, the hot and cold water steam pipe is convenient, and safety is provided with reliably.Among Figure 12, parts 1 are dead axles, and parts 2 are moving axis, and parts 1 are moving axis among Figure 13, and parts 2 are dead axles, and Figure 14 is the cross sectional view of Figure 12 and Figure 13, parts 3 expression axle gut line cross sections among the figure, outer shaft cross section in parts 1,2 expressions.
In addition, which kind of diascope no matter, if the subsidiary cell panel of going up, can be own to the energy that tracking is provided oneself, be specially adapted to not have electric power-shortage area.Because the intelligent tracking device power consumption of diascope is quite little.
Because ceaselessly rotation of the earth, so tellurian people always think that sun east rises the west and falls; Because the earth revolves around the sun again, so it is mobile to north and south (otherwise or Bei Nan---earth southern hemisphere and northern hemisphere winter and summer is event mutually) that tellurian people feel sun winter and summer again, so finish tracking, must on orthogonal thing and North and South direction, successively finish the tracking aiming sun.Because rotation is different with the revolution characteristics, corresponding in addition dynamic sensor installation position difference, thereby the amplitude difference of tracking, the direction difference, east-west direction is about about 180 °/every day, zenith direction about 47 °/every year, 90 °/every day.It is also different to follow the tracks of rule, and thing is 4 °/minute sometimes, and what (select X, when Y-axis is followed the tracks of) had neither constant (when selecting the Z axle to follow the tracks of), and north and south then more is not constant when following the tracks of.
Again because the difference of latitude, the region of the equator, middle latitude area and high-latitude area and polar region solar radiation respectively have characteristics, following the tracks of rotation respectively has characteristics, when therefore following the tracks of essential factor and suitable, in the hope of optimum Match.Can be as polar day and mobile vertical pivot rotation amplitude reality such as car and boat near 360 degree.
By above-mentioned reason as can be known, when diascope being installed, make rotating shaft direction and tracked direction quadrature (vertical) (except the water heater, can settle) as far as possible by best demand on ground.
The adjustment of dynamic sensor: be manually to rotate diascope, allow the sensitive surface aiming solar time adjust fixedly dynamic sensor, treat moving disconnected the getting final product of its relevant relay of controlling.As for the rotation amplitude, flex point then because of ground because of Ji Eryi, finely tune corresponding travel switch position and get final product.Quiet sensor need not adjusted.
Quiet sensor, their light books of dynamic sensor are short and small, and the installation site is flexible and changeable.Diascope in most cases is inactive state, even if motion also is the moment pulsation, accumulates 180 ° only of maximums all day, and accumulated running time, still less therefore bearing or the non-bearing to the rotation position required not high.Rotating speed is special low to make shaft extension and being connected of being rotated spool also easy, without speed change gear.Entire circuit adopts the low-voltage alternating-current direct current all can.Theoretically two dynamic sensor connection in series-parallel all can, but on actual effect, two groups of dynamic sensors are preferably connected, and act blindly avoiding.
It is worth mentioning that especially the cheap automatic tracking system of this cover can be used for the equipment that all need follow the tracks of the sun,, be particularly useful for solar panel and focus the point type solar energy stove as solar water heater.Even solar water heater, solar panel, solar energy stove are on the vehicle and boats and ships of motion, on the ocean surface.
Can also batch (-type) follow the tracks of, as long as on the profile of moving or quiet sensor or data, slightly adjust.
Also can folk prescription to tracking, such as only east-west direction being followed the tracks of, taken down or closed another sensor just.
It will be further appreciated that even if intelligent tracking system does not have or bad, mechanical system can manually be followed the tracks of in the same old way, to separate the matter of great urgency.
Trial run is described: (with Fig. 3-intelligent-tracking axle explanation).In morning, the sun rises from the horizon, and quiet sensor is at first experienced sunlight and connected entire circuit simultaneously, powers to total system.Executive system turns round according to function and direction separately.If dynamic sensor receives then its motor stall at once of controlling of sunlight.(no matter just changeing is counter-rotating, hockets in order mutually).Moments later,, make sunlight leave the slit of dynamic sensor,, carry out tracking aiming again so the executive system that it is controlled begins again to follow the tracks of action because the earth rotates.Go round and begin again, occidentally below the horizontal line, no sunlight shines quiet sensor, cuts off till whole circuit until sunset.Second day, begin the circulation in the previous day again.In one day, meet unglazed once in a while (cloud, rain, mist, snow), quiet, dynamic sensor all can react and adjust immediately, and light time instant recovery tracking aiming is arranged.