CN100529529C - Process and its device for clean burning and value gaining burning of solid fuel - Google Patents

Process and its device for clean burning and value gaining burning of solid fuel Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100529529C
CN100529529C CN 200610092937 CN200610092937A CN100529529C CN 100529529 C CN100529529 C CN 100529529C CN 200610092937 CN200610092937 CN 200610092937 CN 200610092937 A CN200610092937 A CN 200610092937A CN 100529529 C CN100529529 C CN 100529529C
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air
gasification
combustion chamber
grate
fuel
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CN 200610092937
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1900590A (en
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周开根
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周开根
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/16Combined cycle power plant [CCPP], or combined cycle gas turbine [CCGT]
    • Y02E20/18Integrated gasification combined cycle [IGCC], e.g. combined with carbon capture and storage [CCS]

Abstract

The invention related to heat energy device by using coal, garbage, and biomass as fuel. The firing system is composed of fuel supply system, water vapor input unit, gasification firebox, hearth, water-cooling type or wind-cooling type fire grate in up layer, fixed grate or moving grate in low layer, primary and secondary air supply arrangement etc. Gasification firebox is in quasi-closed position. Water vapor input unit includes water vapor nozzle or plasma generator. In gasification firebox, solid fuel carries out following procedures: preheating, drying, gasifying, desulfurizing, dechloridizing, burning by exsilient volatile, and burning from fuel bed. Passing through full hot fuel bed on fire grate in up layer, flue gas in high temperature enters into hearth to carry out second time of burning so as to eliminating coal smoke. Being fed to gasification firebox, water vapor is in use for restraining generation of coal smoke to implement clean burning and value added burning.

Description

The equipment of the clean combustion of solid fuel and increment burning

Affiliated technical field

The present invention relates to the burning process of solid fuel, is the thermal hardware of fuel with coal, rubbish, living beings particularly.

Background technology

Environmental protection and energy problem more and more closely have influence on people's life and development and national economy; environmental pollution has become the developing significant problem of current China; two targets have been proposed in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan of China; be exactly at 5 years from now on; the growth of per GDP; energy resource consumption will reduce by 20%, and the discharging of pollutant will reduce by 10%.The Premier Wen Jiabao delivers in the Leading Speaches in the 6th national environment protection conference and emphasizes: " the protection environment is related to the overall situation and the long term growth of China's modernization construction, is the cause of benefiting the present age, benefiting the descendants.We must fully realize the sternness and the complexity of China's environment situation; fully realize the importance and the urgency of strengthen environmental protection work; environmental protection pendulum in strategic location more importantly; with to country, to national, highly responsible spirit to the descendants; conscientiously carry out environmental protection work, promote the economic society All-round, Coordinated and Sustainable Development." up to the present; human energy resource structure remains based on coal-fired and fuel oil; and can not change in 20 years of future; yet; day by day exhausted along with the increasingly serious and fossil fuel of environmental protection situation; human " the increasing income and decreasing expenditure " that must realize the energy, that is: one be the efficient of raising fuel combustion with the minimizing resource consumption, and realize that simultaneously clean burning is with the pollution of minimizing to environment; The 2nd, tap a new source of energy, and actively utilize regenerative resource.

China is coal production big country, also is coal consumption big country, and in the energy resource structure of China, coal is first energy, mainly as boiler oil.Coal is a kind of energy comparatively cheap in the conventional energy resource, the fuel cost of coal-burning boiler has only 1/5th of oil burning boiler or gas fired-boiler, but for a long time, the burning process of coal combustion equipment is based on direct burning, and the ubiquity burning is insufficient, the thermal efficiency is low, the coal resources waste is serious, the phenomenon of major polluting atmosphere environment.The coal-fired pollutant that produces is mainly coal smoke, dust, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, higher nitrogen oxide (NO x) and lime-ash etc., in these pollutants, the ratio maximum that coal smoke and dust are shared, solid fuel very easily produces coal smoke at the initial stage of burning, coal smoke is generated by dehydrogenation, polymerization or the condensation of hydrocarbon fuel, in general thermal hardware, it is very difficult that coal smoke formation is in a single day burnt it again.Present coal combustion equipment can't reach eliminates coal-fired pollution to environment fully.

Biomass energy is that solar energy is transformed by photosynthesis, and mainly the form with farm-forestry crop exists, and is a kind of unique reproducible carbon source.China's biomass resource is very abundant, there are a large amount of agricultural wastes, fuel wood woods, wood-curing waste available, only the agricultural wastes of stalk, husk and so on just have more than 700,000,000 ton every year, amount to more than 300,000,000 ton of standard coal, and other biomass resource still do not have statistics.At present, these biomass resources fail to be utilized effectively, and except that the fraction rural area is used for the fermentation and biogas production, major part is all by directly burning, landfill have fallen.Living beings burning in direct combustion process or in general boiler easily produces coal smoke, flying dust, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide pollution environment.

Solid fuel is except coal and living beings, also have rubbish to can be used as fuel and use, rubbish increases sharply along with the continuous expansion of the development of Chinese national economy and city size, to these rubbish as in time not handling, to pollute the environment, have influence on people's life.Adopt landfill method to handle domestic waste, not only need take a large amount of soils, waste resource, and cause secondary pollution easily; Adopt burning method to handle domestic waste, can accomplish innoxious, minimizing, recycling treatment, the heat energy of recovery is used for generating or heat supply, and therefore, burning method is the main method of the processing domestic waste that adopts of various countries.Burn away the refuse to generate the violent in toxicity dioxin easily and produce pollutants such as stench, coal smoke, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride and destroy environment, influence the healthy of people.Present garbage incinerating system exists complex structure, price height, situation that the thermal efficiency is low.

Patent documentation by retrieval, " the gasification, and combustion environment-protection boiler " of Chinese patent Granted publication CN 2660397Y announced the utility model patent of Dongtai Environmental Protection Boilers Mfg. Co Ltd, Jilin, it comprises external furnace body, drum, the pyrotechnics pipe, the next part case, water-cooling wall, front smoke box, back smoke box, water inlet, delivery port, face arch, rear arch, fire door, chain drives fire grate, air inlet, its special character is: the face arch that is provided with in external furnace body is to vertically-arranged furnace wall between the rear arch, the space of face arch and first furnace wall is a gasification combustion chamber, the space of first furnace wall and second furnace wall is the charing combustion chamber, the space of three furnace walls of second furnace wall to the is a burning chamber, and the space of the 3rd furnace wall and outer body of wall is heavy grey chamber.This utility model patent is that existing boiler is undergone technological transformation, the pollution that its efficiency of combustion reaches environment will make moderate progress, but the gasification combustion chamber of this utility model, charing combustion chamber, burning chamber, heavy grey chamber are horizontal according to the direction of motion that chain drives fire grate and flue gas, the phenomenon of mechanical incomplete combustion and chemically incomplete combustion takes place easily, in case fuel formed coal smoke in the combustion process in early stage will be difficult to eliminate, and have influence on efficiency of combustion and environment protecting.

In order to realize the energy " increasing income and decreasing expenditure ", the efficient that improves fuel combustion is to reduce resource consumption, actively utilize regenerative resource, and realize clean burning simultaneously, the invention provides the clean combustion of solid fuel and the technology and the equipment thereof of increment burning to reduce pollution to environment.

Summary of the invention

Its equipment combustion system of process scheme of the clean combustion of solid fuel of the present invention and increment burning is mainly by fuel supply system, vapor input unit, gasification combustion chamber, burner hearth, upper water cold type fire grate or air-cooled fire grate, lower floor's fixed grate/or moving grate, air preheater, an air supply device, the secondary air supply device is formed, wherein: the be as the criterion structure of closed state of gasification combustion chamber, gasification combustion chamber is by the baking top, furnace wall or flue constitute, the upper water cold type fire grate of equipment or air-cooled fire grate constitute the end of gasification combustion chamber, fuel bed on the upper grate constitutes the physical isolation band between gasification combustion chamber and the burner hearth, and coal feed point is undertaken and extraneous isolation by the coal seam on the fuel supply system.Solid fuel carries out preheating, oven dry, gasification, desulfurization/dechlorination, volatile matter overflow burning, fuel bed burning in that gasification, and combustion is indoor.During operation, it is indoor that solid fuel is entered into gasification, and combustion by fuel supply system, and be spread on the upper grate, when containing coal or rubbish in the fuel, desulfurization/antichlor mixed send into gasification combustion chamber in the fuel together, it is indoor that water vapour is sent into gasification, and combustion as gasifying agent, be used for suppressing the generation of coal smoke and be combined into gaseous fuel with red-hot charing, to realize the increment burning, send into the top of gasification combustion chamber's fuel bed by tuyere or air distribution plate by air supply device through the air of preheating, fuel bed from top to bottom burns, sulphur component or the chlorine component that fuel is overflowed in retort process be desulfurized/and dechlorination absorbs, the red-hot fuel bed that the high-temperature flue gas that burning is produced passes on the upper grate enters into burner hearth, water vapour (comprising the water vapour that is dried by the fire in the fuel) and the volatile matter that does not burn also pass red-hot fuel bed with high-temperature flue gas, wherein chemistry takes place in water vapour and red-hot charcoal, generate gaseous reduction thing-hydrogen and carbon monoxide, the gaseous reduction thing of volatile matter that does not burn in gasification combustion chamber and generation obtains the secondary wind of being sent here by the secondary air supply device and carries out second-time burning in burner hearth, in this course, coal smoke that produces in the gasification combustion chamber and C nH mAlso when passing red-hot fuel bed and in the second-time burning of burner hearth, meet high temperature and air and burn.Solid-state charcoal behind the coal-fired effusion volatile matter is left out by mistake on lower floor's fire grate by the gap of upper grate and is burnt away, and is transported into burner hearth, is burnt away through main combustion zone to burnt zone, until burning by lower floor's moving grate again.The required air of charcoal burning provides the air that passes through preheating by an air supply device.The amount that enters into gasification combustion chamber's water vapour by adjusting is regulated the indoor temperature of gasification, and combustion, and the indoor temperature of gasification, and combustion is controlled on the suitable degree.The present invention also takes a water vapour to send into plasma generator as working gas, plasma is the identical substantially and a kind of state that exist with sizable concentration of the quantity of formed cation and electronics under ionosphere or electric discharge phenomena, be accompanied by electric discharge phenomena and will have generated excited atom, excited molecule, the disassociation atom, free atomic group, atom or molecular ion group's activity chemistry thing and they and the collision of other chemicals and the reaction that causes, in plasma generator, discharge process makes hydrone lose outer-shell electron and forms ionic condition, be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen through colliding mutually, activate the decomposition water molecule in this way, the efficient height, energy consumption is low, hydrone behind overactivation is sprayed into again the measure of gasification combustion chamber, obtain higher rate of gasification, generate more gaseous fuel.Plasma generator of the present invention is more than one at least one.In order to quicken in the burner hearth air and fuel mix to promote burning, simultaneously also in order to realize low oxygen combustion, to reduce nuisance NO xGeneration, the present invention feeds back into burner hearth to the high-temperature flue gas of a part of boiler tail, comes the air-flow of disturbance burner hearth with the high-temperature flue gas of feedback.Burning process of the present invention does not have coal smoke to produce in solid-fuelled combustion process, there is not the pollutant of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride and so on to generate yet, when combustion refuse fuel, owing to just sloughed the chlorine component at the initial stage of burning, thereby can not generate the violent in toxicity dioxin yet; Can suppress nuisance higher nitrogen oxide (NO by the temperature or the realization low oxygen combustion of control burner hearth x) generation; Dust can be removed by dust arrester in the flue gas, and carbon dioxide can be reclaimed as industrial chemicals by separating purifying device.Above-mentioned measure of the present invention makes the clean combustion of solid fuel and the purpose of increment burning be achieved.

Upper grate of the present invention comprises water-cooled or air-cooled fixed grate and water-cooled or air-cooled vibrating-grate stoker, adopt tube material, feed water or air cooling fire grate in the pipe, when adopting feeding water to cool off fire grate, the upper strata fixed grate can be used as the part of boiler water cycle system, or as steam generator, it is indoor as gasifying agent that the water vapour of generation is sent to gasification, and combustion; When bubbling air cooled off upper grate, upper grate can be made air preheater, as the part of air supply device or secondary air supply device.Lower floor's fire grate comprises moving grate or fixed grate, described moving grate comprises reciprocal grate/or traveling-grate stoker/or shake fire grate/or vibrating-grate stoker, reciprocal grate or traveling-grate stoker are driven by gearbox by motor, by advancing of fire grate the combustion charcoal is sent into main combustion zone, burnt zone, cinder chamber successively, below the fire grate of advancing, air compartment is arranged, according to the difference that each section wind supply quantity requires, each air compartment separates with dividing plate each other, and each air compartment has independently damper; Lower floor's fire grate also can be a fixed grate, and when lower floor's fire grate was fixed grate, the combustion charcoal that upper grate leaks down burnt on lower floor's fixed grate, and the lime-ash of after-flame is by manually going out clearly.The present invention also feeds back to high-temperature flue gas the below of upper grate, washes away the gap of upper grate with the High Temperature Gas of feedback, impels the combustion charcoal of gasification combustion chamber's bottom to leave out by mistake on lower floor's fire grate accelerated combustion.

Solid fuel of the present invention comprises wherein a kind of or several fuel combinations in coal, rubbish, the biomass fuel, when containing coal or rubbish when fuel is coal or rubbish or in the fuel, desulfurization/antichlor is incorporated into sends into gasification combustion chamber in the fuel together and burn.Desulfurization/antichlor can adopt lime stone or dolomite, and in gasification combustion chamber, sulphur component that fuel is overflowed in retort process or chlorine component will be absorbed by lime stone or dolomite.

Equipment of the present invention comprises boiler, kiln, incinerator, heat-exchange device, equipment for gasification, described boiler comprises coal-burning boiler and biomass boiler, the whole service system of boiler is mainly by combustion system, drum, the radiation of burner hearth heating surface, convection heating surface, the afterbody waste-heat recovery device, dust arrester is formed, in order to realize non-pollution discharge, also has smoke eliminator in the operational system, carbon dioxide recovering apparatus, wherein drum, the radiation of burner hearth heating surface, convection heating surface, the afterbody waste-heat recovery device, dust arrester, smoke eliminator, carbon dioxide recovering apparatus all manufactures and designs by technique known; Described kiln operational system mainly is made up of combustion system, Yao Dao, afterbody waste-heat recovery device, dust arrester, and wherein kiln road, afterbody waste-heat recovery device, dust arrester adopt present technique known to manufacture and design; Described incinerator operational system mainly is made up of combustion system, drum, radiation of burner hearth heating surface, convection heating surface, afterbody waste heat recovery heat exchange device, dust arrester, smoke eliminator, and wherein drum, radiation of burner hearth heating surface, convection heating surface, afterbody waste heat recovery heat exchange device, dust arrester, smoke eliminator adopt technique known to manufacture and design; Described heat-exchange device comprises heating installation matchmaker hot-water heating system and domestic hot-water's heater, operational system mainly by combustion system, heat collector, heat exchanger, expand water tank or boiler, matchmaker's water or hot water output device, automatic exhaust device, temperature measuring equipment, the water recovery apparatus of splashing form; Described equipment for gasification comprises coal gasification apparatus, living beings gasification equipment, organic solid waste equipment for gasification, the operational system of equipment mainly is made up of combustion system, waste heat boiler, convection heating surface, afterbody waste-heat recovery device, dust arrester, purification separation device, compressor, cooling device, gas holder, and wherein waste heat boiler, convection heating surface, afterbody waste-heat recovery device, dust arrester, purification separation device, compressor, cooling device, gas holder adopt technique known to manufacture and design.

Equipment combustion system of the present invention mainly by fuel supply system, vapor input unit, gasification combustion chamber, burner hearth, upper water cold type or air-cooled fire grate, lower floor's fixed grate/or moving grate, air preheater, air supply device, secondary air supply device, a high-temperature flue gas feedback device form, wherein: fuel supply system is mechanical spreader feeder or wind-force-mechanical spreader feeder, and spreader feeder is installed in the throwing coal mouth outside of gasification combustion chamber; Vapor input unit comprises steam spray nozzle or plasma generator, and vapor input unit is installed in the top of gasification combustion chamber, and described plasma generator is more than one at least one; Gasification combustion chamber is at the front end of burner hearth, gasification combustion chamber is by the baking top, furnace wall or flue constitute, a wherein side of the furnace wall door that pokes fire, the coal of throwing mouth is arranged on the furnace wall of front, throw the coal mouth spreader feeder is housed, fuel bed in the spreader feeder coal bunker plays buffer action, the end of gasification combustion chamber is water-cooled or air-cooled fire grate, fuel bed on the fire grate constitutes the physical isolation band between gasification combustion chamber and the burner hearth, gasification combustion chamber also has tuyere/or air distribution plate, tuyere is arranged on the spreader feeder or on the furnace wall, air distribution plate is on the top of gasification combustion chamber, air compartment is arranged on the air distribution plate, wind distributing hole and airduct access port enter air compartment through the air of preheating by the airduct access port, and it is indoor to enter into gasification, and combustion by wind distributing hole again; Lower floor's fixed grate/or moving grate below gasification combustion chamber and burner hearth, described moving grate is mechanical reciprocal grate/or mechanical chain fire grate/or shake fire grate/or vibrating-grate stoker; Air preheater is installed in the convective region of afterbody, and the one's intention as revealed in what one says that goes out of air preheater is transported to the air compartment under the tuyere of gasification combustion chamber or air distribution plate air compartment, the moving grate and the tuyere of burner hearth secondary air feed; Air supply device secondary air supply device and high-temperature flue gas feedback device are made up of air blast, damper regulator and airduct, the airduct periphery is incubated with heat-insulating material, an air supply device provides the air of process preheating to the below of gasification combustion chamber, moving grate, the secondary air supply device provides the air of process preheating to burner hearth, the high-temperature flue gas feedback device feeds back into burner hearth to the high-temperature flue gas of equipment afterbody, be used in the disturbance burner hearth air-flow and wash away the combustion charcoal of gasification combustion chamber's bottom, quicken mixing and promotes and burning the realization low oxygen combustion of air and fuel; When equipment is coal gasification apparatus/or living beings gasifications equipment/or during the organic solid waste equipment for gasification, the secondary air supply device need be set.

The equipment of the clean combustion of solid fuel of the present invention and increment burning mainly by spreader feeder, vapor input unit, gasification combustion chamber, burner hearth/or kiln road, exhaust gases passes, steam superheater, economizer, air preheater, deduster, air supply device, secondary air supply device, high-temperature flue gas feedback device, an air-introduced machine form, wherein: spreader feeder comprises mechanical spreader feeder or wind-force-mechanical spreader feeder, and spreader feeder is installed in the throwing coal mouth outside of gasification combustion chamber; Vapor input unit comprises steam spray nozzle or plasma generator, and vapor input unit is installed in the top of gasification combustion chamber, and described plasma generator is more than one at least one; Gasification combustion chamber is by furnace wall/or water jacket, the baking top/or air distribution plate, upper grate constitutes accurate enclosed construction, gasification combustion chamber and burner hearth are adjacent and separate with fire-resistant furnace wall, there is the reciprocal grate of lower floor/or traveling-grate stoker the below of gasification combustion chamber and burner hearth, the radiation heating-surface that boiler is arranged in the burner hearth, the convection heating surface that boiler is arranged in the exhaust gases passes, steam superheater, economizer, air preheater is installed in the tail flue gas passage, deduster is installed in the outlet of flue gas, the suction inlet of air-introduced machine is connected with the gas outlet of deduster, the flue gas that device systems is discharged is through purifier and carbon dioxide recovery, and free of contamination waste gas enters atmosphere.Air supply device to gasification combustion chamber and reciprocal grate/or chain fire-gate bottom air through preheating is provided, the secondary air supply device provides the air through preheating in burner hearth, the high-temperature flue gas feedback device feeds back into burner hearth to the high-temperature flue gas of equipment afterbody, be used in the disturbance burner hearth air-flow and wash away the combustion charcoal of gasification combustion chamber's bottom.

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: reasonably burning process has been eliminated coal smoke effectively, the clean combustion and the increment burning of solid fuel have been realized, reduced pollution to environment, and improve the efficient of fuel combustion, reduced resource consumption, realized the energy " increasing income and decreasing expenditure ", not only can alleviate the fuel cost burden of enterprise, and the nervous situation of alleviating conventional energy resource has been had positive meaning.

Description of drawings

The invention provides following accompanying drawing and be further described, but the specific embodiment of each accompanying drawing and the following stated all is not construed as limiting the invention:

Fig. 1 is the block diagram of boiler plant basic comprising of the present invention and flue gas flow.

Fig. 2 is boiler plant formation and a flue gas flow block diagram of making gasifying agent in the burning process of the present invention with water vapour.

Fig. 3 is that the boiler plant that plasma generator is housed in the combustion system of the present invention constitutes and the flue gas flow block diagram.

Fig. 4 is that the boiler plant that feeds back combustion zone into high-temperature flue gas of the present invention constitutes and the flue gas flow block diagram.

Fig. 5 is that heating installation matchmaker water heating apparatus of the present invention constitutes block diagram.

Fig. 6 is the formation block diagram of domestic hot-water's firing equipment of the present invention.

Fig. 7 is the formation block diagram of coal gasification apparatus of the present invention or living beings gasification equipment or organic solid waste equipment for gasification.

Fig. 8 is that furnace equipment of the present invention constitutes and the flue gas flow block diagram.

Fig. 9 is the structure of boiler body figure of one of them scheme of the present invention.

Figure 10 is the structure of boiler body figure of another scheme of the present invention.

Among the figure: 1. drum, 2. fume pipe, 3. flue gas output interface, 4. rear smoke chamber, 5. water-cooling wall 6. enters the flue gas window in comb district, side, 7. the partition wall at burner hearth rear portion 8. afterwards dries by the fire, 9. down-comer, 10. the hand hole of anti-clinker box, 11. anti-clinker boxs, 12. slag notches, 13. burnt zone air compartment, 14A. the reciprocal grate of lower floor, the traveling-grate stoker of 14B. lower floor, 15. main combustion zone air compartments, 16. damper, 17. tedge, 18A. disturbance wind nozzle, 18B. washes away the wind nozzle, 19. charcoal combustion zone air compartment, 20. light a fire/and the door that pokes fire, 21. anti-clinker boxs, the water-cooled fixed grate on 22. upper stratas, 23. fire grate drive unit, 24. the next part case of water-cooled grate, 25A. wind-force-mechanical spreader feeder, 25B. machinery spreader feeder, 26. air feed spout, 27. steam spray nozzle, 28. gasification combustion chamber, the upper collecting chamber of 29. water-cooled grates, 30. temperature sensor, 31. the furnace wall of gasification combustion chamber, 32. fold into the flue gas window of front smoke box, 33. front smoke boxs by side comb district, 34. burner hearth, 35. pressure gauge connection, 36. relief valve connections, 37. total steam valve interfaces, 38. heat-insulation layer, 39. air distribution plate, 40. preheated air access ports, 41. plasma generators.

The specific embodiment

Fig. 1 to Fig. 4 is that the boiler plant in the embodiment of the invention constitutes and the flue gas flow block diagram, embodiment wherein shown in Figure 1 is the basic comprising of boiler of the present invention, by gasification combustion chamber, preignition zone, the charcoal combustion zone, the charcoal burnt zone, burner hearth, air supply device, the convection heat transfer' heat-transfer by convection passage, the afterbody waste-heat recovery device, dust arrester, smoke eliminator is formed, wherein preignition zone is at the junction surface of gasification combustion chamber and burner hearth, the fuel bed of preignition zone constitutes the physical isolation band between gasification combustion chamber and the burner hearth, charcoal combustion zone and charcoal burnt zone are in the bottom of burner hearth, charcoal combustion zone and charcoal burnt zone are by fire grate, the relative position of air compartment and burner hearth constitutes, and charcoal burns on fire grate.Equipment uses coal, organic solid waste, living beings a kind of or several fuel combinations wherein, when containing coal or rubbish in the fuel, desulfurization/antichlor is mixed send into gasification combustion chamber in the fuel together and burn.During boiler operatiopn, it is indoor that solid fuel and air join gasification, and combustion, fuel is finished preheating, oven dry, gasification, desulfurization/dechlorination, the volatile matter burning of overflowing in gasification, and combustion, the flow process of flue gas is: gasification combustion chamber → the pass red-hot fuel bed → burner hearth → convection heat transfer' heat-transfer by convection passage → afterbody waste-heat recovery device → dust arrester → smoke eliminator → atmosphere of preignition zone.When flue gas passes the burnt fuel layer, carbon dioxide and charcoal reaction generate carbon monoxide, water vapour and charcoal reaction and generate carbon monoxide and hydrogen, reaction the carbon monoxide that generates and hydrogen in burner hearth, carry out second-time burning and burn, at the coal smoke and the C of the indoor generation of gasification, and combustion nH mAlso when passing the burnt fuel layer or in the second-time burning process of burner hearth, transformed and burnt.Embodiment shown in Figure 2 has increased vapor input unit on the embodiment basis of Fig. 1, it is indoor that water vapour is sent to gasification, and combustion as gasifying agent, suppress coal smoke and realize the increment burning, the secondary air supply device is set, air through preheating is sent into burner hearth, to guarantee that fuel is burnt in the second-time burning of burner hearth, also before the flue gas of afterbody enters atmosphere, flue gas is carried out isolation of purified, reclaims carbon dioxide.The boiler plant system of Fig. 2 mainly is made up of vapor input unit, gasification combustion chamber, preignition zone, charcoal combustion zone, charcoal burnt zone, burner hearth, air supply device, secondary air supply device, convection heat transfer' heat-transfer by convection passage, steam superheater, economizer, air preheater, dust arrester, smoke eliminator, a carbon dioxide recovering apparatus, use wherein a kind of or several fuel combinations in coal, organic solid waste, the living beings, when containing coal or rubbish in the fuel, desulfurization/antichlor mixed send into gasification combustion chamber in the fuel together and burn.The flue gas flow of Fig. 2 embodiment is: gasification combustion chamber → the pass red-hot fuel bed → burner hearth → convection heat transfer' heat-transfer by convection passage → steam superheater → economizer → air preheater → dust arrester → smoke eliminator → atmosphere of preignition zone.Embodiment shown in Figure 3 has set up plasma generator on the basis of Fig. 2 embodiment, earlier water vapour is sent into plasma generator, is being in the plasma generator of working gas with the water vapour, and hydrone is generated activity chemistry thing: H 2O *, H 2O +, H 2 *, O 2 *, H 2, O 2, H *, O *, H +, O +, HO *, HO +, HO, H, O, the hydrone spirt gasification combustion chamber behind overactivation, can be better and coal smoke, tar, C nH mCarry out chemical combination, conversion, with more effective elimination coal smoke, realize that increment burning, described plasma generator are more than one at least one.Embodiment shown in Figure 4 feeds back to the high-temperature flue gas of boiler tail in the burner hearth on the basis of Fig. 3 embodiment, come the air-flow of disturbance burner hearth with the high-temperature flue gas of feedback, to quicken in the burner hearth air and to promote burning mixing of fuel, realize low oxygen combustion with this, with minimizing nuisance NO xGeneration, also the front end of high temperature cigarette feedback burner hearth, wash away the gap of upper grate with the High Temperature Gas of feeding back, impel the combustion charcoal of gasification combustion chamber's bottom to leave out by mistake on lower floor's fire grate, accelerated combustion, the exerting oneself of raising boiler.

Embodiment shown in Figure 5 is that the equipment of heating installation matchmaker hot-water heating system of the present invention constitutes and the flue gas flow block diagram, equipment mainly is made of combustion system, heat collector, heat exchanger, matchmaker's water output device, water recovery apparatus, expansion tank, equipment uses the fuel of coal, living beings a kind of or two kinds of mixing wherein, and wherein: combustion system is made up of fuel supply system, water vapour generation and input unit, gasification combustion chamber, charcoal burning zone, air supply device, secondary air supply device, a burner hearth; Water circulation system mainly is made up of heat collector, heating installation matchmaker water output device, heating installation terminal device (not shown), water recovery apparatus, expansion tank, automatic exhaust steam valve, temperature measuring equipment.

Embodiment shown in Figure 6 is that the equipment of domestic hot-water's heater of the present invention constitutes and the flue gas flow block diagram, equipment mainly is made of combustion system, heat collector, heat exchanger, boiler, return pipe, exhaust apparatus, blowdown apparatus, equipment uses the fuel of coal, living beings a kind of or two kinds of mixing wherein, and wherein: combustion system is made up of fuel supply, water vapour generation and input unit, gasification combustion chamber, charcoal burning zone, air supply device, secondary air supply device, a burner hearth; Water circulation system mainly is made up of heat collector, boiler, return pipe, heat exchanger, exhaust apparatus.

Embodiment shown in Figure 7 is the formation and the artificial fuel gas FB(flow block) of coal gasification apparatus of the present invention or living beings gasification equipment or organic solid waste equipment for gasification, and equipment mainly is made up of vapor input unit (comprise more than at least one plasma generator), gasification combustion chamber, preignition zone, charcoal combustion zone, charcoal burnt zone, burner hearth, air supply device, convection heat transfer' heat-transfer by convection passage, afterbody waste heat recovery, dust arrester, purification separation device, carbon dioxide recovering apparatus, compressor, cooling device, gas holder, an artificial fuel gas output device.Equipment uses the fuel of coal, organic solid waste, living beings a kind of or several mixing wherein, when containing coal or rubbish in the fuel, desulfurization/antichlor is mixed send into gasification combustion chamber in the fuel together.Preignition zone is at the junction surface of gasification combustion chamber and burner hearth, and the fuel bed of preignition zone constitutes the physical isolation band between gasification combustion chamber and the burner hearth.Charcoal combustion zone and charcoal burnt zone are in the bottom of burner hearth, and charcoal combustion zone and charcoal burnt zone are made of the relevant position of fire grate, air compartment and burner hearth, and charcoal burns on fire grate.During the equipment operation, it is indoor that solid fuel and air, water vapour join gasification, and combustion, and fuel is finished preheating, oven dry, gasification, desulfurization/dechlorination, volatile matter effusion burning in gasification, and combustion.The convection heat transfer' heat-transfer by convection passage comprises waste heat boiler, and the afterbody waste-heat recovery device comprises steam superheater, economizer, air preheater.The flow process of flue gas and artificial fuel gas is: the red-hot fuel bed → burner hearth of gasification combustion chamber → preignition zone → convection heat transfer' heat-transfer by convection passage → steam superheater → economizer → air preheater → dust arrester → purification separation device → compressor → cooling device → gas holder → artificial fuel gas output device.

Embodiment shown in Figure 8 is the formation and the flue gas flow block diagram of furnace equipment of the present invention, equipment is mainly by vapor input unit (comprise more than at least one plasma generator), gasification combustion chamber, preignition zone, the charcoal combustion zone, the charcoal burnt zone, an air supply device, the secondary air supply device, main kiln road, the kiln road, the afterbody waste heat recovery, dust arrester, smoke eliminator, carbon dioxide recovering apparatus is formed, equipment uses coal, organic solid waste, the fuel of living beings a kind of or several mixing wherein, when containing coal or rubbish in the fuel, desulfurization/antichlor mixed send into gasification combustion chamber in the fuel together.Preignition zone is at the junction surface in gasification combustion chamber and main kiln road, and the fuel bed of preignition zone constitutes the physical isolation band between gasification combustion chamber and the burner hearth.Charcoal combustion zone and charcoal burnt zone are in the bottom in kiln road, and charcoal combustion zone and charcoal burnt zone are made of fire grate and air compartment, and charcoal burns on fire grate.During the equipment operation, it is indoor that solid fuel and air, water vapour join gasification, and combustion, and fuel carries out preheating, oven dry, gasification, desulfurization/dechlorination, volatile matter effusion burning, fuel bed burning in gasification, and combustion.The afterbody waste-heat recovery device comprises waste heat boiler, steam superheater, economizer, air preheater, heat-exchange device.The flow process of flue gas is: the red-hot fuel bed of gasification combustion chamber → preignition zone → main kiln road → kiln road → waste heat boiler → steam superheater → economizer → air preheater → dust arrester → smoke eliminator → atmosphere.

Embodiment shown in Figure 9 is the structure of boiler body figure of one of them scheme of the present invention, mainly by gasification combustion chamber (28), the water-cooled fixed grate (22) on upper strata, burner hearth (34), the mechanical reciprocal grate (14A) of lower floor, drum (1), front smoke box (33), rear smoke chamber (4), flue gas output interface (3) is formed, wherein: gasification combustion chamber (28) is by anti-clinker box (21), water-cooled fixed grate (22), the upper collecting chamber of water-cooled grate (29), the next part case (24) of water-cooled grate and fire-resistant baking top and furnace wall (31) are formed, water-cooled fixed grate (22) constitutes the end of gasification combustion chamber (28), fuel bed on the water-cooled fixed grate (22) constitutes the physical isolation band between gasification combustion chamber (28) and the burner hearth (34), the coal of throwing mouth is arranged on the front furnace wall of gasification combustion chamber (28), wind-force-mechanical spreader feeder (25A) is equipped with in the outside of throwing the coal mouth, the fuel bed that wind-force-mechanical spreader feeder (25A) is gone up in the coal bunker plays gasification combustion chamber (28) and extraneous sealing process, air feed spout (26) on the spreader feeder (25A) provides the air through preheating in gasification combustion chamber (28), door pokes fire on the wherein wing furnace wall of gasification combustion chamber (28), the Men Shangyou that pokes fire sees fiery window, and steam spray nozzle (27) and temperature sensor (30) also are installed on the side furnace wall of gasification combustion chamber (28); Gasification combustion chamber (28) is adjacent with burner hearth (34) and separate with furnace wall (31), mechanical reciprocal grate (14A) is arranged at the bottom of the below of gasification combustion chamber (28) and burner hearth (34), there is anti-clinker box (11) both sides of reciprocal grate (14A), there are charcoal combustion zone air compartment (19), main combustion zone air compartment (15), burnt zone air compartment (13) in the below of reciprocal grate (14A), and charcoal combustion zone air compartment (19), main combustion zone air compartment (15), burnt zone air compartment (13) all have separately independently damper; There is igniting/poke fire door (20) the charcoal combustion zone of burner hearth (34); There is the wind of washing away nozzle (18B) below of water-cooled fixed grate (22), there is the wind nozzle (18A) of stirring the front portion of burner hearth (34), washing away wind nozzle (18B) and stirring wind nozzle (18A) wind regime is that the high-temperature flue gas feedback of boiler tail is come, secondary wind through after the preheating also by washing away wind nozzle (18B) and stirring wind nozzle (18A) enters in the burner hearth (34); The burner hearth exposure of drum (1) and water-cooling wall (5) constitute the radiation heating-surface in the burner hearth (34); Fume pipe (2) constitutes exhaust gases passes with front smoke box (33), flue gas output interface (3) in drum (1); Pressure gauge connection (35), relief valve connection (36), total steam valve interface (37), water level interface (not shown), manhole (not shown) are arranged on the drum (1); Position at gasification combustion chamber (28), burner hearth (34) and exhaust gases passes also should be provided with inspection opening, explosion proof door or explosion-proof valve (not shown) according to the pertinent regulations of state, at anti-clinker box, next part case hand hole and blowdown apparatus (not shown) is set.The fender body of gasification combustion chamber of present embodiment (28) and burner hearth (34) front end adopts fire-resistant furnace wall material, effect with accumulation of heat, therefore the scope of application of fuel is very wide, colm, low-calorie rubbish all can be realized smooth combustion, owing to adopt water-cooled fire grate and anti-clinker box, so use the ash content height or the low coal of ash fusion point also is difficult for coking.Adopt reciprocal grate, fuel bed is become flexible advance, the increase charcoal contacts with air, is easy to burn.During boiler operatiopn, spreader feeder (25A) is thrown into fresh fuel in the gasification combustion chamber (28), shed equably on the red-hot fuel bed on the water-cooled fixed grate (22), air through preheating sprays in the gasification combustion chamber (28) combustion-supporting by the air feed spout (26) on the spreader feeder (25A), fuel is the process preheating in gasification, and combustion, oven dry, gasification, desulfurization/dechlorination, volatile matter is overflowed and is burnt, the fuel bed combustion phases, the flue gas that produces is passed down through the burnt fuel layer and enters burner hearth (34), the combustion charcoal is left out by mistake on the reciprocal grate (14A) of lower floor and is burnt away, and drive the main combustion zone enter burner hearth by fire grate, burnt zone is until burning.Present embodiment sprays into water vapour in the gasification combustion chamber (28) by steam spray nozzle (27), with generation and the realization increment burning that suppresses coal smoke, and obtain the interior temperature of gasification combustion chamber (28) by the temperature sensor (30) that is installed on gasification combustion chamber (28) the side furnace wall, regulate the amount that sprays into the water vapour in the gasification combustion chamber (28) according to the temperature in the gasification combustion chamber (28), the temperature in the gasification combustion chamber (28) is controlled on the suitable degree.The flue gas flow of present embodiment is three backhauls: the high-temperature flue gas that produces in the gasification combustion chamber (28) passes fuel bed on the water-cooled fixed grate (22) and enters into burner hearth (34) and carry out second-time burning, enter rear smoke chamber (4) with the window that the thermal current of charcoal burning generation mixes by burner hearth rear portion partition wall (7) then, fold into the comb heat affected zone (not shown) of both sides again by flue gas window (6) by rear smoke chamber (4), fold into front smoke box (33) by side comb district by flue gas window (32) again, arrive flue gas output interface (3) by front smoke box (33) by fume pipe (2) again, pass through steam superheater by flue gas output interface (3) again, economizer, air preheater, dust arrester, smoke eliminator enters the atmosphere (not shown).The flue gas flow of present embodiment also can be the two return form, and the fire grate of lower floor also can adopt traveling-grate stoker.

Embodiment shown in Figure 10 is the structure of boiler body figure of another scheme of the present invention, and its primary structure, the method for operation and flue gas flow are identical with the embodiment of Fig. 9.In the embodiment of Figure 10, the stoker fired grate of lower floor is traveling-grate stoker (14B); The fuel supply system of throwing the coal mouth outside is mechanical spreader feeder (25B); The baking top of gasification combustion chamber (28) is air distribution plate (39), preheated air access port (40) is arranged on the air distribution plate (39), air compartment and spray wind hole, air through preheating enters air compartment by the air access port (40) on the air distribution plate (39), spray in the gasification combustion chamber (28) combustion-supporting by spray wind hole again, (41) one or many of plasma generators also are housed on the air distribution plate (39), plasma generator has the working gas input interface on (41), water vapour is sent in the plasma generator (41) as working gas, hydrone will be activated and be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen, again the activator of hydrone is sprayed in the gasification combustion chamber (28), with coal smoke, tar, C nH mTransform, chemical combination, can more effective elimination coal smoke, realize the increment burning.The flue gas flow of Figure 10 embodiment also is three backhauls, but also can be the two return form, and the fire grate of lower floor also can adopt reciprocal grate.

Claims (2)

1. the equipment of the clean combustion of solid fuel and increment burning, it is characterized in that described equipment mainly is made up of fuel supply system, vapor input unit, gasification combustion chamber, burner hearth, upper water cold type or air-cooled fire grate, lower floor's fixed grate or moving grate, air preheater, air supply device, a secondary air supply device, wherein: fuel supply system is mechanical spreader feeder or wind-force-mechanical spreader feeder, and spreader feeder is installed in the throwing coal mouth outside of gasification combustion chamber; Vapor input unit comprises steam spray nozzle or plasma generator; Gasification combustion chamber is at the front end of burner hearth, gasification combustion chamber comprises baking top or air distribution plate, furnace wall or flue, a wherein side of the furnace wall door that pokes fire, the coal of throwing mouth is arranged on the furnace wall of front, throw the coal mouth spreader feeder is housed, fuel bed in the spreader feeder coal bunker plays buffer action, and the end of gasification combustion chamber is water-cooled or air-cooled fire grate, and the fuel bed on the fire grate constitutes the physical isolation band; When gasification combustion chamber comprises when top baking, gasification combustion chamber also has tuyere, and tuyere is arranged on the spreader feeder or on the furnace wall; When gasification combustion chamber comprised air distribution plate, air distribution plate had air compartment, wind distributing hole and airduct access port on the top of gasification combustion chamber on the air distribution plate, entered air compartment through the air of preheating by the airduct access port, and it is indoor to enter into gasification, and combustion by wind distributing hole again; Lower floor's fixed grate or moving grate are below burner hearth; Air preheater is installed in the convective region of afterbody, and the one's intention as revealed in what one says that goes out of air preheater is transported to the air compartment under the tuyere of gasification combustion chamber or air distribution plate air compartment, the lower floor's fire grate and the tuyere of burner hearth secondary air feed; Air supply device and secondary air supply device are made up of air blast, damper regulator and airduct, the airduct periphery is incubated with heat-insulating material, one time air supply device provides the air that passes through preheating to the below of gasification combustion chamber, lower floor's fire grate, and the secondary air supply device provides the air of process preheating to burner hearth; When equipment is coal gasification apparatus or living beings gasification equipment, the secondary air supply device is not set.
2. the equipment of the clean combustion of solid fuel and increment burning, it is characterized in that described equipment mainly is made up of spreader feeder, vapor input unit, gasification combustion chamber, burner hearth or kiln road, exhaust gases passes, steam superheater, economizer, air preheater, deduster, air supply device, secondary air supply device, an air-introduced machine, wherein: vapor input unit comprises steam spray nozzle or plasma generator; Gasification combustion chamber is by furnace wall or water jacket, baking top or air distribution plate, upper grate constitutes accurate enclosed construction, gasification combustion chamber and burner hearth are adjacent, there are lower floor's reciprocal grate or traveling-grate stoker in the below in burner hearth or kiln road, the radiation heating-surface that boiler is arranged in the burner hearth, the convection heating surface that boiler is arranged in the exhaust gases passes, steam superheater, economizer, air preheater is installed in the tail flue gas passage, deduster is installed in the outlet of flue gas, the suction inlet of air-introduced machine is connected with the gas outlet of deduster, air supply device provides air through preheating to gasification combustion chamber and reciprocal grate or chain fire-gate bottom, and the secondary air supply device provides the air through preheating in burner hearth; When equipment is coal gasification apparatus or living beings gasification equipment, the secondary air supply device is not set.
CN 200610092937 2006-06-16 2006-06-16 Process and its device for clean burning and value gaining burning of solid fuel CN100529529C (en)

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CN101629715B (en) * 2008-07-17 2011-09-07 周德国 Horizontal type biomass energy furnace
CN101922718A (en) * 2010-08-27 2010-12-22 江苏太湖锅炉股份有限公司 The fire grate structure of coal-burning boiler
CN202945213U (en) * 2011-04-26 2013-05-22 储晞 Biomass gasification device and biomass collection and utilization system
CN102261648A (en) * 2011-06-30 2011-11-30 黑龙江长志机械电器制造有限公司 Downdraft biomass moulding fuel gasification boiler and installation and combustion methods thereof
CN102364245B (en) * 2011-08-18 2013-12-11 陈喜春 Gasification environment-friendly energy-saving boiler
CN103203177A (en) * 2013-03-21 2013-07-17 王民发 Application of multi-section composition pollutant removing technology in novel coal powder industrial boilers
CN105003909A (en) * 2015-03-14 2015-10-28 青岛青义锅炉有限公司 Boiler capable of preventing biomass coking
CN106152097B (en) * 2015-03-25 2018-12-07 颜纪衡 A kind of directly-heated catamaran type coal dust gasification industrial steam boiler
CN105351914A (en) * 2015-10-31 2016-02-24 嘉善宝丰合同能源管理有限公司 Horizontal type full-automatic steam furnace
CN106352343B (en) * 2016-09-21 2019-03-05 光大环境科技(中国)有限公司 Incinerator suitable for high heating value house refuse

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