CN100523820C - Movement direction angle polarization sensitivity detection method and sensor device - Google Patents

Movement direction angle polarization sensitivity detection method and sensor device Download PDF

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CN100523820C
CN100523820C CNB2007101579261A CN200710157926A CN100523820C CN 100523820 C CN100523820 C CN 100523820C CN B2007101579261 A CNB2007101579261 A CN B2007101579261A CN 200710157926 A CN200710157926 A CN 200710157926A CN 100523820 C CN100523820 C CN 100523820C
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phi
polarized light
sensor
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CN101149390A (en
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褚金奎
赵开春
张强
王体昌
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大连理工大学
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Abstract

This invention imitates the mechanism that the desert ant apperceives the move direction according to the sky polarized light, advances a kind of polarized sensitivity detection move direction method and sensor equipment facing to the navigation application, it belongs to the navigational goniometric sensor field. The polarization navigational sensor is mainly composed of the polarized light detection, the photoelectricity conversion, signal amplification filtering conditioning, directional light intension distinguish, simulation pressure signal collection process, azimuth angle calculate output. This invention is optical-mechanical-electrical integral design, solves the problem that the sky polarized light wave range is too large and the polarized light intension conversion range in different time is too large by choosing the specific bandpass light filter and high precision logarithm operation amplification, to make the sensor angle output be independent of the light intension conversion; at the same time it uses the particular angle normalization calculation method to remove the effect to the sensor goniometric precision because of the conversion of the sky polarized light polarized range. This invention has the merits that the structure is simple, the capability is trust, the goniometric precision is high.

Description

A kind of movement direction angle polarization sensitivity detection method and sensor device
Technical field
The invention belongs to and adopting the polarization optics method is the measuring equipment of feature, particularly a kind of detection method and sensor that utilizes metastable polarized light distribution pattern in the atmosphere to carry out the moving object angle displacement measurement.
Background technology
The present navigation angular transducer that fixes the position mainly comprises ground magnetic compass, inertial gyroscope and astronomical sextant.Ground magnetic compass theory structure is simple, but precision is lower; Inertial gyroscope is measured the instantaneous precision height of direction of motion, but long-term the use has bigger accumulated error, in order to obtain movement direction angle accurately, must utilize other navigation sensor regularly inertia gyroscope to be calibrated; Early stage astronomical sextant principle device is simple, and higher measuring accuracy is also arranged, but it is many to locate the direction finding calculation procedure, and the time is long, thereby has been subjected to many restrictions in practicality.Sensor based on the astroorientation of Star Sensor has very high measuring accuracy, but the system architecture complexity, calculated performance requires high, and production cost is also very high.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is in order to remedy the deficiency of above-mentioned navigation direction finding sensor in practical engineering application, provides that a kind of production cost is low, structural principle is simple relatively and has Navigational Movements orientation angles measuring method and sensor device than high measurement accuracy.The present invention is used to measure the course heading of free movement object, it directly utilizes the solar radiation visible light metastable polarized light distribution pattern that scattering forms in atmosphere, optical element, analyzing device, logarithm amplify modulate circuit and digital sampling and processing after filtration, and real-time derivation calculates current direction of motion continuously.
Technical scheme of the present invention is: a kind of movement direction angle polarization sensitivity detection method and sensor device, the feature of its detection method is to adopt three polarization principal axis to become the polarized light of hexagonal angle to detect the polarisation distribution pattern of the responsive sky visible light of passage, carrying out normalization algorithm handles, the discriminating conduct of bonding position light intensity calculates the movement direction angle of moving object, and its implementation procedure is as follows:
1) the single channel polarized light detects: single polarized light detects channel C 1, and C2, C3 are that the analyzer by a pair of polarization light transmission shaft mutually orthogonal connects two input ends of photodiode as the high precision logarithm operational amplifier, and the photocurrent of input can be expressed as:
s i1(φ)=KI(1+dcos(2φ-2φ max)),
i=1,2,3.(1)
s i2(φ)=KI(1+dcos(2φ-2(φ max+90)))
Wherein, φ MaxBe to make s (φ) get peaked direction, get 0 respectively 0, 120 0, 240 0, corresponding three polarized lights detect passage, s I1(φ) and s I2(φ) polarized light of expression detects in the passage photocurrent when parallel with principal direction and vertical and imports, and wherein, I is total light intensity I=I Max+ I Min, I Max, I MinIt is respectively minimum and maximum light intensity.D is the polarization degree, φ be the zero degree direction with respect to the meridianal angle of the current sun, K is a constant;
2) the triple channel polarized light detects: utilize the nerve sense bar of the linear analyzer imitation desert ant with three Polarization-Sensitive major axes orientations, sensor becomes 120 by three Polarization-Sensitive major axes orientations 0Polarized light detect channel C 1, C2, C3 forms, the output expression formula that three polarized lights detect passages is:
p 1 ( φ ) = log 10 ( 1 + d cos ( 2 φ ) 1 - d cos ( 2 φ ) )
p 2 ( φ ) = log 10 ( 1 + d cos ( 2 φ - 4 π 3 ) 1 - d cos ( 2 φ - 4 π 3 ) ) - - - ( 2 )
p 3 ( φ ) = log 10 ( 1 + d cos ( 2 φ - 8 π 3 ) 1 - d cos ( 2 φ - 8 π 3 ) )
3) triple channel output normalized: for different time and geographic position, on high under the irradiation of polarized light, the polarization navigation sensor is after reference line rotates a circle, three polarized lights detect the different voltage signal of amplitude of passage output, after the normalization algorithm processing, sinusoidal signal that can outputting standard, the normalization process is as follows:
At first, the inverse logarithm processing is carried out in original output to triple channel:
p ‾ 1 ( φ ) = 1 - 2 10 p 1 + 1 = d cos ( 2 φ ) - - - ( 3 )
p ‾ 2 ( φ ) = 1 - 2 10 p 2 + 1 = d cos ( 2 φ - 4 π 3 ) - - - ( 4 )
p ‾ 3 ( φ ) = 1 - 2 10 p 3 + 1 = d cos ( 2 φ - 8 π 3 ) - - - ( 5 )
Then, utilize the triangle identical transformation, provide the expression formula of polarization degree d:
d = 3 ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 3 - - - ( 6 )
At last, with formula (5) substitution formula (2), (3) in (4), obtain normalization output expression formula:
p ~ 1 ( φ ) = cos ( 2 φ ) = 3 p ‾ 1 3 ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - - - ( 7 )
p ~ 2 ( φ ) = cos ( 2 φ - 4 π 3 ) = 3 p ‾ 2 3 ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - - - ( 8 )
p ~ 3 ( φ ) = cos ( 2 φ - 8 π 3 ) = 3 p ‾ 3 3 ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - - - ( 9 )
4) movement direction angle resolves: for different movement direction angles, be 0 according to three major axes orientations 0, 120 0, 240 0Polarized light detect the normalization output response of passage, can obtain the angle between sensor reference direction and the sun meridian, angle is exported and can be expressed as:
φ = 1 2 a cos = 3 p ‾ 1 3 ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - - - ( 10 )
Because the cycle that three polarized lights detect the passage output functions is 180 °, at 0 ° to 360 0In the scope, the candidate angle value that satisfies formula (10) has 2, bonding position light intensity sense channel I1, I2, the output result of I3, the real motion orientation angles of candidate angle conduct that the choice direction light intensity is bigger.
Sensor loam cake 2 in the sensor device that adopts is to make by having certain thickness stainless steel short cylinder, 6 circular hole a evenly distribute on the short cylinder, be the polarized light passage, glass filter 1 is placed among the big circular groove b on short cylinder top, the bottom of short cylinder has two groups of grooves, and the groove of inner ring is totally 6 of groove c, and the groove of outer ring is totally 6 of grooves d, evenly distribute, every group of groove matches with boss in the main body 4 respectively and is used to compress polaroid; Sensor main body 4, be to make by having the stainless steel right cylinder that thickness is several times as much as loam cake, 6 the circular hole as ' corresponding with upper cover part evenly distribute on this right cylinder, be the polarized light passage, two groups of boss are arranged above cylindrical, the boss of inner ring is totally 6 of boss c ', the boss of outer ring is totally 6 of boss d ', evenly distribute, with the groove c in the loam cake 2, d matches and is used for the location of polaroid, and the detection side is placed among 6 the groove e that evenly distribute on the cylindrical periphery to the photoresistance 12 of light intensity, and photoresistance lead-in wire 13 is connected on the circuit board 5 by fairlead f; 8,6 60 ° of polaroid sectors 8 of polaroid are divided into three pairs, and the responsive main shaft mutually orthogonal of two polaroids of every centering is formed 0 °, and 120 °, the detection means of 240 ° polarized light passage; Photodiode 14 is installed on the circuit board 5, is located at the center of the circular hole a ' of main body 4; Circuit board leads 10 connecting circuit plates 5 and circuit board 6; Sensor loam cake 2 and main body 4 are fixed together loam cake 2 and main body 4 with 4 screws 7, with 4 screws 9 main body 4 and circuit board 5 are fixed together, with two pins 3 with loam cake 2, main body 4, circuit board 5 positions.
Remarkable result of the present invention is to utilize the light medium to measure, and measuring equipment relatively simply, does not contain telecontrol equipment, electromagnetic environment is not had specific (special) requirements, is convenient to Project Realization, and has stronger environment tolerance.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1-Fundamentals of Sensors figure, wherein: C1-0 0Polarized light detects passage, C2-120 0Polarized light detects passage, C3-240 0Polarized light detects passage, I1-direction light intensity sense channel 1, I2-direction light intensity sense channel 2, I3-direction light intensity sense channel 3, Fig. 2-sensor wiring layout front view, Fig. 3-sensor wiring layout C-C view, Fig. 4-sensor complete section left view, Fig. 5-sensor wiring layout A-A view, Fig. 6-loam cake front view, Fig. 7-upper cover top view, Fig. 8-loam cake E be to view, Fig. 9-polaroid, Figure 10-main body front view, Figure 11-main body vertical view, Figure 12-main body complete section left view, wherein: the 1-optical filter, the 2-loam cake, 3-pin, 4-main body, the 5-circuit board, the 6-circuit board, 7-screw, 8-polaroid, the 9-screw, 10-sensor circuit board signal wire, 12-photoresistance, 13-photoresistance signal wire, the 14-photodiode, the 15-screw; A-polarized light passage, b-groove, c-groove, d-groove, e-groove, f-fairlead, a '-polarized light passage, c '-boss, d '-boss;
Figure 13-polarized light detects the passage schematic diagram, Figure 14-difference polarization navigation sensor three polarized lights that rotate a circle constantly detects passages output, transverse axis is sensor reference direction and the meridianal angle of the sun (/ degree), the longitudinal axis is the output voltage (/ volt) that three polarized lights detect passage, the rotate a circle triple channel normalization output of Figure 15-polarization navigation sensor, transverse axis is sensor reference direction and the meridianal angle of the sun (/ degree), and the longitudinal axis is the output voltage (/ volt) that three polarized lights detect passage.
Embodiment
According to Rayleigh atmosphere single scattering model, in the sunshine polarisation distribution pattern on high, the polarization orientation of every bit is subjected to inside even from weather little, and is more stable.And biological neurosurgeon studies show that the desert ant can come perception skylight polarization mode by the polarization compound eye, from accurate judgement direction of motion.The present invention imitates the mechanism that the desert ant relies on the sky polarized light to navigate, and utilizes the photoelectric sensor development and Application in the fix the position sensor of angle of the navigation of field of engineering technology.Critical component of the present invention is that polarized light detects passage.A polarized light detects passage to be made up of the linear polarization element of pair of light-transmissive axle mutually orthogonal, and incident ray is through after photodiode and the logarithm ratio operational amplifier, and the signal of output is the direction of vibration of incident polarization light and the function of polarization degree.Under the irradiation of incident ray, the rotate a circle response curve of gained of polaroid analyze is a sinusoidal curve.Be 0 by three major axes orientations like this 0, 120 0, 240 0The angle analysis device just can determine 0 of navigation sensor for the different responses of angle 0The angle in direction and sun meridian orientation.
Be described with reference to the accompanying drawings the concrete enforcement of polarized light detection method.When 0 of polarization navigation sensor 0Reference line and sun meridian angle are φ, and light intensity is I, and when degree of polarization was d, the two-way of the inner polarization light transmission shaft of polarization orientation analysis device quadrature produces had 90 0The current signal of phasic difference, the effect through logarithm operational amplifier produces one road analog voltage output signal again, as accompanying drawing 13.The voltage output of three polarization orientation analysis device passages can be expressed by formula (2), because system of equations contains two unknown numbers and three equatioies, therefore necessarily can solve φ.
In conjunction with the accompanying drawings 14 with accompanying drawing 15 explanation the present invention in the angle output of sensor irrelevant with the absolute strength value and the polarization degree value of skylight.Figure 14 exports in the experiment for the sensor angle, different polarization sensors constantly rotation 360 in a day 0After, three polarized lights detect the primary voltage output of passages, because light intensity and polarization degree is different, and the waveform similarity of the output voltage of three passages, but output voltage amplitude difference; Figure 15 is the output through three Polarization Detection passages after the normalization, and the absolute strength value of skylight and polarization degree value change the not influence of angle output for sensor as can be seen.
The orientation angles calculation method of 15 explanation polarization navigation sensors in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.Polarization navigation sensor rotation 360 0After, the analog voltage of three polarization orientation analysis device outputs has obtained absolute strength value and three irrelevant curves of polarization degree value with the sky polarized light through analog to digital conversion, inverse logarithm computing and normalized.These three curves are that phasic difference is 0 0, 120 0And 240 0Sinusoidal curve, when polarization navigation sensor and the meridianal angle of the sun are φ, can calculate according to the normalization output valve of any two passages and to obtain current orientation angles value.Because the periodicity of normalized curve, resolving each time and can obtaining two differential seat angles is 180 0Candidate value, and the current true bearing of polarization navigation sensor is unique, this ambiguity can be eliminated easily by the output result of sensor orientation light intensity sense channel.
The implementation method of 1 explanation sensor orientation light intensity sense channel in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.Six photoresistance of photaesthesia test surface horizontal positioned are evenly distributed on the same circumference, as the detector of sunlight intensity orientation distribution in the surface level.Direction over against a pair of photoresistance be arranged in one road logic comparator circuit, when the sun is positioned at the different azimuth of polarization sensor, the photoresistance resistance of closing on the sun diminishes, current value increases, and with its over against photoresistance because back to the sun, the photoresistance resistance increases, current value diminishes, can judge the position relation of the polarization navigation sensor and the sun by three road logic discriminations output result and polarization angle output, and then obtain the current orientation angles value of polarization navigation sensor.

Claims (2)

1, a kind of movement direction angle polarization sensitivity detection method, it is characterized in that, adopt three polarization principal axis to become the polarized light passage of hexagonal angle, detect the polarisation distribution pattern of sky visible light, carrying out normalization algorithm handles, the discriminating conduct of bonding position light intensity calculates the movement direction angle of moving object, and its implementation procedure is as follows:
1) the single channel polarized light is detected: single polarized light detects passage (C1), (C2), (C3) be that as two input ends of high precision logarithm operational amplifier, the photocurrent of input can be expressed as by the analyzer connection photodiode of a pair of polarization light transmission shaft mutually orthogonal:
s i1(φ)=KI(1+dcos(2φ-2φ max)),
i=1,2,3.?(1)
s i2(φ)=KI(1+dcos(2φ-2(φ max+90)))
Wherein, φ MaxBe to make s (φ) get peaked direction, get 0 ° respectively, 120 °, 240 °;
Corresponding three polarized lights detect passage, s I1(φ) and s I2(φ) polarized light of expression detects in the passage photocurrent when parallel with principal direction and vertical and imports, and wherein, I is total light intensity I=I Max+ I Mm, I Max, I MinBe respectively minimum and maximum light intensity, d is the polarization degree, φ be the zero degree direction with respect to the meridianal angle of the current sun, K is a constant;
2) the triple channel polarized light is detected: the nerve sense bar that utilizes linear analyzer imitation desert ant with three Polarization-Sensitive major axes orientations, sensor becomes 120 ° polarized light to detect passage (C1) by three Polarization-Sensitive major axes orientations, (C2), (C3) form, the output expression formula of three polarized light detection passages is:
p 1 ( φ ) = log 10 ( 1 + d cos ( 2 φ ) 1 - d cos ( 2 φ ) )
p 2 ( φ ) = log 10 ( 1 + d cos ( 2 φ - 4 π 3 ) 1 - d cos ( 2 φ - 4 π 3 ) ) - - - ( 2 )
p 3 ( φ ) = log 10 ( 1 + d cos ( 2 φ - 8 π 3 ) 1 - d cos ( 2 φ - 8 π 3 ) )
3) triple channel output normalized: for different time and geographic position, on high under the irradiation of polarized light, the polarization navigation sensor is after reference line rotates a circle, three polarized lights detect the different voltage signal of amplitude of passage output, after the normalization algorithm processing, sinusoidal signal that can outputting standard, the normalization process is as follows:
At first, the inverse logarithm processing is carried out in original output to triple channel:
p ‾ 1 ( φ ) = 1 - 2 10 p 1 + 1 = d cos ( 2 φ ) - - - ( 3 )
p ‾ 2 ( φ ) = 1 - 2 10 p 2 + 1 = d cos ( 2 φ - 4 π 3 ) - - - ( 4 )
p ‾ 3 ( φ ) = 1 - 2 10 p 3 + 1 = d cos ( 2 φ - 8 π 3 ) - - - ( 5 )
Then, utilize the triangle identical transformation, provide the expression formula of polarization degree d:
d = 3 ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 3 - - - ( 6 )
At last, with (5) substitution (2), (3), (4) formula obtains normalization output expression formula:
p ~ 1 ( φ ) = cos ( 2 φ ) = 3 p ‾ 1 3 ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - - - ( 7 )
p ~ 2 ( φ ) = cos ( 2 φ - 4 π 3 ) = 3 p ‾ 2 3 ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - - - ( 8 )
p ~ 3 ( φ ) = cos ( 2 φ - 8 π 3 ) = 3 p ‾ 3 3 ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - - - ( 9 )
4) movement direction angle resolves: for different movement direction angles, according to three major axes orientations is 0 °, and 120 °, 240 ° polarized light detects the normalization output response of passage, can obtain the angle between sensor reference direction and the sun meridian, angle output can be expressed as:
φ = 1 2 a cos 3 p ‾ 1 3 ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - ( p ‾ 1 + p ‾ 2 ) 2 - - - ( 10 )
Because, the cycle of three polarized light detection passage output functions is 180 °, in 0 ° to 360 ° scope, the candidate angle value that satisfies formula (10) has 2, bonding position light intensity sense channel (I1), (I2), output result (I3), the real motion orientation angles of candidate angle conduct that the choice direction light intensity is bigger.
2, a kind of movement direction angle polarization sensitivity detection method as claimed in claim 1, the sensor device feature that it adopts is, sensor loam cake (2) is to make by having certain thickness stainless steel short cylinder, 6 circular holes evenly distribute on the short cylinder, be polarized light passage (a), glass filter (1) is placed in the big circular groove (b) on short cylinder top, the bottom of short cylinder has two groups of grooves, the groove of inner ring is totally 6 of grooves (c), the groove of outer ring is totally 6 of grooves (d), and groove evenly distributes; Sensor main body (4) is to make by having the stainless steel right cylinder that thickness is several times as much as loam cake, be evenly distributed with 6 circular holes corresponding on this right cylinder with upper cover part, be polarized light passage on the main body (a '), cylindrical upper surface has two groups of boss, the boss of inner ring is totally 6 of boss (c '), the boss of outer ring is totally 6 of boss (d '), it all is even distribution, groove (c) in the loam cake (2), (d) respectively with two groups of boss of main body (4) upper surface (c '), (d ') match, be used for the location of polaroid; The detection side is placed in 6 grooves (e) that evenly distribute on the cylindrical periphery to the photoresistance (12) of light intensity, and photoresistance lead-in wire (13) is connected on the circuit board (5) by fairlead (f); 6 polaroid sectors (8) with 60 ° of angles evenly are placed between the groove and the boss in the main body (4) in the loam cake (2), and are divided into three pairs, the responsive main shaft mutually orthogonal of two polaroids of every centering, form 0 °, 120 °, the detection means of 240 ° polarized light passage; Photodiode (14) is installed on the circuit board (5), is located at the center of the circular hole (a ') of main body (4); Circuit board leads (10) connecting circuit plate (5) and circuit board (6); With two pins (3) with loam cake (2), main body (4), circuit board (5) positions; With 4 screws (7) loam cake (2) and main body (4) are fixed together, main body (4) and circuit board (5) are fixed together with 4 screws (9).
CNB2007101579261A 2007-11-01 2007-11-01 Movement direction angle polarization sensitivity detection method and sensor device CN100523820C (en)

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