CN100516668C - Straight-expansion type solar energy heat pump based solar energy architecture integrated energy-saving hot-water system - Google Patents

Straight-expansion type solar energy heat pump based solar energy architecture integrated energy-saving hot-water system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100516668C
CN100516668C CNB2008100324626A CN200810032462A CN100516668C CN 100516668 C CN100516668 C CN 100516668C CN B2008100324626 A CNB2008100324626 A CN B2008100324626A CN 200810032462 A CN200810032462 A CN 200810032462A CN 100516668 C CN100516668 C CN 100516668C
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water
solar
double
heat exchanger
outlet
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CNB2008100324626A
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CN101235974A (en
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翟晓强
孙振华
王如竹
吴静怡
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Kunming JLM Thermal Equipment Co., Ltd.
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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Abstract

An integrated energy-saving water heating system of solar architecture is based on a direct-expansion solar heat pump in the technical field of energy conservation. An outlet of a solar heat collector of the invention is connected with an air suction port of an inverter compressor, an air outlet of the compressor is connected with the air inlet of a double-pipe heat exchanger, an outlet of the double-pipe heat exchanger is connected with an inlet of a thermostatic expansion valve, an inlet of the thermostatic expansion valve is connected with the outlet of the solar heat collector, and then a closed circulation of a coolant-side system is finished. A water circulation inlet of a hot-water storage tank is connected with a water pump, an outlet of the water pump is connected with an inlet of the double-pipe heat exchanger, a water outlet of the double-pipe heat exchanger is connected with a water circulation inlet of the hot-water storage tank, and then the closed circulation of a water-side system is finished. The two circulations are realized through controlling a control display circuit. The integrated energy-saving water heating system of solar architecture employs glass cover plates, bottom foaming material for heat preservation and the planar heat collector, surface of which is painted with Ni-Cr selective absorption coatings, and has the advantages of low cost, high system performance, wide adapting areas, greenness and non-pollution.

Description

Solar construction integrated energy-saving hot-water heating system based on direct expanding solar heating pump
Technical field
What the present invention relates to is a kind of hot-water heating system of technical field of solar, is a kind of solar construction integrated energy-saving hot-water heating system based on direct expanding solar heating pump.
Background technology
Solar energy is a kind of huge, the free of contamination energy, and it is the energy of solar interior nuclear fusion reaction process generation continuously, it is a primary energy, is again regenerative resource.Tellurian wind energy, water energy, ocean thermal energy, wave energy and biomass energy and part tide energy all are to derive from the sun; Even tellurian fossil fuel (as coal, oil, natural gas etc.) basically also is the solar energy of having stored since time immemorial.The other forms of energy (except the geothermal energy resource) finally also all is to come from the sun, therefore we can say that it is the energy source that the mankind depend on for existence.China's solar energy resources is very abundant, mainly concentrates on west areas such as Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Gansu, Ningxia and the Inner Mongol.China's solar energy gross reserves was about for 1.47 * 10,800,000,000 kilowatt hour/years, was equivalent to 2.4 trillion tons of standard coals.Because China's solar energy resources is abundant, both can freely use, need not transportation again, environment there is not any pollution.Therefore effective utilization of solar energy for alleviating the situation that China's demand for energy is big and resource is nervous, has great realistic meaning.
As a kind of method that the low temperature potential energy with solar energy this " inexhaustible " effectively is used, solar heat pump is subject to people's attention just gradually.Solar heat pump is a kind of refrigeration machine of reverse use, and its heat energy major part has only a very little part to be changed by electric energy and forms from surrounding environment.As cost, the heat energy of low temperature environment " pump " on every side in the higher environment of temperature, thereby had very high energy service efficiency with the cost small amount of electrical energy.Solar heat pump combines solar energy thermal technology and electric heat pump technology, greatly reduce the operating temperature of heat collector, and improved the evaporating temperature of heat pump, thereby have higher collector efficiency and a heat pump performance coefficient, and compact conformation, applicability are strong, technical and economic performance is also better, for the industrialized development road of solar thermal utilization provides an effective way.With the direct expanding solar heating pump be the Building Heat water supply system of core with sun radiant heat energy as the evaporimeter main heat source, with surrounding air (or even rainfall) latent heat as the evaporimeter auxiliary thermal source, because it is not high to the solar energy heating temperature requirement, and have flexile system form, rational economic technology performance, therefore have the good commercial practical application foreground.
Find that through literature search the Chinese invention patent name is called: directly expanding solar heat-pump water heater, the patent No. is: ZL 01126634.1, discloses a kind of solar heat-pump water heater in this patent to prior art.Adopt no cover plate, do not have the flat plate collector that the bottom is incubated, its outlet links to each other with the air entry of compressor, the exhaust outlet of compressor is connected with the air inlet of condenser, the liquid outlet of condenser links to each other with liquid reservoir, drying filter, heating power expansion valve link to each other with the inlet of thermal-arrest/evaporimeter respectively then, form the closed circulation passage of cold-producing medium, condenser is arranged among the thermal storage water tank.Its deficiency is the structure more complicated, is not easy to regular maintenance, because condenser is arranged among the thermal storage water tank, connects that to take over the road long, system's charging amount greatly and leak easily, this makes it apply and produce in batches and also be subjected to certain restriction; In addition, critical component one heat collector of system is difficult to building structure integrated, and it also must be fettered in architectural application.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind of solar construction integrated energy-saving hot-water heating system based on direct expanding solar heating pump is provided, make its have simple in structure, with low cost, system's charging amount is very little, can be perfect integrated and annually can keep the greater efficiency operation with building, reach that structure is compact more, performance driving economy is stronger, applicability final purpose widely.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions, the present invention includes solar thermal collector, gas-liquid separator, compressor, double-tube heat exchanger, hot water storage tank, water pump, startup electric capacity, heating power expansion valve, control display circuit, outdoor cabinet shell.The existing techniques in realizing that the control display circuit adopts.
In the above-mentioned assembly of the present invention, solar thermal collector, gas-liquid separator, compressor, double-tube heat exchanger, startup electric capacity, heating power expansion valve, control display circuit, outdoor cabinet shell are formed the refrigerant side system; Double-tube heat exchanger, hot water storage tank, water pump are formed the water side system, and gas-liquid separator, compressor, double-tube heat exchanger, startup electric capacity, heating power expansion valve, control display circuit constitute outdoor machine part among being dissolved in the outdoor cabinet shell.The connected mode of whole system is: power positive cathode links to each other with the control display circuit, the control display circuit respectively with start electric capacity, compressor connects power supply place both positive and negative polarity and links to each other respectively, starting electric capacity is connected with compressor the 3rd utmost point, the solar thermal collector outlet links to each other with gas-liquid separator, gas-liquid separator links to each other with the air entry of compressor, the exhaust outlet of compressor is connected with the air inlet of double-tube heat exchanger, the outlet of double-tube heat exchanger is connected with the import of heating power expansion valve, the outlet of heating power expansion valve links to each other with the import of solar thermal collector, and this part is finished the closed circulation of refrigerant side system; Hot water storage tank water loop exit is connected with water pump; exit of pump is connected with the double-tube heat exchanger inlet; delivery port by double-tube heat exchanger links to each other with hot water storage tank water loop head; this part is finished the closed circulation of water side system; more than two circulations all realize by the control of control display circuit; reach predetermined temperature until water temperature, control is shut down.
Described solar thermal collector, comprise house steward, copper fin, aluminum alloy frame, glass cover-plate, cold-producing medium copper pipe, solar thermal collector foaming thermal-insulating, wherein copper fin applies the Ni-Cr coating for selective absorption, the glass cover-plate lid is loaded on the aluminum alloy frame, copper fin central authorities are welded on the cold-producing medium copper pipe, and be evenly arranged in the aluminum alloy frame, house steward is vertically led at cold-producing medium copper pipe two ends, the interface welding, total pipe joint connects the gas-liquid separator suction inlet, and foaming thermal-insulating is arranged on the solar thermal collector back side.
Adopt the system form of direct expanding solar heating pump, be about to solar thermal collector, the absorption process of solar energy and the evaporation process of cold-producing medium are finished in same equipment directly as the evaporimeter of heat pump.Cold-producing medium R22 (CHF in the direct-expansion type system 2Cl) as the directly heat absorption evaporation in solar thermal collector of solar energy heating medium; enter compressor through outlet; changeable state lower compression in compressor; enter double-tube heat exchanger and countercurrent flow is carried out in the closed circulation of water side; enter heating power expansion valve from the outlet of double-tube heat exchanger; enter solar thermal collector after the throttling; finish the closed circulation of refrigerant side; meanwhile; cooling water is by the water pump forced heat-exchanging that circulates; at first extract out and the process water pump by water pump; carry out countercurrent flow by double-tube heat exchanger and refrigerant side closed circulation again; be heated the back and get back to hot water storage tank by the delivery port of double-tube heat exchanger; finish the closed circulation of water side; in this process; adopt among the present invention that transmissivity is arranged is 95% glass cover-plate; bottom expanded material insulation; the flat plate collector of the Ni-Cr coating for selective absorption of surface spraying absorptivity 90% and emissivity 45%; be to consider that be hot water demand's maximum and the hot-water heating system working environment is the most abominable winter; the special transmissivity that installed additional on solar thermal collector reaches 95% glass cover-plate introducing greenhouse effects; effectively protect the heat of collecting; simultaneously glass cover-plate can also play protection thermal-arrest plate, and the effect with the integrated building interface on roof is installed flexible and changeablely.Absorber adopts the brazing fishplate bar, and the bottom is incubated around reaching simultaneously, surface spraying Ni-Cr coating for selective absorption, and high-absorbility reaches 90%, and emissivity is lower, has only 45%, the pipeline bearing requirements is at 25kgf/cm 2More than.
Compare with the apparatus for heating water by solar energy of routine, the present invention who with the direct expanding solar heating pump is core has following distinguishing feature: (1) at first, because simple in structure, the light matter and thin body of this solar thermal collector, be particularly suitable for tilting to be installed on the roof or vertically being mounted on the south orientation external wall, be fit to multilayer or skyscraper.(2) the present invention is with low cost, and the batch process cost of domestic hot water system of next cover three-person household of prior art condition can be reduced to below 2500 yuan, near in addition be lower than existing conventional hot-water heating system on the market.(3) operating temperature of conventional apparatus for heating water by solar energy is higher than environment temperature, heat collector is bigger by the radiation loss that heat convection and radiation heat transfer cause, and the sun set hot plate is interior because the throttling refrigeration effect of cold-producing medium, make operating temperature far below environment temperature, therefore when absorbing solar radiation, can also further absorb the heat in the surrounding air, the collecting efficiency height.Preferably under the situation, the power consumption of compressor of the present invention only accounts for the sub-fraction (1/COP) of institute's heating load in the solar radiation condition.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a system architecture schematic diagram in the embodiment of the invention.
Among Fig. 1,1 is solar thermal collector, and 2 is gas-liquid separator, and 3 is compressor, and 4 is double-tube heat exchanger, and 5 is hot water storage tank, and 6 is water pump, and 7 is Filter dryer, and 8 is heating power expansion valve, and 9 are the control display circuit, and 10 is the outdoor cabinet shell.The A place leads to user's water place, and the B place connects the tap water supply place, and the C place connects the 220V power supply.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation one of solar thermal collector in the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 3 is the structural representation two of solar thermal collector in the embodiment of the invention.
Among Fig. 2,3,11 is house steward, and 12 are copper fin (applying Ni-Cr is coating for selective absorption), and 13 is aluminum alloy frame, and 14 is glass cover-plate, and 15 is the cold-producing medium copper pipe, and 16 is the solar thermal collector foaming thermal-insulating.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing embodiments of the invention are elaborated: present embodiment is being to implement under the prerequisite with the technical solution of the present invention, provided detailed embodiment and concrete operating process, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to following embodiment.
As shown in Figure 1, the present embodiment whole system is divided into two-way, and one the tunnel is the refrigerant side system, and one the tunnel is the water side system.The refrigerant side system is by solar thermal collector 1, gas-liquid separator 2, and compressor 3, double-tube heat exchanger 4 starts electric capacity 7, heating power expansion valve 8, control display circuit 9, outdoor cabinet shell 10 is formed; The water side system is by double-tube heat exchanger 4, hot water storage tank 5, and water pump 6 is formed.The connected mode of whole system is: gas-liquid separator 2, and compressor 3, double-tube heat exchanger 4 starts electric capacity 7, heating power expansion valve 8, control display circuit 9 constitutes outdoor machine part among being dissolved in outdoor cabinet shell 10.Power positive cathode links to each other with control display circuit 9, control display circuit 9 respectively with start electric capacity 7, compressor 3 connects power supply place both positive and negative polarity and links to each other respectively, starting electric capacity 7 is connected with compressor 3 the 3rd utmost point, in refrigerant system one side, solar thermal collector 1 outlet links to each other with gas-liquid separator 2, gas-liquid separator 2 links to each other with the air entry of compressor 3, the exhaust outlet of compressor 3 is connected with the air inlet of double-tube heat exchanger 4, the outlet of double-tube heat exchanger 4 is connected with the import of heating power expansion valve 8, the outlet of heating power expansion valve 8 links to each other with the import of solar thermal collector 1, finishes the closed circulation of refrigerant side system; Unify side in water system; hot water storage tank 5 water loop exits are connected with water pump 6; water pump 6 outlets are connected with double-tube heat exchanger 4 inlets; delivery port by double-tube heat exchanger 4 links to each other with hot water storage tank 5 water loop heads; finish the closed circulation of water side system; more than two circulations all realize that by control display circuit 9 programming Control reach predetermined temperature until water temperature, control is shut down.
Shown in Fig. 2,3, in the present embodiment, solar thermal collector 1 comprises: house steward 11, copper fin 12, aluminum alloy frame 13, glass cover-plate 14, cold-producing medium copper pipe 15, solar thermal collector foaming thermal-insulating 16, wherein copper fin 12 applies the Ni-Cr coating for selective absorption.Glass cover-plate 14 lids are loaded on the aluminum alloy frame 13, copper fin 12 central authorities are welded on the cold-producing medium copper pipe 15, be evenly arranged in the aluminum alloy frame 13 (totally 8), house steward 11 is vertically led at 8 cold-producing medium copper pipe 15 two ends, the interface welding, 3 blocks of thermal-arrest plates of present embodiment system are the totally 6 reliable welding in house steward joint and back connection gas-liquid separator 2 suction inlets of hunting leak, solar thermal collector back side dress foaming thermal-insulating 16.
In the present embodiment, described coating Ni-Cr coating for selective absorption, its absorptivity is 90%, and emissivity is 45%, and heat-collecting temperature can reach 110 degree Celsius.
In the present embodiment, the overall dimensions of described solar thermal collector 1 are 1m*1.5m (long * is wide).
In the present embodiment, the overall dimensions of described glass cover-plate 14 are 0.93m*1.43m*0.06m (the wide * thickness of long *).
In the present embodiment, described copper fin 12 is of a size of 0.12m*0.95m (long * is wide).
In the present embodiment; the control circuit board that the existing Jiangsu of control display circuit 9 employings Hua Yang Solar Co., Ltd produces; it mainly acts on is to measure to show water temperature; when arriving preset temperature, water temperature cuts off the electricity supply; detect the running current of water pump 6 and compressor 3 simultaneously; cut off the electricity supply protection system when the appearance electric current is excessive.
Table 1 and table 2 are design objective and relevant parameters of present embodiment.
Table 1 solar construction integrated energy-saving hot-water heating system design parameter and index
Table 2 critical piece parameter
The working cycles process prescription is as follows during the system of said structure operation: after system starts, control display circuit 9 electric, start simultaneously electric capacity 7 electric, delayed startup compressor 3, cold-producing medium R22 (CHF in the direct-expansion type system 2Cl) as the directly heat absorption evaporation in solar thermal collector of solar energy heating medium; enter compressor 3 through outlet; changeable state lower compression in compressor 3; enter double-tube heat exchanger 4 and carry out countercurrent flow with the closed circulation of water side; enter heating power expansion valve 8 from the outlet of double-tube heat exchanger 4; enter solar thermal collector 1 after the throttling; finish the closed circulation of refrigerant side; meanwhile; cooling water is by water pump 6 circulation forced heat-exchangings; at first extract out and process water pump 6, carry out countercurrent flow by double-tube heat exchanger 4 and refrigerant side closed circulation again, be heated the back and get back to hot water storage tank 5 by the delivery port of double-tube heat exchanger 4 by water pump 6; finish the closed circulation of water side; more than two circulations all realize that by control display circuit 9 programming Control reach predetermined temperature until water temperature, control is shut down.Under the summer condition, because the operating temperature of system is higher than the evaporating temperature of cold-producing medium, be under 30 ℃ the situation in external environment, its evaporating temperature is about 10 ℃, therefore system not only can be from solar radiation absorbed radiation energy, the environment of high temperature absorbs airborne heat down more around, and the thermal efficiency of system will increase substantially like this.It is 30 ℃ that experimental data is presented at environment temperature, and solar radiation reaches 800W/m 2The time, the heat that solar heat-collection plate absorbs from surrounding air can occupy imitates more than 25% of gross energy that utilizes.And in the winter time under the operating mode; environment temperature reduces suddenly; solar radiation weakens; the cavity that glass cover-plate that native system adopts and backboard insulation material will form a similar greenhouse; guaranteed that effectively the solar radiation energy of being gathered is fully used, the evaporating temperature of this moment has been reduced to about 0 ℃ simultaneously, still is lower than environment temperature; still can from surrounding environment, absorb heat, thereby adequately protect the environmental energy of being gathered.
It is the system form of direct expanding solar heating pump that present embodiment adopts core, make the operating temperature of solar thermal collector remain consistent with the evaporating temperature of cold-producing medium, and near environment temperature, (collector efficiency generally can reach 70%~90% to have improved solar thermal collector efficient and heat pump performance coefficient greatly, summer, heat pump COP generally can surpass 6, and also can surpass 3 winter).Present embodiment adopts and is easy to realize integrated, cheap solar thermal collector with building structure, and the thermal-arrest cost is low, has greatly improved the economic performance of system.Simultaneously under the situation of overcast and rainy or solar radiation relative deficiency, can utilize air, guarantee the continuity and the stability of winter heating as source heat pump heat.Present embodiment has plurality of advantages such as applicability is good, utilization rate of equipment and installations is high, energy-saving effect is remarkable, the life-span is long, technical and economic performance is better, is a kind of building energy composite energy system of novel environmental type, is applicable to the vast urban and rural buildings of China.

Claims (4)

1, a kind of solar construction integrated energy-saving hot-water heating system based on direct expanding solar heating pump, comprise solar thermal collector, gas-liquid separator, compressor, double-tube heat exchanger, hot water storage tank, water pump, start electric capacity, heating power expansion valve, the control display circuit, the outdoor cabinet shell, it is characterized in that, power positive cathode links to each other with the control display circuit, the control display circuit respectively with start electric capacity, compressor connects power supply place both positive and negative polarity and links to each other, starting electric capacity is connected with compressor the 3rd utmost point, the solar thermal collector outlet links to each other with gas-liquid separator, gas-liquid separator links to each other with the air entry of compressor, the exhaust outlet of compressor is connected with the air inlet of double-tube heat exchanger, the outlet of double-tube heat exchanger is connected with the import of heating power expansion valve, the outlet of heating power expansion valve links to each other with the import of solar thermal collector, and this part is finished the closed circulation of refrigerant side system; Hot water storage tank water loop exit is connected with water pump, exit of pump is connected with the double-tube heat exchanger inlet, delivery port by double-tube heat exchanger links to each other with hot water storage tank water loop head, this part is finished the closed circulation of water side system, more than two circulations all realize by the control of control display circuit, reach predetermined temperature until water temperature, control is shut down;
Described solar thermal collector, comprise house steward, copper fin, aluminum alloy frame, glass cover-plate, cold-producing medium copper pipe, solar thermal collector foaming thermal-insulating, wherein copper fin applies the Ni-Cr coating for selective absorption, the glass cover-plate lid is loaded on the aluminum alloy frame, copper fin central authorities are welded on the cold-producing medium copper pipe, and be evenly arranged in the aluminum alloy frame, house steward is vertically led at cold-producing medium copper pipe two ends, the interface welding, total pipe joint connects the gas-liquid separator suction inlet, and foaming thermal-insulating is arranged on the solar thermal collector back side.
2, the solar construction integrated energy-saving hot-water heating system based on direct expanding solar heating pump as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described Ni-Cr coating for selective absorption, and its absorptivity is 90%, and emissivity is 45%, and heat-collecting temperature reaches 110 degree Celsius.
3, the solar construction integrated energy-saving hot-water heating system based on direct expanding solar heating pump as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described hot water storage tank is an enclosed pressure-bearing hot water storage tank, and no bronze pan tube in the water tank adopts the water pump forced-convection heat transfer by double-tube heat exchanger.
As the solar construction integrated energy-saving hot-water heating system based on direct expanding solar heating pump of claim 1 or 3, it is characterized in that 4, pipe is refrigerant passage in the described double-tube heat exchanger, outer tube is a water-flowing path.
CNB2008100324626A 2008-01-10 2008-01-10 Straight-expansion type solar energy heat pump based solar energy architecture integrated energy-saving hot-water system Expired - Fee Related CN100516668C (en)

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Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102645044A (en) * 2012-05-17 2012-08-22 上海理工大学 Direct-expansion solar heat pump water heating system
CN108253643B (en) * 2018-01-17 2020-03-17 福建工程学院 Instant-heating heat-storage heat pump and solar energy coupling hot water system and control method
CN112333989B (en) * 2020-11-11 2021-12-28 上海交通大学 Microchannel liquid cooling coupling air cooling system suitable for high heat density data center

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
基于太阳能热利用的生态建筑能源技术. 王如竹,翟晓强.建筑热能通风空调,第23卷第1期. 2004
基于太阳能热利用的生态建筑能源技术. 王如竹,翟晓强.建筑热能通风空调,第23卷第1期. 2004 *

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