CN100493338C - Accurate fertilization method for apple tree - Google Patents

Accurate fertilization method for apple tree Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100493338C
CN100493338C CNB2007100174728A CN200710017472A CN100493338C CN 100493338 C CN100493338 C CN 100493338C CN B2007100174728 A CNB2007100174728 A CN B2007100174728A CN 200710017472 A CN200710017472 A CN 200710017472A CN 100493338 C CN100493338 C CN 100493338C
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China
Prior art keywords
fertilizer
kilograms
concentration
orchard
class
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Expired - Fee Related
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CNB2007100174728A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101015262A (en
Inventor
姚梅
马西征
贺发财
王文凯
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SHANXI ZHONGNONG RUIFENG CHEMICAL FERTILIZER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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SHANXI ZHONGNONG RUIFENG CHEMICAL FERTILIZER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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Priority to CNB2007100174728A priority Critical patent/CN100493338C/en
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for accurate fertilization for apple tree. The method decides target yield according to soil fertility based on 4000 kg of high quality organic fertilizer, then determine fertilizer consumption according needed fertilizer, fertilizer supply ability by soil and fertilizer availability, dressing all organic fertilizer, 70% of the nitrogen fertilizer and phosphatic fertilizer and 50% of potassium fertilizer as base fertilizer, taking left fertilizer for additional dressing, dressing the left 30% nitrogen before germination, dressing the left 30% phosphatic fertilizer before flower bud differentiation, dressing left potassium fertilizer during fruit expanding period, spraying fertilizer on leaf in different growing period for 6- 8 times in one year. The productivity and output value are increased by 21.5% and 21.3% respectively, the high- quality fruit rate is increased from 35% to 62%,and the net value is added by 615 yuan per mu.

Description

Accurate fertilization method for apple tree
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of fertilizers, be specifically related to a kind of accurate fertilization method for apple tree.
Background technology
Luochuan is one of eugenic district of best apple, the world, is that demonstration county and national nuisanceless apple outlet demonstration base county are built in national apple industrialization.2000, the apple area reached 400,000 mu, but the apple management and the level of production are also relatively lower.One of them very important reasons be that whole county orchard soil nutrient content is low, fertilizer practice does not reach the standardization requirement, the rate of fertilizer inaccuracy, be difficult to realize the apple production management objectives of high yield, high-quality, efficient, low consumption, safety, influence that whole county apple exports and the developing of international up-market.
On the apple fertilizer practice, China still is in the research exploratory stage at present, is progressively improving the relevant criterion of apple fertilising.Though Shaanxi Province's production of fruit trees is in the field, forward position of domestic apple production technology, on the apple fertilizer practice, also do not form the fertilizer practice system of a whole set of holonomic system.
Apple fertilization principle in the past generally is " three is main, three combinations ", and promptly based on fertilizer, chemical fertilizer is auxilliary, and fertilizer and chemical fertilizer combine; Based on the root basal dressing, skilful spraying fertilizer is strengthened spray leaf fertilizer, and base manure, topdressing and spraying fertilizer combines; Based on macroelement, middle trace element is auxilliary, combines with middle trace element in a large number.Fertilization time is traditional fertilizer applied in the spring season; Fertilizing method is a single fertilization.Traditional fertilizing method makes fertilizing amount not accurate, and like this, the quality of apple and output can not get improving.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is for overcoming disadvantages of background technology, and a kind of accurate fertilization method for apple tree that apple production, quality are greatly improved is provided.
To achieve these goals, the technical solution used in the present invention is: a kind of accurate fertilization method for apple tree is characterized in that this method may further comprise the steps:
(1) executing on the basis of 4000 kilograms of high-quality fertilizers at mu, is soil fertility according to nutrient content in the soil, determines target output, and determines the chemical fertilizer fertilizing amount according to the required fertility of target output, soil supplying nutrient capability and chemical fertilizer utilization ratio; Chemical fertilizer fertilizing amount computing formula is: fertilizing amount (kilogram/mu)=(the required total nutrient content of target output-fertilizer provision from soil amount)/(nutrient content * utilization rate of fertilizer in the fertilizer);
(2) base manure is based on fertilizer, the compounding application chemical fertilizer, fertilizer should all apply, the fertilizer sowing amount is 4000 kilograms every mu, nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer respectively apply 70% of its aggregate demand, potash fertilizer applies 50% of its aggregate demand, begins after the therefrom ripe apple of fertilizing time is gathered, and early or mid November finishes;
(3) topdress: impose 30% of nitrogenous fertilizer aggregate demand before rudiment, impose 30% of phosphate fertilizer aggregate demand before the flower bud differentiation, fruit expanding period imposes 50% of potash fertilizer aggregate demand;
(4) spray leaf fertilizer: spray 6-8 the whole year, the copperas solution that it is 0.2-0.4% that budding period every mu of orchard sprays 200 kilograms of concentration; Flowering stage every mu of orchard borax soln that to spray 200 kilograms of concentration be 0.2-0.3%; The precious solution of nitrate of lime that it is 0.3-0.5% that every mu of orchard of young fruit period sprays 200 kilograms of concentration or calcium; The little fertile solution of potassium dihydrogen phosphate that it is 0.2-0.3% that every mu of orchard of flower bud differentiation period sprays 200 kilograms of concentration or amino acid; Every mu of orchard of vigorous period sprays the natural pond liquid that becomes thoroughly decomposed that 200 kilograms of concentration are 10-20%; It is that 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate or concentration are 0.2% the precious solution of calcium that maturing stage every mu of orchard sprays 200 kilograms of concentration; To spray 200 kilograms of concentration be 0.5% urea liquid every mu of orchard after the fruit picking.
Fertilizer in the described step (2) is fecaluria class, barnyard manure class, compost class, cake fertilizer class, straw kind and miscellaneous fertilizers class; Chemical fertilizer in the described step (2) is nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer; Nitrogenous fertilizer is urea, carbonic hydroammonium or ammonium sulfate, and phosphate fertilizer is superphosphate or fused calcium magnesium phosphate, and potash fertilizer is potassium sulphate or potassium chloride.
The present invention precisely principle of fertilising is: on the basis of applying organic manure, culture fertility, weigh potassium, nitrogen pick-up, steady phosphorus, join trace element.
The present invention has following characteristics: 1, fertilization principle innovation.Apple fertilization principle in the past generally is " three is main, three combinations ", and promptly based on fertilizer, chemical fertilizer is auxilliary, and fertilizer and chemical fertilizer combine; Based on the root basal dressing, skilful spraying fertilizer is strengthened spray leaf fertilizer, and base manure, topdressing and spraying fertilizer combines; Based on macroelement, middle trace element is auxilliary, combines with middle trace element in a large number.This formulation principle is too strong, and is not concrete, is awkward.Through surveying the soil test, we are specially fertilization principle: on the basis of applying organic manure, culture fertility, weigh potassium, nitrogen pick-up, surely phosphorus, join little.2, innovate on the fertilization time.Changing traditional fertilizer applied in the spring season in the past is fertilising in autumn behind the fruit harvesting, improves utilization rate of fertilizer.3, fertilizing method innovation.Change in the past single fertilization for based on the root basal dressing, skilful spraying fertilizer is strengthened foliage-spray, base manure, topdress, spray fertilizer and combine, satisfies fruit tree at the needs of different growth stage to Different Nutrients as far as possible.4, fertilizing amount innovation.Habits fertilization method by the past becomes by measuring soil nutrient content, determines target output, and the utilization minusing is determined fertilizing amount, has accomplished the precision fertilising basically.
The present invention compared with prior art has the following advantages: adopt the present invention to carry out the apple orchard and precisely apply fertilizer, the per mu yield and the output value have increased by 21.5% and 21.3% respectively, percent rate of high quality fruit is brought up to more than 62% by 35%, 615 yuan of every mu of orchard net added values, the mu net income is significantly improved obvious economic.
Embodiment
A kind of accurate fertilization method for apple tree is characterized in that this method may further comprise the steps:
(1) executing on the basis of 4000 kilograms of high-quality fertilizers at mu, is soil fertility according to nutrient content in the soil, determines target output, and determines the chemical fertilizer fertilizing amount according to the required fertility of target output, soil supplying nutrient capability and chemical fertilizer utilization ratio; Chemical fertilizer fertilizing amount computing formula is: fertilizing amount (kilogram/mu)=(the required total nutrient content of target output-fertilizer provision from soil amount)/(nutrient content * utilization rate of fertilizer in the fertilizer);
(2) base manure is based on fertilizer, the compounding application chemical fertilizer, fertilizer should all apply, the fertilizer sowing amount is 4000 kilograms every mu, nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer respectively apply 70% of its aggregate demand, potash fertilizer applies 50% of its aggregate demand, begins after the therefrom ripe apple of fertilizing time is gathered, and early or mid November finishes; The main benefit of this phase fertilising is: a, increase tree body nutrition deposit.Both satisfy fruit tree flower bud differentiation then to nutrient demand, helped coming the raising of year's harvest flower rate and percentage of fertile fruit again; B, raising fertilizer utilization ratio.Fertilising early can make fertilizer be activated fully, decomposes, and makes the availability of full element nutrient in the fertilizer double to improve; C, this phase are the root growth peak period, and wound healing is fast, and short root is many, and growth is fast, can improve the cold tolerance of tree body.
(3) topdress: according to the nutrient demand of fruit tree different growing, should give suitable topdressing, satisfy the tree body difference needs of period that grow to Different Nutrients.Impose 30% of nitrogenous fertilizer aggregate demand before rudiment, apply early after soil thaws, this phase topdresses and can promote fruit tree bud and bloom, and improves percentage of fertile fruit, promotes shoot growth, and the kind of topdressing is an instant nitrogenousfertilizer, advocates to impose urea; Impose 30% of phosphate fertilizer aggregate demand before the flower bud differentiation, in May the first tenday period of a month-impose by the end of May, this phase topdresses and can promote flower bud differentiation, promotes young fruit development, prevents or alleviates the shedding that causes because of malnutrition, and fertilizer type is based on diammonium phosphate; Fruit expanding period imposes 50% of potash fertilizer aggregate demand, and late June-early July imposes.Fruit expanding period is the accumulation period of sugar, imposes potash fertilizer, can promote the fruit expanding and colouring, improves fruit quality, increases output, topdresses based on potassium sulphate; Topdressing method can spread fertilizer over the fields, also can ditch spread.
(4) spray leaf fertilizer: spray 6-8 the whole year, the copperas solution that it is 0.2-0.4% that budding period every mu of orchard sprays 200 kilograms of concentration; Flowering stage every mu of orchard borax soln that to spray 200 kilograms of concentration be 0.2-0.3%; The precious solution of nitrate of lime that it is 0.3-0.5% that every mu of orchard of young fruit period sprays 200 kilograms of concentration or calcium; The little fertile solution of potassium dihydrogen phosphate that it is 0.2-0.3% that every mu of orchard of flower bud differentiation period sprays 200 kilograms of concentration or amino acid; Every mu of orchard of vigorous period sprays the natural pond liquid that becomes thoroughly decomposed that 200 kilograms of concentration are 10-20%; It is that 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate or concentration are 0.2% the precious solution of calcium that maturing stage every mu of orchard sprays 200 kilograms of concentration; To spray 200 kilograms of concentration be 0.5% urea liquid every mu of orchard after the fruit picking.Main replenish fruit tree at different growth stage to phosphorus potassium macroelement, the demand of trace element such as calcium, magnesium moderate-element and boron, iron, manganese, zinc.
Fertilizer in the described step (2) is fecaluria class, barnyard manure class, compost class, cake fertilizer class, straw kind and miscellaneous fertilizers class; Chemical fertilizer in the described step (2) is nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer.
Fertilizer mainly comprises: 1, fecaluria class: livestock and poultry and silkworm faeces etc.2, barnyard manure class: refer to the fertilizer that livestock waste and pad matting material hybrid reactor are made.3, compost class: refer to that straw, sawdust, weeds, fallen leaves etc. pile up for primary raw material, utilize microbial activities to make it to become thoroughly decomposed and decompose the fertilizer that forms.4, cake fertilizer class: be meant the remaining residue in oil crop oil expression back, comprise vegetable seed, cottonseed, soybean, sesame, groundnut cake etc.5, straw kind: crop stalk, branches and leaves etc.6, miscellaneous fertilizers class: the residue behind ash, hole clay fertilizer, soddy soil, the plantation edible mushroom etc.
Chemical fertilizer mainly comprises: 1, nitrogenous fertilizer class: urea, carbonic hydroammonium or ammonium sulfate.2, phosphate fertilizer class: superphosphate or fused calcium magnesium phosphate.3, potash fertilizer class: potassium sulphate or potassium chloride.
Forbid to use rubbish without harmless treatment, nitrate fertilizer, without fertilizer that expressly bans use of in the night soil that becomes thoroughly decomposed and country, the province and the fertilizer product of not getting permission to register.
1-4 gives birth to the young fruit garden and takes the annular groove fertilising, and radial canal or cingulum sulcus fertilising, furrow width 30-50 centimetre, ditch depth 30-40 centimetre are adopted in the garden of bearing fruit of growing up.Plough under in the soil degree of depth 20-30 centimetre after also spread fertilizer over the fields in the garden entirely. main cause: (1) furrow width 30-50 centimetre, both can reduce the fibrous root amount of damage, can enlarge fertilizer and soil contact again, prevent the concentrated root that burns of fertilizer.(2) the fruit tree system of fibrous root focuses mostly at 10-40 centimetre, and the required nutrient of soil mainly absorbs by the system of fibrous root.Ditch depth 30-40 centimetre helps fruit tree and absorbs nutrient. and above fertilizing method all requires loam to stir, and alternate application has in time pouring water of irrigation conditions after fertilising.
The fertile table of apple target output and fertility grade separation
Fruit tree foliar application table
Breeding time Fertilizer Concentration (%) Spray the position Main effect
Rudiment Ferrous sulfate 0.2-0.4 The treetop top Prevent and treat yellowtop
Bloom Borax 0.2-0.3 The flower column cap Improve fruit-setting rate
Young fruit (spending back 2-3 week) Nitrate of lime calcium treasured 0.3-0.5 Young fruit Improve resistance, increase the hardness of fruit
Flower bud differentiation The little fertilizer of potassium dihydrogen phosphate amino acid 0.2-0.3 Blade back Impel flower bud differentiation to promote that young fruit expands
Vigorous period Natural pond liquid becomes thoroughly decomposed 10-20 Blade back Promote the tree body to grow and improve photosynthetic usefulness
Ripe (adopting preceding 20-30 days) Potassium dihydrogen phosphate calcium treasured 0.5 0.2 The blade back fruit Promote fruit color to improve fruit quality
After the fruit picking Urea 0.5 Blade back Strengthen photosynthesis and increase nutrient accumulation

Claims (3)

1, a kind of accurate fertilization method for apple tree is characterized in that this method may further comprise the steps:
(1) executing on the basis of 4000 kilograms of high-quality fertilizers at mu, is soil fertility according to nutrient content in the soil, determines target output, and determines the chemical fertilizer fertilizing amount according to the required fertility of target output, soil supplying nutrient capability and chemical fertilizer utilization ratio; Chemical fertilizer fertilizing amount computing formula is: fertilizing amount (kilogram/mu)=(the required total nutrient content of target output-fertilizer provision from soil amount)/(nutrient content * utilization rate of fertilizer in the fertilizer);
(2) base manure is based on fertilizer, the compounding application chemical fertilizer, fertilizer should all apply, the fertilizer sowing amount is 4000 kilograms every mu, nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer respectively apply 70% of its aggregate demand, potash fertilizer applies 50% of its aggregate demand, begins after the therefrom ripe apple of fertilizing time is gathered, and early or mid November finishes;
(3) topdress: impose 30% of nitrogenous fertilizer aggregate demand before rudiment, impose 30% of phosphate fertilizer aggregate demand before the flower bud differentiation, fruit expanding period imposes 50% of potash fertilizer aggregate demand;
(4) spray leaf fertilizer: spray 6-8 the whole year, the copperas solution that it is 0.2-0.4% that budding period every mu of orchard sprays 200 kilograms of concentration; Flowering stage every mu of orchard borax soln that to spray 200 kilograms of concentration be 0.2-0.3%; The precious solution of nitrate of lime that it is 0.3-0.5% that every mu of orchard of young fruit period sprays 200 kilograms of concentration or calcium; The little fertile solution of potassium dihydrogen phosphate that it is 0.2-0.3% that every mu of orchard of flower bud differentiation period sprays 200 kilograms of concentration or amino acid; Every mu of orchard of vigorous period sprays the natural pond liquid that becomes thoroughly decomposed that 200 kilograms of concentration are 10-20%; It is that 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate or concentration are 0.2% the precious solution of calcium that maturing stage every mu of orchard sprays 200 kilograms of concentration; To spray 200 kilograms of concentration be 0.5% urea liquid every mu of orchard after the fruit picking.
2, accurate fertilization method for apple tree according to claim 1 is characterized in that the fertilizer in the described step (2) is fecaluria class, barnyard manure class, compost class, cake fertilizer class, straw kind and miscellaneous fertilizers class.
3, accurate fertilization method for apple tree according to claim 1 is characterized in that the chemical fertilizer in the described step (2) is nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer; Nitrogenous fertilizer is urea, carbonic hydroammonium or ammonium sulfate, and phosphate fertilizer is superphosphate or fused calcium magnesium phosphate, and potash fertilizer is potassium sulphate or potassium chloride.
CNB2007100174728A 2007-03-09 2007-03-09 Accurate fertilization method for apple tree Expired - Fee Related CN100493338C (en)

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