CN100490044C - Switch - Google Patents

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Publication number
CN100490044C
CN100490044C CN 200610126133 CN200610126133A CN100490044C CN 100490044 C CN100490044 C CN 100490044C CN 200610126133 CN200610126133 CN 200610126133 CN 200610126133 A CN200610126133 A CN 200610126133A CN 100490044 C CN100490044 C CN 100490044C
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China
Prior art keywords
beam
beams
switch
voltage
electrode
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CN 200610126133
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1929066A (en
Inventor
中村邦彦
中西淑人
内藤康幸
清水纪智
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松下电器产业株式会社
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Priority to JP2002217872 priority Critical
Priority to JP2002-217873 priority
Priority to JP2002-217872 priority
Priority to JP2003-184204 priority
Application filed by 松下电器产业株式会社 filed Critical 松下电器产业株式会社
Priority to CN03133185.8 priority
Publication of CN1929066A publication Critical patent/CN1929066A/en
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Publication of CN100490044C publication Critical patent/CN100490044C/en

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Abstract

本发明提供一种开关,它能缩短响应时间及降低外加电压。 The present invention provides a switch, which can shorten the response time and reducing the applied voltage. 该开关的构成包括为了对以互相稍微分开的间隔配置的第1根梁及第2根梁及第3根梁外加静电力而独立提供直流电位用的外加电压手段、及对各梁输入输出交流信号用的各梁上设置的电极(4~9),靠静电力使各梁(1~3)的位置变化、使梁(1~3)间的电容量变化。 Constituting the switch means comprises a voltage applied to the first and second beams a second beam two beam 3 is applied to the electrostatic spaced slightly apart from each other and arranged with the DC potential provided independently, and each of the AC input and output beams electrodes (4 to 9) for each beam signal provided, by changing the position of each of the electrostatic beam (1 to 3), that the change in capacitance between the beams (1 to 3). 通过使第1根梁(1)及第2根梁(2)间产生静电力,使两根梁都可动,从而梁(1、2)能高速地电耦合。 1 by the first beam (1) and two beams (2) generating an electrostatic force between the two beams can be fixed to the beam (2) is electrically coupled to high speed. 另外,使配置在第2根梁(2)对面的第3根梁(3)产生静电力,预先靠近第1根梁(1)及第2根梁(2),一旦第1根梁(1)及第2根梁间的静电力解除,第2根梁(2)向第3根梁(3)一侧移动,第1根梁(1)及第2根梁(2)的电耦合解除。 Further the configuration (3) to produce an electrostatic force to the second beams of three beams (2) opposite the first one close to advance the beam (1) and two beams (2), once a first beam (1 ) electrostatic force between the second lifting beam 2, the second beams (2) moves to the third beams (3) side, is electrically coupled to a first beam (1) and two beams (2) release .

Description

开关 switch

本申请是申请人于2003年7月25日提交的、申请号为"03133185.8"的、 发明名称为"开关"的发明专利申请的分案申请。 This application is the applicant on 25 July 2003, submitted application number "03133185.8", the name of the invention is a divisional application "switch" of the patent application.

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及用于电路的、利用由外部施加的力使电极机械移动、从而让信号通过或将其断开的开关。 The present invention relates to a circuit for using the external force applied by mechanical movement of the electrodes, so that signal or disconnect switch.

背景技术 Background technique

作为电路用开关,已知的有使用己有空气桥(airbridge)的开关。 A circuit switch, there is known a switch hexanoic air bridge (AirBridge) a. 在图16中,124为可动空气桥、126、 128为分别在基板129上形成的电极,靠电极126、 128和空气桥124间产生的静电力,使空气桥124向电极126或128水平移动。 In FIG. 16, 124 of the movable air bridge, 126, 128 of electrodes formed on a substrate 129, an electrostatic force by the electrode 126, between 128 and air bridges 124 produced by the air bridge 124 to the electrode 126 or 128 level mobile. 信号若输入空气桥124,则空气桥124与电极126或电极128间电连接, 使信号断开或通过,它作为开关而动作(例如参考专利文献l)。 If the input signal 124, the air bridge 124 and the air bridge electrode 126 or electrode 128 is electrically connected or disconnected by a signal, which operates as a switch (e.g., see Patent Document l).

另外,已知有如图17所示的微型机电RF开关。 Further, there is known RF MEMS switch 17 shown in FIG. 微型机电RF开关210具有下述的结构,即在基板221上形成多次弯折的弹簧悬架装置222,在其上悬架着微型平台220。 MEMS RF switch 210 has the following structure, i.e., spring suspension means 222 are formed zigzag on the substrate 221, on which the micro-suspension platform 220. 该微型平台220下形成信号线,在信号线和微型平台220 间一加上直流电位,就产生静电力,则平台220被信号线吸引。 Forming a signal line 220 under the micro-platform, between the signal line and the micro platform 220 plus a DC potential, an electrostatic force is generated, the platform 220 is sucked signal line. 这时,通过多次弯折弹簧结构,使构成梁的材料的内部残余应力几乎由弹簧的多次弯折部分释放,起到机械应力缓冲器的作用(例如参考专利文献2)。 In this case, by multiple bending spring structure that internal residual stress of the material constituting the beam is almost released by the zigzag portion of the spring, it acts as a mechanical stress of buffer (e.g., refer to Patent Document 2).

[专利文献1] [Patent Document 1]

特开2001-84884号公报 Laid-Open Gazette No. 2001-84884

[专利文献2] [Patent Document 2]

特幵2001-143595号公报 Special Jian No. 2001-143595 Gazette

但是,在上述专利文献1的结构中用静电力驱动空气桥124的情况下,为了实现更大的信号的隔离度,要加大电极126、 128与空气桥124的间隔,但因为静电力与距离的负2次幂成正比,所以静电力减小,响应时间就达不到希望的值。 However, with the configuration of Patent Document 1 is a case where the electrostatic force driving the air bridge 124, in order to achieve greater isolation of the signal, to increase the spacing 128 and 124 of the air bridge electrode 126, but because the electrostatic force negative power proportional to the distance of 2, the electrostatic force is reduced, the response time of less than a desired value. 另外,为了弥补静电力的减少,也有一种方法是使外加电压增加,但是,对于要求功耗小、驱动电压低的无线通信器件,增加外加电压并不是一种理想的方法。 In order to compensate for reduced electrostatic force, there is a method of the applied voltage is increased, however, the requirements for low power consumption, low driving voltage, a wireless communication device, increasing the applied voltage is not an ideal method.

另外,因为空气桥124是直线的梁结构,在梁的内部若有拉伸应力存在就会象一根绷紧的弦一样使对静电力的刚性增强,拉入(pull-in)电压(取决于静电力的吸引电压)提高。 Further, since the air bridge beam structure 124 is a straight, stretched in the interior of the beam if the presence of a taut string will be the same as the rigidity of reinforcing the electrostatic force, the pull-in (pull-in) voltage stress (depending on the static electricity attracts voltage) increase. 而温度一上升,梁的内应力又有可能转变成压縮应力,产生纵弯曲。 A rise in temperature, may have stress beam into compressive stress, buckling is generated. 即,如不能对生产过程中产生的残余应力、开关动作时的环境温度进行一定的管理,就无法保证稳定的开关动作特性。 That is, as the residual stress is not generated in the production process, the ambient temperature at the switching operation of certain management, can not ensure a stable operation of the switching characteristics.

另一方面,在专利文献2的微型平台结构中,分成与信号线耦合的区域、 以及为了缓和应力的弯折弹簧悬架结构部(屈曲结构(flexure))。 On the other hand, in the micro platform structure in Patent Document 2, it is divided into regions coupled to the signal line, and to alleviate the bent portion of the spring suspension structure (buckling structure (flexure)) stress. 即设置了用于缓和内部应力的附加结构。 I.e., provided with additional structure for the internal stress relaxation. 从牛顿的运动方程式可知:在对具有质量m 的构件施加同样的力时,质量m越小,构件产生的加速度越大。 From Newton's equation of motion found: upon application of a force to the member having the same mass m of the mass m, the larger the acceleration generated by the member. 因此,在所述结构中,因为附加了屈曲结构,因此质量m增大,所以存在响应速度不够快的问题。 Thus, in the structure, since the additional buckling structure, the mass m is increased, there is the problem of the response speed is not fast enough. 另外,屈曲结构越软,越能缓解平台220受到的支持部的约束,故如果在膜的厚度方向存在应力梯度,则由于应力释放,使平台220上翘,离开基板221。 Further, the softer the buckling structure, it can alleviate the constraint by the support portion 220 of the platform, so that if there is a stress gradient in the thickness direction of the film, due to stress relaxation, so upturned platform 220, 221 away from the substrate. 在梁的制造工序中如不能高精度地再现这一应力梯度值,则该翘曲的程度就不一致,就不能抑制平台220和信号线间的电容减小的离散及拉入电压增大的离散。 The discrete beams in the manufacturing process can not be reproduced accurately in the stress gradient value, the degree of the warpage will not match, the discrete capacitor can not be suppressed between the platform 220 is reduced and the signal line and the pull-in voltage is increased . 另外,如利用半导体工艺制造,则因梁和屈曲结构为同一种材料的导电体,所以在高频电路中该屈曲部分的电路阻抗就不能忽略。 Further, by using such a semiconductor manufacturing process, due to buckling of the beam structure and the same conductive material, the circuit impedance in the high frequency circuit of the bent portion can not be ignored.

另外,若环境温度变化,则因基板材料与梁的材料的热膨胀系数不同,会产生热应力。 Further, if the ambient temperature changes, since the substrate material and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the different beams, thermal stress is generated. 该热应力的产生原因虽不同于前述制造工序中的残余应力,但同样会引起"随着梁的应力释放而变形"的现象,因此必须考虑到它对电容量及拉入电压的影响。 This causes thermal stress, although the residual stress is different from the manufacturing process, but also cause "stress relief as the beam is deformed" phenomenon, and therefore must be considered and its impact electrical capacitance of the pull-in voltage.

本发明系鉴于以上诸点而提出的,其目的在于提供一种能实现縮短响应时 The present invention is proposed in view of the points above, and its object is to provide a faster response time can be achieved

间并降低外加电压的开关。 Between the applied voltage and reduce the switching.

另外,目的在于提供一种能实现没有拉入电压增大的离散的开关。 Another object is to provide a pull-in voltage can be achieved without increasing the discrete switch.

另外,目的在于提供一种能抑制因梁的内应力变化而引起开关特性变化的开关。 Another object is to provide a switch can be suppressed due to stress caused by changes in the beam switching characteristics change.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明的一种开关包括以互相仅稍微分开的间隔配置的第1、第2、第3 根梁,为了对前述梁外加静电力而独立提供直流电位用的外加电压装置,以及设在各梁上的对各梁输入输出交流信号用的电极。 A switch according to the present invention includes a first, second, and third beams to each other spaced only slightly apart, the voltage applied to the means for applying static electricity beam independently provided with DC potential, and provided at each of the beams the input and output electrodes alternating signal for each beam. 靠静电力使各根梁的位置变化,使梁间的电容量变化。 By electrostatic forces changing the position of the respective beams, so that the change in capacitance between the beams.

按照这种结构,通过使第1、第2两根梁之间产生静电力,使第1、第2 两根梁都可动,从而梁能更高速地电耦合,并且,为了使梁高速地分开,通过在与第2根梁相对设置的第3根梁上产生静电力,并预先靠近第1及第2根梁, 因为能在第2和第3根梁之间施加较强的静电力,所以能更高速地响应。 According to this configuration, the first, the second between the two beams is generated electrostatic force, the first and second two beams can move at higher speed so that the beam can be electrically coupled to, and, in order to make the beam at high speed separated, by generating the first beam and the second three beams disposed opposite electrostatic force, and close the first and second predetermined beams, since a strong electrostatic force can be applied between the second and the third beams , so that a high speed response can be more.

另外,本发明通过使梁设计成相同形状的弯曲,使得与梁的内应力变化相对应的拉入电压的变化得到缓和,同时,也能缓和梁的变形引起的梁间电容量的变化。 Further, the present invention is designed to be bent by the beam of the same shape, so that the inner stress beam changes corresponding to the pull-in voltage is alleviated, while also easing the capacitance variation between the beam due to deformation of the beam.

本发明的另一种开关包括设置在基板上的电极,以对所述电极能耦合和分开并随外加电压的变化其内应力发生变化的可动体作为构成要素的可动电极, 在所述电极和所述可动电极间产生静电力的第1外加电压装置,以及对所述可动体施加电压的第2外加电压装置。 Another switch of the present invention includes an electrode disposed on a substrate, can be coupled to the electrodes and a separate and varies with the applied voltage, the internal stress of the movable body changes as the movable element electrodes, the and the movable electrode between the electrodes means the voltage applied to the first electrostatic force, and applying the second voltage means a voltage applied to the movable body.

由此,能利用半导体薄膜工艺构成低电压、高速驱动、并且受残余应力及热膨胀而产生的特性变化小的超小型可变电容型开关。 Thus small, it can be configured using a semiconductor thin film process a low voltage, high speed driving, and by the residual stress and thermal expansion of the ultra-small changes in the characteristics of the variable capacitance switch.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1为表示本发明实施形态1的幵关简要构成的斜视图。 FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a schematic form of Jian closed configuration of the present embodiment of the invention.

图2(a)为本发明实施形态1的开关连接电路图。 FIG 2 (a) Embodiment 1 is connected to form a circuit diagram of the switch of the present invention.

图2(b)为本发明实施形态1的开关等效电路图。 FIG 2 (b) an equivalent circuit diagram of the present embodiment switches an aspect of the present invention.

图3(a)至(f)为说明本发明实施形态1的开关动作的示意图。 FIG. 3 (a) to (f) is a diagram illustrating switching operation of Embodiment 1 of the present invention.

图4(a)至(f)为表示本发明实施形态1的开关制造工艺的一个示例的剖面图。 FIG. 4 (a) to (f) is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the present invention, an example of manufacturing process of switching Form 1.

图5为表示本发明实施形态2的开关重要部分的剖面图。 FIG 5 is a sectional view of an important part of the switch according to the second embodiment of the present invention. 图6为本发明实施形态3的开关连接电路图。 Embodiment 6 FIG. 3 is connected to the switch circuit diagram of the present invention. 图7为表示本发明实施形态3的开关简要构成的剖面图。 7 is a cross-sectional view showing a state of the switch 3 is a schematic configuration of the embodiment of the present invention. 图8(a) 、 (b)为表示本发明实施形态4的开关简要构成的斜视图及平面图。 FIG 8 (a), (b) is a perspective view showing the present invention and a plan shape of a schematic configuration of the switch 4. 图9为表示本发明实施形态4的开关中梁的内应力与拉入电压间关系的特性图。 9 is a characteristic diagram showing the stress beam embodiment of the present invention the switch 4 with the voltage relationship between the pull.

图10为表示本发明实施形态4的开关中梁的内应力与梁间电容量间关系的特性图。 FIG 10 is a characteristic diagram showing the relationship between the capacitance of the switch according to the fourth intermediate internal stress beam to beam embodiment of the present invention. 图11为说明本发明实施形态4的开关一个制造方法示例用的剖面图。 FIG 11 is a sectional view illustrating Embodiment 4 of the present invention is a manufacturing example of the switching method used.

图12为表示本发明实施形态4的开关中梁的内应力与梁的1阶谐振频率间关系的特性图。 FIG 12 is a characteristic diagram showing the relationship between the resonance frequency of the switch embodiment of the present invention, the stress beam 4 and the 1-order beam.

图13(a)为表示在本发明实施形态5的开关的电极上不外加电压状态下的简要构成的示意图。 FIG 13 (a) is a schematic view of a schematic configuration showing the voltage state is not applied on the electrodes of the switch embodiment of the present invention is 5.

图13(b)为表示在本发明实施形态5的开关的电极上外加电压状态下的简要构成的示意图。 FIG. 13 (b) is a schematic view of a schematic configuration showing the voltage state is applied on the electrodes of the switch embodiment of the present invention is 5.

图14为表示本发明实施形态5的开关的可动体材料的外加电压和内应力间关系的特性图。 14 is a characteristic diagram showing the relationship between the voltage and the internal stress of the material applied to the movable member 5 of the switch embodiment of the present invention.

图15为说明本发明实施形态5的开关控制方法的示意图。 15 is a schematic view of a switch control method according to embodiment 5 of the present invention is described.

图16为表示以往的开关的一个示例的立体图。 FIG 16 is a perspective view showing an example of a conventional switch.

图17为表示以往的其它开关的一个示例的立体图。 FIG 17 is a perspective view of a conventional example of other switches.

标号说明 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1、 2、 3、 31、 32、 33、 81、 82、 83 梁 1, 2, 3, 31, 32, 33, 81, 82, the beam 83

4〜9 电极 4~9 electrode

41 高阻硅基板 High resistance silicon substrate 41

42 硅氧化膜43硅氮化膜44硅氧化膜45 牺牲层站Al层 42 silicon oxide film 43 a silicon nitride film 44 a silicon oxide film sacrificial layer 45 station Al layer

47光刻胶图形48、 51 梁49 间隙50硅氮化膜 47 the photoresist pattern 48, the beam 51 a silicon nitride film 49 gap 50

84、 85 拉桩(anchor)部86 光刻胶 84, 85 piles (Anchor) portions of the photoresist 86

87、 88 籽晶层(seed layer) 87, 88 of the seed layer (seed layer)

89 开关 89 switch

90 阳极电极101输入端子102 输出端子 90 anode 101 input terminal 102 output terminal

103 可动体 The movable member 103

104 可动电极 The movable electrode 104

105 电极 105 electrodes

具体实施形态 DETAILED Embodiment

本发明的要点为,靠静电力使三根梁的相对位置发生变化,使梁间电容量发生变化,从而进行电耦合或断开,在这样的开关中,通过使各梁均可动,从而实现能高速开关并以低直流电位控制的结构。 Gist of the invention is, relative position by the electrostatic force is changed three beams, so that the beam between the capacitance changes, thereby electrically coupling or disconnecting, in such a switch, by the respective beams can move, in order to achieve high speed switching and low DC potential control structure.

另外,在本结构中,通过将构成开关的梁做成弯曲结构,从而缓和与梁的内应力变化对应的拉入电压的变化,同时也缓和因梁的变形引起的梁间电容量的变化。 Further, in the present configuration, the beam is made by a switch constituting the curved configuration, thereby mitigating changes in the pull-in voltage stress within the beam corresponding to the beam while also easing the capacitance variation between the beam caused by deformation.

以下,利用附图,详细说明本发明的实施形态。 Hereinafter, using the drawings, detailed description of embodiments of the present invention. (实施形态1) (Embodiment 1)

参照图1至图3,说明本发明的实施形态1。 Referring to FIG. 1 to FIG. 3, an embodiment of the present invention. 图1表示实施形态1的开关简要构成图。 1 showing an embodiment of a schematic configuration of the switch of FIG 1 FIG. 1为第1根梁、2为第2根梁、3为第3根梁。 1 is the beam 1, beam 2 for the first 2, 3 for the first three beams. 各根梁l、 2、 3用适当的形状及材质形成,能使电信号无损耗地传递,表面设置几十纳米级别的绝缘膜。 Each beams l, 2, 3 are formed with an appropriate shape and material, the electrical signal can be transmitted without loss, the surface of an insulating film of several tens of nanometers. 各梁l、 2、 3例如由铝、银、铜及合金等金属构成,形状例如为厚2 ixm、宽2,、长200 ym的两端固定的双支承梁结构,各自以满足规定隔离度的间隔、例如0.6ura的间隔平行配置。 Each beam l, 2, 3 is made of metal such as aluminum, silver, copper and alloys e.g., for example, a thickness of 2 IXM shape, width 2 ,, a fixed length of 200 ym double bearing ends beam structure, in order to meet each predetermined isolation intervals, for example arranged in spaced parallel 0.6ura. 梁l、 2、 3不一定要是双支承梁结构, 也可以是单支承梁。 Liang l, 2, 3 do not have to double-supported beam structure, the support may be a single beam. '另外,通过使梁l、 2、 3的形状变化,而能使梁的弹簧常数变化。 'In addition, the beam l, 2, 3 change in shape, and can change the spring constant of the beam. 还有,各梁l、 2、 3采用能使内应力尽量小的结构及工艺。 Further, each beam l, 2, 3 using the internal stress as small as possible to make the structure and process. 这在后面将详述。 This will be described in detail later.

梁1的两端接电极4、 7,梁2的两端接电极5、 8,梁3的两端接电极6、9。 An electrode connected to both ends of the beam 4, 7, both ends of the beam 2 connected to electrode 5, 8, 3 of the beam ends connected to the electrodes 6,9.

为了便于以后的说明,例如将电极5作为输入端子外加输入信号,电极7 作为输出端子连接天线端,电极9连接50Q终端电阻,以这样的情况为例进行说明。 For convenience of explanation later, for example, an input terminal electrode 5 as an external input signal, the electrode 7 connected to the antenna terminal as an output terminal, the electrode terminal 50Q resistor 9 is connected, in such a case will be described as an example. 图2(a)表示连接电路,图2(b)表示其等效电路。 FIG 2 (a) represents a connection circuit, FIG. 2 (b) indicates an equivalent circuit thereof. 在以下的说明中,所谓开关ON时,系指在图2(a)中电极5和电极7连接的状态;开关OFF时,系指在图2(a)中将电极5和电极7断开、电极5和电极9连接的状态。 In the following description, a so-called switch is ON, the state means connected electrodes 5 and 7 in FIG. 2 (a); and when the switch is OFF, means in FIG. 2 (a) in the electrodes 5 and 7 disconnected , electrodes 5 and 9 are connected state.

按照图2(a)及图2(b)的结构,在开关OFF时,从输入端子的角度看,因为终端为50Q,因此不产生反射波。 Structure (a) and FIG. 2 (b), and when the switch OFF, the input terminal from the perspective of view according to FIG. 2, since the terminal of 50Q, a reflected wave is not generated. 另个在开关OFF时,C,的阻抗变大,而Cs 的阻抗变小,故输入端子输入的信号通过C2及50Q电阻接地,从而使作为天线端子的电极7和作为输入端子的电极5之间的隔离度更大。 The other one when the switch is OFF, C, impedance becomes large, and Cs impedance becomes small, the signal terminal input so that input grounded through a resistor C2 and 50Q, so that the electrode is an electrode antenna terminal 7 and an input terminal 5 of greater isolation between. 这时,也可以根据需要在输入信号源和作为输入端子的电极5之间、及作为输出端子的电极7和天线端之间配置电容。 At this time, you may be required between the input signal and a source electrode as an input terminal 5, and a capacitor disposed between the antenna terminal electrode 7 and the output terminal. 还有,为了更加提高隔离度,也可不设50Q电阻而直接接地。 Further, in order to further improve isolation, may not be provided directly to ground and resistor 50Q.

另外,也能将电极9不接终端而连接其它输出端子,实现单输入双输出的分配开关。 Further, an electrode can not contact the terminal 9 is connected to the other output terminal of the distribution switch to achieve single input and two outputs. 另外,如将电极5作为输出端子、将电极7及9作为来自天线的输入端子,则也能作为双天线输入-单输出的选择开关。 Further, as the electrode 5 as an output terminal, the electrodes 7 and 9 as the input terminal from an antenna, the antenna can be designed as a dual input - single output selection switch.

利用图3说明开关动作。 3 illustrates the use of a switching operation. 图3(a)表示在图1的开关中各电极4〜9上未外加电压的状态。 FIG. 3 (a) shows a state of the switch of FIG. 1, not applying a voltage on each electrode 4~9. 接着,为了使信号从输入端子耦合到天线端子,在图3(b)中, 若在规定的响应时间使连接电极4的控制电压源10的直流电位成为High,并且在规定的响应时间分别使连接端子5的控制电压源11的直流电位及连接电极6的控制电压源12的直流电位成为Low,则因为在梁1和梁2之间产生静电力,所以梁1和梁2互相吸引接触。 Next, in order that the signal is coupled from the input terminal to the antenna terminal, in FIG. 3 (b), when making the response time of a predetermined connection electrodes a control voltage source 4 DC potential 10 becomes High, and the predetermined response time respectively connection terminals 5 bits of the DC voltage source and a control electrode connected to the DC voltage source 11 is controlled to 12 6 bits becomes Low, because the electrostatic force is generated between the beam 1 and the beam 2, the beam 1 and beam 2 suction contact with each other.

这时,若梁l和梁2做成相同的形状,弹簧常数及质量也相同,则梁l和梁2在中间地点接触。 In this case, when the beam and the beam l 2 is made the same shape, the spring constant and the same quality, the beam and the beam l 2 in the middle of the contact locations. 这种情况与将梁1、 2之任一方作为固定电极的情况相比,对于相同的静电力,因梁1、 2之间距离的位移量成两倍变化,所以就能以更高速度来响应,另外,若是相同的响应时间,也就能以更低的电压控制。 This case the beam 1, as compared to one of the claims 2 as the fixed electrode, an electrostatic force for the same, due to the beam 1, the distance between 2 to double the amount of displacement changes, it can be at a higher speed in response, in addition, if the same response time, also can be controlled at a lower voltage. 例如,若取电极4的直流电位为7. 25V,则响应时间能做到在5y s以下,但在仅使单侧可动的情况下,响应时间变成7.4ns,响应时间延长,达到约1.5倍。 For example, if we take a DC potential electrode 4 to 7. 25V, the response time can be done in 5y s or less, but in the case where only the one-side movable response time becomes 7.4ns, response times, of about 1.5 times. 反之,如为了做到响应时间为5y s,则外加电压必须为10. 3V。 Conversely, if the response time in order to achieve 5y s, the applied voltage must be 10. 3V.

梁1与梁2—接触,从作为输入端子用的电极5输入的交流信号,通过设置在各梁l、 2表面的绝缘膜进行电容耦合,从梁2传到梁1,向输出端子即电极7输出。 2- beam 1 in contact with the beam, the electrodes 5 as an AC signal input from the input terminals of the respective beams provided in the surface of the insulating film 2 l are capacitively coupled, a beam transmitted from the beam 2, i.e., the output terminal electrode 7 output.

在图3(b)的状态下,若连接梁3的电极6的控制电压源12的直流电位为High,则梁3和梁2间就产生静电力,如图3(c)那样,梁3向梁2的方向移动。 In the state of FIG. 3 (b), the electrode connected to the beam 3 when a control voltage source 12 of DC potential 6 is High, the beam 2 and beam 3 generated electrostatic force, as shown in FIG 3 (c) above, the beam 3 2 move in the direction of the beam. 这时,虽然梁l、 2也同样向梁3方向移动,但梁l、 2两根耦合,因此等效的弹簧常数大,所以比梁3的移动量小。 In this case, although the beam l, 2 3 also moves in the direction of the beam, but the beam l, 2 two coupling, and therefore a large equivalent spring constant is small than an amount of movement of the beam 3. 这里,设加在电极6上的直流电位为低于梁3不拉入的电压。 Here, the upper electrode 6 provided in applied DC potential to pull 3 is not lower than the voltage of the beam. 若是前述条件,因为拉入电压为6.7V左右, 一旦外加该值以下的电压,梁3的最大位移量约为0, 15um,梁2、 3间的最大间隙成为0. 75um。 If the aforementioned conditions, since the pull-in voltage is about 6.7V, the voltage value is once applied, the maximum displacement of the beam 3 is about 0, 15um, the maximum gap beams 2, 3 becomes 0. 75um. 由于静电力与距离的平方成反比,所以与梁3不移动时相比,梁3 与梁2间产生的静电力增大为1.4倍。 Due to the static electricity and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance, as compared with the beam 3 is not moved, the electrostatic force generated by the beam 3 and beam 2 is increased to 1.4 times.

还有,也可以不是从图3(b)的状态将直流电位加在电极6上,而是瞬时使电极4和电极5的直流电位反转。 There may not be a state shown in FIG 3 (b) is the DC potential applied to the electrode 6, the electrode 4 but transient DC potential and the electrode 5 is reversed. 这样不用控制电压源12重新外加直流电位就能够使梁3和梁2间产生静电力。 12 so do not re-applied control voltage source a DC potential can cause the beam 2 and beam 3 to generate an electrostatic force. 这时因为梁2、 3的间隙大所以不会拉入。 This is because the beam 2, the gap 3 is not so great pull.

另外,在要求高隔离度的状况下,若使控制电压源12的直流电位保持为Low的状态,则由于梁3不可动,梁2、 3间的间隙能保持在增大的状态,能使梁2和梁3的电耦合减小。 Further, in the high isolation requirements of the situation, when the DC control voltage source 12 is kept Low bit state, since the non-movable beam 3, beam 2, the gap 3 can be maintained at an increased state, can beam 2 and beam 3 is electrically coupled reduced.

接着,对切断通向电极7的电路、把输入信号从天线端即电极7切换到电极9的开关OFF动作进行说明。 Next, the cutting electrode lead circuit 7, the input signal is switched from the antenna terminal electrode 7 i.e. to switching OFF operation of the electrode 9 will be described.

在图3(c)的状态下,加在电极4上的直流电位从High—旦成为Low,因梁l、 2间不产生静电力,所以如图3(d)那样,梁l及梁2凭自身的弹力回到原始位置。 In the state of FIG. 3 (c), and applied to the electrode 4 from the DC potential High- denier become Low, because the beam l, 2 Room electrostatic force is not generated, so that as shown in FIG 3 (d) as beams and beam l 2 with its own stretch back to the original position. 这时,因为梁3预先弯向梁2的方向,所以梁2如图3(e)那样,由于梁2、 3间产生的静电力而强烈高速地向梁3的方向移动,并与其接触。 At this time, since the beam 3 is bent in advance direction of the beam 2, the beam 2 in FIG. 3 (e) above, since 2, the electrostatic force generated between the beam 3 and move in a direction strongly at high speed beam 3, and in contact therewith. 梁2 与梁3 —旦接触,从输入端子的电极5输入的交流信号通过设置在各梁2、 3 表面的绝缘膜进行电容耦合,从梁2传向梁3,向电极9输出。 Beam 2 and beam 3 - contacting denier, an AC signal is capacitively coupled to the input electrode 5 through the input terminal 2 is disposed, the insulating film 3 surface of each beam, the beam 3, beam 2 transmitted from the output to the electrode 9.

这样,在开关0FF时,使梁2及梁3耦合,在图2(b)中,因C2短路,信号难以传送到Ci,故能确保更高的隔离度。 Thus, when the switch 0FF, the coupling beam 2 and beam 3, in FIG. 2 (B), short circuit C2, is difficult to transmit the signal to Ci, it can ensure a higher degree of isolation.

在未使梁3预先向梁2的方向弯曲时,因最大间隙变为0.9ym,若不加上更高的电压,就不能得到所希望的响应时间。 3 the beam is not pre-curved in the direction of the beam 2, the gap becomes maximum due 0.9ym, if combined with the higher voltage, can not be obtained the desired response time.

还有,如果在图3(e)的状态下,还和图3(c)的情况一样,将直流电位加在电极4上,使梁1和梁2间加上静电力,则如图3(f)那样,梁1弯向梁2方向,能使最大间隙縮小。 Also, if in the state of FIG. 3 (e), further, and FIG. 3 (c) as in the case, the DC potential applied to the electrode 4, the beam 1 and the beam 2 together with the electrostatic force, the 3 (f) as a bent beam direction of the beam 2, can reduce the maximum gap.

通过上述开关动作,在0N状态及0FF状态时,加上信号的梁2总是与别的梁1或梁3接触,变成锁定(latch)状态。 By the switching operation, and when the state 0N 0FF state, coupled with the signal beam 2 always in contact with the beam or other beam 3 1, becomes locked (LATCH) state. 通过这样,假定在梁2输入大功率的信号时,若是未锁定的状态,则梁2由于自身的静电力有可能被拉向梁l或梁3,但现在因为梁2总是由梁l或梁3锁定,故能防止误动作。 By this, it is assumed that when the input signal power beam 2, if the non-locked state, the girder 2 itself due to the static electricity is likely to be pulled beam or beam l 3, but since the beam from the beam always l or 2 locking beam 3, it is possible to prevent malfunction.

以上,对各梁l、 2、 3靠静电力在水平方向可动的情况作了说明,但也可以将各梁l、 2、 3做成在垂直方向上排列,使其在垂直方向上可动。 Above, each beam l, 2, 3 by the electrostatic force has been described in the case of the horizontal direction of the movable, but each beam may be l, 2, 3 is made in the vertical direction are arranged in the vertical direction so that it can move. 另外这里虽然用静电力作驱动力,但也可以例如用电磁力或压电、热等效应。 Also here though the electrostatic force driving force, but may be an electromagnetic force or a piezoelectric effect, for example, heat and the like. 另外,除了使各梁l、 2、 3在空气中动作外,还可使其在真空中、惰性气体中动作。 Further, in addition to the respective beam l, 2, 3 in the outer air operation, it may be in a vacuum, an inert gas operation. 接着,利用图4的工序剖面图说明图l的开关的一个制造工序例子。 Next, a process sectional view of FIG. 4 illustrates one example of a manufacturing process of the switch of Figure l. 在图4(a)中,把高阻硅基板41加热氧化,在基板41上形成膜厚300nm左右的硅氧化膜42。 In FIG. 4 (a), high resistance to thermal oxidation of the silicon substrate 41, a thickness of about 300nm silicon oxide film 42 is formed on the substrate 41. 在其上用减压CVD法,淀积膜厚200nm的硅氮化膜43。 On which the silicon nitride film 43 of 200nm pressure CVD method, a deposited film thickness. 再用减压CVD 法淀积膜厚50nm的硅氧化膜44。 Deposited film thickness of 50nm CVD method and then a silicon oxide film 44 under reduced pressure.

接着,在图4(b)中,在硅氧化膜44上将光刻胶构成的牺牲层通过旋涂形成膜厚2ym、再经曝光、显影后,用加热板在14(TC下烘干10分钟,形成牺牲层45。 Next, in FIG. 4 (b), the sacrificial layer on the silicon oxide film 44 formed by spin coating a photoresist film thickness constituted by 2ym, then exposed, developed, the heating plate 14 (TC drying at 10 minutes, the sacrificial layer 45 is formed.

然后,如图4(c)所示;在基板整个面上用溅射法淀积膜厚2um的Al层46,形成光刻胶47的图形,使得抗蚀剂残存在规定的区域。 Then, as shown in FIG 4 (c) as shown; the film thickness of Al layer is deposited by sputtering on the entire surface of the substrate 2um 46, a photoresist pattern 47 is formed such that the resist remains in a predetermined area.

接着,如图4(d)所示,将前述光刻胶组成的图形47作为掩膜,进行A1层46的干法刻蚀,形成梁48,再用氧等离子除去光刻胶组成的图形47及牺牲层45。 Next, as shown in FIG 4 (d), the composition of the photoresist pattern 47 as the mask, dry etching the A1 layer 46, the beam 48 is formed, then the resist pattern is removed plasma composed of oxygen 47 and the sacrificial layer 45. 利用以上的工序,形成相对于基板41的表面具有间隙49的梁48。 With the above process steps, with respect to the surface of the substrate 41 having a gap 49 of the beam 48.

再如图4(e)所示,在梁48的整个表面及基板表面的硅氧化膜44上,若用等离子CVD淀积膜厚50mn的硅氮化膜50,则在基板表面的硅氧化膜44上及梁48的周围形成硅氮化膜50。 4 (e), on the entire surface of the silicon oxide film and the substrate surface 44 of the beam 48, if the film thickness is deposited by plasma CVD 50mn silicon nitride film 50, the silicon oxide film on the surface of the substrate of FIG again a silicon nitride film 50 is formed on and around 44 of the beams 48.

最后,如图4(f)所示,通过用有各向异性的干法刻蚀法用前述淀积膜厚以上的膜厚,例如lOOnm,在与硅氧化膜44有选择比的条件下,对硅氮化膜50 进行凹蚀(etchback),进行使得其上表面没有硅氮化膜50仅在侧面残留硅氮化膜50的腐蚀,而形成梁51。 Finally, FIG. 4 (f), by using an anisotropic dry etching method using the thickness of the deposited film thickness of the above, e.g. lOOnm, in the silicon oxide film 44 has a selectivity condition, 50 for recessing (etchback) a silicon nitride film is performed such that the upper surface of a silicon nitride film 50 without etching the silicon nitride film remains only in the side surface 50, the beam 51 is formed.

还有,在本实施形态中,作为基板是使用了高阻硅基板41,但也可用通常的硅基板、化合物半导体基板及绝缘材料基板。 Further, in the present embodiment, the substrate is used as a high-resistance silicon substrate 41, but can also be typically a silicon substrate, a compound semiconductor substrate and the insulating material substrate.

另外,在高阻硅基板41上,作为绝缘膜,形成了硅氧化膜42、硅氮化膜43、硅氧化膜44,但在基板电阻十分高的场合,也可省去这些绝缘膜的形成。 Further, in the high-resistance silicon substrate 41, an insulating film, a silicon oxide film 42 is formed, a silicon nitride film 43, a silicon oxide film 44, but where the substrate resistance is very high, these can be eliminated by forming the insulating film . 另外,在硅基板上形成了硅氧化膜42、硅氮化膜43、硅氧化膜44这样的3层结构的绝缘膜,但是在硅氮化膜43的膜厚与梁上淀积的硅氮化膜相比有充分厚的膜厚,而且其膜厚到即使经历了所谓反复腐蚀的工序仍不消失的情况下, 硅氧化膜44的形成工序可省略。 Further, the silicon substrate 42 is formed a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride film 43, a silicon oxide film 44 of such a three-layer structure of the insulating film, but the thickness of silicon nitride and a silicon nitride film 43 is deposited beams compared with a sufficiently thick film thickness, and the thickness thereof even when subjected to a so-called repeated etching step does not disappear in the step of forming the silicon oxide film 44 may be omitted.

还有,在本实施形态中是使用Al作为形成梁的材料,但也可以用其它的金属材料,例如Mo、 Ti、 Au、 Cu、或者也可以使用掺入高浓度杂质的非晶态硅这样的半导体材料、有导电性的高分子材料等。 Further, in the present embodiment, Al is used as a material for forming the beam, but may be other metal materials, such as Mo, Ti, Au, Cu, or may be incorporated into a high-concentration impurity using amorphous silicon so semiconductor material, a polymer material conductive. 还有,作为成膜方法是使用了溅射法,但还可用CVD法、镀膜法等形成。 Further, as the film forming method using sputtering, but may also be formed by a CVD method, plating method and the like. (实施形态2) (Embodiment 2)

接着,参照图5说明第2实施形态2。 Next, with reference to FIG. 5 illustrates the second embodiment 2. 本实施形态基本上采取与第1实施形态同样的结构,但第2根梁32与第l根梁31、第3根梁33相比,厚度薄, 例如与第2根梁比,第1根梁和第3根梁做成厚1.5倍以上。 The present embodiment is basically adopted in the first embodiment, the same configuration, but the first two beams 32 and the beams 31 l, 33 compared to the first three beams, thickness, for example, than the two beams, a first a third beam and beams with a thickness of 1.5 times or more. 在这一实施形态中,第1根梁31和第2根梁32接触时,除了在第1根梁31和第2根梁32之间作用静电力34之外,在第1根梁31和第3根梁33之间也作用静电力35。 In this embodiment, the first contact beams 31 and two beams 32, in addition to the force acting between the first and the second beams 31 beams 32 power 34, a first beam 31 and 35 also the electrostatic force between the third 33 beams. 采取这种结构,如第l实施形态那样,在第1根梁31和第2根梁32接触后, 即使直流电位不重新加在电极6上,第3根梁33还是要向第2根梁32的方向移动。 This constitution, as in the first embodiment as l, after a first contact beams 31 and two beams 32, even without the DC potential applied to the electrode 6 again, the first three of the second beam 33 or beams To 32 in the direction of movement.

另外,此时,因为第1根梁31稍微向第3根梁33的方向靠近,所以第2 根梁的弹簧常数增大,其结构可做成第1根梁31和第2根梁32不是在中间地点、而是在更靠近第2根梁32的一侧接触。 In this case, since a first beam 31 in a direction slightly closer to the third beams 33, so the first spring constant of the beam 2 is increased, the structure can be made of the first beams 31 and two beams 32 not location in the middle, but the contact at the side closer to the second beams 32. (实施形态3) (Embodiment 3)

以下,参照图6及图7说明第3实施形态。 Hereinafter, referring to FIGS. 6 and 7 illustrates a third embodiment. 在本实施形态中,如图6所示, 相对于天线端子65对称配置多个(图6中为4个)图2(a)的开关电路。 In the present embodiment, as shown in FIG 6, 65 are arranged symmetrically with respect to a plurality of (four in FIG. 6) FIG. 2 (a) an antenna terminal switching circuit. 由此, 能够实现将对一个天线的输入分配成多个、可多输出的单输入多输出的开关。 Accordingly, it is possible will be assigned for a plurality of antenna input, multi-output switches can be single-input multi-output. 这种结构的开关能如图7所示,将实施形态l所用的开关作阵列排列,并将各开关进行电容耦合而构成。 This configuration can switch shown in FIG. 7, the embodiment arranged in an array form l The switch used, and is capacitively coupled to the respective switch configuration. 还有,图7为显示2个开关电路的情况。 Further, FIG. 7 is a case where two switching circuits. 在图7中, 电极71上的多根梁74形成梳形,各梁74之间设置梁75。 In FIG. 7, a plurality of beams 74 are formed on the comb-shaped electrodes 71, 75 disposed between the beams 74 beams. 梁75分别与多个电极72耦合。 Coupling beam 75 and a plurality of electrodes 72, respectively. 与电极72相对地设置电极73。 72 and electrode 73 disposed opposite to the electrodes. 电极71连接控制电压源76,电极72连接控制电压源77,电极73连接控制电压源78。 Voltage source 71 is connected to the control electrode 76, electrode 72 is connected to a control voltage source 77, a control electrode 73 is connected to a voltage source 78.

若电极71连接的控制电压源76的直流电位为High、电极72连接的控制电压源77的直流电位及电极73连接的控制电压源78的直流电位分别为Low, 则在梁74和梁75产发生电容耦合79,进行开关动作。 If the control voltage of the source electrode 71 connected to the DC potential 76 is High, the control voltage source electrode of the control voltage source 72 connected to the DC potential and the electrode 77 73 is connected to a DC potential 78 are Low, the 75 producing the beam 74 and beam 79 capacitive coupling occurs, the switching operation.

在实施形态l的开关中,在要求响应时间快的场合,可动梁的质量就必须小。 In the embodiment, the switch l, the fast response time required in the case, the movable mass of the beam must be small. 但在电容耦合的实施形态3的开关中,若将梁的质量减小,则电容耦合的截面积也变小,所以耦合度减少,传输损耗变大。 However, in the switch embodiment 3 of the capacitive coupling, when the beam quality is reduced, the capacitive coupling also becomes smaller cross-sectional area, coupling is reduced, the transmission loss becomes large. 因此,为了兼顾响应时间和传输损耗这两个互相相反的特性,所以把各根梁都做得非常小,以縮短响应时间,再通过将这些梁排成阵列,增大整个开关的耦合度,从而使响应时间和传输损耗两个特性均能满足。 Accordingly, in order to balance response time and the transmission loss characteristics of these two opposite each other, so each of the beams are made very small in order to shorten the response time, then these beams arrayed by increasing the degree of coupling throughout the switch, so that the response time and the transmission loss can satisfy two characteristics. 例如,设每根梁的形状为宽2, 5ym、厚2.5ixm、 长380 ii m,交流信号的频率为5GHz时,如并联配置5组开关,则能获得良好的通过特性。 For example, it is assumed the shape of a width of each beam 2, 5ym, thick 2.5ixm, length 380 ii m, when the frequency of the AC signal 5GHz, such as 5 arranged in parallel sets of switches, is able to obtain good pass characteristics.

在本实施形态中,因为是电容耦合,所以具有频率特性。 In the present embodiment, since the capacitive coupling, it has a frequency characteristic. 设图2的等效电路所示的串联侧开关的电容为C"对地的电容为C2,则阻抗Z可用(式l)表示。d和C2使用基本上相同的开关,d和C2的关系用(式2)表示。a表示电容的变化比,为梁间的间隙和绝缘体膜厚的比。 Side switch provided capacitors in series equivalent circuit shown in FIG. 2 is a C "ground capacitance of C2, the impedance Z can be used (formula l) and C2 represents the relationship .d Using essentially the same switch, d and C2 using (formula 2) .a change in the capacitance ratio represented, the gap between the insulator and the thickness ratio of the beam.

[式1] [Formula 1]

<formula>formula see original document page 12</formula> <Formula> formula see original document page 12 </ formula>

[式2]<formula>formula see original document page 12</formula> [Formula 2] <formula> formula see original document page 12 </ formula>

若a取得大,因驱动电压增大,响应时间也变长,所以不能太大。 If a large acquisition, because the driving voltage is increased, the response time becomes long, it is not too large. 例如, 设绝缘体膜厚为10nra、间隙为0. 6 um,则a为60。 For example, the film thickness of the insulator is set 10nra, a gap of 0. 6 um, 60 is a.

为了确保隔离度,阻抗为最大的条件可用(式3)表示,C,如下所示。 To ensure isolation, impedance condition can be the maximum (Formula 3), C, as shown below. 取a为60、适用频率为5GHz,则C,为4.2PF。 60 taken as a suitable frequency is 5GHz, the C, to 4.2PF. 据此来决定梁的形状,则可选用5 组厚2. 5ixm、宽2. 5um、长380ym的梁。 According to determine the shape of the beam may be 5 groups selected thickness 2. 5ixm, wide 2. 5um, long 380ym beam.

[式3] [Formula 3]

另外,在使用频率为lGHz的信号时,因频率降至1/5,因此采用的梁的组数也增加5倍成25组,则能得到与5GHz等同的特性,实现无频率特性的开关。 Further, when a signal having a frequency of lGHz, reduced to 1/5 due to the frequency, therefore the number of beams used in the group is increased by 5 to 25 groups, and it is able to obtain characteristics equivalent to 5GHz, the frequency characteristic-free switch.

按照本实施形态,通过把多个开关并联配置,能实现具有所希望的阻抗或电容的开关。 According to this embodiment, by a plurality of switches arranged in parallel, or switch impedance can be realized having the desired capacitance.

(实施形态4) (Embodiment 4)

以下,参照图8至图12说明本发明的实施形态4。 Hereinafter, with reference to FIGS. 8 to 12 illustrate Embodiment 4 of the present invention. 图8(a)为本发明实施形态4涉及的开关的斜视图,图8(b)为平面图。 FIG 8 (a) perspective view of the switch embodiment of the present invention relates to Embodiment 4, FIG. 8 (b) is a plan view. 第1根梁81、第2根梁82、 第3根梁83为双支承梁,其两端分别由拉桩部84、 85固定在基板(图中未示出)上,梁的厚tl=t2=t3=2y m、宽wl=w2=w3=2 um、长1^500ym。 The first beams 81 and second beams 82, three beams on the support beam 83 is double, both ends thereof are fixed by the piles 84, 85 (not shown) in the substrate, the beam thickness tl = t2 = t3 = 2y m, width wl = w2 = w3 = 2 um, 1 ^ 500ym long. 用杨氏模量77GPa的Al作为梁的材料。 Beams Al material Young's modulus as 77GPa. 各梁81、 82、 83间保持g=0. 6 um的间隔并列配置。 Each beam 81, 82, 83 holding g = 0. 6 um spaced parallel configuration. 在相邻的梁相对的侧面上形成约0.01um厚的绝缘层,由于其比梁宽小得多,所以对梁的机械特性影响小。 Forming an insulating layer in a thickness of about 0.01um adjacent opposite sides of the beam, because of its so small influence on the mechanical properties of the beam is much smaller than the beam width. 再者,绝缘膜可在相对的侧面的任一面或 Further, the insulating film may be on opposite sides of any one or

12两面上形成。 12 are formed on both sides.

如图8(b)所示,从开关的上方看,梁81、 82、 83呈S形弯曲,例如是以(式4)的正弦函数的1个周期呈现的字母S。 FIG 8 (b), the switch is viewed from above, beams 81, 82, 83 has an S-shaped bend, for example, is a cycle (Formula 4) exhibits a sine function letter S. [式4] [Formula 4]

y = 4ysin(2;r—) 丄 y = 4ysin (2; r-) Shang

但是,在图8(b)中,为便于理解,把弯曲夸张地描画出来。 However, in FIG. 8 (b), for ease of understanding, the drawing exaggeratedly curved out. 在梁中,X方向的内应力Sx和Y方向的内应力Sy不取决于X、 Y、 Z的位置,所存在的应力相同。 In the beam, the internal stress Sy stress Sx in the X direction and the Y-direction does not depend on the position of X, Y, the Z, the presence of the same stress. 另外,是Sx^Sy二S的各向同性的内应力。 Further, the internal stress is isotropic to Sx ^ Sy = S. 正确来讲,用半导体工艺制成的梁为在牺牲层上形成的梁,此时虽有内应力S,但通过除去牺牲层该内应力S是释放若干后的值。 Properly speaking, the beam is the beam formed by a semiconductor process on the sacrificial layer is formed, although internal stress S at this time, but by removing the sacrificial layer S is the value of the internal stress is released after a number of.

用图8的结构,在第1根梁81和第2根梁82之间加上电位差,利用静电力使两者弯曲时,内应力S与拉入电压间的关系如图9所示。 With the structure of FIG. 8, the potential difference between the first and the second beams 81 beams 82 together, so that the two electrostatic force is bent, the relationship between the internal stress S and the pull-in voltage as shown in FIG. 对弯曲的大小进行比较,即对(式4的)Ay的值为2、 4、 6ixm的情形进行比较。 Comparing the size of bending, namely 2, 4 6ixm case of (Formula 4) Ay value comparison. 此外,Ay=0, 即不弯曲的笔直的梁的情况也一并示出。 Further, Ay = 0, i.e., where the straight unbent beam are also shown. 这里因为一加压縮应力,就产生纵弯曲,所以仅表示应力S在正的范围,即拉伸应力时的值。 Added here because a compressive stress, buckling is generated, only the stress S represents the value of the positive range, i.e. tensile stress. 这样,只在明显产生弯曲时,能抑制因内应力S的增加导致拉入电压的增加,这是因为弯曲越大、 即Ay的值越大,则抑制效果亦就越大。 Thus, only when significant bending, stress can be suppressed due to the increase in S leads to increased pull-in voltage, which is curved because the larger, i.e., the larger the value of Ay, the greater the effect of suppressing also.

以下,为了验证S形弯曲的效果,说明把弯曲弯成拱形的情形。 Hereinafter, in order to verify the effect of the S-shaped bend, the curved arched described case. 拱形的弯曲以(式5)的正弦函数半个周期来近似。 Arcuate bent to (Formula 5) half period of the sine function is approximated. 设Ay二4nm时的内应力S和拉入电压间的关系一并示于图9。 The relationship between the internal stress S and the pull-in voltage provided at two 4nm Ay are shown in FIG.

[式5] [Formula 5]

少=/\y sin(;r _) 丄 Less = / \ y sin (; r _) Shang

很明显,拱形的场合,S=0〜30MPa,与A"2ym的S形相比,拉入电压增大,在30MPa以上的区域就逐渐靠近。在S=0〜10MPa的范围内,拉入电压反而比直梁大。但在S30士10MPa附近,因为拉入电压几乎一定,所以若能在该范围内抑制残余应力的离散,则具有能使拉入电压变化变小的优点。 Obviously, the case of arched, S = 0~30MPa, and A "2ym compared to the S-shaped pull-in voltage is increased, gradually close to the region of 30MPa or more. 0~10MPa in the range of S =, pull voltage but larger than the straight beam. However, persons in the vicinity of 10 MPa or S30, since the pull-in voltage is almost constant, so if discrete suppress residual stress within the above range, an advantage can pull the voltage change becomes small.

下面所示的情况是,通过对相邻的梁设置相同的弯曲,对于内应力引起的梁的变形,能抑制相邻的梁间电容量的变化。 The following is the case shown, by bending the same set of adjacent beams, for the deformation of the beam caused by internal stress can be suppressed variation between adjacent beams capacitance. 图10为表示相邻的梁间电位差为OV时内应力S和电容量间的关系图,从该图可知,画出三个弯曲程度不同的S形和拱形,像曲线W那样4条曲线重叠在一起。 10 is a potential difference between adjacent ones of the beams when the relationship diagram between OV internal stress S and capacitance seen from this figure, three different draw curved S-shaped and arcuate extent, as curve 4 as W curves overlap. 因此,可以观察到拱形也好、S形也好都不受内应力的影响,具有电容量几乎保持一定的特点。 Thus, it can be observed arcuate Ye, S-shaped Ye are not affected by the internal stress, having a capacitance remains almost constant characteristics. S卩,尽管梁的内应力因制造工序产生离散、以及由于周围温度变化而热膨胀并因此变化,但仍能抑制电容耦合型开关的电气特性的离散。 S Jie, although internal stress due to the beam generates a discrete manufacturing process and due to ambient temperature changes and thus thermal expansion changes, but still discrete electrical characteristics suppressed capacitively coupled switch.

还有,因为使梁81、 82、 83为相同的弯曲形状,所以有相同的机械弹簧特性,例如在梁81、 82间一加上电位差,两者就产生相同的位移量,在两者间间隙的1/2位置处接触。 Also, since the beam 81, 82, 83 have the same curved shape, so the same mechanical spring characteristics, for example, the beam 81, 82 together with a potential difference, both to produce the same amount of displacement, in both the 1/2 at a position between the contact gap. 例如,要使该接触位置靠近梁81 —侧,只要提高梁81的刚性即可,作为第l种方法可以考虑加宽梁81的宽度W1。 For example, to make the contact position close to the beam 81 - side, just to increase the rigidity of the beam 81, as the first method can be considered l widened beam 81 of width W1. 对于A尸2 um的S形梁81、 82,设Wl=4y m、 W2=2 ym的情况下,在图10中用曲线x (画*符号)表示梁81、 82之间的电位差V=0时梁的内应力和两梁间电容量的变化。 For the case where A is S 2 um dead-beams 81, 82, provided Wl = 4y m, W2 = 2 ym in FIG. 10 by curve x (Videos *) indicate beam 81, the potential difference between V 82 = stress change between the two beams and the beams capacitance 0:00. 这样通过将梁81加粗,残余应力引起的变形方式与梁82不同,因此造成两者间的电容量变化加大。 Such deformation caused by the way the beam 81 bold, different residual stress beam 82, thus causing changes in the capacitance increase between the two. 提高梁81的刚性的最极端的形态为将梁81作为固定电极,但这时由于内应力的变化,造成电容量越发容易变化。 81 to improve the beam shape of the most extreme rigidity to the beam 81 as a fixed electrode, but this time due to changes in the internal stress, causing the capacitance change more easily.

作为控制两根梁接触位置的其它方法,例如有将梁81的厚度tl做得比梁82的厚度t2要厚的方法。 As another method of controlling the contact position two beams, for example, the method of beam 81 is made larger than the thickness t2 of the thickness tl of the beam 82 to be thick. 设tl=4um、 t2=2nm时,在图10中用曲线y (画A符号)表示梁81、 82间的电位差V=0时内应力和两根梁间电容量的变化。 Provided tl = 4um, when t2 = 2nm, indicated by the curve y in FIG. 10 (Videos A) indicates a change of capacitance between beam 81, the potential difference V = 0 and the stress of the two beams 82. 与加宽的方法不同,很明显,通过加厚能得到的效果为,不受内应力的影响的情况下将电容量几乎保持一定。 Different methods and widened, obviously, can be obtained through the effect of thickening, is not affected by the case where the internal stress will remain almost constant capacity.

图11所示为一个具有这种结构的开关制造方法的例子。 Figure 11 shows an example of a method of manufacturing a switch having such a structure. 图11是图8(b) 的AA'剖面,表示的状态是在基板90上形成绝缘膜91、牺牲层92、利用光刻技术制成布线图形的光刻胶86,再在制成布线图形的光刻胶86之间利用电镀形成金属梁81、 82、 83。 FIG 11 is a view 8 (b) of the AA 'cross section, showing the state of the insulating film 91 is formed on the substrate 90, the sacrificial layer 92 using a photolithographic technique to form a wiring resist pattern 86, the wiring pattern is made again in 81 is formed by plating a metal beam between the photoresist 86, 82, 83. 梁81、 83的籽晶层87接地,而对于梁82的籽晶层88,通过控制开关89,使得它在时刻T之前接地,从时刻T开始将其设成与用于电镀的阳极电位V相同。 Beams 81, 87 of the seed layer 83 is grounded, while the beam 82 for the seed layer 88, by controlling the switch 89, so that it is grounded before the time T from the time T is set to start its anode for plating potential V the same. 93为提供阳极电位V的阳极电极。 Providing an anode potential of 93 V to the anode electrode. 用这种电镀工序,在时刻T之前梁81、 82、 83生成为相同高度的金属层,但在时刻T以后梁82的电镀生成停止,因而能生成相邻但厚度不同的梁。 In this plating step, prior to time T beams 81, 82, 83 generated as the same height of the metal layer, the plating beams 82 generate a stop after the time T, and thus can generate a different but adjacent beam thickness.

这样,通过只对构成可变电容结构的梁本身设置极小的弯曲,能抑制细条梁结构上成为问题的、因残余应力或热膨胀引起的拉入电压及电容量等特性变化。 Thus, by forming the variable capacitor structure of the beam itself is provided only minimal bending, the structure can be suppressed to become issues strand beams, the change of characteristics such as voltage and capacitance due to the residual tensile stress or due to thermal expansion. 另外,例如对于电极长度b500 um,由于弯曲程度大小为几个ym左右, 故该梁本身的电阻分量也几乎和直梁相同。 Further, for example b500 um, since the degree of bend of about the size of several ym, so the resistance component of the beam itself it is almost the same as the electrode and the straight beam lengths. 此外,在梁结构以外不必再设屈曲结构等,不会妨碍元件的微型化。 Further, other than the buckling beam structure provided no longer structure, does not interfere with the miniaturization of elements. 还有在用半导体薄膜工艺制作之时,因为弯曲可通过掩膜绘图来实现,所以制作方便。 When there is a production process of a semiconductor thin film, since the bending can be achieved by drawing a mask, it is convenient for production. 使用弯曲结构的开关,也可作为大范围可变电容元件改用于其它设备。 Curved structure using a switch, a variable capacitance element may also be modified for a wide range of other devices. 例如,把梁作为利用其横向振动的谐振的机械谐振器,另外对梁的表面进行处理, 提高梁的表面只对大气中某种气体成分的吸附性,则由于气体的附着使梁的质量改变,而谐振频率变化,所以能作为气体浓度传感器。 For example, using the beam as a transverse resonant vibration of the mechanical resonator, in addition to the treated surface of the beam, the beam only to increase the surface atmosphere certain adsorptive gas component, since the quality of the adhesion gas to change the beam and the resonant frequency changes, it is possible as a gas concentration sensor. 这时,假定用直双支承梁的谐振器和相邻的固定电极来构成,则存在的问题是,在由于制造工序引起的梁残余应力的离散、或周围温度的变化致使梁内应力变化时,谐振频率变 In this case, assume that a double straight support beams and resonator electrodes adjacent to the fixed structure, there is a problem that the discrete changes in the manufacturing process due to the residual stress caused by the beam or ambient temperature changes cause internal stress beam , the resonance frequency becomes

化加大,但如实施形态4那样,通过使用有弯曲形状的相邻可动梁,就能够缓和该谐振频率的变化。 Of the increase, but as Embodiment 4 above, by using adjacent curved shape of the movable beam, it is possible to mitigate the change in the resonant frequency.

利用图9所示的表示各种梁弯曲形状的参数,在图12表示内应力和1阶谐振频率的关系。 FIG using various parameters indicating the shape of beam bending, FIG. 12 shows the relationship between the internal stress and the first-order resonance frequency shown in FIG. 9. 其中显示出了与图9的内应力与拉入电压的关系同样特征的倾向,通过加大S形的弯曲程度(Ay)就能抑制谐振频率的变化。 Which shows a tendency similar to the internal stress voltage characteristic relationship pull FIG. 9, by increasing the degree of bend (Ay) S-shaped resonant frequency change can be suppressed.

还有,在以上的各实施例中,是对使用第1、第2、第3的三根梁的情形作了说明,但是构成开关的梁也能用4根以上组成,使其中的三根梁进行各实施例的动作。 Further, in each of the above embodiments, it is to use the first, the second, the third case of the three beams has been described, but the configuration of the switch can also be used more than four beams composed of the three beams in which the operation of the various embodiments.

(实施形态5) (Embodiment 5)

图13为表示本发明实施形态5涉及的开关的结构的侧面图。 FIG 13 is a side view of the fifth embodiment of the present invention relates to a switch structure. 图13(a)表示在电极上未加电压的状态,图13(b)表示加上电压的状态。 FIG 13 (a) shows the state where no voltage electrode, FIG. 13 (b) shows a state of a voltage. 基板106上竖立着与输入信号的输入端子相连的导电支柱108及与输出信号的输出端子相连的导电支柱109。 Conductive pillars erected connected to the output terminal 108 and the output signal of the conductive supports connected to an input terminal of the input signal 109 on the substrate 106. 在支柱108、 109之间悬挂着梁结构的可动电极104。 Strut 108, 109 hung between the movable electrode 104 of the beam structure. 在基板106 上的支柱108及109的中间位置设置固定电极105,通过在可动电极104及固定电极105间施加静电力,使可动电极104向固定电极105方向移动。 Pillars 106 on the substrate 108 and the middle position 109 of the fixed electrode 105 is provided by applying an electrostatic force between the movable electrode 104 and stationary electrode 105, movable electrode 104 moves in the direction of the fixed electrode 105. 在可动体103上形成可动电极104,可动体103用ICPF(离子传导聚合物凝胶膜Ionic Conducting Polymer gel Film)构成。 The movable electrode 104 is formed, the movable member 103 constituting (ion conductive polymer gel film Ionic Conducting Polymer gel Film) ICPF with the movable body 103. ICPF如图14所示,因通过外加电压使内部应力变化,故利用这一性质能使可动体103的弹簧常数变化。 ICPF 14, due to the internal stress by changing the applied voltage, so the use of this nature can change the spring constant of the movable body 103. 以下利用图15说明开关动作。 15 illustrates the use of the switching operation. 在图15中,上面的部分表示可动电极104的位置,下面的部分表示可动电极104的弹簧常数随着时间的变化。 In FIG. 15, the upper part indicates the position of the movable electrode 104, the following section shows changes in the spring constant of the movable electrode 104 with time. 将可动电极104不加静电力的中立位置作为零。 The movable electrode 104 without the neutral position of the power of the force as a zero. 在可动电极104和电极105间产生静电力,将可动电极104向电极105侧吸引时,在可动体103上外加控制电压107,使可动体103 的弹簧常数为最小。 When the movable electrode 104 and the electrode 105 generate an electrostatic force, the movable electrode 104 is attracted toward the electrode 105 side, the movable body 103 in the external control voltage 107, the spring constant of the movable member 103 is minimized. 这时,因为弹簧力为最小,所以可动体103及可动电极104 可不受弹簧力的阻碍,利用静电力高速地被吸引。 At this time, since the spring force is minimized, so that the movable member 103 and the movable electrode 104 may be hindered from the spring force, at high speed using electrostatic force attracted.

然后,在将可动电极104从电极105上拉开时,预先利用控制电压107,对可动体103施加电压,该电压使ICPF的弹簧常数为最大,使弹簧力成为最大。 Then, when the movable electrode 104 is pulled away from the electrodes 105, 107 in advance by a control voltage, a voltage is applied to the movable member 103, the spring constant ICPF voltage is a maximum, the spring force becomes maximum. 然后,去掉可动电极104及固定电极105间的静电力,这样利用弹簧力高速地将可动体103、可动电极104复原在规定的位置。 Then, removing the movable electrode 104 and electrostatic electrode 105 is fixed, so that the spring force at high speed movable body 103, the movable electrode 104 at a predetermined position recovery.

通常因为高分子凝胶对控制信号的响应时间大致为几ms,因此对于要求高速响应时间的开关的驱动力,高分子凝胶的伸縮不能用来作驱动力,但在开关被保持的状态下则有充分的响应时间使可动体103的弹簧力变化。 Typically the polymer gel because of the response time of the control signal is approximately several MS, so the requirements for high-speed response time of the driving force of the switch, the polymer gel can not be used as a driving force of stretching, but the state of the switch is held there is sufficient response time of the spring force of the movable member 103 changes. 这样在吸引和拉开时,通过使可动体103的弹簧力分别成为最佳的值,从而能实现高速响应。 So that the suction and pulled apart by the spring force of the movable body 103, respectively, the best value, thereby achieving high-speed response.

可动体103所用的材料除了ICPF夕卜,还可采用通过外部的控制能改变物理参数的材料,例如被用于人工肌肉等的高分子凝胶、压电材料。 The movable body 103 in addition to the materials used ICPF Bu Xi, the material can also be used to change the physical parameters by an external control, for example, artificial muscle polymer gel or the like, the piezoelectric material. 另外,如用导电材料形成可动体,则能将可动电极104和电极105做成一体。 Further, as the movable member is formed with a conductive material, the movable electrode 104 and the can electrode 105 are integrally formed.

如上所述,本发明的开关,通过3根梁全部可动,从而具有能縮短响应时间、降低外加电压的效果。 As described above, the switch according to the present invention, the three beams all movable so as to have a response time can be shortened, the effect of reducing the applied voltage. 根据适用频率,若适当选择使用的梁的数量,使得阻抗为最佳,则还具有能实现无频率特性的开关的有益效果。 The applicable frequency, if the number of beams used is appropriately selected such that the impedance of the best, it also has a frequency characteristic can be realized without switching beneficial effect. 另外,通过把梁做成弯曲的结构,具有能抑制因内应力的变化引起的开关特性的变化的有益效果。 Further, the beam made by the bent structure, having a switching characteristic variation can be suppressed due to changes in internal stress due to the beneficial effect.

Claims (5)

1. 一种开关,其包括:设置在基板上的电极,以对所述设置在基板上的电极能耦合和分开并随外加电压的变化其内应力发生变化的可动体作为构成要素的可动电极,在所述设置在基板上的电极和所述可动电极间产生静电力的第1外加电压装置,以及对所述可动体施加电压的第2外加电压装置。 1. A switch, comprising: an electrode disposed on a substrate, can be coupled to the pair of electrodes disposed on the substrate and separated and varies with the applied voltage of the internal stress of the movable body changes as a constituent element movable electrode means to generate a first applied voltage between the electrodes of the electrostatic force is disposed on the substrate and the movable electrode, and applying a second voltage means a voltage applied to the movable body.
2. 如权利要求l所述的开关,其特征在于, 所述可动体用高分子凝胶构成。 2. The switch according to claim l, wherein said movable member constituted by polymer gel.
3. 如权利要求l所述的开关,其特征在于, 所述可动体在其表面形成有导电材料。 Switching l according to claim 2, wherein the movable body is formed with a conductive material on its surface.
4. 如权利要求l所述的开关,其特征在于,在开关0N时,由所述第1外加电压装置在所述可动电极和所述设置在基板上的电极间产生静电力,由所述第2外加电压装置将控制电压加在所述可动体上,使所述可动体的弹簧常数变成最小,在开关OFF时,由所述第2外加电压装置将控制电压加在所述可动体上, 使所述可动体的弹簧常数变成最大,并去掉所述第1外加电压装置的静电力。 4. The switch according to claim l, wherein, when the switch 0N, the voltage applied by said first means in said movable electrode and the electrostatic force is generated is provided on the substrate between the electrodes by the said second applied voltage means the control voltage applied to the movable member, the spring constant of the movable body becomes the minimum, when the switch is OFF, the voltage applied by the second voltage is applied to the control means of the on said movable member, the spring constant of the movable body becomes the maximum, and removing the first electrostatic force applied voltage apparatus.
5. 如权利要求l所述的开关,其特征在于, 开关用半导体工艺制成。 5. The switch according to claim l, characterized in that the switch formed by a semiconductor process.
CN 200610126133 2002-07-26 2003-07-25 Switch CN100490044C (en)

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US5620933A (en) 1993-02-01 1997-04-15 Brooktree Corporation Micromachined relay and method of forming the relay
US6218911B1 (en) 1999-07-13 2001-04-17 Trw Inc. Planar airbridge RF terminal MEMS switch
US6307452B1 (en) 1999-09-16 2001-10-23 Motorola, Inc. Folded spring based micro electromechanical (MEM) RF switch
US6373007B1 (en) 2000-04-19 2002-04-16 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Series and shunt mems RF switch

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