CN100487728C - Smart card of supporting high performance computing, large capacity storage and high-speed transmission - Google PatentsSmart card of supporting high performance computing, large capacity storage and high-speed transmission Download PDF
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- CN100487728C CN100487728C CNB200610170452XA CN200610170452A CN100487728C CN 100487728 C CN100487728 C CN 100487728C CN B200610170452X A CNB200610170452X A CN B200610170452XA CN 200610170452 A CN200610170452 A CN 200610170452A CN 100487728 C CN100487728 C CN 100487728C
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- smart card
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- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06K—RECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
- G06K7/00—Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns
- G06K7/0008—General problems related to the reading of electronic memory record carriers, independent of its reading method, e.g. power transfer
- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06K—RECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
- G06K19/00—Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
- G06K19/06—Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
- G06K19/067—Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components
- G06K19/07—Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components with integrated circuit chips
- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06K—RECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
- G06K7/00—Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns
- G06K7/10—Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation
- G06K7/10009—Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation sensing by radiation using wavelengths larger than 0.1 mm, e.g. radio-waves or microwaves
- G06K7/10297—Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns by electromagnetic radiation, e.g. optical sensing; by corpuscular radiation sensing by radiation using wavelengths larger than 0.1 mm, e.g. radio-waves or microwaves arrangements for handling protocols designed for non-contact record carriers such as RFIDs NFCs, e.g. ISO/IEC 14443 and 18092
The invention belongs to smart card/design of integrated circuit and application, relate in particular to the smart card designs and the application of high calculated performance, super large memory capacity, high-speed transfer interface.
Smart card is IC-card again, is that a kind of integrated circuit (IC) chip that will have storage, encryption and data-handling capacity is embedded in the card in the plastic substrate.Smart card is divided according to the chip of setting-in, can be divided into memory card and microprocessor card two big classes.Memory card adopts memory chip as the core of the card, has only " hardware " to form, and comprises data-carrier store and security logic control etc.; Microprocessor card adopts microprocessor chip as the core of the card, is made up of jointly hardware and software.Hardware components generally includes the hardware microprocessor that is used to calculate and control, when being used for storage running or the random access memory of operational data (SRAM/DRAM/SDRAM), be used for program code stored ROM (read-only memory) and (realize with ROM usually, latest developments are to adopt the non-volatile storer of rewriting, realize as EEPROM/FLASH), be used for the non-volatile storer (EEPROM/FLASH) of rewriting of storaging user data.Software section comprises watchdog routine or COS (Card Operating System, card operating system) and types of applications program etc.Smart card among the present invention just is meant microprocessor card.
The fundamental characteristics of smart card and function have defined in ISO/IEC 7816 series standards.The typical structure of chip card IC as shown in Figure 1; except microprocessor, also comprise four additional function modules usually: the random access memory of operational data (SRAM/DRAM/SDRAM) during storage running, be used for program code stored storer (ROM/EEPROM/FLASH), be used for the non-volatile storer (EEPROM/FLASH) and the serial communication unit (I/O interface) of rewriting of storaging user data as chip core.Above-mentioned five part of module are coupled together and be integrated in the integrated circuit by logical circuit, circuit and safety of data ensure effectively by semiconductor technology and software.
IC-card has outstanding 3S characteristics, and promptly Standard (International standardization), Smart (dexterous intelligent) and Security (security) have advantages such as memory space is big, good reliability, security height.At present, smart card has been widely used in fields such as telecommunications, finance, government, traffic, medical treatment, public administration, internet.
In moving communicating field, be applied as example with smart card, SIM (Subscriber IdentityModule, subscriber identification module) clamps and be loaded in the mobile phone terminal, finished user identity identification and authentication, Speech Communication support, short message service and other all kinds of value-added services on the GSM network based on STK.After the SIM card technology is succeedd in the GSM network, widely applied at present in all kinds of mobile communications networks, used usim card etc. as having used in the cdma network to have used in PIM card, the 3G network in UIM card, the PHS network.Described novel intelligent card technique can use in above-mentioned industry-by-industry and application.
For a long time, basic design concept and inside structure since chip card IC and software engineering have been continued to use it always and be born.On the one hand, smart card techniques has obtained huge business success; On the other hand, smart card techniques also is subjected to the challenge of more and more other new technologies, if can not implement upgrading as soon as possible on technology platform, smart card also is faced with the danger that is eliminated.The capacity of tradition SIM card and adopts 8 bit CPUs between 16K to 128K byte.Because memory capacity is limited, the processing power of 8-bit microprocessor is also very low, and the business that traditional SIM card can be carried out is extremely limited; And operator has changed the competition of application and service over to from rate war, and the business of release becomes increasingly complex, and a large amount of novel mobile value-added service as mobile TV, mobile e-business, multimedia application, all needs to carry out a large amount of mathematical computations and data throughput; Current society also has higher requirement to information security, corresponding cryptographic algorithm also becomes increasingly complex, also need to carry out a large amount of calculating and processing at a high speed as digital signature, digital certificate, DRM (DigitalRights Management, digital copyright management).Since conventional smart card only integrated ISO/IEC 7816 interface communication protocols, this agreement can only read the smart card content on specific smart card terminal equipment, because not general the causing of interface can't directly link to each other with the computer equipment that uses standard interface, telecommunication apparatus etc.This limitations restrict application and the development of smart card in association area.The application of high added value or killer's level is thirsted for releasing by operator, effectively promote its professional income, this just need have memory space and high performance microprocessor above megabyte as the SIM card of unique bridge between connection operator and the user, obviously, traditional SIM card can't satisfy these requirements, can do nothing to help operator and obtain big breakthrough on new business is promoted.
Along with developing rapidly and popularization and application of mobile communication technology, more and more higher to the functional requirement of smart card; For example, on SIM card, realize the RFID function, realize dual user identification module/user identification module multi integrated functionality (many telecom operators), integrated application processor or other be the function (MP3 of control externally, MPEG4, LCD control) or the like, even these novel smart cards have possessed high speed data transfer, the characteristics of mass data processing, but owing to still adopt traditional physical interface form (ISO7816 standard, 8 Pad), the performance of its function expansion and ability is subjected to great restriction.
In addition, new application requirements smart card can bear the outside 2.7V that supplies with to the 5.5V power supply, and provides multiplex operation voltages such as 1.8V, 3V and 5V simultaneously in card inside; And this management to power supply is not rely on exterior terminal equipment, but realize in smartcard internal.But, want to realize on the logic chip in smart card that power management is very difficult, must seek new solution, realize the power management of smartcard internal.
Operator is in order to strengthen own absolute predominance status on industrial chain, constantly develop the value-added service of oneself, and manage to attempt mobile phone producer and business are controlled by various means, but because mobile phone producer is numerous and the distinctive sales mode of mobile phone makes operator to set up on cell phone platform well and unified its business, so this trial produces little effect.And SIM card is as the unique controlled link fully of operator, if can possess vast capacity and superpower computing power, and business development that can carrier-supporting-carrier, will become operator undoubtedly and promote the own professional and industry of acquisition control, prevent a terminal and a professional important means out of control.
Summary of the invention
Purpose of the present invention is intended to solve above-mentioned traditional intelligence and is stuck in the problem that runs in industry development and the technology evolution, and a kind of novel smart card with the high-performance treatments platform that can support the complex calculation business is provided.This novel smart card can carry out the storage and the management of mass data, the transmission of high data rate, and can integrating multiple data transmission interfaces, use as independent memory device.This smart card can be suitable by conversion socket and multiple digital equipment, and have powerful network download ability, encoding multimedia data processing power and safe computing power.
By above-mentioned purpose as can be seen, novel smart card of the present invention is the breakthrough to the revolution of conventional smart card, and the lifting of a matter is all arranged on function and performance.For this reason, on the circumscribed basis of analysis conventional smart card, the key technology problems that novel intelligent calorie requirement of the present invention solves is proposed below:
At first, the CPU of most smart cards is 8 or 16 bit processors in the market, as Intel8051, Motorola 6502 etc., typical clock work frequency is that (clock ranges is between 1MHz～10MHz) for 3.57MHz, the CPU travelling speed is generally 0.5MIPS (Million Instruction PerSecond, million instructions per second) about, carrying out the application processing of normal words class still can support, for a large amount of network processes, the image calculation of calculating of needs, cryptographic calculations etc. then can't be supported well.As RSA signature algorithm commonly used, can require lowest order digit usually is 1024, and some occasion then requires to reach 2048; Even adopt the less relatively ECC algorithm of calculated amount, it is 160 that its lowest order digit also requires, even 192,256; In the multi-medium data process field, in order to improve precision and speed, also need to adopt the processor of 32 above data bandwidths usually, this shows that the computing power of conventional smart card can not satisfy the application and development demand.So high performance calculating is the matter of utmost importance that novel smart card will solve.
Secondly, along with the lifting of social informatization degree, speed that information produces and quantity are all promptly accelerated, and correspondingly, the storage capacity of smart card have been proposed new demand.The SIM card capacity majority that generally uses in the market is 16KB/32KB/64KB, and maximum is no more than 128KB.The memory capacity of 64KB is equivalent to 250 telephone contact people clauses and subclauses, 30 short messages and 3 to 5 download the tinkle of bells, this shows that the present storage capacity of smart card can't be supported the application demand of telecom operators' business development and End-Customer; Operator and End-Customer wish in mobile phone terminal except can the memory communicating record, the information such as note, phone number, can also store mass datas such as webpage, document, film, song and recreation.The way of present a kind of transition is to adopt SIM card expansion card in addition to come the increase capacity, this has not only brought many inconvenience and expense to mobile phone terminal exploitation and use, simultaneously because employing and the diverse business model of SIM card are being sold and used to expansion card, operator can't effectively utilize and control the expansion card resource, also just can't effectively utilize the development that expansion card supports its value-added service.Memory capacity by the expansion SIM card, make the integrated bigger storer of SIM card can reach megabyte, even G byte, not only solved mobile phones design complexity, reduced terminal cost, satisfied the requirement of End-Customer to storage, more can provide effective support to the value-added service of operator.So the vast capacity storage is second key technical problem that novel smart card will solve.
The 3rd, because the popularizing of network, lot of data need be transmitted and exchanges by network in the mobile phone terminal, and mass storage has also correspondingly improved the requirement to message transmission rate.The transfer rate of ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces arrives between the hundreds of kbps at several kbps (kilobits per second, kbps) usually, and in fact the most frequently used speed generally is no more than 115.2kbps.Need more than 300 second with this speed rates one first size MP3 song about 4.5M, if consider the expense and the factor such as fault-tolerant of transmission, the time also can extend.On the other hand, because mobile phone terminal no longer is a pure voice communication equipment, integrated supplementary service in a large number on it, SIM card should possess not only can support voice service, can also support the ability of other application need expand new interface simultaneously outside the ISO/IEC7816 interface.Moreover because the huge raising of complexity of integrated circuit and software, integrated auxiliary device in a large number on the chip, these auxiliary devices also need to keep and chip continues outward communicates by letter, and this just requires the protocol processes of transmission interface should possess stronger extended capability.In addition, some complicated applications, as the transmission of multimedia code stream, external network connects all needs the high-speed interface support, except the needs support such as the agreements such as flow transmission, also to consider the simplyst to be connected easily with PC with the baseband processor of mobile phone terminal with the scheme that is suitable for.The demand is by adopting current popular several data transmission bus agreements, and as USB, SD, MMC, transfer rate can reach Mbps (Megabits persecond, the megabit per second) order of magnitude, and has possessed stronger protocol extension ability.So high-speed transfer is the 3rd key technical problem that novel smart card will solve.
The 4th, can see that by above-mentioned analysis the novel smart card of this support high-performance calculation, vast capacity storage, high-speed transfer has surmounted traditional smart card techniques greatly.Owing to will realize many sophisticated functionss, corresponding internal hardware and software resource demand promote rapidly, as more jumbo SRAM, more at a high speed timer, high efficiency DMA (Direct Memory Access, the direct memory visit) etc., this just requires to adopt on integrated circuit (IC) design novel framework to improve internal exchange of data and managerial ability.(On-Chip Bus, OCB) managing with being connected inner different module resource is the 4th key technical problem that novel smart card will solve to adopt SoC designs method, suitable framework, high performance on-chip bus.
The 5th, the function of many complexity possibly can't all be finished by a chips, and the novel smart card design will face multiple chips, even discrete component is integrated in the technical barrier in the card.But the area by special smart card metal band design can on surface level, extension packaging, can be implemented in the connection of carrying out metal line up to a hundred in the card, thereby realize the purpose that the multicore sheet encapsulates by special packaging technology.The encapsulation of multicore sheet is another key technical problem that novel smart card will solve.
The 6th, for integrated intelligent deck on the outer package of compatible conventional smart card and the great amount of terminals, novel smart card still adopts the outer type of attachment of eight pins.So, utilize these eight pins to finish all multi-functional and transmission interfaces, the method that designs pin multiplexing dexterously is another key technical problem that novel smart card will solve
The 7th; the present invention is integrated numerous interfaces such as ISO/IEC 7816, USB, SD, MMC on chip; be connected to chip exterior by the pin multiplexing mode; chip need be in the agreement official hour judgment data type, autoscan and recognition interface kind, open the hardware interface protective device; in time make then and reply and realize management the high-speed equipment plug and play; so how effective scanning pin multiplexing signal is that the novel intelligent calorie requirement solves another key technical problem with automatic recognition interface agreement.
The 8th, novel smart card of the present invention has ISO/IEC 7816, USB, many different external clock sources of SD, MMC, and the IC interior high-speed cruising need one stable, do not rely on clock outside, that frequency is high, so need design one cover efficiently, stable, carrot-free Clock Managing Unit.Because mobile device is saved the requirement of the energy, need reduce the power consumption of chip simultaneously by controllable clock network.So energy-efficient Clock management is another key technical problem that the novel intelligent calorie requirement solves.
The 9th, the operating voltage of wanting required for the present invention is provided by the outside, and as mobile phone terminal or other terminal device, the operating voltage of input will have very big variation according to different terminals, and possible operating voltage range is 1.8V～3.0V～5.0V.Simultaneously, the needed voltage of chip internal logic operate as normal is relevant with semiconductor technology, changes also greatlyyer, need place special voltage transformation module so that various operating voltage required in the chip to be provided in card.So, support that efficient, the stable power management of wide voltage power supply scope and multichannel/multiple voltage output are another key technical problems that the novel intelligent calorie requirement solves.
The tenth, the present invention adopts the Flash device that the storage space of vast capacity is provided.The Flash kind of interface is a lot, and only Cheng Shu industry standard interface just has tens kinds, mainly contains two kinds of specifications of NOR Flash and NAND Flash at present, and main flow technology is 65nm-130nm.So, design and realize efficient, flexibly and the Flash interface controller with extensive compatibility be another key technical problem that the novel intelligent calorie requirement solves.
The 11, in smart card of the present invention, have a plurality of memory areas, can deposit code, instruction and user data respectively; so; how effectively safety of data and integrality in the protection card, promptly memory protect mechanism is another key technical problem that the novel intelligent calorie requirement solves.
The 12, the present invention uses non-volatility memorizer to come storage operating system and application program, needs to provide a cover to have the program download circuit of high strength authentication function under the prerequisite that guarantees data security.
The 13, present most smart card adopts special-purpose COS, can only be towards one or a few fixing application, its subject matter is: the employed STK application and development of traditional SIM card interface is mainly used in the menu business of handling the text class, can't realize such as complicated applications such as figure, multimedia, network, poor user experience; Secondly, the software systems of conventional smart card also do not possess real operation system function, structurally can't support to be changed neatly with additions and deletions by application developers even End-Customer and use.Can support abundanter communications protocol, support multi-task operation by introducing real time operating system, support graphical dynamic change and the additions and deletions that reach window application, support application, promote novel smart card service bearer ability greatly.So, design and realize that operating system efficiently is that novel smart card supports new application exploitation and operation to dispose to need another key technical problem of solving on chip.
The 14, in order to share and swap data with digital equipments such as the PC of present main flow, digital camera, MP3/MP4 players, need set up general, compatible strong, ripe and stable file system, as the file system of Microsoft Windows, Linux employing.So, design and realize that a telotism, general, compatible strong file system is another key technical problem that novel smart card will solve.
Technical scheme of the present invention is as follows: a kind of novel smart card of supporting quick calculating, high capacity storage, high-speed transfer, form with the chip module that is assemblied on the card base by Ka Ji, the chip of this smart card comprises micro controller unit, Power Management Unit and extended memory unit three parts, pin numbering according to the ISO/IEC7816-3 protocol definition, Power Management Unit connects C1, C5 pin, micro controller unit connects all the other 6 pins, and the extended memory unit connects Power Management Unit and micro controller unit respectively.
Above-mentioned micro controller unit, Power Management Unit and extended memory unit adopt single System on Chip/SoC to realize, perhaps adopt the integrated mode of a plurality of chips to realize, three unit are encapsulated in the metal band that extends through width, and the microprocessor of micro controller unit adopts 16/32/64 or more high-order embedded microprocessor.
Further, aforesaid support is calculated fast, high capacity is stored, the novel smart card of high-speed transfer, this smart card adopts dual-bus structure to realize data transmission, article one, bus is used to handle high speed data transfer, article one, bus is used to handle the low speed data transmission, article two, adopt bridge or data mailbox device to connect between the bus, carry out the exchanges data of different rates.
Further, calculate fast in above-mentioned support, in the novel smart card of high capacity storage, high-speed transfer, micro controller unit also is provided with coprocessor, adopts bus mode or dma mode to be connected between microprocessor and the coprocessor.
In addition, in micro controller unit, be provided with some storeies, comprise program storage, the data-carrier store that is used to store the basic application data of smart card that is used to store user software, the random cache that is used to store interim store data around the microprocessor periphery.Described storer can directly be connected on the microprocessor by address/data bus, also can be connected with microprocessor indirectly by on-chip bus.Described storer adopts non-volatility memorizer.
In above-mentioned micro controller unit, also be provided with the memory controller of the control interface that is used to realize various types of storage media and be used to ensure the memory protect unit of safety of data and integrality in the card.
Further, aforesaid support is calculated fast, high capacity is stored, the novel smart card of high-speed transfer, the low speed on-chip bus of this smart card connects ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces, the high speed on-chip bus connects multiple high-speed transfer interface by the pin signal multiplexing, and the high-speed transfer interface comprises USB, SD, MMC interface.
Also be provided with the dma controller that directly is connected in this smart card with on-chip bus.In smart card, be provided with the high-speed interface controller and realize and the high speed data transfer of external unit that the high-speed interface controller links to each other with microprocessor or dma controller by the high speed on-chip bus.
The opening and closing of above-mentioned high-speed interface controller control high-speed transfer interface USB, SD, MMC, the same time can only have a kind of interface in running order in three kinds of high-speed transfer interfaces.
In addition, also be provided with the interruptable controller that is used to manage the external interrupt request in this smart card, interruptable controller links to each other with microprocessor by on-chip bus.Also be provided with the clock/administrative unit that resets in the smart card, the clock/management unit pack that resets is drawn together clock division and gate control circuit, reset signal generation module and digital phase-locked loop, crystal resonator and the controller thereof that is connected with on-chip bus respectively.
Further, aforesaid support is calculated fast, high capacity is stored, the novel smart card of high-speed transfer, wherein, the input end of Power Management Unit is connected with the sheet external power by the power contact of smart card, and the power pins of each chip of output terminal and smartcard internal and separating component is connected.
In addition, the extended memory unit of this smart card is to adopt flash memory to come the extension storage space, use NOR Flash flash memory to store and run time version, use NAND Flash flash memory to store data, be provided with flash controller in the micro controller unit, flash controller links to each other with flash memory in the micro controller unit, and is connected with the flash memory cell of expansion.Perhaps, the extended memory unit adopts FeRAM or molecular memory to come the extension storage space.
Further, aforesaid support is calculated fast, high capacity is stored, the novel smart card of high-speed transfer, and the software architecture of this smart card comprises hardware driving, real time operating system, application programming interface and concrete application/business.Wherein, hardware driving mainly is to support operating system, and the driver of various kinds of equipment or interface is provided, and finishes hardware initialization, and clock/power management; Real time operating system is being controlled the intercommunication mutually of application programming interface and hardware platform, is in charge of system resource, and real-time multi-task scheduling efficiently is provided; Application programming interface provides an application programming interfaces opening, unified, standard for various application programs, supports the exploitation of upper level applications, and application program is called various lower-level system resources by application programming interface.
By smart card of the present invention, can obtain following tangible benefit:
Utilize the ability of its high-performance calculation, can be applied directly to the complicated calculations industry,, can not only increase substantially safety of data, and can greatly expand its usable range as safety certification, multimedia, mobile video etc.
Utilize its high-speed interface, swap data shortens communication and running time apace, increases work efficiency.
Utilize its general standard interface, do not need special-purpose smart card terminal equipment to use, greatly facilitate the use of smart card.
Utilize its high capacity memory function, can be used as mobile memory and use, substitute the mobile memory of other kind, both made things convenient for use, saved cost again.
Utilize its stratification, structurized software architecture and unified DLL (dynamic link library), can be flexibly, efficiently, apace develop and field newly use, new business.
Utilize the function of its smart card+storage card All-in-One, can effectively solve the function that mobile communication terminal faces and the problem of volume conflict.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the typical structure synoptic diagram of conventional smart card.
Fig. 2 is contact numbering, the definition synoptic diagram of conventional smart card.
The synoptic diagram that Fig. 3 extends the chip band for the present invention.
Fig. 4 encapsulates synoptic diagram with the chip band through the inside after extending for the present invention.
Fig. 5 is the electricity connection diagram of inner structure of the present invention and external contact.
Fig. 6 is a software configuration synoptic diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 7 is that the general structure of the micro controller unit of the embodiment of the invention is formed synoptic diagram.
Fig. 8 is the clock of the embodiment of the invention and the structural drawing of the administrative unit that resets.
Fig. 9 is the Power Management Unit structural representation of the embodiment of the invention.
Figure 10 is the software detailed structure synoptic diagram of the novel smart card of the embodiment of the invention.
The electrical block diagram of Figure 11 for centralized and unified control is carried out in the I/O of multiple high speed interface.
Figure 12 controls the electrical block diagram of high speed interface I/O voluntarily for each high-speed communication module.
Below in conjunction with specification drawings and specific embodiments the present invention is further described.
The present invention includes powerful, a complete hardware platform of cover and efficiently, software architecture flexibly.Hardware platform is realized basic communication and computing function, and on this basis, complicated service/application is realized and finished to software architecture.
Hardware platform of the present invention comprises micro controller unit, Power Management Unit and extended memory unit three parts.These several partial functions and structure can be carried out flexible combination as required.Both can adopt the single-chip package mode, only micro controller unit or whole three part unit package are become one independently SoC (System on Chip, System on Chip/SoC) chip use; Also can adopt the multicore sheet mode, three all parts are encapsulated respectively, every part is packaged into a chips, and then with multiple chips, and corresponding discrete component is integrated in the card.
No matter adopt which kind of encapsulation implementation, all chips of smartcard internal and device all must be encapsulated in the scope the inside that its external metallization band covered fully, and are electrically connected with 8 contacts of outer strip.The band shape of conventional smart card chip and contact nomenclature are as shown in Figure 2.Because novel smart card function of the present invention is numerous, performance is powerful, annexation is complicated, so cause chip area sharply to expand, if adopt multicore sheet Integrated Solution, card is interior with integrated numerous device, above-mentioned reason directly causes the Chip Packaging area excessive, and the band area scope interior (shown in the dotted line among Fig. 2) that is difficult in conventional smart card encapsulates.Novel smart card of the present invention adopts special metal band designing technique, guaranteeing under the constant prerequisite of smart card contact ordering, contact relative position and electricity annexation, on surface level, strip width is extended, as shown in Figure 3, the area of effective coverage of band is enlarged, correspondingly also just enlarged the area that can be used to packaging below it, like this, just one or multiple chips can be encapsulated in the sheet smart card.
A kind of possible Integrated Solution as shown in Figure 4, under the prerequisite that smart card and outside electricity annexation remain unchanged, by above-mentioned expansion can be in a card integrated power supply administrative unit, micro controller unit, extended memory unit three class devices.The external connection of these devices can be embodied as Power Management Unit and connect C1, C5 pin, and micro controller unit connects all the other 6 pins, and the extended memory unit connects Power Management Unit and micro controller unit respectively, as shown in Figure 5.PCB (Printed Circuit Board, the printed circuit board (PCB)) circuit that is had on by metal wire and band in card inside connects can realize the encapsulation of multicore sheet.
Method for packing can be realized according to following steps: (1) according to the logic connecting relation between chip and the elements combination, design is also made bilayer or multi-layer PCB substrate; (2) adopt surface mount process that element pasted on surface is mounted on the position of components that designs in advance on the PCB substrate one by one, cross Reflow Soldering and make it to solidify; (3) with Heraeus chip is mounted on the chip position that designs in advance on the PCB substrate one by one, and the coherent signal line on pad on the chip and the PCB substrate is welded together; (4) plastic package die that will comprise rectangular cavities places on the PCB substrate Working position, the element of want plastic packaging, chip and bonding wire are covered fully, plastic packaging material is poured into cavity body of mould, make it to fill the space between full chip, element and the mould, and heating makes it to solidify formation multicore sheet and the surperficial smart card module that pastes elements combination; (5) with the Die cutting tool that designs shape of the module behind the plastic packaging, punch out needed outer shape; (6), on intelligent card body assigned position, mill out and mounted the consistent rectangle cell body of module size according to modular shape and size; (7) adopt cold glue or hot melt adhesive technology, the module that plastic packaging is encapsulated is implanted in the cell body of intelligent cards; (8) on packaged intelligent cards, punch out Plug-in SIM card shape according to standard size.Perhaps, in step (5), directly be die-cut into desired Plug-in SIM card.
Three main functional modules to the hardware platform of novel smart card of the present invention are described below.
The hardware platform of novel smart card of the present invention comprises micro controller unit, Power Management Unit and extended memory unit three parts generally speaking at least, as shown in Figure 4.Micro controller unit is finished and is calculated and control function; Power supply from the outside haptic element input of smart card is managed, adjusts and distribute to micro controller unit to Power Management Unit and the extended memory unit uses; The extended memory unit then is used for code and data storage.Micro controller unit is analyzed and is handled the signal of importing on the smart card haptic element, obtain code and data from the extended memory unit as required, after finishing corresponding processing data or result are saved in the extended memory unit, perhaps output to exterior terminal equipment.
Micro controller unit is used for the smart card signal is transmitted, controls, calculates and handles, and its main functional units comprises microprocessor, on-chip bus, internal storage location, ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces, high-speed interface controller, dma controller, interruptable controller, clock/administrative unit resets.
Microprocessor is mainly used in calculating, control and communicates by letter.In order to improve the processing power of smart card, the present invention adopts the embedded microprocessor of 16/32/64 (or more high-order), and the CPU travelling speed can be configured and adjust according to application, can reach tens or hundreds of MIPS usually, has promoted processing power greatly; In addition, in order further to improve the processing power of smart card, according to practical situations, can also adopt various types of coprocessors, as multimedia coprocessor, DSP, password coprocessor, under the control of microprocessor and coordinating, instruct at concrete application and to optimize and calculate and quicken, can adopt bus mode, dma mode or other data communication mode to be connected between microprocessor and the coprocessor.
Because the complexity and the scale of novel smart card sharply increase with respect to conventional smart card, adopt traditional method of designing integrated circuit can't realize.Because SoC has high integrated performance, be the main solution that realizes sophisticated functions, the on-chip bus design is a key technical problem.In the present invention, it is integrated to relate to a large amount of high speed data transfer and numerous functional module, therefore, novel smart card of the present invention adopt on-chip bus to improve between its inner group/parts or and external interface between data throughput.Industry member has the on-chip bus standard of a plurality of maturations, can be used in the novel smart card of the present invention as CoreConnect, CAN bus, AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture) and Wishbone etc.
Because the existing high-speed interface of novel smart card of the present invention, as DMA passage, USB interface, also low-speed interface arranged, as ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces, interruptable controller, therefore, a kind of possible implementation of novel smart card of the present invention is: adopt improved bus structure, as dual-bus structure, article one, bus is used to handle high speed data transfer, article one, bus is used to handle the low speed data transmission, adopts bridge or data mailbox device to connect the exchanges data of carrying out different rates between two buses.According to dual-bus structure, the IS0/IEC7816 interface is received on the bus, high speed interface is then received on another bus, and low-speed interface controller and high speed interface controller are received respectively on the different buses, selects use with control bus by the SoC controller.The SoC controller both can have been enabled a bus separately and select a kind of interface to carry out data transmission, also can enable two buses simultaneously and on IS0/IEC 7816 interfaces and high speed interface, transmit the control data transmission of data independence simultaneously, both can improve data throughout and transfer efficiency, can also improve the extendability and the adaptability of intelligent card interface, enlarge its range of application.Dual bus both can be the bus of same type, as all being high-speed buses, also can be dissimilar buses, as one be high-speed bus, another is a low speed bus.For adaptive with high speed interface, the bus that works together with high speed interface must be a high-speed bus, to guarantee to realize the high-speed transfer of data.Like this, novel smart card can be according to the different bus operation mode of the incompatible selection of different applied field, thereby improves the compatibility of novel smart card, enlarges its usable range.
Internal storage location is some storeies that are centered around the microprocessor periphery, utilizes these storeies, and microprocessor can be finished a basic computing system.Generally comprise the program storage, the data-carrier store that is used to store the basic application data of smart card that are used to store user software, be used to store the random cache of interim store data, can increase memory controller and memory protect unit etc. in case of necessity.Program storage and data-carrier store generally can use all kinds of non-volatile class storeies to realize.Random cache generally can use SRAM or DRAM to realize.Storer can directly be connected on the microprocessor by address/data bus, also can be connected with microprocessor indirectly by on-chip bus.In some cases, for make can be integrated the storer kind more flexible, also can be on sheet the design stores controller, be used for realizing control interface with various types of storage mediums (as FLASH, RAM, SRAM, SDRAM, ROM, EEPROM etc.).
Because the security requirement of smart card product; for various types of memory in the sheet certain access condition restriction to be arranged; usually design MPU (Memory Protection Unit, memory protect unit) is used for ensureing safety of data and integrality in the card, realizes the protection to data and code.Novel intelligent is stuck on the hardware and storage area is divided into several parts, it is provided with different access control conditions to different storeies or storage area, all must just can carry out as reading and writing, deletion through after the corresponding safety certification, prevent unwarranted loading and visit, in case produce hard interrupt notification microprocessor when producing unauthorized access.Then be divided into different mode of operations on software, different mode of operations has different access rights.If the system works pattern then can conduct interviews to all storage areas or control; If user model, then authority is subjected to the part restriction, can only visit and use its open zone; If attempt the access-controlled zone, then produce unauthorized access interrupt notification microprocessor.
Novel smart card is still supported traditional ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces, adopts five traditional line connected modes.Because the transfer rate of this interface is lower, therefore be connected on the on-chip bus of low speed, realize the transfer function of ISO/IEC 7816 agreements.
In order to improve the interface rate of novel smart card, on the basis of realizing ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces, adopt pin multiplexing and agreement autoscan recognition technology, the high-speed transfer interface of integrated multiple main flow of while is as USB, SD, MMC.Like this, can increase substantially on the one hand the transmission speed of novel smart card, on the other hand since integrated be interface bus main flow, standard, not only can support to use widely, and protocol processes also possesses stronger extended capability.Simultaneously, these agreements can be supported the Streaming Media transmission, and also relative with the use annexation of miscellaneous equipment simple.
In order in smart card, to realize the multiple interfaces host-host protocol, keep novel smart card and traditional maximum compatibility of card-reading terminal equipment realization simultaneously, must guarantee the ordering of 8 contacts of conventional smart card and type of attachment constant (to realize compatibility) on the one hand, must carry out signal multiplexing (to realize several data transmission interface agreement) to the part pin on the other hand.In the total interface of novel smart card, what smart card was traditional has determined ISO/IEC 7816 interface signals to have right of priority with basic requirements, and every other interface signal can not produce with it and conflict with multiplexing.According to the analysis that the smart card pin is arranged, as can be seen, ISO/IEC 7816 interface signals have in fact only used 5 pin contacts wherein, there are 3 pins (C4, C6, C8) not use, therefore, the present invention just utilizes these three pins to realize that other high speed signal is multiplexing, on this basis, according to the difference of the concrete signal that transmits, discern different transmission interfaces again.The method of concrete pin signal multiplexing can be respectively as differential data line D+, the D-of USB interface with pin C4, C8, and on this basis, with pin C4 as the DATO line of SD interface and the DAT line of MMC interface, with the CMD line of pin C8, with the clock cable of pin C6 as three kinds of interfaces as SD interface and MMC interface.On the basis of pin multiplexing, the special-purpose high-speed interface controller of the inner employing of novel smart card is realized the high speed data transfer with external unit.The high-speed interface controller is mainly finished the function of three aspects: at first realize the autoscan and the identification of various high-speed interface agreements, secondly, realize various high-speed communication interface agreements, as USB, SD, MMC, finish communication function; At last, control and coordinate each external data interface connection, close or switch, make that the same time can only have a kind of interface in running order in USB, SD, three kinds of interfaces of MMC, all the other two kinds of interfaces are in closed condition; And according to the internal control order these three kinds of interfaces are carried out state and switch.The high-speed interface controller links to each other with microprocessor or dma controller by the high speed on-chip bus.
The I/O control of high speed interface can have two kinds of implementations, and a kind of is centralized and unified controlling schemes, by the SoC controller centralized and unified control is carried out in the I/O of high speed interface; Another kind of for disperseing independent controlling schemes, whether the I/O control of high speed interface is controlled the same time by the work of controlling each communication module and is had only a kind of output circuit in running order by each high-speed communication module oneself control.
As shown in figure 11, in first kind of scheme, each communication module is responsible for a kind of interface signal is discerned and handled, UART (ISO/IEC 7816) communication module 2 is responsible for handling the ISO/IEC7816 interface signal, usb communication module 7 is responsible for handling the USB interface signal, SD communication module 9 is responsible for treatment S D interface signal, and MMC communication module 10 is responsible for handling the MMC interface signal.If certain communication module is judged as useful signal to the signal of input, then it sends interrupt request to SoC controller 5; SoC controller 5 begins to control the corresponding communication module and communicates according to the type of this interrupt request.
UART (ISO/IEC 7816) communication module 2 links to each other with SoC controller 5 by low speed bus 3.Usb communication module 7, SD communication module 9, MMC communication module 10 link to each other with SoC controller 5 by high-speed bus 8.When smart card powered on, if interface 1 has signal, UART (ISO/IEC 7816) communication module 2 produced ISO/IEC 7816 interrupt request, sends to SoC controller 5; SoC controller 5 communicates by low speed bus 3 and UART (ISO/IEC 7816) communication module 2 according to this interrupt type, starts ISO/IEC 7816 interface signal treatment schemees, realizes the function of conventional smart card.
Input control circuit 15 and output control circuit 11,12,13 are controlled its whether gating by SoC controller 5, the same time has only a circuit in running order, promptly or input control circuit 15 work, a perhaps circuit working in 11,12,13 3 of the output control circuits.
As shown in figure 12, in second kind of scheme, the input/output circuitry the 16,17, the 18th of high speed interface is independently controlled by each high-speed communication module.Select circuit 6 to select the work of a high-speed communication module by the high-speed communication module, guarantee to have only an output circuit to work simultaneously; Controlling its input/output circuitry by this module then is in input state or is in output state.
It is one two input three output circuits that the high-speed communication module is selected circuit 6.Because the input of two lines has only four kinds of output states at most, therefore, select for use wherein three kinds of states as the control signal that enables of three kinds of high-speed communication modules, the signal that remaining a kind of state is all disconnected as three kinds of high-speed communication modules, thereby guarantee that the same time has only a kind of high-speed communication module at most by gating, just realized that also the same time has only a kind of function of high speed interface work at most.
After enabling ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces, if need enable certain high-speed communication interface simultaneously, then can send corresponding APDU and instruct to the SoC controller by ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces, start the operating circuit of the corresponding interface by the SoC controller.
Dma controller is used for transmitting mass data by dma mode.DMA is a kind of working method of being carried out exchanges data fully by hardware, generally is used for transmitting at a high speed data in groups.Dma controller directly is connected with on-chip bus.Peripheral hardware triggers the DMA transmission by transmission/received signal.Dma controller can replace microprocessor to take over control to on-chip bus fully according to order, produces address, data-signal and control signal, and exchanges data is directly being carried out between the storer or between storer and the peripheral hardware without microprocessor.Dma controller can increase the address automatically in transmission course, to individual counting number of the word that transmits, and transmits end with interrupt mode to microprocessor report, afterwards the control to on-chip bus is given back microprocessor.
Interruptable controller is used to manage the external interrupt request, as output interrupt request singal when external signal I/O EO or internal system produce fault, so that microprocessor is controlled and handled.Interruptable controller links to each other with microprocessor by on-chip bus, can connect on the low rate bus usually.Interruptable controller should be supported multistage interrupt request, can pass through programmed settings priority.
The clock source of novel smart card of the present invention both can be provided by peripheral hardwares such as smart card terminal equipment, also can be provided by smartcard internal; The needed internal work clock of novel smart card must be stable, as not rely on an outside clock, novel smart card therefore of the present invention adopts the clock/administrative unit that resets to come clock signal in blocking and reset signal are unified control and management, one side provides efficiently, stable, carrot-free system works clock, manage the mode of operation different by clock network and electrify restoration circuit on the other hand, to reduce chip power-consumption with switching chip.
Specifically, the clock/administrative unit that resets mainly is achieved as follows the function of several respects:
At first, be used for smartcard internal and outside clock source signals are managed and control, as according to the GSM11.11 agreement, mobile phone terminal will provide the clock source signals of a 1MHz-5MHz to SIM card, for chip being worked reliably and not relying on having or not of external clock source signal, can place a reference clock source again in the chip, the clock/administrative unit that resets is responsible for switching different clock sources according to using different the variation with external environment.This circuit should possess can not produce the narrow pulse signals that cause because of clock source phase place difference when burr filtering ability also should guarantee to switch.Secondly, chip provides the high speed operation clock when finishing all kinds of high-speed computation, can carry out clock source frequency multiplication by high-precision data phase-locked loop circuit.The 3rd, in order to reduce the power consumption of chip, Clock Managing Unit can switch the chip operation pattern according to the requirement of using, and the system works clock is carried out frequency division, closes or open the clock signal of certain module.The 4th, because novel smart card possesses USB interface, need the high precision clock of the following shake of a 48MHZ/2500ppm to do the data sampling, card inside provides this clock signal.At last, the clock/administrative unit that resets can realize each operational module of chip (except that Power Management Unit, the clock/administrative unit that resets) is carried out warm reset by programming.
The present invention uses non-volatility memorizer to come storage operating system and application program, under the prerequisite that guarantees data security, the program download circuit ISP (InSystem Programming, in-system programming) that provides a cover to have the high strength authentication function is used for program download or renewal.Have only after safety certification is passed through, just can carry out the download or the renewal of program.
The second portion of the hardware platform of novel smart card of the present invention is a Power Management Unit.
By above-mentioned microcontroller architecture and function as can be seen, the novel intelligent calorie requirement provides working power for inner complicated circuit, because the needed voltage of chip internal circuit operate as normal is relevant with semiconductor technology, the needed operating voltage difference of different process, this just requires may need to provide such as 1 in novel smart card inside, and 8V, 2.5V, 3V or 5V etc. are one or more operating voltage wherein; Simultaneously, because the working power of smart card is provided by exterior terminal, the operating voltage difference that different terminals provides, fluctuation range is bigger, possible operating voltage range is 1.8V～3.0V～5.0V, this just requires novel smart card of the present invention can bear the outside various voltage ranges of supplying with and is fitted to the required supply voltage of chip internal, promptly will support wide operating voltage range.Therefore, need in card, place power source conversion and administration module (as voltage raising and reducing type power supply changeover device) so that needed various operating voltage in the chip to be provided, for this reason, the present invention adopts Power Management Unit to come to unify adaptive and distribution to the various power supplys of outside input.
The input end of Power Management Unit is connected with the sheet external power by the power contact (Vcc pin) of smart card, and the power pins of each chip of output terminal and smartcard internal and separating component is connected.It both can be integrated on the chips with other group/parts of smart card, also can use independent device.In novel smart card, consider the convenience and the extendability of use, often use independent power management device.Through type selecting, there are 3 class power management devices to meet the demands: linear voltage regulator (LDO), DC-DC converter and boosting charge pump (CHARGE PUMP).
The third part of the hardware platform of novel smart card of the present invention is the extended memory unit.
The memory capacity of conventional smart card is limited, and the max cap. of common smart card is no more than the 128K byte on the market.Utilize novel memory technology (particularly flash memory FLASH MEMORY is called for short flash memory) and storage controlling technology and advanced encapsulation technology, the memory capacity that can expand smart card greatly.Extended memory unit in the novel smart card of the present invention is used to expand the memory capacity of smart card.
Flash memory is that (Non-Volatile Memory NVM), even still can keep information after power supply is closed, can wipe and programming again memory cell block, and not need extra program voltage a class nonvolatile memory; And such as this class volatile memory of DRAM, SRAM, the sheet internal information is lost immediately when power supply is closed.Flash memory has that low, the erasable speed of operating voltage is fast, memory capacity is big, the power down data are not lost, low in energy consumption, the life-span long, cheap, control method is flexible, volume is little and can be repeatedly erasable etc. plurality of advantages, as a kind of data storage carrier, it can preserve mass data quickly and easily.
NOR Flash and NAND Flash are two kinds of main nonvolatile flash memory technology on the present market.NOR Flash has fireballing characteristics, can realize interior carry out (XIP, the eXecuteIn Place) of chip of program, and promptly application program can directly be moved in flash memory, needn't read code among the RAM of system again.NAND Flash is a kind of new technology, compares with NOR Flash, can integrated bigger memory capacity on onesize chip area.NOR Flash is suitable for (low-density) code storage, and NAND Flash is suitable for the high density data storage.In novel smart card, mainly adopt flash memory to come the extension storage space, wherein, NOR Flash is mainly used in storage and run time version, and NAND Flash is exclusively used in the storage data.
Extended memory also can adopt other all kinds of novel memory technologies such as FeRAM, molecular memory to wait and expand.Both extended memory and above-mentioned microcontroller can be integrated on the chips, also can adopt the way of physically separating.Being connected by the specific store controller circuitry between microcontroller and the extended memory realizes.Nor Flash controller and NAND Flash controller are because the different needs of interface protocol uses separately independently circuit
In order to realize that novel smart card of the present invention communicates by letter with exterior terminal or card-reading apparatus, need design novel or transform the traditional terminal or the interface of card-reading apparatus.Be specifically described below.
(1) is connected with the traditional smart card reader that meets ISO/IEC 7816 standards
Because novel smart card has still been deferred to the interface of ISO/IEC 7816 standards, conventional card reader can directly be used novel smart card, uses it to meet the basic function and the application of ISO/IEC 7816 standards; If will use the interface function that increases newly, card reader just must guarantee that its deck is that 8 contacts are (present, a lot of card reader have been used the deck of 6 pins, with the control production cost), promptly meet the pin definitions and the distribution standard that define in the ISO/IEC 7816-3 agreement fully.Like this, can support on the hardware and being connected of novel smart card.
(2) with being connected of storage card class card reader
Storage card class card reader is meant the card reader that is used for reading storage card, as USB card reader, SD card reader, mmc card card reader.Because the physical aspect of novel smart card is subjected to the restriction of ISO/IEC7816 standard, do not match with the interface form of conventional store class card reader, therefore can pass through adapter apparatus, perhaps the interface physical aspect of traditional storage card class card reader be carried out suitable change, can with the novel intelligent card connection.Card read connection device for smart card can comprise a physical support that can carry smart card, one end of this physical support has USB socket or SD/MMC socket, the other end or other side can be inserted smart card or embed, this physical support is provided with 8 signal contact points that the contact position with standard intelligent card matches, and the signal contact point is connected with USB socket or SD/MMC socket; Wherein the signal wire of 5 signal contact points according to ISO/IEC 7816 agreements be defined as respectively power supply,, reset, clock and data line, the signal wire of all the other 3 signal contact points is defined as data, control signal wire and the clock cable of smart card high speed interface respectively.
On powerful hardware platform basis, the software architecture of novel smart card of the present invention is bottom-up, can be divided into hardware driving, RTOS (Real Time Operating System, real time operating system), API (Application Program Interface, application programming interface) and concrete several levels such as application/business, as shown in Figure 6.
Smartcard internal of the present invention comprises numerous circuit modules and has carried a large amount of new applications, and the complexity of scheduling and management is high, therefore adopts RTOS to do intelligent management, so that efficient, a stable multitask, the working environment of using to be provided more.RTOS is controlling the intercommunication mutually of application programming interface and hardware platform, is in charge of system resource, and real-time multi-task scheduling efficiently is provided.Major function comprises: processor management, interrupt management, task management, time management, message queue, memory management, file management, equipment control etc.When a plurality of programs were moved simultaneously, operating system was responsible for processing time of planning and optimizing each program.
Hardware driving mainly is to support operating system, and the driver (as FLASH, ISO/IEC7816, USB, SD, MMC) of various kinds of equipment or interface is provided, and finishes hardware initialization, and clock/power management.
API provides the application programming interfaces of an opening, unification, standard for various application programs, supports the exploitation of upper level applications.Simultaneously, application program is also by the various lower-level system resources of API Calls.Function and the interface (as STK virtual machine, JAVA virtual machine, IMAP4, MMAPI) of some typical cases being used (as GSM application, JAVA application, mobile e-mail, mobile multimedia) extract, form standard package, with further reduction development difficulty and workload, can carry out concrete application and development easily, apace on this basis.
Can share and swap data with digital equipments such as the PC of present main flow, digital camera, MP3/MP4 players in order to make novel smart card of the present invention, set up general file system in novel smart card inside, file layout commonly used in can operating systems such as compatible Windows, Linux, as FAT16, FAT32, NTFS, Ext2, Ext3 etc., so that the compatible and convenient of maximum to be provided; And, can also specifically determine to select for use which kind of file layout wherein according to user's selection.This shows, novel smart card of the present invention not only can be used as independently, and storer/card (USB flash disk, SD card, mmc card) uses, and can be used as a kind of data interchange platform, become the extended memory of mobile phone terminal, PC and other card-reading terminal equipment.
In above-mentioned powerful hardware platform and flexibly, efficiently on the basis of software architecture, novel smart card had both been supported traditional mobile application, as GSM application, EMV application, mobile banking or the like, also support a large amount of new applications simultaneously, as DRM, network download, multimedia service, online game, application such as network communication services, internet browsing service, wireless access service.In novel smart card; can realize DRM by binding its ICCID and IMS1; by its safe computing function, finish the discriminating of personal identification, the authentication of value-added service and the secure download and the copyright insured of the contents such as realizing music, picture, CRBT of chargeing simultaneously.
Because novel smart card has powerful computing ability, the storage space of vast capacity and high-speed transfer interface can design various multimedia coding-decoders with the mode that software or coprocessor cooperate, as MP3, MP4, V 2OIP (Voice/Video over Internet Protocol, the audio/video of internet protocol-based) etc. carry out encoding and decoding to multi-medium data and handle, and realize functions such as the networking telephone, telephonograph, audio frequency and video broadcast.
The principle of work and the flow process of novel smart card of the present invention are as follows:
Different according to clock source, and the circuit state of required opening and closing during different application, novel smart card chip of the present invention can be supported multiple mode of operation, comprising: normal mode of operation, low power mode of operation and park mode.Clock of the present invention source mainly contains two kinds: external clock and internal clocking.External clock is meant by smart card terminal equipment and provides, and from the clock signal of smart card external contact input, comprises smart card work clock signal (being called for short the SIM clock, by the input of smart card CLK contact), SD card work clock signal, MMC work clock signal; Internal clocking then is meant smartcard internal clock source oscillator; Work clock is meant the clock signal that obtains by behind digital PLL circuit frequency multiplication and the frequency division, can provide system works clock and USB interface needed high accurate clock signal.Be responsible for the switching of the various mode of operations of chip internal by the clock/administrative unit that resets.The implication of each pattern is as follows:
■ normal mode of operation: use the inner or outside clock that provides as signal source, provide system works needed various clocks through phaselocked loop (PLL).This moment, the clock of inner each circuit module was opened.
■ low power mode of operation: use the inner or outside clock that provides as signal source, close phaselocked loop (PLL), the clock of needed minimal hardware module (as CPU, SRAM, FLASH, MPU) when opening the work of SIM basic function, other circuit is closed at this moment
■ park mode: use the inner or outside clock that provides as signal source, close phaselocked loop (PLL), open modular circuits such as ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces, interruptable controller, close most of modular circuits such as CPU, each storer, the also not work of SIM basic function this moment, total system is in the wake-up waiting state
When novel intelligent of the present invention was stuck in each duty, ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces were in opening always; And USB, SD, three kinds of same times of interface of MMC have only a kind of interface to be in opening, perhaps Close All.Therefore, duty according to interface, novel smart card has four kinds of duties: SIM state, USB state, SD state MMC state, the SIM state is meant that to have only ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces in running order, and other three kinds of situations that interface is all closed, back three kinds of states are meant that corresponding certain outside high-speed interface and ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces are in simultaneously (unlatching) state of working.
After novel intelligent of the present invention is stuck in the power-up initializing chip, enter into different duties according to the different choice of the interface signal of peripheral hardware input.If the SIM state, then chip enters low power mode of operation, carries out work according to the workflow of conventional smart card; If one of USB, SD, MMC state, then chip enters normal mode of operation, carries out work according to corresponding host-host protocol.If at a certain state, without any operation, then chip enters park mode to smart card in a period of time; After new instruction arrived, chip just returned to original duty.Use when novel intelligent is stuck in the smart card terminal equipment (as mobile phone terminal), can switch to one of other three kinds of states from the SIM state, perhaps oppositely switch by special-purpose status switching instruction.
When in novel intelligent of the present invention is stuck in the smart card terminal equipment of mobile phone terminal and so on, using, both can be used as traditional smart card/SIM card and use its ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces, also can use its high-speed transfer interface simultaneously.
When in novel smart card of the present invention is placed on the card-reading apparatus of storage card class, using, then use its high-speed transfer interface and function, be used as common storage card (as USB flash disk, SD card, mmc card) and use.
Describing the preferred embodiments of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, is that example is described to realize the USB/SD/MMC interface simultaneously in SIM card.
Because novel smart card function of the present invention is numerous, adopt multicore sheet packaging technology; For can be together with all Chip Packaging, adopt metal band technology enlarge chip the final chip of effective package area packing forms as shown in Figure 3.
The general structure of micro controller unit as shown in Figure 7, mainly comprise microprocessor, on-chip bus, internal storage location, I/O controller, ISO/IEC 7816, dma controller, interruptable controller, flash controller, the clock/administrative unit that resets (CPMU), clock/administrative unit that resets (CPMU) provides clock/reset signal for other all unit.
Microprocessor is selected general embedded type CPU, can be 16/32/64 microprocessor, such as the ARM7TDMI of ARM company.Coprocessor is selected according to concrete application scenario and requirement, and mould power calculates as carrying out with cipher code arithmetic assisting processor, the multimedia coprocessor carries out vector modular multiplication or the like.
In the present embodiment, preferentially select AMBA 2.0 bus specifications as on-chip bus.The AMBA on-chip bus of being released by ARM company has been subjected to numerous IP developer and SoC system integration person's favor, has become structure on a kind of popular industrial standard sheet.The AMBA standard has mainly comprised AHB (AdvancedHigh performance Bus) system bus and APB (Advanced Peripheral Bus) peripheral bus.In the present embodiment, OCB1 adopts AHB, is used for high-speed component in the brace, and as nucleus modules such as ARM nuclear, DSP nuclears, OCB2 adopts APB, is used to connect the low speed parts, as interruptable controller, ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces.Connect with the AMBA bus bridge between the double bus.
Internal storage location comprises ROM, RAM, EEPROM, FLASH.ROM and EEPROM are used for downloading and storage RTOS and system information, and RAM is a working storage, is used to exchange ephemeral data.FLASH is used for storaging user data or code.
In this example, scheme shown in the according to the form below realizes multiplexing to the smart card pin.
On the basis of pin multiplexing, the I/O controller is mainly realized USB, SD, three kinds of high-speed interfaces of MMC and interface signal scanning and the automatic recognition function of agreement, and coordinates the switching of distinct interface state.ISO/IEC 7816 interfaces are realized the communication function of ISO/IEC 7816 agreements.
After novel intelligent of the present invention is stuck in the power-up initializing chip, enter into different duties according to the different choice of the interface signal of peripheral hardware input.If the SIM state, then chip enters low power mode of operation, carries out work according to the workflow of conventional smart card; If one of USB, SD, MMC state, then chip enters normal mode of operation, if carry out work at a certain state according to corresponding host-host protocol, without any operation, then chip enters park mode to smart card in a period of time; After new instruction arrived, chip just returned to original duty.The card-reading apparatus of novel smart card outside can be notified smart card switch operating state by expansion APDU (Application Protocol Data Unit, Application Protocol Data Unit) instruction.
Dma controller is connected on the high speed on-chip bus, be independent of microprocessor, can substitute microprocessor and take over control bus, exchanges data without microprocessor and directly between the storer between (between SRAM and Flash) and storer and the peripheral hardware (between Flash and USB interface equipment) carry out.
Flash controller is except the flash memory with micro controller unit inside links to each other, and its major function provides the interface that links to each other with the outer flash memories of microcontroller, for using at the outside increased flash memory storer of microcontroller.Flash controller mainly provides expansion and the control to NOR, two kinds of FLASH of NAND, effectively improves the memory capacity of smart card on the one hand, effectively reduces the cost of smart card with large capacity on the other hand.
The general structure block diagram of clock/administrative unit that resets (CRMU) comprises the time frequency division and gate control circuit, reset signal generation module and digital phase-locked loop (PLL), crystal resonator (OSC) and the controller thereof that are connected with on-chip bus respectively as shown in Figure 8.Phaselocked loop is used to obtain the high frequency clock source, and crystal resonator is used to obtain low frequency reference clock source.Only having expressed chip internal clock source and outside SIM card clock source among the figure, do not listed the clock signal of SD, MMC, is because the clock/administrative unit that resets is left intact to these two kinds of clock signals, is delivered directly to corresponding I/O controller.It is external clock or internal clocking that bus control signal control crystal resonator, pll controller are selected the chip operation clock, and clock, reset signal are exported in control.Clock division and gating circuit and reset signal generation module are known configurations, no longer too much introduce herein
The functional structure of Power Management Unit (PMU) is output as example with two-way as shown in Figure 9.To realize power management in smartcard internal, the scheme that therefore must selection can on the silicon nude film, realize.Through type selecting, there are 3 class power management devices to meet the demands: linear voltage regulator (LDO), DC-DC converter and boosting charge pump (CHARGEPUMP).Present embodiment adopts linear voltage regulator, and its structural representation is output as example with two-way as shown in Figure 9.When the smart card external voltage in that 1.5V～5.5V is interval when changing, can be powering of smartcard internal by PMU with electric device; Exceed in the Power Management Unit load in limited time when external voltage exceeds critical field or load current, PMU will turn-off, and protection smartcard internal acp chip group and peripherally do not burnt by electricity with electric device.
The input end (VIN) of PMU is linked to each other with smart card standard contact C1, and ground (GND) links to each other with smart card standard contact C5, and connects the power-supply device of smart card outside by smart card contact; The enable signal end (EN1/EN2) of PMU is connected with VIN, so that the output of the multichannel of PMU effectively; The output of PMU can be received microcontroller and/or extended memory.
The software of novel smart card of the present invention is pressed hierarchy design, be divided into hardware driving, RTOS, API and concrete application/business etc. which floor, detailed structure is as shown in figure 10.Smartcard internal of the present invention comprises numerous Device elements and application program, the complexity height of scheduling and management, therefore adopt RTOS to do intelligent management, so that efficient, a sane multitask, the working environment of using to be provided more, major function comprises task scheduling management, file management, memory management, interrupt management, time management, equipment control.Hardware driving mainly is to support operating system, and the driver (as FLASH, ISO/IEC7816, USB, SD, MMC) of various kinds of equipment or interface is provided, and finishes hardware initialization, and clock/power management.API provides an application programming interfaces opening, unified, standard as graphic user interface (GUI), multimedia API (MMAPI), make things convenient for the exploitation of application program.Agreement that some are commonly used or standard (are made assembly as (GSM 11.11 agreements, GSM 11.14 agreements, EMV 2000 agreements, JAVA virtual machine, STK virtual machine etc.) and some other functional interface (as browser, resolver etc.) commonly used, be preset in the smart card, conveniently use and develop.
Service/application has then been determined the concrete application form of novel smart card.Except can be used as independent movable storage device (as USB flash disk, the SD card, mmc card) and traditional application (use as GSM, EMV uses) outside, can utilize powerful computing ability of the present invention, the storage space of vast capacity and external interface at a high speed come a large amount of mobile value-added service of develop and field, as DRM, music download, Mobile business, stored value card, mobile TV or the like, both can be user-friendly, also can effectively improve ARPU (the Average Revenue Per User of operator, every user's average income) value, and help the control of its reinforcement to industrial chain.
Consider the description of this invention disclosed herein and special embodiment, other embodiment of the present invention are conspicuous for a person skilled in the art.These explanations and embodiment only consider as an example that they all belong to by within the indicated protection scope of the present invention and spirit of claims.
Priority Applications (1)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|CNB200610170452XA CN100487728C (en)||2006-12-30||2006-12-30||Smart card of supporting high performance computing, large capacity storage and high-speed transmission|
Applications Claiming Priority (2)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|CNB200610170452XA CN100487728C (en)||2006-12-30||2006-12-30||Smart card of supporting high performance computing, large capacity storage and high-speed transmission|
|PCT/CN2007/070889 WO2008080323A1 (en)||2006-12-30||2007-10-12||Smart card for supporting high performance computation, mass storage, high speed transmission and new application|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CN101004798A CN101004798A (en)||2007-07-25|
|CN100487728C true CN100487728C (en)||2009-05-13|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CNB200610170452XA CN100487728C (en)||2006-12-30||2006-12-30||Smart card of supporting high performance computing, large capacity storage and high-speed transmission|
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|CN (1)||CN100487728C (en)|
|WO (1)||WO2008080323A1 (en)|
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|CN102483647B (en)||For operating computer method and system via low-power attached processor|
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|US7296754B2 (en)||IC card module|
|US7291019B2 (en)||IC card|
|CN100590648C (en)||Memory cards including a standard security function|
|US7426584B2 (en)||Portable storage media as file servers|
|EP1597696B1 (en)||Multi-protocol memory card|
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|CN100342393C (en)||Mobile terminal having smart card coupled with RFID tag and method for performing RFID function in such mobile terminal|
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|US8266619B2 (en)||Embedded operating system architecture for smart card|
|JP5341964B2 (en)||Fully simultaneous information about state changes of dual interface objects|
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|ES2277939T3 (en)||Method and device for signaling data transfer between a usb port and a smart card module with universal series (usb) bus.|
|JP4898784B2 (en)||Smart card power management|
|AU728907B2 (en)||Pocket value terminal|
|KR101360199B1 (en)||Method for efficient use of interface between smart card and device, associated smart card and device|
|US20120214558A1 (en)||Method and mobile device for operating in different data transfer modes|
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|CN101326735B (en)||Method and equipment for simulating a plurality of RFID label in single mobile electronic apparatus|
|US20030112611A1 (en)||IC card|
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Owner name: RDA MICROELECTRONICS (SHANGHAI) CO., LTD.
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Effective date: 20100426
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Patentee after: RDA Microelectronics (Shanghai) Corp. Ltd.
Address before: 100084, Beijing Road, Zhongguancun, Haidian District science and Technology Park, Tsinghua Science and technology building, block A, 18
Patentee before: Poenix Mcroelectronic (China) Co., Ltd.
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Free format text: CORRECT: ADDRESS; FROM: 100084 18/F, TOWER A, SCIENCE BUILDING, QINGHUA SCIENCE PARK, ZHONGGUANCUN EAST ROAD, HAIDIAN DISTRICT, BEIJING CITY TO: 201203 ROOM 302, BUILDING 2, NO.690, BIBO ROAD, ZHANGJIANG HIGH-TECH PARK, SHANGHAI CITY