CN100480004C - Method for rapid calibrating hand-eye relationship of single eye vision sensor of welding robot - Google Patents

Method for rapid calibrating hand-eye relationship of single eye vision sensor of welding robot Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100480004C
CN100480004C CNB2007100076443A CN200710007644A CN100480004C CN 100480004 C CN100480004 C CN 100480004C CN B2007100076443 A CNB2007100076443 A CN B2007100076443A CN 200710007644 A CN200710007644 A CN 200710007644A CN 100480004 C CN100480004 C CN 100480004C
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China
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robot
coordinate system
camera
welding robot
welding
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CNB2007100076443A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101053953A (en
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林涛
朱振友
陈善本
陈文杰
陈希章
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上海交通大学
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a monocular vision sensor of a welding robot used for the technical field of welding and cutting, and a rapid calibrating method of the relationship between the hands and the eyes of the robot. A minitype CCD camera, the dimming and filtering systems, and a motor driving system of the sensor are arranged on an installation bracket. In the dimming and filtering systems, the dimming lens and the filtering lens are overlapped and arranged on a lens bracket, wherein the connection is realized by means of a movable connecting bar and a driving arm. A driving motor of the motor driving system is connected with a decelerator. The driving arms of the dimming and filtering system are directly connected with an output shaft of the decelerator. In the present invention, the internal and external parameters of the camera are calibrated, at the same time, the world coordinate system is coincident with the coordinate system of the robot, thereby, the denotation of the external parameters of the camera under the world coordinate system is changed into the denotation under the coordinate system of the terminal control point of the welding robot, so as to complete the calibrating of the relationship between the hands and the eyes of the robot.

Description

Hand-the eye of welding robot monocular vision sensor concerns quick calibrating method

The present invention by number of patent application is: 2004100528574, name of patent application is: " welding robot monocular vision sensor and hand-eye thereof concern quick calibrating method ", patent application is artificial: Shanghai Communications University, patent application day is: the patent on July 15th, 2004 is divided an application.

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of welding robot vision sensor and scaling method thereof, specifically is that a kind of hand-eye of welding robot monocular vision sensor concerns quick calibrating method.Be used to weld the cutting field.

Background technology

At present, the sensing mode that is applied on the welding robot is varied, among these method for sensing, since the visual sensing mode have contain much information, noncontact, fast, high accuracy and automaticity advantages of higher, be subjected to liking of numerous Welders author, become the research focus of robot welding sensor aspect at present.The visual sensing technology on welding robot, use more be carry out that the weld seam vision is followed the tracks of and welding process Based Intelligent Control such as penetration control aspect research.At present both at home and abroad the research comparative maturity is the visual sensing mode that adopts laser or structured light, and this sensing mode need add specific light source, weak point such as exist that information content is abundant inadequately, function singleness, volume are bigger.And carry out route guidance when control for welding robot, and usually adopt hand-eye visual configuration mode, at this moment hand-the eye for welding robot concerns that demarcation is a key link.

Through the prior art literature search is analyzed, people such as discovery Sun Zhen state are in " optical technology " (2001, Vol 27, No.3:252-254,259) " research of novel intelligent spherical tank welding robot vision sensor " delivered on, the document has been developed a kind of novel vision sensor for realizing the autokinetic movement and the soldering joint automatic tracking of intelligent spherical tank welding robot.This sensor is a core with the high-resolution linear array CCD chip, is made up of optical systems such as light source, optical filter, lens and CCD drive circuit, photoelectric signal processing circuit etc., and wherein the photoelectricity treatment circuit is all realized by hardware.The interference of arc light when whole visual sensing system can be avoided welding, detect seam track line deviation signal in real time, exactly, but need add specific light source, complex structure, and optical filter is fixed on the video camera front end and can not moves, and can't satisfy under the natural daylight condition and use.

Also find in the retrieval, people such as Wang Min are at " Central China University of Science and Technology's journal " 2001, Vol 29, NO.3:45-47) " the Robot Hand-eye vision calibration method of space object location " delivered on, the document has proposed a kind of robot-eye vision calibration new method that is used for the space object location, adopt a constant transformation matrix to describe end effector coordinate system and robot coordinate system's corresponding relation, and supposition is in calibration process, object to the distance of video camera remains unchanged, with the problem reduction of three-dimensional localization is that two-dimensional problems are handled, and has greatly reduced amount of calculation.This method has accurate positioning, reliability advantages of higher, needs mobile robot's end effector but also exist in calibration process, the weak point of carrying out repeatedly capture and repeatedly demarcating.In production application, can not satisfy the requirement of easy quick demarcation.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is at above shortcomings in the prior art and defective, provide a kind of hand-eye of welding robot monocular vision sensor to concern quick calibrating method, multipurpose, the profile that has achieved the welding robot vision sensor be small and exquisite, simplified the amount of calculation and the complexity of demarcating greatly, have higher precision, satisfy the production real work needs of welding robot fully.

The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions, and welding robot monocular vision sensor comprises: miniature CCD video camera, dim light and filter system, motor driven systems and mounting bracket.Its annexation is: miniature CCD video camera, dim light and filter system and motor driven systems all are arranged on the mounting bracket, and wherein the miniature CCD video camera mainly is responsible for the collection to welding scene and welded piece and weld pool image; Motor driven systems comprises drive motors and deceleration device, and wherein drive motors is connected with speed brake setting, is exported by reduction unit output shaft.By the Electric Machine Control interface circuit, can adopt the general purpose I/O in the robot controller that motor is controlled, realize function by the direct drive motors of welding robot controller.Thereby both can be when welding robot have been carried out the teaching operation, by the teach programming device drive motors is controlled, also can realize the control of drive motors network programming, thereby satisfy the job requirement that drives dim light and filter system in the different operating stage by main control computer; Dim light and filter system comprise dim light eyeglass, filter glass and lens supports, movable rod, actuating arm, dim light eyeglass and filter glass are overlapping to be arranged on the lens supports, be connected with actuating arm by movable rod, and actuating arm directly links to each other with the reduction unit output shaft of motor driven systems, can be output axle and just drive/reverse rotation; Whole sensor of the present invention is fixedlyed connected with the welding gun of welding robot robot end by mounting bracket.

When sensor of the present invention uses, weld the last stage beginning, because electric arc does not ignite, system adopts the natural lighting imaging, at this moment controls the drive motors counter-rotating, drive the actuating arm counter-rotating in dim light and the filter system, by movable rod, light damping plate and optical filter mounting bracket are removed from the video camera front end, make video camera can directly take the welded piece image, realize the recognition and verification of butt welded seam and weld start position, carry out identification and the guiding of welding robot initial welding position; Carrying out the welding process stage, because electric arc ignites, illumination is very strong, in order to make the video camera can be clear to the welding pool imaging, can control drive motors and just change, the actuating arm that drives in dim light and the filter system just changes, pass through movable rod, light damping plate and optical filter mounting bracket are moved on to the video camera front end, thus make video camera by optical filter and light damping plate to the welding pool imaging, by weld joint tracking and the control of welding penetration that can carry out welding process to the processing of crater image.Thereby realized only adopting an independent video camera to carry out multiple sensing demand, simplified the structure of sensor, satisfied the practicality requirement.

After the installation site of video camera is fixing, need demarcate the inside and outside parameter of video camera and the trick Relation Parameters of welding robot, and when video camera and robot arm (welding gun) relative position change, need again the trick Relation Parameters of robot to be demarcated, as seen, simple and rapid welding robot hand and eye calibrating algorithm is very necessary for practical application.

Hand-the eye of welding robot monocular vision sensor of the present invention concerns quick calibrating method, by camera interior and exterior parameter is being demarcated simultaneously, the method that world coordinate system is overlapped with the robot body coordinate system, in the calibrating camera inside and outside parameter, according to the coordinate transform relation of same coordinate under plural coordinate system, with the expression of external parameters of cameras under world coordinate system, be converted in the expression of getting off of welding robot robot end control point (hand) coordinate system, thereby the trick relation of finishing welding robot is demarcated.

The present invention includes following steps:

(1) according to " 5 standardizations " welding robot control point (the most advanced and sophisticated point of welding gun) accurately demarcated;

(2) camera interior and exterior parameter is demarcated, and demarcated the capture position and the attitude data at recorder people control point constantly.Wherein, demarcating the camera intrinsic parameter that is obtained is the intrinsic parameter of imaging geometry model of video camera self, and it can not become once just demarcating for a certain video camera again.And outer parameter characterization is being demarcated capture constantly, the relative position relation of camera coordinate system and world coordinate system.In three-dimensional coordinate acquisition process to calibration point, adopt ROBOT CONTROL to put the mode of obtaining indirectly, world coordinate system can be overlapped with the robot body coordinate system in this way, the external parameters of cameras that is obtained during calibrating camera then, be video camera and demarcating the relative position relation of the moment with respect to the robot body coordinate system, in conjunction with calibrating camera robot control point attitude data constantly,, can demarcate the trick relation of robot fast by the appropriate coordinate system conversion.

The present invention is in the different operating stage of welding robot, and according to different needs of work, sensor can be realized different functions, can satisfy multiple need of work.Designed robot-eye concerns that quick calibrating method and traditional robot-eye concern that scaling method compares, complicated measuring instruments such as 3 d space coordinate measuring instrument have been omitted, and needn't mobile welding robot, reduced because the calibrated error that the welding robot motion produces.And the capture number of times with to the demarcation number of times of external parameters of cameras be half of conventional method, simplified the amount of calculation and the complexity of demarcating greatly, have higher precision and bigger use value, satisfy the production real work needs of welding robot fully.

Description of drawings

The sensor construction schematic diagram that Fig. 1 the present invention relates to

The specific embodiment

As shown in Figure 1, welding robot monocular vision sensor of the present invention comprises: miniature CCD video camera 1, dim light and filter system 2, motor driven systems 3 and mounting bracket 4.Its annexation is: miniature CCD video camera 1, dim light and filter system 2 and motor driven systems 3 all are arranged on the mounting bracket 4, dim light and filter system 2 comprise dim light eyeglass 5, filter glass 6 and lens supports 7, movable rod 8, actuating arm 9, dim light eyeglass 5 and filter glass 6 overlapping being arranged on the lens supports 7, be connected with actuating arm 9 by movable rod 8, and actuating arm 9 deceleration device 11 output shafts direct and in the motor driven systems link to each other, and can be output axle and just drive/reverse rotation; Motor driven systems 3 comprises drive motors 10 and deceleration device 11, and wherein drive motors 10 is fixedlyed connected with deceleration device 11, is exported by deceleration device 11 output shafts.

Whole sensor of the present invention is fixedlyed connected with the welding gun 12 of welding robot robot end by mounting bracket 4.

Below the content of the inventive method is done further to understand:

For the quick calibrating method of welding robot staff-eye relation, its specific implementation mainly is to concern according to the coordinate transform between the different coordinates of space.Suppose given coordinate system A}, B} and C}, if known B} with respect to A} is described as, and C} with respect to B} is described as, and then can obtain following formula (1):

T C A = T B A T C B = R B A p B 0 A 0 0 0 1 R C B p C 0 B 0 0 0 1 = R B A R C B R B A p C 0 B + p B 0 A 0 0 0 1 - - - ( 1 )

Spin matrix R that is tried to achieve during according to camera calibration and translation vector T can be in the hope of robot body coordinate system C RobWith camera coordinate system C cBetween description, promptly be equivalent in the formula (1) Known; At the camera calibration capture last joint coordinate system C of read machine human arm in real time constantly hWith respect to robot body coordinate system C RobThe position vector and the anglec of rotation, thereby can be in the hope of robot arm end joint coordinate system C hWith respect to robot body coordinate system C RobDescription, promptly be equivalent in the formula (1) Known.Promptly formed a closed chain link with these three coordinate systems of robot arm end (welding gun) coordinate system by camera coordinate system, welding robot body coordinate system (world coordinate system), thus can be in the hope of robot arm end joint coordinate system C hWith respect to camera coordinate system C cDescription.Then only demarcate by carry out a capture a position, " hand-eye " of demarcating welding robot when just can be implemented in the outer parameter of calibrating camera concerns.

Claims (2)

1, a kind of hand-eye of welding robot monocular vision sensor concerns quick calibrating method, it is characterized in that, by camera interior and exterior parameter is being demarcated simultaneously, the method that world coordinate system is overlapped with the robot body coordinate system, in the calibrating camera inside and outside parameter, according to the coordinate transform relation of same coordinate under plural coordinate system, with the expression of external parameters of cameras under world coordinate system, be converted under the coordinate system of welding robot robot end control point and represent, thereby the trick relation of finishing welding robot is demarcated, and is that the most advanced and sophisticated point of welding gun is accurately demarcated according to " 5 standardizations " to the welding robot control point in addition; And camera interior and exterior parameter demarcated, and demarcating the capture position and the attitude data at recorder people control point constantly, wherein, demarcating the camera intrinsic parameter that is obtained is the intrinsic parameter of imaging geometry model of video camera self.
2, hand-the eye of welding robot monocular vision sensor according to claim 1 concerns quick calibrating method, it is characterized in that, described camera interior and exterior parameter is demarcated, in three-dimensional coordinate acquisition process to calibration point, adopt ROBOT CONTROL to put the mode of obtaining indirectly, in this way world coordinate system is overlapped with the robot body coordinate system, the external parameters of cameras that is obtained during calibrating camera then, be video camera and demarcating the relative position relation of the moment with respect to the robot body coordinate system, in conjunction with calibrating camera robot control point attitude data constantly, by coordinate system transformation, can demarcate the trick relation of robot fast.
CNB2007100076443A 2004-07-15 2004-07-15 Method for rapid calibrating hand-eye relationship of single eye vision sensor of welding robot CN100480004C (en)

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CNB2004100528574A Division CN1331642C (en) 2004-07-15 2004-07-15 Single eye visual sensor for welding robot and its hand-eye relation quick marking method

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