CN100473000C - Authentication in a hybrid communications network - Google Patents

Authentication in a hybrid communications network Download PDF

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CN100473000C
CN100473000C CN 02827523 CN02827523A CN100473000C CN 100473000 C CN100473000 C CN 100473000C CN 02827523 CN02827523 CN 02827523 CN 02827523 A CN02827523 A CN 02827523A CN 100473000 C CN100473000 C CN 100473000C
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communication system
cellular communication
station
base station
mobile
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CN 02827523
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1618197A (en )
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A·R·霍尔克曼
A·T·亨特
M·格林
N·简恩
Y·里蒙尼
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高通股份有限公司
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W12/00Security arrangements, e.g. access security or fraud detection; Authentication, e.g. verifying user identity or authorisation; Protecting privacy or anonymity
    • H04W12/06Authentication
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L63/00Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
    • H04L63/08Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for supporting authentication of entities communicating through a packet data network
    • H04L63/0823Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for supporting authentication of entities communicating through a packet data network using certificates
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W36/00Hand-off or reselection arrangements
    • H04W36/14Reselecting a network or an air interface

Abstract

描述了一种方法,认证一移动站从由第一移动交换控制站控制的第一蜂窝通信系统内的第一基站到第二移动交换控站控制下的不同蜂窝系统内的第二基站。 It describes a method for the authentication of the second base station in a cellular system different from the control under the control of a mobile station switching from the first base station in a first cellular communication system including a first mobile switching control station to the second mobile. 该方法包括包括:对分配给第二蜂窝通信系统的移动站的私有密钥以及第二蜂窝通信系统生成的随机数应用一算法,按结果在第二蜂窝通信系统处生成一认证码。 The method includes comprising: a cellular communication system is allocated to the second mobile station of a private key and a random number generated by the second cellular communication system applied to an algorithm to generate an authentication code according to the result in the second cellular communication system. 按对私有密钥和随机数应用一算法的结果在第一蜂窝通信系统处生成一认证码。 By the private key and the random number to the application of an algorithm to generate a result of the authentication code at the first cellular communication system. 将在第一蜂窝通信系统处生成的认证码在数据分组内发送到移动站,自此将认证码发送到第二蜂窝通信系统。 Generated in a first cellular communication system of the authentication code transmitted within the data packets to the mobile station, since the authentication code transmitted to the second cellular communication system. 将第一蜂窝通信系统处生成的认证码与在第二蜂窝通信系统处生成的认证码比较。 Comparing the generated first authentication code at the cellular communication system and in a second authentication code generated at the cellular communication system.

Description

在混合通信网络中的认证 Authentication hybrid communication network

相关申请 RELATED APPLICATIONS

本申请对于美国临时专利申请序列号60/340172有优先权,后者题为"Method and Apparatus for Effecting Handoff Between Different Cellular Communications Systems",提交于2001年11月7日;且本申请还对代理人号020045有优先权,后者题为"Method and Apparatus For Effecting Handoff Between Different Cellular Communications Systems",提交于2002年2月14日; 本申请还对于美国临时专利申请序利号60/350401有优先权,后者题为"GSM Authentication,Encryption and Other Feature Support in a CDMA lx Network Using a GSM-lx MSC",提交于2002年1月17日。 This application is for the United States Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 60/340172 have priority, which is entitled "Method and Apparatus for Effecting Handoff Between Different Cellular Communications Systems", filed on November 7, 2001; and this application is also the agent No. 020 045 have priority, which is entitled "Method and Apparatus for Effecting Handoff Between Different Cellular Communications Systems", filed on February 14, 2002; The application also for the benefit of US provisional Patent application Serial No. 60/350401 have priority the latter entitled "GSM Authentication, Encryption and Other Feature Support in a CDMA lx Network Using a GSM-lx MSC", filed on January 17.

技术领域 FIELD

本发明一般涉及在不同蜂窝通信系统内用于认证的方法和装置。 The present invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for authentication in different cellular communication system. 背景技术 Background technique

所谓的码分多址(CDMA)调制技术是进行有大量系统用户的通信的几种技术之一。 A so-called code division multiple access (CDMA) modulation techniques is one of several techniques for a large number of communication system users. 虽然其他技术诸如时分多址(TDMA)、频分多址(FDMA)和诸如幅度压縮扩展单边频带的AM调制方案可用,但CDMA有优于其他这些调制技术的重要优势。 Although other techniques such as time division multiple access (TDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and amplitude as the compressing and expanding single sideband AM modulation schemes are available, but those other than CDMA modulation techniques have significant advantages. 在多址通信系统内使用CDMA技术在美国专利号4901307 内有揭小、题为"Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Communication System Using Satellite Or Terrestrial Repeaters",被转让给本发明的受让人,在此引入作为参考。 Using CDMA techniques in multiple access communication systems have exposing small, entitled "Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Communication System Using Satellite Or Terrestrial Repeaters", assigned to the assignee of the present invention in U.S. Patent No. 4,901,307, incorporated herein by reference .

在美国专利号4901307内,描述了一种多址技术,其中大量移动电话系统用户,每个有一个收发机,使用码分多址(CDMA)扩频通信信号通过卫星中继器或陆地基站(又被称为小区基站或小区站点)通信。 In U.S. Patent No. 4,901,307, describes a multiple access technique wherein a large number of mobile telephone system users each having a transceiver using a code division multiple access (CDMA) spread spectrum communication signals through satellite repeaters or terrestrial base stations ( also known as cell base stations or cell sites) communication. 使用CDMA通信,则频谱可以被重复使用多次,从而能增加系统用户容量。 Using CDMA communications, the frequency spectrum can be reused multiple times, thereby to increase the capacity of the system users. 使用CDMA技术比起其他多址技术有更高的频谱效率。 Using CDMA technology over other multiple access technologies have higher spectral efficiency.

在常规的蜂窝电话系统内,可用的频带被分成一般为30KHz带宽的信道, In the conventional cellular telephone system, the available frequency band is divided into a generally channel 30KHz bandwidth,

而使用模拟FM调制技术。 Analog FM modulation techniques are used. 系统服务区域在地域上被分成不同大小的小区。 The system service area is divided into cells of different sizes in the region. 可用的频率信道被分成集合,每个集合一般包括相等数量的信道。 Available frequency channels are divided into sets, each set generally comprises an equal number of channels. 频率集合被分配给小区的方式是为了最小化同信道干扰可能。 Manner set of frequencies allocated to the cell is to minimize possible co-channel interference. 例如,考虑一个系统,其中有七个频率集合,且小区为等大小的六边形。 For example, consider a system in which there are seven frequency sets and the cells of equal size hexagons. 用于一个小区的频率集合不能在该小区的六个最近或周围邻域内被使用。 A set of frequencies for a cell can not be used in the six nearest or surrounding the cell neighborhood. 更进一步,则在一个小区内使用的频率集合不能在该小区的十二个最近的邻域内使用。 Still further, the frequency of use in a set of cells can not be used in the twelve nearest neighborhood of the cell.

在常规的蜂窝系统中,实现的切换方案用于使得呼叫或其他类型的连接(例如数据链路)能在移动站跨越两个小区边界时保持连续。 In conventional cellular systems, a switching scheme for such calls or to achieve other types of connections (e.g., data link) can be maintained continuously across a cell boundary when the two mobile stations. 从一个小区到另一小区的切换是在小区基站内处理呼叫或连接的接收机注意到来自移动站的接收到信号强度落到预定阀值以下时开始。 Start the receiver from a cell handover to another cell is in the cell base station handling the call or connection of notes received signal strength from the mobile station falls below a predetermined threshold. 较低的信号强度指示意味着移动站可能接近小区边界。 Low signal strength indication means that the mobile station may be close to the cell boundary. 当信号电平落到预定阀值之下,则基站要求系统控制器确定相邻基站是否以优于当前基站的信号强度接收移动站信号。 When the signal level falls below a predetermined threshold, the base station requires the system controller determines whether the adjacent base station than a current base station of the mobile station signal strength of the received signal.

响应当前基站查询的系统控制器用切换请求将消息发送到相邻基站。 The system controller in response to a query by the current base station transmits a handover request message to the neighboring base station. 接近与当前基站邻近的基站使用特定的扫描接收机,它们寻找在特定信道上的来自移动站的信号。 Close to the current base station adjacent to the base station using a particular scanning receiver, which for signals from the mobile station in a specific channel. 如果其中一个相邻基站向系统控制器汇报足够的信号电平,则尝试切换。 If one of the neighboring base station reporting a sufficient signal level to the system controller, a handoff is attempted.

切换然后在选择了用于新基站的信道集合的空闲信道时开始。 Then start switching the idle channel is selected for the new base station set of channels. 控制消息被发送到移动站,命令它从当前信道切换到新的信道。 Control message is transmitted to the mobile station commanding it to switch from the current channel to the new channel. 在相同时刻,系统控制器将呼叫从第一基站切换到第二基站。 At the same time, the system controller switches the call from the first base station to the second base station.

在常规系统中,如果到新基站的切换不成功,则呼叫会被中断。 In conventional systems, if the handover to a new base station is unsuccessful, then the call will be interrupted. 切换失败的发生有许多原因。 Switch failure occurs for many reasons. 如果在相邻小区内没有可用的空闲信道用于该呼叫通信, 则切换会失败。 If the neighbor cell is not available idle channel for the call communication, the handover fails. 如果另一基站报告听到了从该移动站,而实际上该基站听到的是在完全不同的另一小区内使用相同信道的不同移动站,则切换会失败。 If another base station heard the report from the mobile station, the base station heard the fact that different mobile stations using the same channel in a completely different cell to another, the handover would fail. 该报告差错会使得呼叫被切换到错误的小区, 一般是一个信号强度不足以维持通信的小区。 The error report may cause the call to be switched to a wrong cell, typically one signal strength is insufficient to maintain communications cell. 另外,如果移动站不能接听到命令以切换信道,切换会失败。 Further, if the mobile station can not hear the access command to switch channels, the handover fails. 实际操作经验表明切换失败发生频繁会导致系统不可靠性。 Practical experience has shown that switching failure occurs frequently cause the system unreliability.

常规电话系统内的另一经常的问题是当移动站接近两个小区的边界时。 Another frequent problem in the conventional telephone system when the mobile station is close to the boundary of two cells. 在该情况下,信号电平在两个基站处波动。 In this case, two signal level fluctuation at the base station. 该信号电平波动导致"乒乓"情况,即在两个基站间来回地进行切换呼叫的重复请求。 This signal level fluctuation results in "ping-pong" case, i.e. repeated requests handover between two base stations in the call back and forth. 该种附加的不需要的切换请求增加了移动站不正确地接听信道切换命令或完全不能接听到命令的概率。 This kind of additional unnecessary handover request increases the probability of a channel switch command or not at the mobile station is heard by the command answer incorrectly. 另外,如果不幸地被转到一所有信道都被使用而没有可以接受切换的可用信道的 Further, if a transferred is unfortunately all channels are used without available channels can accept handover

小区内,则乒乓情况增加了呼叫被中断的概率。 The district, the ping-pong situation increases the probability that the call was interrupted.

在美国专利号5101501内,题为"Method and System For Providing A Soft Handoff In Communications In a CDMA Cellular Telephone System",被转让给本发明的受让人,并在此引入作参考,揭示了一种方法和系统,用于向在切换时通过多于一个小区基站的移动站提供通信。 In U.S. Patent No. 5,101,501, entitled "Method and System For Providing A Soft Handoff In Communications In a CDMA Cellular Telephone System", assigned to the assignee of the present invention and incorporated herein by reference, discloses a method for and a system for providing communication to the switching station through more than one cell of the mobile station. 在该环境中,蜂窝系统内的通信不受从第一基站到第二基站的实际切换而中断,第一基站对应移动站要退出的基站,而第二基站对应移动站要进入的基站。 In this environment, the communication within the cellular system without interruption from the first base station to the second base station is actually switched, the first base station corresponding to the mobile station to exit, the mobile station and the second base station corresponding to a base station to enter. 该类型的切换可以被认为是小区基站和移动站间通信的"软"切换,其中两个或多个基站或基站的扇区并发地向移动站发送。 This type of handover may be considered as inter-cell base station and the mobile station "soft" handover of communication, in which two or more base stations or sectors of base stations transmit concurrently to the mobile station. 使用该种"软"切换技术可以大大减少乒乓情况的发生概率,该情况指在一对基站间进行重复的切换请求。 Using this kind of "soft" handoff technique can greatly reduce the probability of occurrence of the ping-pong situation, this case refers to the repeated handover request between a base station.

在美国专利号5267261内揭示了改善的软切换技术,题为"Mobile Station Assisted Soft Handoff In A CDMA Cellular Communications System", 转让给本发明的受让人,在此引入作为参考。 Disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 5,267,261 an improved soft handoff technique, entitled "Mobile Station Assisted Soft Handoff In A CDMA Cellular Communications System", assigned to the assignee of the present invention, herein incorporated by reference. 软切换技术通过在移动站处测量系统内每个基站发送的"导频"信号强度而得到改善。 Improved soft handoff technique in a mobile station by the measurement system "pilot" signals transmitted by each base strength. 这些导频强度测量在软切换过程中通过方便可用基站切换候选而起到辅助作用。 These pilot strength measurements in a soft handover process and play a supporting role by facilitating handover candidate base station is available.

改善的软切换技术要求移动站监控来自相邻基站的导频的信号强度。 Improved soft handoff technique requires the mobile station monitors the signal strength of pilots from neighboring base frequency. 当测量的信号强度超过给定阀值时,移动站通过基站向系统控制器发送信号强度消息,移动站通过该基站通信。 When the measured signal strength exceeds a given threshold, the mobile station sends a signal strength message to a system controller via the base station, the mobile station via the base station communication. 来自系统控制器到新基站和到移动站的命令消息建立新的和当前基站间的临时通信。 Command messages from the system controller to a new base station and the mobile station to establish a temporary communication between the new and current base station. 当移动站检测到对应至少一个基站的导频的信号强度落到预定电平以下时,其中移动站通过该基站通信,移动站通过正进行通信的基站将指示对应基站的测得的信号强度报告给系统控制器。 When the mobile station detects the signal strength corresponding to at least one base station pilot falls below a predetermined level, wherein the mobile station through the base station communicating, the mobile station communicating via the base station being indicative of signal strength of the corresponding base station reports the measured to the system controller. 来自系统控制器到经标识的基站和移动站的命令消息中止通过对应基站的通信,而通过其它基站的通信则继续。 Command messages from the system controller to the identified base station and the mobile station by the corresponding base station to suspend communication, through communication with other base stations continue.

虽然以上的技术合适于相同蜂窝系统内的小区间的呼叫转移,但当移动站进入由来自另一蜂窝系统的基站服务的小区时会有更困难的情况。 Will be more difficult, although the case where the above technique suitable for call transfers between cells within the same cellular system, but when the mobile station enters a cell by a base station from another cellular system and services. 在该种"系统间"切换的复杂因子为相邻蜂窝系统经常有不同的特征。 In the "inter-system" complexity factor of this type of handover to be adjacent cellular systems often have different characteristics. 例如,相邻的蜂窝系统经常以不同频率操作,且可能维持基站输出功率或导频强度的不同电平。 For example, adjacent cellular systems often operate at different frequencies, and possible to maintain the base station output power level of the pilot or pilots for different strength. 这些差异有效地防止了移动站实现导频强度的比较及现存的移动辅助软切换技术要考虑的其它类似方面。 These differences effectively prevents other similar implement aspects of the mobile station and the pilot strength comparison existing mobile assisted soft handoff technique to be considered.

当没有资源可供进行软系统间切换时,如果要维持服务不中断,则从一个系统到另一的呼叫或连接的切换定时很关键。 When there are no resources available for inter-system handover soft, if you want to maintain uninterrupted service, call from one system to another or connected switching timing is critical. 即系统间切换必须在最能导致系 I.e., inter-system handover can result in the minimum system must

统间呼叫或连接成功转移的时刻进行。 Inter-system call or connection will be successful transfer time. 在该种切换中,这里被称为硬切换,移动站和一个系统间的通信必须在移动站和其它系统间的通信开始前中止。 In this kind of handover, referred to herein as a hard handover, the communication between the mobile station and a system must be suspended before the start of the communication between a mobile station and other systems. 切换只在当例如以下情况下被尝试: Only when the handover is attempted, for example, under the following conditions:

(i) 在新小区内有可用的空闲信道 (I) an idle channel is available in the new cell

(ii) 但在移动站失去了与当前基站的联系之前移动站实际上已处在新小区基站范围内,以及 (Ii) but before the mobile station loses contact with the current base of the mobile station in the new cell base station actually range, and

(iii) 移动站所处于的位置保证它能接收到切换信道的命令理想情况下,每个该种硬系统间切换会以一种方式进行,以最小化不同系 The (iii) the mobile station is in a position to ensure that it receives the command to switch channels Ideally, each inter-system hard handover of the species will be in a manner to minimize the different lines

统的基站间的潜在的"乒乓"切换请求。 Potential "ping-pong" between the base station system a handover request. 然而,现存的切换过程在下述识别失败时使得这更加困难,即要识别何时且通过哪个基站,移动站应被提供新频率和信道信息并被指示转移现存呼叫和连接。 However, existing handover procedure makes it even more difficult when the following recognition fails, and that is to be provided to identify when a new frequency and channel information which the base station, the mobile station and indicating transfer of existing calls and connections.

现存系统间切换技术的这些和那些缺点损害了蜂窝通信的质量,且可能会在蜂窝系统进一步扩展时恶化性能。 Existing inter-system handover techniques of these drawbacks and impairs the quality of cellular communications, and may deteriorate performance when the cellular system further expansion. 相应地,需要一种系统间切换技术,能可靠地引导不同蜂窝通信系统的基站间的呼叫或连接的切换。 Accordingly, the need for an inter-system handover technique can be reliably guided handover between base stations of different cellular communication system call or connection.

美国专利号5697055描述了一种方法和系统,用于实现第一和第二蜂窝系统的基站间的移动站通信的系统间切换,题为"Mobile Station Assisted Soft Handoffln A CDMA Cellular Communications System",被转让给本发明的受让人且在此引入作为参考。 U.S. Patent No. 5,697,055 describes a method and system for implementing the inter-system communication between the mobile station and the second base station of the first cellular system handover, entitled "Mobile Station Assisted Soft Handoffln A CDMA Cellular Communications System", is assigned to the assignee of the present invention and incorporated herein by reference. 在移动站处,测量由第二系统的第二基站发送的信号的可定量化参数。 At the mobile station, the measurement signal transmitted by a second base station of the second system quantifiable parameter. 当测量的可定量化参数值超过第一预定水平,则移动站通过第一系统的第一基站将信号质量消息传递给第一移动切换控制站。 When the quantitative value of the measured parameter exceeds a first predetermined level, the mobile station a signal quality message via a first base station of the first system will be transmitted to the first mobile switching control station.

信道请求消息然后从第一移动交换控制站传递到第二系统内的第二移动切换控制站。 Channel request message is then transmitted from the first mobile switching station to a second mobile switching station within the second system. 在第二基站处,测量从移动站接收到的信号的可定量化参数。 At a second base station, the measurement signals received from the mobile station to a quantifiable parameter. 当可定量化的参数的测量值超过预定水平,第二基站建立与移动站的通信。 When the quantitative value of the measured parameter exceeds a predetermined level, the second base station establishes communication with the mobile station. 或者, 第一基站发送的第一导频信号的信号强度在移动站处被测量。 Alternatively, the first pilot signal strength transmitted from a first base station pilot signal measured at the mobile station. 当第一导频信号的测量的信号强度变得少于第二预定水平时,切换请求消息然后被发送到第二基站,从而建立移动站通信。 When the measured signal strength of the first pilot signal becomes less than a second predetermined level, the handover request message is then sent to the second base station, the mobile station to establish communication. 提供移动切换控制站间的语音链路使得能在第一和第二蜂窝系统间转发存在的连接,并使得能进行软系统间切换。 Providing a voice link between the mobile switching station can forward so that the connection between the present first and second cellular system, and enable inter-system soft handoff.

虽然该方式对于两个系统都基于CDMA从而两者能实现软切换的情况适用,但仍存在一问题即如何处理一个或多个系统不能实现该种软切换时的系统间切换的问题。 Although this embodiment for two CDMA systems are based on the case so as to achieve both soft handover is applied, there is still a problem of how to deal with a problem or more can not be achieved between the system when this type of system soft handoff handover. 例如,所谓的GSM标准没有软切换机制。 For example, the so-called GSM standard without soft switching mechanism. 因此,在处理将使用空中接口从CDMA网络到GSM网络的呼叫切换中存在问题。 Thus, there is a problem in the process of the handover of a call using the air interface from a CDMA network to a GSM network. 另外,GSM认 In addition, GSM recognition

证不能被完成,因为CDMA 2000机制不能传递GSM进行认证所需要的数据。 Certificate could not be completed because the CDMA 2000 mechanisms can not deliver GSM data required for authentication. GSM内的加密也不同于CDMA 2000内的加密。 Encryption is also different in the GSM encryption in 2000 CDMA.

一种处理该问题的方式是修改GSM,使得它能实现到诸如CDMA系统的非GSM系统的切换。 Way to deal with this problem is to modify the GSM, such that it can achieve the non-handover of the GSM system, such as a CDMA system. 然而,GSM已经存在很久了,相对而言,操作者不会很情愿耗费巨资以对现存的设备进行修改以适应相邻的不兼容系统。 However, GSM already exists for a long time, relatively speaking, the operator is not willing to spend heavily on existing equipment be modified to accommodate adjacent incompatible systems. 如果在支持双模式移动站的空中接口中加入新的消息,则必须要进行修改以支持这些新消息。 If a new message is added to support dual mode mobile station in air interface, it must be modified to support the new messages. 很明显,从操作者的角度这是不期望的。 Obviously, from the perspective of the operator which is not desirable.

CDMA系统和GSM系统间的切换的另一问题在于CDMA和GSM认证使用两种不同的方法和密钥。 Another problem with handover between CDMA systems and GSM systems is that CDMA and GSM authentication methods and using two different keys. GSM和CDMA IX内的认证方法基本相同,但密钥大小不同。 In GSM and CDMA IX authentication method is basically the same, but with different key sizes. CDMA 1X有附加处理,诸如唯一的询间应答和计数方法,这分别防止信道劫持和重播攻击。 CDMA 1X additional processing, and only between the query response such counting methods, which respectively prevent channel hijacking and replay attacks.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明解决以上问题。 The present invention solves the above problem.

根据本发明的一方面,提供了在具有从第一基站到第二基站的移动站系统内的一种认证方法,其中所述第一基站在由第一移动交换控制站控制的第一蜂窝通信系统内,而所述第二基站在由第二移动交换控制站控制的不同的第二蜂窝通信系统内,所述方法包括:在所述第二蜂窝通信系统生成认证码,作为对分配给所述第二蜂窝通信系统的移动站的私钥和由所述第二蜂窝通信系统生成的随机数应用算法的结果;在所述第一蜂窝通信系统生成认证码,作为对所述私钥和所述随机数应用算法的结果;将在所述第一蜂窝通信系统处生成的认证码在数据分组内发送到移动站;将在所述第一蜂窝通信系统处生成的认证码从所述移动站发送到所述第二蜂窝通信系统;将在所述第--蜂窝通信系统生成的认证码与在所述第二蜂窝通信系统生成的认证码进行比较。 According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided an authentication method having a first base station from the mobile station to the second base station system, wherein the first base station in a first cell by a first mobile switching control station the system, while the second base station in the second cellular communication system is different from the second mobile switching control station, the method comprising: in the second cellular communication system to generate an authentication code, as assigned to the the results of the private key of the mobile station of said second cellular communication system and a random number is generated by applying an algorithm to the second cellular communication system; the first authentication code generation cellular communication system, as the private key and the the results of said application random number algorithm; generated in said cellular communication system at a first authentication code to the mobile station in the data packet; generated in said cellular communication system at a first authentication code from the mobile station transmitting to the second cellular communication system; and at the second - comparing the authentication code generated by the cellular communication system in the second authentication code generated by the cellular communication system.

本发明还提供了与该方法对应的装置。 The present invention also provides an apparatus corresponding to the method.

以上本发明的特征在所述的权利要求书内提出,且其优点会随着本发明的示例实施例参考附图的以下详细描述中变得明显。 It made within the scope of, and advantages of the present invention will be exemplary as the following detailed description of embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein become apparent in the above the invention claims.

附图说明在附图中- BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS -

图1是蜂窝系统的示意图; FIG 1 is a schematic diagram of a cellular system;

图2是两个蜂窝系统间的边界示意表示; 图3是双模式移动站的示意图; FIG 2 is a boundary between two cellular systems represented schematically; FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a dual mode mobile station;

图4是GSM系统内的数据交换的示意表示;以及图5是单模式移动站的示意表示。 4 is a schematic of the data exchange in the GSM system representation; and Figure 5 is a schematic representation of the single mode mobile station.

具体实施方式 detailed description

图1是示例蜂窝电话系统的示意说明。 1 is a schematic illustration of an example cellular telephone system. 说明的系统可以使用任何一种多址调制技术以方便大量系统移动站或移动电话和基站间的通信。 The system described herein may use any of a multiple access modulation techniques to facilitate communication between a large number of mobile telephone system or a mobile station and a base station. 该种多址通信系统技术 This kind of multiple access communication system technology

包括:时分多址(TDMA)、频分多址(FDMA)、码分多址(CDMA)以及诸如幅度压縮扩展单边频带的AM调制方案。 Comprising: a time division multiple access (TDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and AM modulation schemes such as amplitude compression unilateral extension band. CDMA的扩频调制技术在上述的美国专利号4卯1307内揭示,它有许多优于其它多址通信系统的调制技术的显著优点,因而是较佳的。 CDMA spread spectrum modulation techniques in the aforementioned U.S. Patent No. 4 1307 discloses sockets, it has many significant advantages over other multiple access modulation techniques in communication systems, and therefore are preferred.

在一般CDMA系统中,每个基站发送唯一的导频信号,这包括在对应的导频信道上发送"导频载波"。 In a typical CDMA system, each base station transmits a unique pilot signal, which includes the corresponding pilot channel transmit "pilot carriers." 导频信号是在所有时间使用公共伪随机噪声(PN)扩展码由每个基站发送的未经调制的、直接序列、扩频信号。 Using a common pilot signal is a pseudo random noise at all times (PN) spreading code transmitted by each base station unmodulated, direct sequence, spread spectrum signal. 除了提供用于切换确定的相千解调的相位基准和信号强度测量的基准外,导频信号使得移动站能获得初始系统同步,即定时同步。 In addition to providing a phase reference for the external reference and signal strength measurements to determine the phase of one thousand switching demodulated pilot signal enables the mobile station to obtain initial system synchronization, i.e. timing synchronization. 由每个基站发送导频信号 The pilot signal transmitted by each base station

在图1示出的系统内,系统控制器和交换机IO还被称为移动交换中心(MSC), 一般包括接口和处理电路(未示出),用于向多个基站12、 14和16提供系统控制。 In the system shown in FIG. 1, system controller and switch, also referred to IO Mobile Switching Center (the MSC), typically includes interface and processing circuitry (not shown), for providing a plurality of base stations 12, 14 and 16 system control. 控制器IO还控制从公共交换电话网络(PSTN)到合适基站的电话呼叫用于传输到合适移动站的路由。 IO controller also controls the phone from a public switched telephone network (PSTN) to the appropriate base station for routing the call to the appropriate transmission of the mobile station. 控制器IO还控制通过至少一个基站从移动站到PSTN的路由。 IO is also controlled by the controller at least one base station from the mobile to the PSTN routes. 控制器IO还引导通过合适基站在移动用户间的直接呼叫,因为该种移动站一般相互间不直接通信。 IO controller is also directed through a suitable base station direct calls between mobile users, because this kind of mobile station is not typically communicate directly with each other.

控制器IO还通过各种方式诸如专用电话线路、光纤连路或通过微波通信链路耦合到基站。 IO controller through various means such as dedicated telephone lines, optical fiber, or even the way through the base station coupled to a microwave communication link. 在图1内,说明三个该种示例基站12、 14和16以及示例移动站18, 该移动站包括蜂窝电话。 In Figure 1, three kinds of the example base station 12, 14 and 16 and the example mobile station 18, the mobile station comprises a cellular telephone. 箭头20a和20b定义基站12和移动站18间可能的通信链路。 Arrows 20a and 20b define a base station 12 and the mobile station 18 may be a communication link. 箭头22a和22b定义基站14和移动站18间可能的通信链路。 Arrows 22a and 22b define a base station 14 and mobile station 18 may be a communication link. 相同地,箭头24a和24b定义基站16和移动站18间的可能通信链路。 Similarly, arrows 24a and 24b define a base station 16 and the mobile station 18 may be a communication link.

基站服务区域或小区的地理形状的设计使得移动站一般能最接近一个基站。 Cell base station service area or geographic shapes such that the design of the mobile station is generally closest to one base station. 当移动站处于空闲时,即没有进行呼叫,移动站一直监控来自每个相邻基站的导频信号传输。 When the mobile station is idle, i.e. no calls in progress, the mobile station constantly monitors the pilot from each pilot signal transmission of neighboring base stations. 如图l内说明的,导频信号由基站12、 14和16分别在通信链路20b、 The illustration shown in Figure l, the pilot signal from the base station 12, 14 and 16 are in communication links 20b,

22b和24b上被发送到移动站。 22b and 24b are transmitted on to the mobile station. 移动站然后通过比较从这些特定基站发送的导频信号强度而确定它在哪个小区。 The mobile station is then determined by comparing pilot transmitted from these particular base station pilot signal strength at which cell it.

在图1说明的示例中,移动站18可以被认为最接近基站16。 In the example illustrated in Figure 1, the mobile station 18 may be considered closest to base station 16. 当移动站18开始一呼叫,则控制消息被发送到最近的基站,此处为基站16。 When the mobile station 18 starts a call, a control message is transmitted to the nearest base station, base station 16 here. 基站I6在接收到呼叫请求消息时,发送信令到系统控制器IO并传送该呼叫号码。 I6 base station upon receiving the call request message, send signaling to the system controller IO and transmits the call number. 系统控制器10然后通过PSTN将呼叫连到目标接收者。 The system controller 10 is then connected to the call through the PSTN intended recipient.

如果在PSTN内开始呼叫,则控制器IO发送呼叫信息到区域内所有的基站。 If the call is started in the PSTN, the IO controller transmits the call information to all base stations within the area. 基站接着将寻呼消息发送到目标接收移动站。 The base station then sends a paging message to the target mobile station is received. 当移动站接听到寻呼消息,它以发送到最近基站的控制消息进行响应。 When the mobile station hears a paging message, it transmits a control message to the nearest base station responds. 该控制消息发送信令到系统控制器,即该特定基站在与移动站通信。 The control message to the signaling system controller that this particular base station communicating with the mobile station. 控制器IO然后通过最近基站将呼叫路由到移动站。 IO controller then routes the call via the nearest base station to the mobile station.

如果移动站18移出初始基站即基站16的覆盖区域,则尝试通过将呼叫路由通过另一基站而继续该呼叫。 If the mobile station 18 out of the coverage area of ​​the initial base station 16, i.e., the attempt to route the call to continue the call through another base station. 在切换过程中,有不同的开始呼叫的切换或通过另一基站路由的方法。 During handover, there are different methods of handover or through another base station starts a call routing.

在基站初始切换的方法中,初始基站即基站16注意到移动站18发送的信号已经低于一定的阀值电平。 In the method of the initial base station handover, i.e., the initial base station 18 sends a signal 16 to mobile station has noted that below a certain threshold level. 基站16然后发送切换请求到系统控制器10,它将请求中继到基站16的所有的相邻基站12、 14。 The base station 16 then transmits a handover request to the system controller 10, it relays the request to all neighboring base station 16, 12, 14. 控制器发送的请求包括与信道相关的信息,包括移动站18使用的PN码序列。 The controller transmits the request includes information related to the channel, including PN code sequence used by mobile station 18. 基站12和14将接收机调谐到移动站使用的信道,并测量信号强度,这一般使用数字技术。 12 and 14 to the base station receiver is tuned to a channel used by the mobile station, and measures the signal strength, which is generally used digital technology. 如果基站12和14接收机报告一个比初始基站报告的信号强度更强的信号,则对该基站进行切换。 If the base station 12 and a report receiver 14, the handover to the base station than the initial base station reported signal strength of the stronger signal.

或者,移动站本身可以开始所谓的移动站辅助切换。 Alternatively, the mobile station itself can start a so-called mobile assisted handover. 基站每个发送导频信号, 这些信号连同其他东西标识基站。 Each base station transmits a pilot signal, these signals the base station identification, together with other things. 移动站配备了搜索接收机,除了实行其他功能外, 它用于扫描相邻基站12和14的导频信号传输。 The mobile station is equipped with a search receiver, in addition to the implementation of other functions, which is used to scan adjacent guide base stations 14 and 12 transmit pilot signals. 如果发现相邻基站12和14的--个的导频信号强于给定阀值,则移动站18发送该消息到当前基站16。 If it is found in the neighboring base stations 12 and 14 - a pilot signal stronger than a given threshold, the mobile station 18 transmits the message to the current base station 16.

移动站和基站间的交互过程允许移动站通过一个或多个基站12、 14和16通信。 Interaction process between the mobile station and the base station allows the mobile station via one or more base stations 12, 14 and 16 communicate. 在该过程中,移动站标识并测量它接收的导频信号的信号强度。 In this process, the mobile station identifies and measures the signal strength it receives the pilot signal. 该信息通过与移动站通信的基站传递到MSC。 This information is passed to the MSC through the base station communicating with a mobile. MSC在接收到该信息时,开始或终止移动站和基站间的连接,从而影响移动站辅助的切换。 MSC upon receiving the information, the start or termination of the connection between the mobile station and the base station, the mobile station thus affecting assisted handover.

以上过程还可以被认为是"软"切换,因为移动站同时通过多于一个基站同时通信。 The above process may also be considered a "soft" handover, since the mobile station is simultaneously communicating through more than one base station simultaneously. 在软切换期间,MSC在从每个基站接收到的信号间组合或选择,移动单元在不同小区间移动时与这些基站通信。 During soft handover, the MSC or in combination to select between receiving a signal from each base station to the mobile units communicate with the base station when moving between different cells. 以相同的方式MSC可以将来自PSTN的信号中继到每个移动单元与之通信的基站。 In the same manner as the MSC may be relayed to the base station for each mobile unit in communication with the signal from the PSTN. 如果移动站正好位于两个或多个基站的覆 If the mobile station is located just covered two or more base stations

盖区域内而不是在同一蜂窝系统内即不为相同的MSC所控制,移动站辅助的切换会更复杂。 I.e., the lid region than the same is not controlled by the same MSC in the cellular system, a mobile station assisted handover is more complicated.

一种实现在不同系统内的基站间切换的方法参考图2描述,这以示意图示出在CDMA移动交换中心MSC的蜂窝通信网络30和GSM移动交换中心MSCg控制下的GSM蜂窝系统,该网络包括CDMA蜂窝系统(例如IS-95 IX)。 Referring to FIG method of inter-base station handover in one implementation described two different systems, which in a schematic GSM cellular system in the CDMA mobile switching center MSC of the GSM cellular communication network and the mobile switching center 30 controls MSCg shown, the network comprising CDMA cellular systems (e.g., IS-95 IX). 在图2 中,说明性地示出五个该种示例基站B1A到B5A,分别位于CDMA系统的小区C1A到C5A,且五个基站B1B到B5B分别位于GSM系统的小区C1B到C5B。 In FIG. 2, which illustratively shows five exemplary base stations B1A to B5A species, are located in the cell C1A to C5A CDMA system, and five base station B1B to B5B located in the cell of the GSM system to C5B C1B, respectively. 虽然为了说明方便,小区C1A到C5A和C1B到C5B被示出为圆形,但可以理解小区-般设计成其他形状,且实际上其形状取决于它所处的区域的地形和拓扑。 Although for convenience of explanation, the cell C1A to C5A and C5B C1B is shown as circular, but it will be appreciated that the cell - as designed into other shapes, and in fact depends on the shape and topology of the terrain of the area it is located. 在以下说明中,小区C1A到C3A和C1B到C3B可以被称为"边界"小区,因为这些小区接近第一和第二蜂窝系统之间的边界。 In the following description, the C3A cell C1A and C1B to C3B can be referred to as "border" cells, because these cells near the boundary between the first and second cellular systems. 该命名使得每个系统内其余的小区可以被方便地称为"内部"小区。 The naming of the remaining cells so that each system may be conveniently referred to as "internal" cell.

以下将参考一移动站给出描述,该移动站能接收并对CDMA和GSM蜂窝系统内的基站来的信号作出反应。 Below with reference to a description is given of the mobile station, the mobile station is capable of receiving a signal and a base station in the CDMA and GSM cellular system response. 然而可以考虑使用任何类型的通信系统,诸如CDMA —、CDMA 2000、 CDMA 2000 lx、CDMA 2000 3x、高数据速率原理(HDR)、 CDMA lxEV、 CDMA lxEVDO、 TDMA、 TDSCDMA、 W-CDMA、 GPRS以及其他。 However, consider using any type of communication system, such as CDMA -, CDMA 2000, CDMA 2000 lx, CDMA 2000 3x, high data rate principle (HDR), CDMA lxEV, CDMA lxEVDO, TDMA, TDSCDMA, W-CDMA, GPRS and other . 为了该目的,移动站用带有接收链的双频带收发机经配置,该收发机调到两个蜂窝系统的不同的工作频率。 For this purpose, a dual-band mobile station with a transceiver configured to receive chains, the transceiver transferred to two cellular system different operating frequencies. 在图3的附图内给出该种移动站的示意图。 This kind of mobile station is a schematic view is given in FIG. 3 of the drawing. 如在此示出的,移动站40包括通过天线共用器44连接到CDMA传输和接收链46和GSM 传输和接收链48连接的天线42。 As shown, the mobile station 40 comprises a duplexer 44 connected through an antenna to an antenna for transmitting and receiving CDMA and GSM transmit chain 46 and receive chain 48 are connected to 42. 传输/接收链46、 48对相应的CDMA和GSM系统是常规的。 Transmit / receive chain 46 and 48 of the respective CDMA and GSM systems are conventional. 链输出经合适解调并将数据转换到常规的基带电路50,并从基带电路40接收用于传输的数据。 Suitable chain demodulated output and converts the data to a conventional baseband circuit 50, and receives from the baseband circuit 40 for data transmission. 传输/接收链46、 48由控制器52控制,控制器响应于来自CDMA和GSM系统的命令信号还要在两个链间切换。 Transmission / reception chain 46, 48 controlled by the controller 52, the controller in response to switch between the two chains to a command signal from the CDMA and GSM systems. 因此,在本实施例中, 两个链不是同时活动的。 Accordingly, in the present embodiment, the two chains are not simultaneously active. 在另一实施例中,两个链可能同时为活动的。 In another embodiment, the two chains may be active simultaneously.

在另一实施例中,移动站用单个收发机配置,该收发机有可以调谐到两个蜂窝系统之一的一个接收链。 In another embodiment, the mobile station is configured with a single transceiver, the transceiver has a receive chain may be tuned to one of the two cellular systems. 图5的附图给出该种移动站的示意图。 Figure 5 gives a schematic view of the drawings this type of mobile station. 如在此示出的, 移动站53包括天线54。 As shown, the mobile station 53 includes an antenna 54. 天线共用器55连到CDMA传输和接收链56 (如果它是CDMA手机)。 The antenna duplexer 55 is connected to the CDMA transmit and receive chain 56 (if it is a CDMA handset). 否则,移动站53连到GSM传输和接收链57。 Otherwise, the mobile station 53 is connected to the GSM transmit and receive chain 57. 传输/接收链56、 57对于它们各自的CDMA和GSM系统是常规的。 Transmission / reception chain 56, 57 as is conventional for their respective CDMA and GSM systems. 链输出经合适解调并将数据转换到常规基带电路58,并从基带电路58接收传输数据。 Suitable chain demodulated output and converts the data into a conventional baseband circuit 58, and receives the transmission data from the baseband circuit 58. 传输/接收链或是链56或是链57由控制器59控制。 Transmission / receiving chain or chain 56 or the chain 57 is controlled by controller 59.

回到图2, CDMA移动交换中心(MSCc)控制从公共交换电话网络(PSTN) 到合适基站B1A到B5A的电话呼叫的路由以传输到指定的移动站。 Returning to Figure 2, CDMA mobile switching center (MSCC) controlled from the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to the appropriate base station B1A to B5A routing telephone calls for transmission to the designated mobile station. CDMA移动交换中心MSCc还控制从第一蜂窝系统的覆盖区域内的移动站通过至少一个基站到PSTN的呼叫路由。 CDMA mobile switching center from the mobile station control MSCc further within the coverage area of ​​the first cellular system by at least one base call routing to the PSTN. GSM移动交换中心MSCg以类似的方式进行操作以控制基站B1B到B5B的操作,并路由PSTN和GSM蜂窝系统间的呼叫。 GSM mobile switching center MSCg operate in a similar manner to control the operation of base station B1B B5B and route calls between the PSTN and GSM cellular systems. 控制消息等在系统间数据链路34上在MSCc和MSCg间传递。 Passing control messages between MSCc and the like on the interlayer MSCg system data link 34.

当移动站位于CDMA系统的内部小区中时,移动站一般经编程以监视从邻近(即内部和/或边界)的基站的导频信号传输。 When the mobile station is located inside the cell of a CDMA system, the mobile station typically programmed to monitor the pilot from neighboring base stations (i.e., internal and / or boundary) of the pilot signal transmission. 移动站然后通过比较来自周围基站发送的导频信号强度而确定它在哪个内部小区内。 The mobile station then turned around from the base station by comparing pilot signal strength transmitted is determined in which it is inside the cell. 当移动站接近内部小区的边界时,可以以例如美国专利号5267261内描述的方式开始移动站辅助切换。 When the mobile station approaches the boundary of the cell inside, may, for example, in the manner described in U.S. Patent No. 5,267,261 beginning mobile assisted handover.

当移动站位于边界小区C1A到C3A或C1B到C3B的一个之内时,存在不同的情况。 When the mobile station is located within a boundary C3A cell C1A or C1B to C3B to the sum, there are different circumstances. 作为一例,考虑一种情况,移动站位于小区C2A内,但正逼近小区C2B。 As an example, consider a case where the mobile station is within the C2A cells, but is approaching cell C2B. 在这一情况下,移动站可以开始从基站B2B接收可用信号电平,该电平然后可以被报告给基站B2B以及移动站当前与之通信的任何其他基站。 In this case, the mobile station may begin receiving signal level available from the base station B2B, the level may then be reported to any other base station and B2B mobile station currently in communication therewith. 可用信号电平正被移动站或基站接收的时间可以通过测量接收到信号的一个或多个可定量化的参数(例如信号强度、信噪比、帧擦除率、比特差错率和/或相对时间延时)而确定。 Available ping signal is received by the base station or mobile station may be received by measuring the time a signal or a plurality of quantitative parameters (e.g., signal strength, signal to noise ratio, frame erasure rate, bit error rate and / or relative time delay) is determined. 该机制类似于上述标识的美国专利号5697055内描述的。 U.S. Patent No. 5,697,055 is similar to the mechanism described in the above identified.

如果两个系统均为CDMA系统,则美国专利号5697055内描述的切换机制可以用于实行小区C2A和C2B间的切换。 If the two systems are the CDMA system, the switching mechanism described in U.S. Patent No. 5,697,055 may be used to carry out switching between the cell C2A and C2B. 然而有一个问题,因为当前没有机制用于使用从CDMA网络到GSM网路的空中接口进行切换一呼叫的机制。 However, there is a problem, because there is no mechanism for using the air current from the CDMA network to a GSM network interface mechanism for switching a call. GSM认证不能完成,因为CDMA机制不能传输进行GSM认证需要的数据。 GSM authentication can not be completed because the CDMA mechanisms can not transfer the data required for GSM authentication. GSM内的加密不同于CDMA内的加密。 GSM differs from the encryption in the encryption in CDMA. 如果为了支持双模式移动站,向空中接口加入新消息,则必须进行修改以支持这些新消息。 If in order to support dual mode mobile station to an air interface was added a new message, it must be modified to support these new messages. 这是不希望的。 This is undesirable.

该问题的解是使用一通用消息,该通用消息包括使得移动站从CDMA网络转移到GSM网络的指令。 Solutions to this problem is to use a common message, the common message comprises a mobile station that is transferred from the CDMA network to a GSM network command. 该通用消息必须能传递实现GSM认证和加密必要的数据。 The generic message passing must implement GSM authentication and encryption of data necessary. 最好,通用消息还可以支持GSM内的其他辅助特征。 Preferably, the generalized message may also support other auxiliary features in GSM. 换而言之,建立的GSM协议必须保持不动,以最小化现存GSM系统内的任何改变。 In other words, the establishment of the GSM protocol must remain stationary in order to minimize any changes in the existing GSM system. 切换操作的部分包括建立订户身份,且一旦实现了切换,必须维持信令和物理连接的数据机密性(加密)。 Establishing the switching operation part comprises a subscriber identity, and upon achieving the handover is necessary to maintain data confidentiality (encryption) signaling and physical connections. 订户身份认证的定义和操作要求在GSM 02.09内给出。 Definition of subscriber authentication and operational requirements are given in GSM 02.09.

认证过程还用于设定加密密钥。 The process also is used to set the encryption key. 因此,认证过程在网络建立了订户身份后并在信道经加密前实现。 Therefore, the network certification process established after the subscriber identity and achieve before the encrypted channel. 两个网络功能为了实现该点是必须的,两个功能即为认证过 Two network functions in order to achieve this point is necessary, two functions that is certified

程本身以及系统内的认证和加密密钥的管理。 Process itself as well as authentication and encryption key management within the system.

这样,使用任何时候可用的通道机制(在切换情况和非切换情况下),且可以是单向或双向的。 Thus, any mechanism available time channels (in the case of switching and non-switching case), and may be unidirectional or bidirectional. 一种类型的通道机制是在CDMA系统GSM参数内进行透明传递的所谓的ADDS (应用数据传递服务)消息和短数据突发消息,这些参数一般不由GSM基站控制器BSC检査,而是为双模式移动站需要。 One type of the channel mechanism in a CDMA system is a so-called GSM parameters ADDS transparent transfer (data transfer application service) messages and short data burst message, these parameters are not generally GSM base station controller BSC checks, but for bis mode mobile station needs. 与数据突发一起使用ADDS消息使得能在网络的移动服务交换中心(MSC)或网络其他元件间发送类有效负荷(诸如SMS、位置定位服务器、OTASP)。 With the data burst message with an ADDS enables mobile services switching center in the network (MSC) or send the payload type (such as SMS, the position location server, OTASP) among other network elements. 系统利用该点以在网络和移动站之间端到端地传递GSM信息,而不需要对CDMA BSC或BTS有任何改变。 The system utilizes point-end to transfer information between GSM network and the mobile station, without requiring any change to the CDMA BSC or BTS.

在图2示出的网络安排内,用于传递GSM切换数据的ADDS消息,诸如从MSC通过BSC到移动站的定时信息和认证数据。 In the network arrangement shown in FIG. 2, for transmitting ADDS GSM handover message data, such as from the MSC via the BSC to the timing information and authentication data of the mobile station. 移动站然后使用所谓的MAP (移动应用协议)消息以传递切换数据到GSM网络内的MSCg。 The mobile station then uses a so-called MAP (Mobile Application Protocol) message is transmitted to the data switching MSCg the GSM network. 这只需要对MSCg进行较小的改变,以使得它能解释MAP消息内的数据,并相应地控制移动站。 MSCg need only make minor changes, so that it can interpret the data in the MAP message, and controls the mobile station. 当然其他的传输该数据的方法也是可以的。 Of course, other methods of transmission of the data are possible.

当移动站在CDMA和GSM系统的边界时(例如在小区C2A内并接近小区C2B),移动站通过将消息送回MSCc而开始切换过程,该消息通知MSCc这样的情况,移动应被切换到GSM系统。 When the boundary of CDMA and GSM mobile station system (e.g., within a cell close to the cell C2A and the C2B), the message sent back by the mobile station starts a handover procedure MSCC, which informs MSCC this case, it should be switched to the GSM mobile system.

小区数据库(未示出)可以用作切换过程的一部分。 Cell database (not shown) may be used as part of the handover procedure. 该数据库用于在GSM网络上将必要的信息提供给移动站,从而它能实现CDMA MSC和GSM间的切换, 如需要的。 The database is used on a GSM network information necessary to the mobile station, so that it can realize handover between GSM and CDMA MSC, if desired.

在GSM系统内,有两种类型的切换可供使用,即同步的和异步的。 In the GSM system, there are two types of handover available, i.e., synchronous and asynchronous. 为了实现简单,更偏向于异步切换。 In order to achieve a simple, prefer to asynchronous handover. 移动站因此被告知切换对于GSM会是异步切换。 Thus the mobile station will be told to switch to GSM handover is asynchronous. 在移动站接收了切换命令后,移动首先发送儿个接入突发数据到GSM基站控制器BSCg,直到它接收回MAP切换消息,该消息被送回CDMAMSC,以使得能生成GSM认证数据并被提供给移动站。 After receiving the handover command in the mobile station, the mobile first transmits a child access to a GSM base station controller data burst BSCG, until it is received back MAP handover message, the message is sent back CDMAMSC, so that the data can be generated and GSM authentication provided to the mobile station. GSM有异步切换的过程,数据突发能帮BSCg 获得移动站的定时。 There asynchronous GSM handover procedure, the data burst help BSCg timing of the mobile station is obtained. ADDS消息因此包括'行动时间'消息,指明切换发生的特定时间。 Thus ADDS message including the 'Action time' message, indicating a specific time switching occurs. 只有一旦该数据被接收了,移动站才会开始正常的传输。 Only once the data is received, the mobile station will start a normal transmission.

CDMA和GSM间切换的另一问题是CDMA和GSM认证使用两种不同的方法和密钥。 Another problem with CDMA and GSM handover between CDMA and GSM authentication are different methods and using two keys. GSM和CDMA IX内的认证方法基本相同,但密钥大小不同。 In GSM and CDMA IX authentication method is basically the same, but with different key sizes. CDMA IX 有附加的过程,诸如唯一询问应答和计数方法,这相应地防止了信息劫持和重播攻击。 CDMA IX additional process, such as a unique challenge response and counting method, which in turn prevents the information hijacking and replay attacks. 对于要在GSM系统内使用的CDMA物理层,GSM认证方法可以在CDMA 物理层上使用而不需要做出重大修改。 For CDMA physical layer to be used in the GSM system, GSM authentication method can be used over a CDMA physical layer without the need to make major changes. 这提供给了系统不必要支持两种不同类型的 This provides the system supports two different types of unnecessary

13 13

认证中心、两种类型的SIM卡的好处。 Certification Center, the benefits of both types of SIM cards.

认证过程包括一系列在系统和移动站间的交换。 Authentication process includes a series of switching between systems and mobile stations. 系统发送不可预测数RAND 到移动站。 The system sends an unpredictable number RAND to the mobile station. 下一步,移动站计算结果SRES,又被称为RAND数的签名,使用的算法被称为A3算法。 Next, the mobile station calculates the SRES result, has been called a signature number RAND, the algorithm used is referred to as the A3 algorithm. A3算法使用RAND和单个订户认证密钥Ki以计算SRES。 A3 algorithm uses the RAND and the individual subscriber authentication key Ki to calculate SRES. 订户认证密钥Ki在用户首次预订服务时被分配,且被存储在SIM (订户身份模块) 卡内以及系统的本地位置寄存器(HLR)内。 Subscriber authentication key Ki is assigned when the user first booking service, and stored in the home location register in the SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card and the system (HLR). Ki是加密中的私有密钥,因此不在网络上被发送。 Ki is encrypted in the private key, so it is not transmitted over the network. 最终,移动站发送签名SRES到系统,在此它经有效性测试。 Eventually, the mobile station sends the SRES signature system, where it was validity test.

值得注意的是加密密钥的使用和认证过程独立于切换过程。 It is noted that the use of encryption keys and certification process independent of the handover procedure. 附图的图4说明认证如何在GSM MSC中实现。 4 of the drawings illustrates how the authentication implementation in the GSM MSC. GSM内的认证密钥被称为Ki,且是128比特长。 Authentication in GSM is referred to as a key Ki, and is 128 bits long. 网络生成随机数(RAND),它的长度也是128比特。 Network generates a random number (RAND), its length is 128 bits. RAND和Ki被输入到A3 算法,该算法从输入数据计算32比特结果(SRES) 。 Ki and RAND are inputs to the A3 algorithm 32-bit calculation result (the SRES) from the input data. RAND数还在空中消息上被发送到移动站。 Number RAND is also sent over the air message to the mobile station. 在GSM系统中,每个移动站包括智能卡,即所谓的SIM(订户身份模块)卡。 In the GSM system, each mobile station includes a smart card, called a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card. 认证的标准SIM命令在GSM 11.11内规定。 SIM commands certification standards specified in GSM 11.11. 这些命令只在它们不与GSM应用的正确功能干扰时才被执行。 These commands are only executed if they do not interfere with the proper function and GSM applications. 如果SIM在呼叫期间从移动站被移去,则呼叫被立即中止,如GSM 11.11定义的。 If the SIM is removed from the mobile station during the call, the call is immediately terminated, as defined in GSM 11.11.

移动站内的SIM还通过对接收到的RAND数和本地存储的Ki的副本应用A3 算法。 SIM in the mobile station through RAND number and a local store received a copy of the application A3 Ki algorithm. 计算的结果同样是SRES,且应与网络计算的SRES相同。 The result of the calculation SRES is the same, and should be the same as the network computing SRES. 结果SRES因此由移动站发送到网络,在网络处与网络计算的SRES值比较。 The results thus SRES sent by the mobile station to the network, and the network at the network comparing the SRES value calculated. 如果两个SRES值相同,则移动站鉴定为真实的。 If the two SRES values ​​are identical, the mobile station identified as authentic. 在图2的系统中,RAND数在空中接口上使用ADDS 消息被发送,且结果SRES被送回。 In the system of FIG. 2, the RAND number ADDS used over the air interface message is sent, and the result SRES is sent back.

SRES的值还被用于称为A8的算法中以计算64比特加密或加密密钥Kc。 SRES value algorithm called A8, is also used to calculate the 64-bit encryption or an encryption key Kc. 移动站内的SIM的GSM认证和加密算法应用到CDMA物理层,以替代一般使用CDMA CAVE算法生成的私有长码掩码。 Within the mobile station SIM of GSM authentication and encryption algorithms applied to a CDMA physical layer, instead usually use private long code mask the CAVE algorithm generates CDMA. 64比特的Kc密钥唯一地映射到42比特私有长码上,且因此作为"私有长码掩码"的基础以提供语音保密。 64-bit Kc key uniquely mapped to a 42-bit private long code, and thus as a basis for "private long code mask" to provide voice privacy. 私有长码掩码通过CDMA消息被传递,且对其的解释与它从CAVE算法生成没有不同。 Private long code masks is transmitted through the CDMA message, and its explanation thereof is not different from the CAVE algorithm generates. 使用对语音保密的这一方法使得系统能在混合CDMA/GSM网络中保持唯一的认证中心和唯一的SIM类型。 Use of this method allows the system to voice privacy authentication center and remains the only unique in the SIM type hybrid CDMA / GSM network.

GSM在帧级实现加密。 GSM encryption at the frame level. 每个帧使用帧号和64比特Kc密钥进行加密,该密钥如参考图4讨论的导出。 Each frame using a frame number and a 64-bit encryption key Kc, the key is derived as discussed with reference to FIG. 该帧号和Kc掩码对每个帧应用,在CDMA1X系统中, 加密使用42比特私有长码实现。 Kc and the frame number for each frame mask application, CDMA1X in the system, 42-bit encryption using a private long code implementation. 在图2的混合系统中,Kc密钥用于导出42比特私有长码掩码, 一映射算法在Kc和私有长码间实现映射。 In a hybrid system of FIG. 2, 42-bit Kc key is used to derive the private long code mask, a mapping algorithm mapping between Kc and private long code. 该映射在MSCc内实现,MSC简单地告诉BSC使用哪个长码。 The map in the MSCc achieved, MSC simply tell what long code using the BSC.

ADDS操作使得能在陆地网络单元(例如MSC、 SMS、 PDC)和移动站间进行透明服务传输。 ADDS enables operation (e.g. MSC, SMS, PDC) service transparent transmission between the terrestrial network and the mobile station unit. 该系统使用这一操作传输认证信息RAND到MS并将SRES传输回MSC。 The operating system uses this authentication information is transmitted to the MS RAND and SRES transmitted back to the MSC. ADDS消息操作是从MSCc到BSCc,并允许数据在寻呼信道上被发送回移动站。 ADDS is a message from operation to MSCc BSCc, and allows data to be transmitted back to the mobile station on the paging channel. ADDS传输操作是从BSCc到MSCc,且允许数据从移动站在接入信道上发送到网络。 ADDS transfer operation from BSCc to MSCc, and allows data from the mobile station sends an access channel to the network. ADDS传递器操作是从MSCc到BSCc,或BSCc至lj MSCc,并允许数据在移动站和网络间在话务信道上被发送。 ADDS transfer operation from MSCC to BSCc, or BSCC to lj MSCc, and allows data to be transmitted in the traffic channel between the mobile station and a network. ADDS参数被定义为"ADDS用户部分",这包括6比特的"数据突发类型",该6比特指明应用数据消息的格式。 ADDS parameters are defined as "ADDS User Part", which includes "data burst type" 6 bits, 6 bits designate the format of the application data message. ADDS 操作使用ADDS用户部分参数以包含服务专用数据。 ADDS ADDS user part using the operation parameters comprise service specific data. 认证操作使用ADDS用户部分以携带认证数据。 ADDS User Part authentication operation using the authentication data to carry. 描述的系统使用新的数据突发类型,名为"GSM-MAP认证", 它相应地由移动站解释。 The system described using the new data burst type, called "GSM-MAP authentication", which corresponds interpreted by the mobile station.

值得注意的是,示例实施例可以在当在接收端存在存储属于认证过程的信息的数据库或该数据库可以在接收端访问时实现。 Notably, the exemplary embodiments may be stored in the presence information belonging to the authentication procedure at the receiving end the database or the database may be implemented when the reception terminal. 示例实施例的处理器可以被用于与一方实现一加密方案,与另一方实现另一加密方案。 The processor of the exemplary embodiments may be used to implement an encryption scheme with one, and the other to achieve another encryption scheme. 示例实施例的基本实现可以不需要到中间资源的物理连接而实现,因为与分开方的通信通过无线媒质而发送。 Basically exemplary embodiments may not require a physical connection to the intermediate resources is achieved, since the separate transmitting communication with the party through the wireless medium.

本领域的技术人员还可以理解,这里揭示的结合这里描述的实施例所描述的各种说明性的逻辑块、模块、电路和算法步骤可以用电子硬件、计算机软件或两者的组合来实现。 Those skilled in the art can also be appreciated that disclosed herein is described herein in conjunction with various illustrative embodiments of the logical blocks, modules, circuits, and algorithm steps may be implemented as electronic hardware, computer software, or a combination of both to achieve. 为清楚地说明硬件和软件的可互换性,各种说明性的组件、方框、模块、电路和步骤一般按照其功能性进行阐述。 To clearly illustrate this interchangeability of hardware and software, various illustrative components, blocks, modules, circuits, and steps described above generally in terms of their functionality. 这些功能性究竟作为硬件或软件来实现取决于整个系统所采用的特定的应用和设计约束。 Whether such functionality is implemented as hardware or software depends upon the particular application and design constraints imposed on the overall system employed. 技术人员可以知道在这些情况下硬件和软件的可交换性。 Technicians can know interchangeability of hardware and software under these circumstances. 作为一例,各种用在此的说明性实施例揭示性的逻辑块、流程图、窗口以及步骤的实现或执行可以在硬件或软件内实现或实行,使用以下列举的以实现在此描述的功能,包括:应用专用集成电路(ASIC)、可编程逻辑器件、离散门或晶体管逻辑、离散硬件组件诸如FIFO内的寄存器、执行固件指令集和的处理器、任何常规可编程软件和处理器、现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)或其它可编程逻辑器件或任何以上的组合。 As an example, with the various embodiments disclosed herein is illustrative logical blocks embodiments, the flowchart is executed or implemented, windows, and steps may be implemented or implemented in hardware or software, to perform the functions listed below described herein comprising: an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), programmable logic device, discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete hardware components such as registers in the FIFO, and executing firmware instruction set processor, any conventional programmable software and a processor, field programmable gate array (FPGA) or other programmable logic device, or any combination of the above. 通用处理器最好是微处理器,然而或者,处理器可以是任何常规的处理器、控制器、微控制器或状态机。 A general purpose processor may be a microprocessor, but in the alternative, the processor may be any conventional processor, controller, microcontroller, or state machine. 软件模块可以驻留于RAM存储器、快闪(flash)存储器、ROM存储器、EPROM存储器、EEPROM存储器、寄存器、硬盘、移动盘、 CD-ROM、 DVD-ROM、寄存器或任意其它的磁性或光存储介质。 A software module may reside in RAM memory, flash (flash) memory, ROM memory, EPROM memory, EEPROM memory, registers, a hard disk, a removable disk, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, registers, or any other magnetic or optical storage medium, . 本领域内的技术人员可以理解信息和信号可能使用各种不同的科技和技术表示。 Those skilled in the art would understand that information and signals may use a variety of different technologies and techniques represent. 例如,上 For example, the

述说明中可能涉及的数据、指令、命令、信息、信号、比特、码元和码片最好由电压、电路、电磁波、磁场或其粒子、光场或其粒子、或它们的任意组合来表示。 Data may be involved in later description, instructions, commands, information, signals, bits, symbols, and chips that is represented by a voltage circuit, electromagnetic waves, magnetic fields or particles, optical fields or particles, or any combination thereof .

上述优选实施例的描述使本领域的技术人员能制造或使用本发明。 Description of embodiments is provided to enable those skilled in the art to make or use the present invention. 这些实施例的各种修改对于本领域的技术人员来说是显而易见的,这里定义的一般原理可以被应用于其它实施例中而不使用创造能力。 These modifications to the various embodiments of the present skilled in the art it will be apparent, and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments without the use of creativity. 因此,本发明并不限于这里示出的实施例,而要符合与这里揭示的原理和新颖特征一致的最宽泛的范围。 Accordingly, the present invention is not limited to the embodiments shown herein, but here to be consistent with the principles and novel features disclosed widest scope.

Claims (13)

  1. 1. 在具有从第一基站到第二基站的移动站的系统内的一种认证方法,其中所述第一基站在由第一移动交换控制站控制的第一蜂窝通信系统内,而所述第二基站在由第二移动交换控制站控制的不同的第二蜂窝通信系统内,所述方法包括:在所述第二蜂窝通信系统生成认证码,作为对分配给所述第二蜂窝通信系统的移动站的私钥和由所述第二蜂窝通信系统生成的随机数应用算法的结果;在所述第一蜂窝通信系统生成认证码,作为对所述私钥和所述随机数应用算法的结果;将在所述第一蜂窝通信系统处生成的认证码在数据分组内发送到移动站;将在所述第一蜂窝通信系统处生成的认证码从所述移动站发送到所述第二蜂窝通信系统;将在所述第一蜂窝通信系统生成的认证码与在所述第二蜂窝通信系统生成的认证码进行比较。 1. An authentication method in a system having a first base station to the second base station from a mobile station, wherein the first base station in a first cellular communication system is controlled by a first mobile switching control station, and said a second base station in the second cellular communication system is different from the second mobile switching control station, the method comprising: generating a second authentication code in the cellular communication system, as assigned to the second cellular communication system the results of the mobile station's private key and the random number generated by applying an algorithm to the second cellular communication system; generating the first authentication code in the cellular communication system, as an application of the algorithm to the private key and random number results; transmitting the authentication code generated at the first cellular communication system within the data packets to the mobile station; generated in the first cellular communication system of the authentication code transmitted from the mobile station to the second cellular communication system; will be compared in the second authentication code generated by the cellular communication system in the first authentication code generated by the cellular communication system.
  2. 2. 如权利要求l所述的方法,其特征在于:所述第一蜂窝通信系统包括CDMA系统;以及所述数据分组包括ADDS消息。 2. A method as claimed in claim l, wherein: said first communication system comprises a CDMA cellular system; and said data packet comprises ADDS message.
  3. 3. 如权利要求l所述的方法,其特征在于,在不同的数据分组中将认证码发送到所述第二蜂窝通信系统。 L The method according to claim 2, characterized in that transmitted to the second cellular communication system in a different authentication codes in the data packet.
  4. 4. 如权利要求3所述的方法,其特征在于,所述第二蜂窝通信系统包括GSM系统。 4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that said second cellular communication system comprises a GSM system.
  5. 5. 如权利要求l所述的方法,其特征在于,所述第一蜂窝通信系统包括由第一移动交换控制站控制的第一基站,而所述第二蜂窝通信系统包括由第二移动交换控制站控制的第二基站,所述方法包括:在移动站测量由所述第一基站发送的信号参数; 在移动站测量由所述第二基站发送的信号参数;当两种参数到达预定条件时,通过所述第一基站将信号质量消息从移动站发送到所述第一移动交换控制站;在所述第一移动交换控制站为所述第二移动交换控制站生成用于信道请求消息的信息;从所述第一移动交换控制站将所述信息发送到所述移动站; 在所述移动站从来自所述第一移动交换控制站的信息生成用于所述第二移动交换控制站的信道请求消息;以及将所述信道请求消息从所述移动站发送到所述第二移动交换控制站。 5. The method according to claim l, wherein the first cellular communication system comprises a first base station controlled by a first mobile exchange, and the second cellular communication system comprises a second mobile switching a second base station control station, the method comprising: signal parameters transmitted by the first base station measured at the mobile station; measuring a signal parameter at the mobile station transmitted by the second base station; parameter reaches a predetermined condition when the two when the signal quality message transmitted by the first base station from the mobile station to the first mobile switching control station; the first mobile switching station to the second mobile switching station generates a channel request message information; transmitting from the first station to the mobile switching information to the mobile station; from the mobile station information from the first mobile switching control station for generating said second mobile switching control station channel request message; and the channel request message from the mobile station to the second mobile switching control station.
  6. 6. 如权利要求5所述的方法,还包括在所述第二移动交换控制站生成标识所述第二蜂窝通信系统内用于所述移动站的信道的信道信息。 6. The method of claim 5, further comprising generating a switching station within the cellular communication system identifying the second channel to the channel information of the mobile station in the second mobile.
  7. 7. 如权利要求6所述的方法,还包括在所述移动站和所标识的信道内的所述第二基站之间建立通信。 7. The method according to claim 6, further comprising establishing communication between said mobile station within said channel and a second base station identified.
  8. 8. 如权利要求7所述的方法,还包括中断所述移动站和所述第一基站之间的通信。 8. The method according to claim 7, further comprising interrupting the communication between the mobile station and the first base station.
  9. 9. 如权利要求5所述的方法,其特征在于,所述两种参数对应于信号强度。 9. The method according to claim 5, wherein said two parameters correspond to the signal intensity.
  10. 10. 在具有从第一基站到第二基站的移动站的系统内的一种认证装置,其中所述第一基站在由第一移动交换控制站控制的第一蜂窝通信系统内,而所述第二基站在由第二移动交换控制站控制的不同的第二蜂窝通信系统内,所述装置包括:用于在所述第二蜂窝通信系统生成认证码,作为对分配给上第二蜂窝通信系统的移动站的私钥和由所述第二蜂窝通信系统生成的随机数应用算法的结果的装置;用于在所述第一蜂窝通信系统生成认证码,作为对所述私钥和所述随机数应用算法的结果的装置;用于将在所述第一蜂窝通信系统处生成的认证码在数据分组内发送到移动站的装置;用于将在所述第一蜂窝通信系统处生成的认证码从移动站发送到所述第二蜂窝通信系统的装置;用于将所述第一蜂窝通信系统处生成的认证码与在所述第二蜂窝通信系统处生成的认证 10. In the system having a first base station to the second base station from the mobile station an authentication apparatus, wherein said first base station in a first cellular communication system is controlled by a first mobile switching control station, and said a second base station in the second cellular communication system is different from the second mobile switching control station, the apparatus comprising: means for generating a second authentication code in the cellular communication system, as allocated to the second cellular communication means the result of a private key system, a mobile station and a random number is generated by applying an algorithm to the second cellular communication system; means for generating the first authentication code cellular communication system, as the private key and the the results of the algorithm means use a random number; means for generating a mobile station in a cellular communication system at said first authentication code is transmitted within a data packet; means for generating in said cellular communication system at a first said second cellular communication system device an authentication code transmitted from the mobile station; means for generating the first cellular communication system and the authentication code generated in the authentication at the second cellular communication system 码进行比较的装置。 Means for comparing the code.
  11. 11. 如权利要求IO所述的装置,其特征在于: 所述第一蜂窝通信系统包括CDMA系统;以及所述数据分组包括ADDS消息。 IO 11. The apparatus of claim, wherein: said first communication system comprises a CDMA cellular system; and said data packet comprises ADDS message.
  12. 12. 如权利要求IO所述的装置,其特征在于,在不同数据分组中将认证码发送到所述第二蜂窝通信系统。 IO 12. The apparatus according to claim, characterized in that transmitted to the second cellular communication system different from the authentication code in the data packet.
  13. 13. 如权利要求12所述的装置,其特征在于,所述第二蜂窝通信系统包括GSM系统。 13. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the second cellular communication system comprises a GSM system.
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