CN100470411C - Four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile - Google Patents

Four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100470411C
CN100470411C CNB2005100215659A CN200510021565A CN100470411C CN 100470411 C CN100470411 C CN 100470411C CN B2005100215659 A CNB2005100215659 A CN B2005100215659A CN 200510021565 A CN200510021565 A CN 200510021565A CN 100470411 C CN100470411 C CN 100470411C
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China
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control system
described
plc
master controller
motor
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CNB2005100215659A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1920704A (en
Inventor
王辉
谭先华
马先红
杨广明
谢飞
周旭光
廖勇
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比亚迪股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a four-wheel driving control system of electric vehicle, wherein it has electric controller ECU main controller for completing main calculation, while its input circuit receives the detecting information of sensors and the command signal of driver; CPU compares and treats said signals based on stored reference data, while the treated data is transmitted to the output circuit, via PLC control system and motor controller, to control the permanent magnetic motor and step motor; and the invention also has CAN bus for bidirectional transmitting data, ECU main controller, PCL control system and motor controller, that via their own CAN receiver/sender are connected to the CAN bus, to transmit data. The invention has stable property, easy upgrade and maintenance. And it will not change the circuit of vehicle most, to reduce cost, improve the reliability and improve the driving safety.

Description

A kind of four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile

Technical field

The present invention relates to control method, circuit or the mechanism of electric vehicle traction motor, especially relate to a kind of four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile.

Background technology

Programmable logic controller (PLC) (Programmable Logic Controller, be called for short PLC) be widely used in switch control, motion control, process control, the data processing of all trades and professions and the networking of communicating by letter, but in the drive controlling of electric automobile application is arranged rarely but.Electronic control unit (the Electronic Control Unit of another kind of engine, anti-lock braking system, four-wheel drive system, electronic automatic transmission, active suspension system, air bag system, multidirectional adjustable automatically controlled seat configuration at some intermediate cars, be called for short ECU), Shang Weijian has in the pure electric automobile four-wheel drive system and adopts.Present business-like electric automobile mainly contains following several: the Insight of Japanese honda company, the Prius of Toyota Company and Civic.These electric automobiles all are to be mixed by engine and motor power is provided, and only use a motor, and control function is simple relatively.The hybrid vehicle ESTIMA of Toyota Company has adopted the alternate conceptual design of electric four-wheeled driving, the trailing wheel of this system is pure Electric Machine Control, but its front-wheel remains by engine and motor and drives jointly, use mechanical differential gear box, be not the four-wheel drive that pure electronics mode realizes, correlation technique is not seen yet disclosed report.

Summary of the invention

Technical matters to be solved by this invention is the defective that remedies prior art, proposes a kind of four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile that adopts ECU and PLC.

Technical matters of the present invention is solved like this:

This four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile, comprise programmable logic controller (PLC) (the Programmable Logic Controller that connects each functional module of vehicle body and executivecontrol function, be called for short PLC) control system, send the teller console of instruction to the PLC control system, the power module and the real-time vehicle condition sensor network that detects vehicle condition of power supply are provided to each component parts, and the magneto of controlling four wheel rotations respectively, control the stepper motor of four wheel steering angles respectively, detect the motor position and the speed pickup of four magneto rotary states respectively in real time, detect the wheel angle sensors of four stepper motor corner situations respectively in real time and accept four electric machine controllers that magneto is controlled in the instruction of PLC control system respectively, described PLC control system divides four the tunnel, every Lu Zhongjun and an electric machine controller, a magneto, a motor position is connected step by step with speed pickup, described PLC control system divides four the tunnel in addition, every Lu Zhongjun and a stepper motor, a wheel angle sensors connects step by step.

The characteristics of this four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile are:

Be provided with electronic control unit (the Electronic Control Unit that finishes main calculation process, be called for short ECU) master controller, described ECU master controller comprises input circuit, CPU and output circuit, be connected alternately with teller console, the vehicle condition sensor network, four motor positions and speed pickup, the output terminal of four wheel angle sensors is connected to the respective input of ECU master controller, described input circuit is accepted the detection information of each sensor and driver's command signal, CPU compares processing with these signals according to the reference data of storing again, calculation process, deal with data are sent to output circuit by the PLC control system, four electric machine controllers are controlled respectively four magnetoes and four stepper motors.

Also be provided with control module Local Area Network (Controller Area Network in order to bi-directional transfer of data, be called for short CAN) bus, described ECU master controller, PLC control system and four electric machine controllers by separately with the CAN transceiver be connected alternately with the CAN bus, carry out exchanges data.The data transmission that the ECU master controller needs other controllers needs the controller of these data to receive these data from the CAN bus in the CAN bus, and it is useless not need the controller of these data data can be judged as, and these data are neglected.Information transmission between a plurality of controllers of car load adopts this multiplex communication network technology that is called to form a network system, can simplify circuit, reduces cost.

Technical matters of the present invention is to solve according to qualifications like this:

Between described ECU master controller and described PLC control system, be provided with the light-coupled isolation unit.

The CPU of described ECU master controller is built-in with the control program of unified each functional module collaborative work of control, and has the priority processing function, can pass through the most important message of CAN communication bus priority processing according to the urgency level of message.The priority of for example setting the power of motor protection is higher, and when the ingoing power guard mode, the ECU master controller can the automatic cut-off motor power supply.

Described CPU is the ARM series CPU that American TI Company, atmel corp produce.

Described PLC has the D/A modular converter able to programme that the detected throttle degree of depth, brake depth information can be converted to analog current signal, and be built-in with the logical process program, detected gear information can be handled the back through logic determines and eliminate possible gear conflict according to priority, and the gear signal of output safety.

Described PLC is the FX2N series of PLC that Mitsubishi is produced, or the FP series of PLC of PANASONIC product.

Described vehicle condition sensor network, be to comprise temperature sensor in motor temperature sensor, radiator temperature sensor, speedometer for automobile sensor, automobile steering sensor, the car, and the sensor network of cell voltage Hall element composition, these sensors are connected to ECU master controller or PLC control system respectively according to function and electrical specification separately.

Described electric machine controller, it is the electric machine controller that possesses the CAN communication function, can receive external command signal and independent control motor rotation, comprise chip and the corresponding software thereof of controlling motor rotation, and the inverter that constitutes by Intelligent Power Module (Intelligent Power Module, be called for short IPM).

Described teller console comprises gear controller, display panel, bearing circle and accelerator and brake, and the command signal that the driver is sent is sent to the ECU master controller and carries out respective handling, and feeds back to the driver by display panel.

The present invention adopts ECU master controller and CAN bus on PLC control system basis, belong to pure electronic software mode pure electric automobile is carried out four-wheel drive control, and stable performance is easy to upgrading and maintenance.Can be easily the interface that enriches by PLC add new function, do not need the automobile circuit structure is made big modification and change, also reduced the use of wire harness, effectively reduce material cost and maintenance cost, improve dependability, also increased running safety.

Description of drawings

Below the contrast accompanying drawing and in conjunction with embodiment the present invention is further detailed explanation:

Fig. 1 is the composition block scheme of the embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 2 is the electrical schematic diagram of exchanges data between the ECU master controller of Fig. 1 and the PLC control system;

Fig. 3 is the four-wheel drive synoptic diagram of the embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 4 is the process flow diagram of the PLC control program of the embodiment of the invention.

Embodiment

A kind of four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile that is applied on the BYD notion pure electric vehicle ET

This four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile, comprise the PLC control system 3 that connects each functional module of vehicle body and executivecontrol function, send the teller console 8 of instruction to PLC control system 3, the power module 10 and the real-time vehicle condition sensor network 7 that detects vehicle condition of power supply are provided to each component parts, and the magneto 111~114 of controlling wheel 131~134 rotations respectively, control the stepper motor 121~124 of wheel 131~134 corners respectively, detect the motor position and the speed pickup 51~55 of magneto 111~114 rotary states respectively in real time, detect the wheel angle sensors 61~64 of stepper motor 121~124 corner situations respectively in real time and accept the electric machine controller 41~44 that magneto 111~114 is controlled in 3 instructions of PLC control system respectively, described PLC control system 3 minutes four tunnel, every Lu Zhongjun and an electric machine controller, a magneto, a motor position is connected step by step with speed pickup, described PLC control system 3 divides four the tunnel in addition, every Lu Zhongjun and a stepper motor, a wheel angle sensors connects step by step.The PLC of described PLC control system 3 is that the model that Mitsubishi is produced is the PLC of FX2N4DA.

Be provided with the ECU master controller 1 of finishing main calculation process, described ECU master controller 1 is connected alternately with teller console 8, the output terminal of vehicle condition sensor network 7, motor position and speed pickup 51~55, wheel angle sensors 61~64 is connected to the respective input of ECU master controller 1, described each component parts cooperates ECU master control program and PLC control program, is integrated into the vehicle body Circuits System.Described ECU master controller 1 is that the model that American TI Company company produces is the MCU of TMS470, and its CPU core is ARM7TDMI.

Also be provided with CAN bus 9 in order to bi-directional transfer of data, described ECU master controller 1, PLC control system 3 and electric machine controller 41~44 by separately with the CAN transceiver be connected alternately with CAN bus 9, carry out exchanges data.

ECU master controller 1 shown in Figure 1 is obtained user's instruction from teller console 8, for example gear instruction, speed command (stepping on the gas), and detect the rotary speed information of magnetoes 111~114 by motor position and speed pickup 51~54, detect the corner information of working as front vehicle wheel 131~134 by wheel angle sensors 61~64, detect the vehicle body situation of electric motor car by vehicle condition sensor network 7, after judging and handle through ECU master controller 1 built-in software, the calculation process result is sent to PLC control system 3 by light-coupled isolation unit 2, PLC control system 3 converts these control signals to motor control signal by built-in algorithms then, drives magneto 111~114 operations respectively by electric machine controller 41~44.

In operational process, the ruuning situation of the ruuning situation of PLC control system 3 and electric machine controller 41~44 is carried out CAN by CAN bus 9 with ECU master controller 1 and is communicated by letter.ECU master controller 1 is according to CAN communication protocol, different situations is carried out different processing, for example the output of range appears surpassing in PLC control system 3 signals, PLC control system 3 just is sent to ECU master controller 1 with this mistake by CAN bus 9, ECU master controller 1 reduces input signal at once, makes 3 outputs of PLC control system reach normal range.When carrying out Electric Machine Control, ECU master controller 1 also can offer the driver with vehicle body information such as speed, gear, battery information by display panel.

Fig. 2 has explained the interface of ECU master controller 1 and PLC control system 3, and ECU master controller 1 is operated in the 5V low-voltage, and PLC control system 3 working powers are 24V, and both are isolated by light-coupled isolation unit 2.ECU master controller 1, PLC control system 3 by separately with CAN transceiver 12,13 be connected alternately with CAN bus 9, carry out exchanges data.

Comprise park P, reverse gear R, neutral gear N, drive shift D, feedback shelves B, grade SH that spins, parking brake signal HandBrake, service brake signal FootBrake, anti-lock brake signal ABS, and the mandatory signal of throttle depth signal Gain, send by ECU master controller 1.

ECU master controller 1 sends the mandatory signal that is in park P position, and PLC control system 3 is sent the idle running signal to electric machine controller 41~44.

ECU master controller 1 sends the mandatory signal that is in neutral gear N position, and PLC control system 3 is sent the stall signal to electric machine controller 41~44.

ECU master controller 1 sends the mandatory signal that is in drive shift D position, and PLC control system 3 is sent four magnetoes of control 111~114 to electric machine controller 41~44 is just changeing progress signal simultaneously.

ECU master controller 1 sends the mandatory signal that is in reverse gear R position, and PLC control system 3 is sent four magnetoes 111~114 of control backing signal that reverses simultaneously to electric machine controller 41~44.

ECU master controller 1 sends the mandatory signal that is in grade SH position of spinning, PLC control system 3 after electric machine controller 41~44 sends control magneto 111~114 stalls earlier again according to clockwise or be rotated counterclockwise signal.

ECU master controller 1 sends the mandatory signal of service brake signal FootBrake, and PLC control system 3 is sent control magneto 111~114 rapid brake signal under ruuning situation to electric machine controller 41~44.

ECU master controller 1 sends the mandatory signal of parking brake signal HandBrake, and PLC control system 3 is sent control magneto 111~114 rapid brake signal under ruuning situation equally to electric machine controller 41~44.

ECU master controller 1 sends the mandatory signal of anti-lock brake signal ABS, and PLC control system 3 is sent the method for using electric braking to electric machine controller 41~44 and realized the ABS (Anti-lock Braking System) signal.

ECU master controller 1 sends the mandatory signal of throttle depth signal Gain, and PLC control system 3 is sent the simulating signal that the reflection gas pedal is stepped on the degree of depth to electric machine controller 41~44.

Above-mentioned signal belongs to switching signal, just only with 0 and 1 signal of representing.For the definition of wheel sense of rotation is to be direction of observation from the vehicle body tail end, and wheel clockwise turns to 1, and being rotated counterclockwise is 0; For the definition of motor sense of rotation is to be direction of observation from the motor tail end, and motor clockwise turns to 1, and being rotated counterclockwise is 0.Because the direction of automobile left motor and right motor rotation may also possibility be identical on the contrary, opposite when for example advancing, identical during pivot stud, therefore PLC control system 3 is according to the mandatory signal of the gear of reality, respectively drive shift D is converted to four independent signals of D1~D4, convert reverse gear R to R1~R4 four independent signals, send into electric machine controller 41~44 respectively.

During four independent signals processes of four independent signals of described D1~D4 and R1~R4 PLC control system 3, throttle depth signal Gain and steering wheel angle Angle signal offer PLC control system 3 by vehicle condition sensor network 7 and wheel angle sensors 61~64 respectively, PLC control system 3 is converted into the simulating signal that meets electric machine controller 41~44 interface specifications, and offers electric machine controller 41~44 respectively.

Magneto 111~114 is respectively applied for drive wheels 131~134 among Fig. 3, and stepper motor 121~124 is respectively applied for control wheel 131~134 and turns to, and controls travel direction by the corner that stepper motor 121~124 changes wheel 131~134.

Under the cruising state, by control step motor 121~124, the corner of the near front wheel 111 and off-front wheel 112 is equated, the corner of left rear wheel 113 and off hind wheel 114 equates, just can turn normally when automobile advances or when retreating like this.

Be under the pivot stud state, PLC control system 3 guarantees that earlier magneto 111~114 stops the rotation, making it be cut in one outward by stepper motor 121~124 adjustment wheels 131~134 then is the circle 14 of diameter with the vehicle body diagonal line, and the magneto 111~114 of start-up control wheel 131~134 rotations rotates in the same direction then.The original place situation that function is applicable to that the place is narrow of spinning, purpose is to finish 360 ° of rotations on as far as possible little area, the area minimum of using when vehicle body rotates according to center of circle O, its movement locus is a circle 14, will reach optimum efficiency.But wheel 131~134 can not reach the circumscribed situation that is tangential on fully simultaneously, and in fact also in motion, its movement locus also is a circle 15 in the center of circle of spinning in the original place itself.After rotating to assigned address, ECU master controller 1 can send the mandatory signal of adjusting wheel 131~134 corners, and wheel 131~134 turns back to normal angle, i.e. θ=90 °.

Table 1 is the corresponding tables of gear and PLC output signal and wheel steering, and the concrete logical relation between gear, PLC output signal and the wheel steering has been described.For the definition of wheel sense of rotation is to be direction of observation from the vehicle body tail end, and wheel clockwise turns to 1, and being rotated counterclockwise is 0, does not rotate to be X.D1~D4, R1~R4, P, the N of PLC output are the signals that PLC control system 3 is sent to electric machine controller 41~44.

The corresponding tables of table 1 gear, PLC output signal and wheel steering

Table 2 is corresponding tables of wheel steering and motor steering, and the concrete logical relation between bearing circle and the motor steering has been described.For the definition of motor sense of rotation is to be direction of observation from the motor tail end, and motor clockwise turns to 1, and being rotated counterclockwise is 0, does not rotate to be X.

The corresponding tables of table 2 wheel steering and motor steering

The program circuit of PLC control system 3 as shown in Figure 4.After powering on, PLC control system 3 is carried out self check earlier, if self check makes mistakes, just sends data by CAN bus 9, forbids throttle output simultaneously.If hardware detection is normal, just read in the control signal of ECU master controller 1, and read in sensor signals such as the throttle degree of depth and steering wheel angle, convert the signal output of compatible electric machine controller 41~44 to.If comprised the original place signal that spins in the signal that reads in, just judge earlier the current state of spinning that whether has been in, if, speed and direction that continuation is spinned according to the angle calculation of the size and Orientation dish of throttle; If non-, just control stops magneto 111~114 earlier, then according to steering wheel angle control step motor 121~124, make 40 ° of the deviation angle θ ≈ of wheel 131~134, this is the proper angle θ that wheel spins, and as shown in Figure 3, calculates the speed of spinning according to the throttle size then.

Abnormal situation that turns to appears for fear of vehicle, pivot stud under steam for example, and the present invention makes mistake to avoid the generation of this situation by software detection.Continue under the situation of outrange at IO mouth or D/A converter, often indicate that hardware may go wrong, PLC control system 3 is handled by 1 unification of ECU master controller by the detection rub-out signal that CAN bus 9 sends, prevent the undesirable condition that may occur, keep system's endure, and feed back to the driver by teller console 8, remind it to note checking hardware.Occur under the wrong situation at gear, PLC control system 3 sends by CAN bus 9 and detects rub-out signal by ECU master controller 1 unified the processing, the safest gear of preferential employing, pivot stud for example appears simultaneously and the two kinds of gear signal of stopping, the just preferential parking gear that adopts is abandoned this instruction of pivot stud.

Through lasting on probation more than a year on BYD notion pure electric vehicle ET and the test proof, this four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile can reach desired effects.Steering moment experiment: energy normal direction of rotation when the wheel maximum is born moment of torsion for 3.7Nm; Rotating speed experiment: wheel is that wheel deviation angle θ=0 ° is wheel deviation angle θ=40 ° to maximum turning angle from the straight-line travelling angle, the shortest consuming time be 1.8s; Roadway experiment: the thousands of kilometers non-fault in automobile annular test road are travelled.

Above content be in conjunction with concrete preferred implementation to further describing that the present invention did, can not assert that concrete enforcement of the present invention is confined to these explanations.For the general technical staff of the technical field of the invention, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, can also make some simple deduction or replace, all should be considered as belonging to the scope of patent protection that the present invention is determined by claims of being submitted to.

Claims (9)

1. four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile, comprise the programmable logic controller (PLC) PLC control system that connects each functional module of vehicle body and executivecontrol function, send the teller console of instruction to the PLC control system, the power module and the real-time vehicle condition sensor network that detects vehicle condition of power supply are provided to each component parts, and the magneto of controlling four wheel rotations respectively, control the stepper motor of four wheel steering angles respectively, detect the motor position and the speed pickup of four magneto rotary states respectively in real time, detect the wheel angle sensors of four stepper motor corner situations respectively in real time and accept four electric machine controllers that magneto is controlled in the instruction of PLC control system respectively, described PLC control system divides four the tunnel, every Lu Zhongjun and an electric machine controller, a magneto, a motor position is connected step by step with speed pickup, described PLC control system divides four the tunnel in addition, every Lu Zhongjun and a stepper motor, a wheel angle sensors connects step by step, it is characterized in that:
Be provided with the electronic control unit ECU master controller of finishing main calculation process, described ECU master controller comprises input circuit, CPU and output circuit, be connected alternately with teller console, the vehicle condition sensor network, four motor positions and speed pickup, the output terminal of four wheel angle sensors is connected to the respective input of ECU master controller, described input circuit is accepted the detection information of each sensor and driver's command signal, CPU compares processing with these signals according to the reference data of storing again, calculation process, deal with data are sent to output circuit by the PLC control system, four electric machine controllers are controlled respectively four magnetoes and four stepper motors;
Also be provided with CAN bus in order to bi-directional transfer of data, described ECU master controller, PLC control system and four electric machine controllers by separately with the CAN transceiver be connected alternately with the CAN bus, carry out exchanges data.
2. according to the described four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile of claim 1, it is characterized in that:
Between described ECU master controller and described PLC control system, be provided with the light-coupled isolation unit.
3. according to claim 1 or 2 described four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile, it is characterized in that:
Described ECU master controller comprises input circuit, CPU and output circuit, described CPU is built-in with the control program of unified each functional module collaborative work of control, and have the priority processing function, can pass through the most important message of CAN communication bus priority processing according to the urgency level of message.
4. according to the described four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile of claim 3, it is characterized in that:
Described CPU is ARM series CPU.
5. according to the described four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile of claim 4, it is characterized in that:
Described PLC has the D/A modular converter able to programme that the detected throttle degree of depth, brake depth information can be converted to analog current signal, and be built-in with the logical process program, detected gear information can be handled the back through logic determines and eliminate possible gear conflict according to priority, and the gear signal of output safety.
6. according to the described four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile of claim 5, it is characterized in that:
Described PLC is the FX2N series of PLC, or the FP series of PLC.
7. according to the described four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile of claim 6, it is characterized in that:
Described vehicle condition sensor network, be to comprise temperature sensor in motor temperature sensor, radiator temperature sensor, speedometer for automobile sensor, automobile steering sensor, the car, and the sensor network of cell voltage Hall element composition, these sensors are connected to ECU master controller or PLC control system respectively according to function and electrical specification separately.
8. according to the described four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile of claim 7, it is characterized in that:
Described electric machine controller is the electric machine controller that possesses the CAN communication function, can receive external command signal and independent control motor rotation, comprises the chip of control motor rotation and software accordingly thereof, and the inverter that is made of Intelligent Power Module IPM.
9. according to the described four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile of claim 8, it is characterized in that:
Described teller console comprises gear controller, display panel, bearing circle and accelerator and brake, and the command signal that the driver is sent is sent to the ECU master controller and carries out respective handling, and feeds back to the driver by display panel.
CNB2005100215659A 2005-08-25 2005-08-25 Four-wheel drive control system for pure electric automobile CN100470411C (en)

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CN100470411C true CN100470411C (en) 2009-03-18

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CN101767542B (en) * 2008-12-26 2013-01-02 常州黄海麦科卡电动汽车有限公司 Intelligent drive platform for four wheels of electric automobile
CN101767535B (en) * 2008-12-30 2013-08-21 比亚迪股份有限公司 Driving/braking system and method of independent four-wheel electric automobile
CN101474960B (en) * 2009-02-10 2011-08-10 铁岭宝众新能源汽车有限公司 Electric automobile drive controller for driving wheel separately
US8977416B2 (en) * 2010-07-09 2015-03-10 Lg Electronics Inc. Electric vehicle and method for controlling emergency thereof
CN101973322A (en) * 2010-09-28 2011-02-16 上海奕洁汽车科技有限公司 Electric automobile
CN102045014A (en) * 2010-11-29 2011-05-04 辽宁工业大学 Brushless DC motor controller for four-wheel independently driven electric automobile and control method thereof
CN102259594A (en) * 2011-05-18 2011-11-30 河海大学 Advanced reduced instruction-set computer (RISC) machine (ARM)-based integrated information display system for automobile
US8589014B2 (en) * 2011-06-01 2013-11-19 Google Inc. Sensor field selection
CN102320270A (en) * 2011-06-24 2012-01-18 张家港市江南汽车制造有限公司 Operation control box for electric car
CN102320271A (en) * 2011-06-24 2012-01-18 张家港市江南汽车制造有限公司 A kind of pure electric automobile is used control capsule
CN103303363B (en) * 2013-06-06 2015-12-23 张家港市江南汽车制造有限公司 A kind of electric coach Oil pump control equipment
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