CN100463013C - Simulative training device for manual arc welding operation - Google PatentsSimulative training device for manual arc welding operation Download PDF
- Publication number
- CN100463013C CN100463013C CNB200610042953XA CN200610042953A CN100463013C CN 100463013 C CN100463013 C CN 100463013C CN B200610042953X A CNB200610042953X A CN B200610042953XA CN 200610042953 A CN200610042953 A CN 200610042953A CN 100463013 C CN100463013 C CN 100463013C
- Prior art keywords
- welding rod
- training device
- manual arc
- Prior art date
The present invention relates to a kind of welding operation analog training equipment, particularly simulative training device for manual arc welding operation.
Welding is a kind of material processing method of popularizing very much, it is widely used in various enterprises production occasion, automobile making is typically arranged, pressure vessel manufacturing, shipbuilding etc., though multiple automatic welding method comparative maturity is arranged at present, use also more and more, but because the convenience on using and flexibly, manual welding method such as covered arc welding still have its irreplaceable effect, for example weld in various pressure vessel conduit, and various maintainability welding occasion etc.
In the manual welding operating process, the factor that influences welding quality is many, selects as: electric current, voltage, welding rod (welding wire) such as selection of process parameters etc.; Some parameters of operating process also have bigger influence as the stability of speed of welding, electric arc arc length, the hunting range of welding rod etc. to welding quality in addition.Whether stablizing of welding process directly has influence on welding quality, and this is a kind of human factor completely, complete skill and experience with the welding operator, in the control of welding quality, electric current, voltage, preheat temperature, these technological parameters such as welding rod oven dry degree can be controlled by technical papers and measuring technique, but, the parameter relevant with manual operation, such as, speed of welding, welding posture all can't write down and control.In order to train good solder technology, need pay travail and suitable economic cost, could grasp the truly feels of manual welding process like this, the training welder is that needs devote considerable time, and consumes the process of a large amount of electric energy and wlding.In the hands-on stage of manual welding in the past, what adopt all is that the mode that the master worker trains an apprentice is trained, the effect of training is subjected to artificial factor such as teacher's operant level and ability to express, and qualified teachers' strength deficiency shows stronger situation in present welding training field, welding operation simultaneously is to the place, equipment and environment also have higher requirement, training process need consume a large amount of welding rods, test plate (panel), with suitable electric power resource, moreover, as everyone knows, welding surroundings is more abominable, a large amount of flue dust and strong arc light are arranged, be very easy to healthy generation harmful effect to the welder, for the personnel that newly accept welding training, bad working environment also is easy to generate negative effect to its psychology, is unfavorable for the carrying out of follow-up training program.
Chinese invention patent application CN 1469097A (application number 03110000.7) and application for a patent for invention CN 1439149A (application number 01811824.0) disclose shoot from shoulder formula air defence missile and odontological simulated training system respectively.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind ofly have higher emulation degree, to place and not high, less goods and materials of environmental requirement and energy resource consumption, be easy to the welder is carried out the simulative training device for manual arc welding operation of welding operation training.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
A kind of simulative training device for manual arc welding operation, comprise simulated welding gun, the controller of this simulated welding gun, and imitation specimen, its special feature is, described simulated welding gun comprises the welding gun handle, one end of this welding gun handle is connected with a stepper motor, one active roller is installed on the output shaft of this stepper motor, on the motor cabinet of this stepper motor, be fixed with a roller support, one return idler is installed on this roller support, between this return idler and active roller, be provided with a simulation welding rod, thereby this simulation welding rod contacts and can be moved when active roller rotates with return idler and active roller respectively, on the motor cabinet of stepper motor, also be fixed with a linear axis and hold, only can do straight line in this linear bearing and move thereby aforementioned simulation welding rod is enclosed in; In described imitation specimen, magnet is installed, thereby on the simulation welding rod, the corresponding distance that can detect near switch between simulation welding rod and imitation specimen is installed; The controller of described simulated welding gun is connected with the driver of stepper motor and near switch respectively.
Further, also comprise main control computer, welding rod position detecting device and have the helmet of display, wherein thereby the welding rod position detecting device is connected the spatial positional information that the simulation welding rod is provided to it with main control computer, thereby main control computer is connected with the controller of described simulated welding gun and obtains welding process information, thereby main control computer also is connected according to the locus of simulation welding rod and the process of simulation welding with display on the helmet demonstrates corresponding picture on display.
Wherein said display is a LCD.
Wherein the welding rod position detecting device comprises at least 2 ccd video cameras that be arranged in parallel, and ccd video camera is connected to main control computer by image pick-up card.
Further, on described simulation welding rod, at least 2 light emitting diodes are installed.
Wherein the magnet of installing in described imitation specimen is a magnet steel.
What wherein install on described simulation welding rod is hall element sensor near switch.
The controller of wherein said simulated welding gun is a data collecting card, thereby its output terminal is connected the control step motor with the control end of stepper motor driver, thus its input end be connected the distance obtained between simulation welding rod and the test specimen near switch whether in the agreement scope.
Whether wherein imitation specimen and simulation welding rod are conductor and test specimen ground connection, simulate welding rod and contact with test specimen thereby the input end of described data collecting card is connected with the simulation welding rod to detect.
Wherein the input end of data collecting card is connected with the backhaul switch, and data collecting card returns initial position by step motor control simulation welding rod behind the backhaul switch closure.
Several problems that the present invention exists at the covered arc welding welding hands-on stage specially, changed training method in the past, adopt novel simulated welding gun, wear the carrying out of helmet specially used for welding simulation welding process, reach fast culture welder's operating handle and reduce goods and materials and the purpose of energy resource consumption, striking and welding rod combustion process when adopting simulated welding gun to simulate covered arc welding, more the real scene of welding process can be represented to the welder by Helmet Mounted Display, in the welding operation training process, analog training device of the present invention has following characteristics:
(1) simulated welding gun weight and volume and the welding gun basically identical commonly used of welding at present are for the welder provides the feel identical with actual welding gun;
(2) Helmet Mounted Display adopts the helmet specially used transformation of welder to form, and wears sensation and true welding process basically identical;
(3) the striking action in the time of can simulating welding, the same during short-circuit arc with arc process in the true welding, need electrode tip to contact with the workpiece short circuit, raise welding rod then very soon to certain altitude ability striking success;
(4) can simulate the fusion process of covered arc welding when welding welding rod,, can change the burn-off rate of welding rod by changing the step motor drive frequency, this with the actual welding process in the burn-off rate of welding rod influenced by the welding current size also be consistent.
The present invention is on the basis of having understood covered arc welding Fundamentals of Welding and implementation procedure, designed simulation training platform at covered arc welding, on this platform, can realize the training on operation of covered arc welding, do not had flue dust, high light in the true welding process, but can in virtual scene, experience real welding process yet.Designed novel simulated welding gun for this reason, adopted stepper motor pumpback welding rod to simulate the fusing of welding bar for hand electric arc-welding, Hall element cooperates magnet steel to simulate the welding arc process, has realized that covered arc welding has broken away from the simulation process of true welding surroundings.Operation training by simulation, both can the sense of reality welding process, grasp the welding feel, improve the welding skill, can reduce training cost greatly again, enhancement training efficient, simultaneously training process is an overall safety to the welder, can predict this is a kind of off the beaten track safe, training method efficiently.
Description of drawings
Accompanying drawing 1 is a general principles block diagram of the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 2 is an equipment connection diagram of the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 3 is the structural representation of simulated welding gun among the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 4 is the structural representation of simulated welding gun among the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 5 is the controller circuitry schematic diagram of simulated welding gun among the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 6 is the control flow chart of simulated welding gun work among the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 7 is the pinhole imaging system model synoptic diagram of ccd video camera imaging system among the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 8 is the binocular imaging model synoptic diagram of ccd video camera imaging system among the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 9 is the image detecting program process flow diagram of CCD imaging system among the present invention;
Accompanying drawing 10 is the synoptic diagram that has the helmet of display;
Accompanying drawing 11 is the control flow chart of master routine of the present invention.
The present invention is further detailed explanation below in conjunction with accompanying drawing:
The present invention has adopted virtual reality technology as the platform core, in essence, virtual reality is exactly a kind of advanced person's a computer user interface, it provides such as various directly perceived and natural real-time perception interactive meanses, user-friendly to greatest extent such as looking, listen, touch simultaneously by giving the user, thereby alleviates burden for users, raising whole system operation efficient.Usually the user wears a helmet (being used for showing the helmet-mounted display of stereo-picture), and hand-held sensor glove is placed oneself in the midst of in the illusion world seemingly, roams in virtual environment, and allows operation " object " wherein.
Fig. 1 is the overall system theory diagram, be divided into hardware platform and software platform two parts, the work of software platform is that the signal to the hardware platform collection carries out analytical calculation, the reconstruction of three-dimensional scene, this three-dimensional scenic and welding operation process interplayed, the operating process of welding all will truly be reflected in the three-dimensional scenic, and provide the arc light the same in the scene with true welding process, splash, the welding rod fusing, molten bath formation or the like scene, these scenes are according to welder technological parameter of setting in advance and the welder's operational motion that collects by computing machine, pictures etc. generate in real time, and provide good man computer interface for the user.
Hardware platform comprises that mainly operating personnel's working environment design and welding operation process signal detect acquisition module, it is responsible for the user space of implementing welding operation is provided, simulation welding process, cultivation operating handle, and the process of user's operation is got off by various sensor record, the data Input Software platform analytical calculation that collects.The hardware and software platform is an organic whole, and both interdepend, information sharing.
One of free-revving engine of the present invention is the cultivation of operating handle in the covered arc welding welding process, used consistent when the employed instrument of welders training such as welding gun, the helmet etc. should be as much as possible with true welding, can guarantee like this operating habit that the welder formed when simulation training with operating handle the same during with true welding.And need be at welder's operating process, for he rebuilds a three-dimensional scenic true to nature, in this three-dimensional scenic, welding situation that is reflected and welder's operating process are one to one.Such as: during true covered arc welding, the electrode tip fusing not only has the process of horizontal arc manipulation when the welder operates, also the process of sending to must be arranged downwards, if untimely sending to, electrode tip and test specimen be apart from too high, and electric arc can not smooth combustion, even extinguish.In virtual three-dimensional scene, the appearance of electric arc just should meet such rule, and the stability of electric arc according to the observation allows the problem of welder in time finding to operate, and in time adjusts the welding rod position, thereby obtains good operating habit and operation technique.
In order to obtain the position of simulated welding gun, the present invention has mainly adopted the method for image detection, take image in the training process simultaneously by two ccd video cameras, main control computer extracts the unique point of reflection simulated welding gun position from the image of taking, according to the three-dimensional coordinate of 2 width of cloth image composite character points, adopt OpenGL interface real time modelling to go out three-dimensional welding scene by computing machine according to synthetic three-dimensional coordinate then.In order to make routine processes simply quick, on simulated welding gun, be provided with two light emitting diodes (bright spot), purpose is can find the simulated welding gun position more easily in the image of taking.
As shown in Figure 2, hardware components mainly comprises: main control computer, simulated welding gun, imitation specimen, the helmet that has display, ccd video camera etc. also can comprise simulated operation platform and some utility appliance certainly.It is the PCI 9112 of Ling Hua company that video camera adopts the quick logical MTV 1881 EX black-white CCD video cameras in Taiwan, M 10 cards, the data collecting card that image pick-up card adopts Beijing Microvision Inc..
As shown in figure 11, be the control flow chart of master routine in the main control computer of the present invention, the present invention adopts this pattern to carry out the demonstration of image and the preservation of data.
To introduce each functions of components and realization technology in detail below.
One, simulated welding gun physical construction
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of simulated welding gun, Fig. 4 is the simulated welding gun structural representation from visual angle, Fig. 3 right back, wherein simulate welding rod 1 and can adopt the manufacturing of stainless steel hollow tube, the fusing of welding rod when being used to simulate true the welding, at least 2 light emitting diodes can be set thereon, so that the welding rod position detecting device specifically is the coordinate position that ccd video camera detects the simulation welding rod.Wherein linear bearing 2 is fixed on the stepper motor 9 by bearing seat 3, is used to make the operation of simulation welding rod 1 to keep linear state.Active roller 4 is a rubber wheel, stepper motor 9 drives active roller 4 rotations when rotating, active roller 4 frictionallies pulling simulation welding rod 1 moves up and down, thereby the fusion process of simulation welding rod, return idler 5 installation sites are relative with active roller 4, are used for the radial force that 4 pairs of simulation welding rods 1 of balance active roller apply.
Shown in Fig. 3,4, the one side that simulation welding rod 1 contacts with return idler 5 is the plane, thereby increased the contact area with return idler 5, thereby and the surface that active roller 4 contact with simulation welding rod 1 increases friction force for the curved surface that adapts with it simulates welding rod 1 straight line and move so that better drive.
Actuating unit has adopted stepper motor, adopts stepper motor can control moving of welding rod accurately, realizes that the welding rod fusing is provided with consistent with welding parameter.Specifically can select 11 HS 3002-01 type 4 phase step motors of Chengdu stepper motor company product and 402 supporting with it type drivers for use.Through test, this is combined in the stall phenomenon in the time of also stepper motor low speed can not occurring under the rotating speed that per minute 3 changes, and its holding torque reaches 65Nm, enough drives and simulates welding rod 1.
Two, the controller of simulated welding gun
Fig. 5 is the circuit theory diagrams of the controller of simulated welding gun, has adopted generator and the state receiver of data collecting card as control signal among the figure, adopts data collecting card to be connected with main control computer easily, realizes the more data processing capacity.
The principle of work of the controller of simulated welding gun is to detect three digital input channel DI 0, DI 1 and the DI 2 of data collecting card by main control computer among Fig. 5, thereby understand the duty of current simulated welding gun, according to detected simulated welding gun state, main control computer sends the COUNT 0 port output pulse signal of instruction control data collecting card, the stepper motor 9 that drives on the simulated welding gun rotates, and realizes the simulation of welding rod fusing.What wherein DI 0 port connected is the relay of simulation welding rod 1 end, be used to detect simulation welding rod 1 and the short-circuit conditions of simulating sample, when simulation welding rod 1 end contacted with the simulation sample, relay powered up adhesive, DI has signal for 0 mouthful, shows the short circuit contact phase when beginning to weld.DI 1 port has connected and the relay that links to each other near switch that is embedded in simulation welding rod 1 end, and it is used to detect simulation welding rod 1 end and whether satisfies the condition that arc stability burns with the height of simulating between the sample.When simulation welding rod 1 raising height is suitable, near the switched voltage output signal, the relay adhesive, DI 1 port has signal.DI 2 ports have connected the backhaul switch on the simulated welding gun, and when the backhaul switch connection, DI 2 ports have signal, and main control computer control step motor reverses at a relatively high speed, are equivalent to allow " fusing " intact welding rod get back to initial position.
Among Fig. 5 is hall element sensor near switch, what its was experienced is the variation of magnetic field intensity, and variation made response, can be contained in electrode tip near switch, magnet steel is embedded in the test specimen, when the distance between electrode tip and the workpiece is in the enough scope of magnetic field intensity, give data collecting card near the switched voltage output signal, rotate by data collecting card control step motor.
As can see from Figure 5, the necessary first contact short circuit of simulation welding rod 1 end and imitation specimen, disengaging just can make data collecting card output driving frequency then, and stepper motor begins rotation, simulates the fusing of welding rod.By judging near switch whether the distance between simulation welding rod 1 and the imitation specimen is in the altitude range of arc stability burning, if simulation welding rod 1 lifts too high, to output signal to data collecting card near switch, driving frequency by data collecting card control step motor 9, make stepper motor 9 stalls, realize the simulation of current interruption.When the backhaul switch was used to be controlled at simulation welding rod 1 " burning " end, the motor counter-rotating made welding rod recover initial position, prepares the welding of next root bead bar of beginning.
Three, covered arc welding welding analog implementation procedure
(1) simulation of arc process
Arc process is an important link of covered arc welding, as shown in Figure 5, to judge at first thereby whether simulation welding rod 1 end contacts short circuit with imitation specimen and (simulate welding rod 1 and imitation specimen and be conductor, concrete as stainless steel or other metal), if not short circuit can't start stepper motor 9; If short circuit duration is long, alarm will be proposed, quit a program.If the striking condition satisfies,, enter normal welded condition with the drive stepping motor action.
(2) simulation of welding process
Welding process mainly is the process of welding rod fusing, and actions such as laterally the moving of this simultaneous welding rod, swing when the simulation welding, need judge whether these actions have caused the instability of electric arc and made corresponding measure.Such as, as shown in Figure 5, if simulation welding rod 1 is sent to untimely, " burning " is too fast, will cause the simulation welding rod 1 far away excessively from imitation specimen, at this moment near switch with output signal, stop stepper motor 9 actions after data collecting card detects, simulation welding rod 1 " burning " stops; And if send to excessive, simulation welding rod 1 with imitation specimen short circuit once more, also will cause stepper motor 9 to stop, welding process is interrupted, these are all consistent with the actual welding process.
Four, image method detects the principle that bright spot is determined the welding rod locus
The perspective imaging model of CCD imaging system adopts the pinhole imaging system model more at present, and as shown in Figure 7, the pinhole imaging system model has reflected the imaging point of spatial point on the video camera front and the position relation at camera optics center.
The pinhole imaging system models show 1 M in space be the intersection point m of line on the CCD front of spatial point M and camera optics central point O at the imaging point on the ccd video camera front, the space some imaging on video camera has only more unique.By imaging model as can be known, so long as the point on the OM line, imaging point is m on the CCD front, is merely able to determine that the M point is positioned on the extended line of Om, so the image of being taken by the separate unit video camera can not instead push away the coordinate position that obtains spatial point M.This shows,, need two video cameras to detect at least in order to determine the locus of a point.
The binocular imaging model that Fig. 8 adopts for native system, m1 and m2 are the spatial point M image spaces on two ccd video cameras respectively among the figure.As can see from Figure 8, the position of space M point is by its imaging point on two video camera fronts and crossing the obtaining of line of ccd video camera optic center point.This imaging pattern is similar to people's eyes and looks thing, observes by two eyes, image is reacted to brain, the locus that just can feel object.
Fig. 9 is the process flow diagram of image detecting program, can finish the detection to bright spot (being the light emitting diode on the simulated welding gun) locus in view of the above, has also just reflected the locus of simulated welding gun simultaneously.
Five, the structure that has the helmet of display
As shown in figure 10, the helmet major function that has display has: the helmet protection equipment that the welder wore when (1) true reflection was welded, and wear sensation and should try one's best actual near welding; (2) can show the three-dimensional scenic that computing machine generates, by display, the welder can observe the true process of own welding operation, and information that can the acquisition system provides on display is to indicate next step operational motion.
Selected the matrix of real welding protection face shield in the present invention for use as the helmet; the face shield of wearing behind the helmet like this and wearing during welding feels it is more approaching; display uses LCD; though added the weight and the centre of gravity place of liquid crystal display and driving circuit rear mask variation having taken place, can install bracing frame additional in inside or add the sense of discomfort of wearing that suspender alleviates the welder on platform.
The demonstration of scene realizes that by liquid crystal display the image of LCD shows fine and smooth, and volume is little, and is in light weight, and biggest advantage is not have radiation, and flicker free is very beneficial to protection welder's eyes.The liquid crystal display size that the present invention adopts is 6 cun, display resolution is 640 * 480, display effect can satisfy the requirement of analog platform, liquid crystal display is contained in the safety goggles position before the helmet, eyes keep suitable viewing distance just can alleviate welder's visual fatigue apart from the position of liquid crystal display in the time of can changing the welder and observe by the spacing of regulating liquid crystal display and face shield.
Adopt simulation welder of the present invention to carry out the manual welding operation training, can be very fast cultivation welder's operating handle, simultaneously because simulated welding gun the same striking and welding process can simulate with actual welding the time, the welder just can well temper by simulated welding gun that welding rod is sent to and action such as arc manipulation.After using simulated welding gun,, training cost is greatly reduced, and not limited by the place, do not need corollary apparatus such as special welding machine, gas cylinder, be convenient to many people operation training simultaneously saving material and the electric energy that welding consumes greatly.Trainer will free from hard work, only need to give the welder with guiding suggestion, feel and operation skill by welder's oneself time a time experience welding process, in the simulated training process, do not have flue dust, do not have high light, do not have high temperature, can not cause actual bodily harm, can not make it produce boredom yet the welder.
Supporting multimedia soldering theory training system can also be arranged in the software systems of analog platform, make the welder theory and combining put into practice the contrast of corroborating each other, the efficient of enhancement training.
Attached: the list of references that adopts the OpenGL realization about virtual reality
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 Li Wenfeng, Wang Qi, Chen Dingfang. the research and development of foundation of virtual design environment and OpenGL and VRML. Engineering Drawing journal [J] .2000.2:1-5.
Priority Applications (1)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|CNB200610042953XA CN100463013C (en)||2006-06-09||2006-06-09||Simulative training device for manual arc welding operation|
Applications Claiming Priority (1)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|CNB200610042953XA CN100463013C (en)||2006-06-09||2006-06-09||Simulative training device for manual arc welding operation|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CN1866317A CN1866317A (en)||2006-11-22|
|CN100463013C true CN100463013C (en)||2009-02-18|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CNB200610042953XA CN100463013C (en)||2006-06-09||2006-06-09||Simulative training device for manual arc welding operation|
Country Status (1)
|CN (1)||CN100463013C (en)|
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