Wind-driven generator with functions of changing diameter and solidity
Affiliated technical field
The present invention relates to the wind-powered electricity generation conversion equipment of renewable energy sources, particularly have the technical field of the wind-driven generator of functions of changing diameter and solidity.
Wind energy is a kind of form of expression of solar energy, is one of human the most ancient renewable energy sources of being utilized.Because the sharp increase that fossil energy consumes, and the side effects such as environmental pollution that bring therefrom, the exhausted day by day and human raising to environmental consciousness of fossil energy makes the renewable energy sources of development and utilization cleaning be subjected to the common concern of countries in the world in addition.China also quite payes attention to the renewable energy sources of development and utilization cleaning, and has implemented " renewable energy sources method " on January 1st, 2006, and this has just promoted the development and utilization of the wind resource of cleaning more.Data display in " generation of electricity by new energy " book, at solar energy in the solar radiation of earth projection nearly 20% (about 2 * 10
16W) absorbed by earth atmosphere, be about 2 * 10 according to the estimation wind energy of Willett
13W.Give the cleaning energy that comes for free and use wind-powered electricity generation more easily but want more to obtain this nature,, more advanced more practical wind-powered electricity generation conversion equipment will be arranged to satisfy demand to clean energy resource.
For the wind-driven generator of prior art, exist following some shortcomings and problem:
1, the weak and poor practicability of wind energy capture ability:
As everyone knows, natural wind at all seasons in, it is all very big that the wind speed in each season differs, and the variation of every day is also all very big, its randomness is strong especially, and has only the wind maximum in spring at all seasons, totally sees time of strong wind and few.And the wind-driven generator of prior art, general rated wind speed set all than higher, just the wind-driven generator of minor diameter wind wheel though there is better wind energy to obtain, just has power output preferably in the season of high wind speed, and nearly all be lower than its rated wind speed at the low wind speed of wind speed in season, it is very little to exert oneself, and has not also just had the ample scope for abilities, even can not turn round, thereby it obtains in weak wind less than supplying the wind energy of utilization, so impracticable.If fixed lower of rated wind speed, just the wind-driven generator of major diameter wind wheel though the problem that can not generate electricity in the low wind speed has been solved, to bear the high wind baptism of high wind speed in season, expensive manufacture cost certainly will will be arranged, and its practicability has also just lost meaning.
2, the mechanism's complexity and the big versatility that consumes energy of adjusting pitch are poor:
The wind-driven generator variable propeller pitch of prior art generally is to adopt electrical servo or hydraulic mechanism, complex structure rate of fault height not only, and carry out self power that its mechanism also will consume wind-driven generator.Its complicated mechanism's expense is also high, is not suitable for the wind-driven generator of middle low power, and the wind-driven generator of middle low power, the centrifugal variation paddle mechanism that is adopted can not be applicable to powerful wind-driven generator again, so its mechanism can not be general.
3, perfect inadequately to the safety measure of wind-driven generator:
The wind-driven generator of prior art is not generally all established the automatic shutdown protection device; the lighter burns generator; weight person even damage wind powered generator system; just take artificial peg or the stay cord that have are finished shutdown, if prominent protective system timely and effectively when meeting high wind or other unfavorable factor.And after storage battery is full of, just taked the mode of unloading, its wind wheel is running still, has caused the unnecessary mechanical wear of wind-driven generator, has reduced its working life.
4, terminal power supply is not convenient and the high transmission losses of expense is big:
The high-power wind-driven generator of prior art, be to adopt the power supply of being incorporated into the power networks, and middle-size and small-size wind-driven generator terminal power supply plan generally all takes low voltage to charge in batteries, is transformed into 220 volts of Ac through inverter again and powers to the load, but powerful inverter cost is extremely expensive, be difficult to promote, and electricity transmission distance is limited, as 1500 watts unit, it is 32 volts that transmission of electricity is pressed, and then electric current is 46.9 peaces.(basal area is 0.145cm if adopt 7/0.64
2) power transmission line, the pressure drop of then every meter (round trip) is 0.112 volt, supposes that defeated 50 meters distance will have 5.6 volts pressure drop, that is line loss accounts for and sends 17% of power.This has all relatively restricted the utilization and the development of wind-powered electricity generation.
Summary of the invention
Consider the many shortcomings and the problem of the wind-driven generator existence of prior art:
The invention discloses a kind of unprecedented wind-driven generator with functions of changing diameter and solidity, it comprises: adopt screw mechanism and box of tricks to utilize the motive force of wind energy conversion system to change diameter automatically, and change the horizontal axis rotor of solidity simultaneously; Utilize the generator resistive torque to become the mechanism of oar control rotating speed automatically; At high wind, cross rotating speed, cross shake, when storage battery is full of, device that can both the autofeather stoppage protection; Adopt the scheme of 220 volts of DC power supply.The present invention is a control circuit of being carried out each several part by microprocessor, finishes automatic change diameter and solidity,, automatic speed regulation and autofeather shut down.
Realize that the scheme that changes diameter among the present invention automatically and change the horizontal axis rotor of solidity simultaneously is:
Two groups of blades are arranged, form by two or three blades for every group, one group of master's blade and one group of metaplasm leaf are wherein arranged, staggered radially being installed on the wheel hub, wheel hub by Bearing Installation on main shaft, its main shaft is the heavy wall steel cylinder, be fixed on the solid of rotation by flange plate, its metaplasm leaf is the initial diameter of wind wheel, and a flat tube is arranged in the blade of main blade, and an end is fixed on the tip of blade, the other end is provided with nut assembly, blocked up for the blade that does not make main blade, the petiole of main blade also adopts the tube of flat, and there is limit stoper at its tip, in a screw rod is arranged, nut assembly on the flat tube in the blade is spun on the screw rod, and the flat tube in the blade is in petiole, and petiole is in blade.The end of screw rod in wheel hub is provided with a bevel gear, with two reducing synchronous disk engagements that have bevel gear that are located in the wheel hub, opposite position between reducing synchronous disk and the main shaft is provided with two reducing breaks, is finished by the reducing control circuit to change rotor diameter and solidity.
The reducing control circuit is by air velocity transducer, blade position sensor, electromagnetic element is formed, the too high or too low wind velocity signal that obtains by air velocity transducer, after microprocessor identification, carry out electromagnetic element, make two reducing breaks brake two reducing synchronous disks respectively, make itself and wheel hub differential thereby utilize the power of wind wheel, having driven intrapetiolar screw rod moves blade, when moving to maximum or initial diameter, send signal by blade position sensor, the reducing break is discharged finish reducing, when shifting out because of blade again, every group of two blades be equivalent to two blade major diameter wind wheels, every group of three blades be equivalent to three blade major diameter wind wheels, when blade is retracted, every group of two blades be equivalent to quaterfoil minor diameter wind wheel, every group of three blades be equivalent to six blade minor diameter wind wheels, so change has also taken place in solidity when changing rotor diameter.
Carry out the too high or too low wind velocity signal of changing diameter and solidity, also can establish Receiver on native system, pass through radio communication network by local meteorological station or weather station, the wind speed warning signal that sends after microprocessor identification, is carried out its work operating mode.
Horizontal axis rotor among the present invention, also can be another form only change diameter, the metaplasm leaf is removed, have only one group of master's blade, form by two or three blades, be installed in radially on the wheel hub, a built-in blade is arranged in the blade, between blade and built-in blade, be provided with tensioning and limit stoper, the butt of built-in blade is provided with nut assembly, is spun on the screw rod, and remaining part is identical with the horizontal axis rotor that the change diameter also changes solidity simultaneously.
Realize that the scheme of utilizing the generator resistive torque to become the oar speed governing automatically among the present invention is:
In wheel hub, all be provided with a fan-shaped bevel gear on each petiole shaft, fan-shaped bevel gear and the bevel gear engagement that becomes on the oar synchronous disk, be provided with return spring and limit stoper between change oar synchronous disk and the wheel hub, drive generator for electricity generation by being located at the internal gear that becomes opposite side on the oar synchronous disk.Finish the speed governing of automatic change oar by rotating-speed control circuit, rotating-speed control circuit is made up of speed probe, generator, variable load, surpass the rated speed signal by what speed probe transmitted, after microprocessor identification, give in addition variable load of generator, thereby increase generator resistive torque, to overcome the pressure that becomes return spring between oar synchronous disk and the wheel hub, make and become oar synchronous disk and the running of wheel hub formation differential, drive the angle change that petiole shaft makes blade by becoming the oar synchronous disk, change rotating speed control output power, reached the purpose of automatic speed regulation.
The scheme that realizes multi-functional autofeather stoppage protection among the present invention is:
On main shaft with become the corresponding position of oar synchronous disk, be provided with the feathering break, between main shaft and wheel hub, be provided with ratchet mechanism, finish its shutdown and recover running by brake control circuit.Brake control circuit; by air velocity transducer; speed probe; vibration transducer; the charged state sensor; servomotor is formed; by air velocity transducer; speed probe; vibration transducer; the charged state sensor; the high wind signal that transmits; cross tach signal; cross the signal that shakes; storage battery is full of signal; after microprocessor identification; carry out servomotor and drive feathering break and ratchet mechanism simultaneously; braking becomes the oar synchronous disk; utilize the inertia of wind wheel; make change oar synchronous disk and wheel hub differential finish feathering; and pin wheel hub by ratchet mechanism simultaneously; keep the feathering state, reached the purpose of automatic shutdown protection.After microprocessor is carried out high wind signal and storage battery and is full of signal and shuts down; when to survival wind speed and storage battery need charge the time; can both carry out servomotor by microprocessor; discharging feathering break and ratchet unit makes wind-driven generator recover running; and after carrying out tach signal and crossing the signal shutdown of shaking; send alarm signal simultaneously; do not carry out it and recover running; because crossing rotating speed shakes with crossing; just prove that wind powered generator system exists potential safety hazard; and after needing the professional workforce to confirm safety, recover its running.
Reducing break among the present invention and feathering break also can adopt the electrorheological fluid technology, will make structure simpler.
Realize with the scheme of 220 volts of DC power supply being:
The electric energy that wind-driven generator sends, by charger to many groups the series connection charge in batteries, obtain 220 volts of DC electrical source, can set up independently dc suppling network, also can switch house lead in by switch controller and 220 volts of electric mains, utilize indoor original circuit, directly be provided with 220 volts of direct currents to electric consumer.Analyze the characteristics of current household electric appliance, major part all is a resistive load as (adopting the light fixture and the incandescent lamp of electronic ballast) the electric heating class, the illumination class, some is the electric consumer that has switching type power supply, as computer, colour TV, video light disc machine etc., the principle that equates with the thermal effect of Ac according to direct current, 220 volts of Ac are equivalent to 220 volts of direct currents, so this part electric consumer can directly be provided with 220 volts of direct currents.Has only sub-fraction perception electric consumer as refrigerator, washing machine etc., in dc suppling network independently, as long as it is just passable with a small-power inverter, switch house lead in 220 volts of electric mains, utilize indoor original circuit, directly be provided with 220 volts of galvanic these sub-fraction perception electric consumers, can be connected on the civil power separately to electric consumer.Again because the current DC Brushless Motor of wideling popularize, as: refrigerator, washing machine etc., when all adopting DC Brushless Motor, this sub-fraction perception electric consumer just can directly pass to direct current.
Compared with prior art, the wind-driven generator with functions of changing diameter and solidity of the present invention, and the advantage of power supply plan is:
1, also practicability is good by force for the wind energy capture ability:
The kinetic energy expression that has according to wind energy:
A is a swept area of rotor in the formula.
: the energy that wind energy conversion system obtains is directly proportional with the swept area of rotor of wind energy conversion system, just with square being directly proportional of rotor diameter, wind wheel of the present invention can increase diameter, so in weak wind, can more obtain wind energy, thereby solved the problem that weak wind can not generate electricity season, improved its practicability greatly.And when high wind, can be recovered to initial diameter, and solidity also increases to some extent, reduced rotating speed effectively, thus just can be in high wind safe operation.
2, mechanism's simple general-purpose of feather is strong and rate of fault is low:
Speed regulating mechanism of the present invention utilizes the generator resistive torque to regulate pitch and controls rotating speed.Do not have complicated hydraulic mechanism or electric servomechanism, reduced its rate of fault, thereby be applicable to that small-power arrives powerful wind-driven generator.
3, the good and long service life of Security:
The present invention is provided with at high wind; cross rotating speed; cross and shake; when storage battery is full of; device that can both the autofeather stoppage protection; when high wind (the above wind speed of 25 meter per seconds) takes place; generator failure produce driving and since blade freeze; or other reason causes balance to lose title; and the vibration excessively that produces etc.; during to the wind powered generator system adverse factors; can both carry out by microprocessor and shut down; can protect wind powered generator system timely and effectively, again because after storage battery was full of, wind-driven generator had stopped running; do not had unnecessary mechanical wear, therefore prolonged its working life.
4, the terminal low transmission losses of direct convenience fee of powering is little:
Power supply plan of the present invention is to adopt 220 volts of DC power supply, can switch house lead in by switch controller and 220 volts of electric mains, utilizes indoor original circuit, directly is provided with 220 volts of direct currents to electric consumer.Need not to enable expensive high power contravariant device, and the high line loss of transmission voltage is little, increased electricity transmission distance, this power supply plan has reduced the user cost of wind-powered electricity generation, making the wind-powered electricity generation of promoting the use of cleaning that positive effect be arranged, also is the effect of playing promotion for the universal direct current supply of city's electrical network in future in addition.
Description of drawings
The present invention is further described below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.
Accompanying drawing 1 is a wind-driven generator overall schematic of the present invention.
Accompanying drawing 2 is the wheel hub positive view of wind-driven generator of the present invention and the sectional view of primary blades.
Accompanying drawing 3 is the hub side sectional view of wind-driven generator of the present invention.
Accompanying drawing 4 is a total control circuit skeleton diagram of the present invention.
Accompanying drawing 5 is a supplier of electricity block diagram of the present invention.
Accompanying drawing 6 only becomes the wheel hub positive view of wind wheel of diameter and the sectional view of blade for another kind of form horizontal axis of the present invention.
To have two groups of blades (every group also can be two blades) shown in accompanying drawing 1 and the accompanying drawing 2, one group of master's blade 1 (maximum diameter of wind wheel) φ
1With one group of metaplasm leaf 2 (initial diameter of wind wheel) φ
2Wind wheel (gyratory directions is for turning clockwise), be installed on the pylon.Main blade 1 is installed on the wheel hub 7 by bearing 5,6 by bearing 3,4 and metaplasm leaf 2, be petiole 12 in the blade 1.1 of main blade 1, petiole 12 tips are limit stoper 13, intrapetiolar oblate tube 14 1 ends and blade 1.1 are most advanced and sophisticated fixing, and the nut assembly 15 of the other end is spun on the screw rod 16 (for right-handed thread).Screw rod 16 is installed in the petiole shaft 18 by bearing 17.
Wheel hub 7 shown in the accompanying drawing 3 is installed on the main shaft 10 by bearing 8,9, and its main shaft 10 is that the heavy wall steel cylinder is installed on the solid of rotation by flange plate 11.Be fixed on the bevel gear 19 on the screw rod 16, be installed in two reducing synchronous disk A and B engagement in the wheel hub 7 by bearing 20,21, two reducing break A1 and B1 are housed between reducing synchronous disk A and B and the main shaft with its both sides.Be contained in the fan-shaped bevel gear 23 on main lobe arbor 18 and the accessory lobes arbor 22, all (windward side that is installed in of wind direction is down adopted in wind direction control be installed in change oar synchronous disk 25 on the wheel hub 7 by bearing 24, if adopt upwind will be installed in side with the wind, but need and become between the oar synchronous disk 25 at fan-shaped bevel gear 23 and add one group of upper saw pulley) engagement, become between oar synchronous disk 25 and the wheel hub 7 return spring and limit stoper 26 are housed, become between oar synchronous disk 25 and the main shaft 10 feathering break 27 is housed, between wheel hub 7 and main shaft 10, ratchet mechanism 28 is housed, feathering break 27 and ratchet mechanism 28 interlocks, on main shaft 10, be provided with double-action mechanism hole 31 and transmission signal line hole 32, drive generator 30 generatings by being contained in the internal gear 29 that becomes on the oar synchronous disk 25.
Automatic diameter changing shown in the accompanying drawing 4 becomes solidity, becomes oar speed governing, autofeather shutdown and recovery running all by microprocessor automatically, carries out the each several part control circuit and finishes.
Change to maximum diameter φ
Be lower than initial diameter φ when what microprocessor detected that air velocity transducer transmits
2The rated wind speed signal time, carry out electromagnetic element and make A1 break braking A reducing synchronous disk, make itself and wheel hub 7 differentials, thereby driven the screw rod 16 in the petiole 12, make blade 1.1 outwards mobile, when moving to maximum diameter φ
1The time, send signal by blade position sensor the A1 break is discharged, become and be equivalent to the large diameter wind energy conversion system of three blades, in weak wind, to obtain more wind energy.
Get back to initial diameter φ
Be higher than initial diameter φ when what microprocessor detected that air velocity transducer transmits
2The rated wind speed signal time, carry out electromagnetic element and make B1 break braking B reducing synchronous disk, make itself and wheel hub 7 differentials, thereby driven the interior screw rod 16 of petiole 12, blade 1.1 is moved inward, when moving to initial diameter φ
2The time, send signal by blade position sensor the B1 break is discharged, become the wind energy conversion system that is equivalent to six blade minor diameters, can effectively reduce rotating speed in strong wind, moving with safety.
Automatically become the oar speed governing:
After microprocessor detects generator and crosses tach signal, give in addition resistance variable load of generator 30, thereby increase the resistive torque of generator 30, to overcome the pressure that becomes return spring 26 between oar synchronous disk 25 and the wheel hub 7, the angle of blade 1,2 is changed, change rotating speed control output power.
The autofeather stoppage protection:
After microprocessor detects the high wind signal, crosses tach signal, crosses the signal that shakes, storage battery is full of signal; carry out actuating motor synchronous drive feathering break 27 and ratchet mechanism 28; braking becomes oar synchronous disk 25; inertia by wind wheel makes change oar synchronous disk 25 finish feathering with wheel hub 7 differentials; and pin wheel hub 7 by ratchet mechanism 28 simultaneously, keep the feathering state to finish stoppage protection.
Automatically recover running:
After microprocessor detects that survival wind speed signal and storage battery are continuous and fills signal, carry out actuating motor synchronous drive feathering break 27 and ratchet mechanism 28 and discharge and recover running.In order to guarantee the safety of system, when detecting tach signal and cross the signal shutdown of shaking, microprocessor sent alarm signal, and do not carry out it and recover running.
The electric energy that is sent by generator shown in Figure 5 is through charger, and charging a battery obtains 220 volts of direct currents, switches circuit in the inlet chamber by switch controller and civil power.
Shown in Figure 6 is that the horizontal axis rotor of another kind of form of the present invention only becomes diameter, has only one group of blade (two or three blades), be installed on the wheel hub 7, one built-in blade 34 is arranged in the blade 33, the butt of built-in blade 34 is provided with nut assembly 35, be spun on the screw rod 16, remaining part is identical with the horizontal axis rotor that the change diameter changes solidity simultaneously.