CN100453674C - Low cost, high-wearability hypereutectic high chromium cast iron and its production method - Google Patents

Low cost, high-wearability hypereutectic high chromium cast iron and its production method Download PDF

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CN100453674C
CN100453674C CNB2005100963378A CN200510096337A CN100453674C CN 100453674 C CN100453674 C CN 100453674C CN B2005100963378 A CNB2005100963378 A CN B2005100963378A CN 200510096337 A CN200510096337 A CN 200510096337A CN 100453674 C CN100453674 C CN 100453674C
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cast iron
hypereutectic
alloy
chromium cast
inoculation
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CN1769508A (en
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智小慧
邢建东
高义民
周会永
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西安交通大学
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Abstract

The present invention provides hypereutectic high chromium cast iron and a manufacture method thereof. The hypereutectic high chromium cast iron comprises the major constituents: 3.5-4.5% of C, 1.0-3.0% of Mn, 17-30% of Cr, 0.5-1.5% of Si, 1.0-2.0% of Cu, less than 0.06% of P, less than 0.06% of S, less than 1% of Ni, and balancing Fe. The manufacture method uses a late inoculation transformation processing method to thin primary carbides. An intermediate alloy of an inoculation agent in a packet comprises TiN granules, NbN granules, etc. as a basal body for promoting the primary carbides to nucleate and increasing the nucleation quantity of the primary carbides. Rare earth, magnesium, potassium, etc. are gathered on the surfaces of the primary carbides to make the primary carbides thin and spheroidize. The current-following inoculation agent can greatly quicken the solidification of alloys to prohibit the primary carbides from growing for achieving the purpose of thinning the primary carbides. Slurry pump over-current members manufactured by the hypereutectic high chromium cast iron have the advantages of simple production technology, low cost, favorable castability, excellent abrasive resistance and long service life.

Description

A kind of hypereutectic high chromium cast iron of low-cost high-wearing feature and manufacture method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of cast iron and preparation method thereof, particularly a kind of hypereutectic high chromium cast iron of low-cost high-wearing feature and manufacture method thereof, this hypereutectic high chromium cast iron is applicable to make carries the slag stock pump flow passage part with strong wear slurry, as impeller, backplate and sheath etc.
Background technology
Rich chromium cast iron is that a class is used important very widely high-abrasive material, because a large amount of high rigidity M that exist in the tissue 7C 3Type carbide and have good wear resistance, the toughness than other white cast iron makes moderate progress because the eutectic carbides pattern is shaft-like distribution simultaneously.Therefore be widely used in all kinds of worn partss in fields such as metallurgy, mine, water conservancy, electric power, chemical industry and the flow passage part (impeller, sheath and backplate) that various conveying contains solid particulate fluid pump.Chromium in the rich chromium cast iron not only can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of material in slurry, simultaneously a large amount of exist contain chromium M 7C 3The type carbide has effectively improved the wear resistance of material, has improved the work-ing life of flow passage part.The increase of carbide quantity has significant effects to the raising of flow passage part erosive wear drag in the rich chromium cast iron.But carbide quantity is brought up to a certain degree, thick primary carbide will occur in rich chromium cast iron, causes the toughness of rich chromium cast iron sharply to descend, thereby makes hypereutectic high chromium cast iron lose use value.Thereby the carbon equivalent that is used for this class flow passage part rich chromium cast iron at present is usually to be no more than the hypoeutectic rich chromium cast iron that eutectic point is the upper limit, as cast irons such as KMTBCr26 in China's high-abrasive material national standard and KMTBCr15Mo3.
The wear resisting property of the hypereutectic high chromium cast iron that carbon content is higher is better than industrial hypoeutectic rich chromium cast iron commonly used, and cost is suitable with the hypoeutectic rich chromium cast iron, so the cost performance height.But cause intensity and toughness low owing to crisp hard, thick carbide in the hypereutectic high chromium cast iron exists, casting flaw such as easily crack, limited its application on wear parts.Should keep the high rigidity characteristics of hypereutectic material, improve its intensity and toughness again, best bet is exactly its primary carbide of refinement.So the refinement carbide, change its distributional pattern, be to improve hypereutectic high chromium cast iron flexible important means.
Usually, people adopt respectively and breed the performance of improving foundry goods with rotten means.Inoculation is to add to help the element of forming core, thereby reaches a kind of technology of thinning microstructure; Rotten processing then be by add can change organize in second alloying element of growing mutually change a kind of technology of second phase morphology and distribution.These two kinds of technologies can both be in various degree the improvement tissue, improve performance.
Patent publication No. CN86108485A disclosed a kind of " chromium 26 series white cast iron composite inoculating treatment agents " mainly is to utilize alloying elements such as Cu, Ti, Si, Mg to come to improve its performance to playing metamorphism in the cast iron solidified process of spoken parts in traditional operas.But because these several element prices are higher, cost is higher, and is unsuitable for hypereutectic high chromium cast iron.The patent No. is CN1046195A disclosed " the potent nucleating agent of chromium manganese series white cast iron " for another example, it is to utilize Cr, C, three kinds of elements of Fe one time of giving birth to that nuclear breeds to be improved the performance of cast iron in the white cast iron process of setting, but this technology only limits to be applied in the chromium manganese series white cast iron, is unsuitable for hypereutectic high chromium cast iron.The patent No. is CN94112406.1 disclosed " Cr series white cast iron compound inoculant " patent, selects Si, Mg, three kinds of alterant elements of Re for use, and its range of application also only is suitable for eutectic or hypoeutectic rich chromium cast iron.The patent No. provides a kind of high temperature wear resistant alloy and manufacturing technology thereof for CN92114598.5, this alloy is principal element with Cr, and add Ni, Mo, W, Cu, N, C, elements such as Si, Mn, the master alloy that adopts rare earth and basic metal the to make processing of going bad.The composition of master alloy is wt%:RE3.00~20.00, Ca3.00~10.00, and Ba5.00~20.00, Si20.00~35.00, surplus is Fe.This alloy only is suitable for breeding hypoeutectic rich chromium cast iron.Patent CN93107390.1 discloses a kind of " compound inoculation modificator ", and it is the additive that molten metal bath is handled usefulness in the preceding casting ladle of gray iron casting cast.It is based on nitridizing agent, contains the compound inoculation modificator of multicomponents such as rare earth ferrosilicomagnesium, aluminium, ferrotianium again.For the graphitic cast iron of hypoeutectic, eutectic or the hypereutectic composition of carbon equivalent high, the nearly eutectic of high-carbon, compound inoculation modificator has the dual function that breeds and go bad.Do not mention the inoculation(effect) of nitride to rich chromium cast iron.Patent CNO3114581.7 discloses a kind of " antiwear multi-element screening plate made of high-Cr cast iron and manufacture method thereof ".In this patent, place silicocalcium, ferro-niobium, magnesium-nickel alloy, cerium base rare earth, ferrotianium etc. at the bag end and breed material, adopt and pour this rich chromium cast iron of method refinement method refinement, mentioned the effect of refinement rich chromium cast irons such as NbC, but the add-on of ferro-niobium and ferrotianium etc. is too high, and cost is higher.
Patent WO2004/103608 has introduced a kind of method of producing hypereutectic cast iron with the disappearance mould, can be used for producing the parts of equipment such as slag stock pump, swirler and crusher.The shortcoming of this method is: the mould investment is big, is unsuitable for the production of the small quantities of slag stock pump parts of single-piece; The maximum of the nucleating agent that it can add is restricted (generally be no more than 1%, maximum is no more than 2%); The granularity of nucleating agent is less, generally is no more than 100um, and its surperficial impurity such as oxide compound is more relatively, and under this invention condition, these impurity all remain in the foundry goods, and the toughness of material is had adverse influence.
United States Patent (USP) 5803152 has been introduced a kind of refinement primary phase method, so this method is suitable for having the alloy (aluminium/silicon, copper/silver is especially at white cast iron) of eutectic phase.This technology is to add nucleating agent in pouring cast part in molten metal.Its shortcoming is: the add-on of nucleating agent is higher, and its surperficial impurity such as oxide compound generally all remains in the foundry goods, and the toughness to material is had adverse influence; Teeming temperature is on the low side, and alloy liquid mobile bad is not suitable for producing the complicated part of slag stock pump flow passage part and so on very much.
In paper " the rotten processing M2 rapid steel tissue and Effect on Performance ", all fixed victorys, symbol pallid light etc. are selected the Y-K-Na compound modifier for use, with the method that pours in the bag M2 rapid steel are carried out composite inoculating and handle.
One piece of autograph that people such as R.J.Llewellyn deliver is " Scouring erosion resistance ofmetallic materials used in slurry pump service " paper.This paper has been introduced a kind of corrosion-resistant performance of flushing that chromium 5C-35Cr% has the hypereutectic high chromium cast iron of refinement primary carbide that contains with routine casting production, but this paper is not introduced the method for refinement primary carbide crystal grain.
In paper " high carbon and chromium White Cast Iron Material and application thereof ", Zhang Shangang, Zhang Jianbo etc. adopt and to add fining agent alloy, cast cold in chromite facing sand, the bag and added about 1% series of process measure refinements such as 0.2~0.3mm Alloy Iron Shot in molten iron stream the hypereutectic alloy of 4.0~6.0%C-30.0~40.0Cr%, and are used to produce slag stock pump flow passage part.But this article is not introduced the composition of its fining agent, and because of adopting cast cold (temperature when alloy liquid fills type is lower about about 10 ℃ than its liquidus line), the cavity filling ability of alloy liquid is poor, and scrap rate such as cold shut are higher, and finished casting rate is low, the quality instability.In addition, owing to add about 2~3% the molybdenum that costs an arm and a leg, raw materials cost is more than 3.5 times of KMTBCr26 approximately, so on the high side when this material is used to make slag stock pump flow passage part.
By above analysis as can be known, because slag stock pump flow passage part is complex-shaped, outpour qualified foundry goods in order to guarantee to water, the type temperature of filling of alloy liquid should be too not low; Only breed rottenly in the bag, can not reach the purpose of refinement hypereutectic high chromium cast iron, and current-following inoculation (adding nucleating agent to alloy liquid in the time of cast) only, promptly enable to reach the purpose of refinement hypereutectic high chromium cast iron, also make the flowability of alloy become very poor; Select suitable chemical ingredients for use, promptly will bring into play the good advantage of hypereutectic high cast iron wear resistance, reduce the cost of material again.And more than the paper that retrieves or patent all do not provide the production method of the hypereutectic high chromium cast iron of the low-cost high-wearing feature that is suitable for " producing slag stock pump flow passage part ".
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to, a kind of hypereutectic high chromium cast iron and manufacture method thereof are provided, this hypereutectic high chromium cast iron is applicable to make to carry to have strong wear slurry slag stock pump flow passage part.
In order to realize above-mentioned task, the present invention takes following technical scheme:
A kind of hypereutectic high chromium cast iron of low-cost high-wearing feature, it is characterized in that, this hypereutectic high chromium cast iron contains the chemical ingredients of following weight ratio: C:3.5~4.5%, Mn:1.0~3.0%, Cr:17~30%, Si:0.5~1.5%, Cu:1.0~2.0%, P :≤0.06%, S :≤0.06%, Ni :≤1%, surplus is an iron.
The preparation method of above-mentioned hypereutectic high chromium cast iron is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
1) at first according to the component of claim 1 batching, then in the acid medium-frequency induction furnace melting of 500kg, when temperature rises to 1650 ℃, add aluminium as reductor, after the deoxidation immediately with the alloy liquid of fusing to going in the casting ladle;
2) in casting ladle, adopt the method for late inoculation to carry out the refinement primary carbide, late inoculation is meant and breeds rotten and current-following inoculation, breed granularity 10mm~13mm that rotten used inoculation modificator is, by master alloy, sylvite, the cerium mischmetal magnesium alloy is formed, and wherein master alloy accounts for and handles 0.5~2.0% of alloy liquid weight, sylvite accounts for handles 1.0~3.0% of alloy liquid weight, and the cerium mischmetal magnesium alloy accounts for handles 0.5~3.0% of alloy liquid weight;
Current-following inoculation is to be 70~140 purpose iron alloy particles by add granularity in molten metal in cast; The iron alloy particulate add-on of current-following inoculation by the 1.2%~4.0.% of hypereutectic high chromium cast iron weight of processing;
The method that adds is: inoculation modificator is measured the bottom of putting into casting ladle on request in will wrapping earlier, with pouring method hypereutectic high chromium cast iron liquid is poured rapidly; In casting process, the iron alloy particle of current-following inoculation is measured on request at the sprue cup place and is evenly added in the hypereutectic high chromium cast iron liquid;
3) heat-treat then, its method is:
Quench: slowly be warming up to 900 ℃~1050 ℃, be incubated 4~6 hours, air cooling is to room temperature then;
Tempering: the hypereutectic high chromium cast iron after quenching is incubated 2~4 hours under 300 ℃ of conditions of temperature, can obtain hardness more than 64HRC, and impelling strength is at 5J/cm 2Above hypereutectic high chromium cast iron material.
Hypereutectic high chromium cast iron of the present invention has following characteristics:
1. adopt C:3.5~4.5%, the chemical ingredients of Cr:17~30%, only contain about 1% copper and less than 1% nickel, do not contain noble elements such as molybdenum, cost and KMTBCr26 are suitable;
2. adopt the Nb that the method for master alloy adds (C, N), TiC, boride etc. promote the material of forming core, not only pregnant effect is remarkable, and has reduced cost;
3. adopt in the bag and breed (master alloy+sylvite+rare earth magnesium)+current-following inoculation (alloy powder) method, thinning effect is remarkable;
4. because the pregnant effect in the bag is better, and alloy liquid can be poured into a mould under higher temperature, and the type temperature of filling of alloy liquid is higher than about 60 ℃ of its liquidus lines, the flowability of alloy liquid better can cast out qualified slag stock pump flow passage part.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is untreated hypereutectic high chromium cast iron metallographic structure figure;
Fig. 2 is the metallographic structure figure after handling through the late inoculation of the inventive method.
Embodiment
The performance of alloy material is by metallographic structure decision, and in chemical ingredients, thermal treatment process and preparation process (breed, moulding, cast etc.) all tissue and the performance to material decisive influence is arranged.
1. chemical ingredients is definite:
C: under wear working condition, wish that material has excellent resistance to abrasion, and excellent resistance to abrasion derives from the high rigidity eutectic carbides that exists in the tissue, and C can be calculated as follows between C, Cr and carbide (K%) content to carbide number affects maximum:
K%=12.33(C%)+0.55(Cr%)-15.2%
In the formula, C is healed height better, because carbide quantity is too much, has increased the fragility of material, considers its pros and cons, and C content is controlled at 3.5%~4.5%.
Cr:Cr removes part and forms carbide, increases outside the wear resistance, and it mainly acts on is to be dissolved in matrix, increases the hardening capacity and the erosion resistance of matrix.When Cr/C>5, the carbide in the cast iron is M 7C 3Type.So Cr content is controlled at 17%~30%.
Si:Si is the melting deoxidant element, adds an amount of Si, can prevent other alloying element oxidation, but Si is again non-carbide forming element, mainly is dissolved in matrix, reduces hardening capacity, so Si content is controlled at 0.5%~1.5%.
Mn:Mn can improve the hardening capacity of rich chromium cast iron, but increases the content of residual austenite, so Mn content is controlled at 1.0%~3.0%.
Ni:Ni can improve the hardening capacity of rich chromium cast iron and the erosion resistance of material, but China Ni resource shortage, Ni price height, take all factors into consideration Ni content is controlled at≤1.0%.
Cu:Cu can improve the hardening capacity of rich chromium cast iron and the erosion resistance of material, but the solubleness of copper in austenite has only about 2%, so Cu content is controlled at 1.0%~2.0%.
Inevitably trace impurity is to bring in the raw material, and P and S are wherein arranged, and all is harmful elements, and intensity, toughness and wear resistance in order to guarantee material are controlled at P content below 0.06%, and S content is controlled at below 0.06%.
Therefore, final chemical ingredients is (wt.%):
??C ??Cr ??Si ??Mn ??P ??S ??Cu ??Ni ??Fe
??3.5~4.5 ??17~30 ??0.5~1.5 ??1.0~3.0 ??≤0.06 ??≤0.06 ??1.0~2.0 ??≤1 Surplus
2. nucleating agent and inoculation method determines
Among the present invention, adopt the method for late inoculation (breeding rotten and current-following inoculation in the bag).Wrap consist of (account for and handle alloy liquid weight wt%) of interior nucleating agent: 0.5~2.0 master alloy+1.0~3.0 sylvite+0.5~3.0% cerium mischmetal magnesium alloy.The composition of master alloy is: C:1.0~4.0%, Mn:1~5%, Cr:2~4, Nb:0.5~4%, V:0.2~1%, Si:05~1.0%, N:0.04~0.12%, Ti:0.1~1.0, B:0.1~1.0%, all the other are Fe and unavoidable impurities.Particles such as the TiC that contains in the master alloy, NbN, VN, NbC, VN and boride can be used as the matrix that promotes the primary carbide forming core, can increase the forming core quantity of primary carbide.Rare earth, magnesium and the sylvite etc. that add are enriched in the surface of primary carbide, make its refinement, group's nodularization, help the rich chromium cast iron mechanical property especially toughness increase substantially.The effect of current-following inoculation agent is to accelerate solidifying of alloy greatly, makes primary carbide have little time to grow up, thereby reaches the purpose of refinement primary carbide.
3. casting technique and thermal treatment process determines
The performance of hypereutectic high chromium cast iron also has direct relation with casting technique and thermal treatment process, and it is worked out according to being:
The working face of slag stock pump flow passage part is directly machine use under on-mechanical processing, and casting dimension accuracy and surface smoothness are to its efficient and bigger influence is all arranged work-ing life, so should select for use the cold-hardening resin sand casting mold to produce slag stock pump flow passage part.And select alcohol zircon coating for use.
The thermal treatment process that the present invention selects for use is: quench (slowly be warming up to 900~1050 ℃ * (4~6) hour, air cooling is to room temperature)+tempering (300 ℃ * (2~4) hour).Metallographic structure after the thermal treatment is: primary carbide+eutectic carbides ten proeutectoid carbides+martensite+residual austenite.
The material final hardness is more than 64HRC, and impelling strength is at 5J/cm 2More than, high comprehensive performance.
Adopt hypereutectic high chromium cast iron of the present invention, can make slag stock pump flow passage part, its production technique is easy, contain 30%~48% high rigidity carbide in the metallographic structure, cause the macrohardness height, reach 〉=64HRC, exceed the common about 4~6HRC of hypoeutectic rich chromium cast iron KMTBCr26, have good wear resistance.
Slag stock pump flow passage part after secondary metamorphic is handled, the obvious refinement of matrix, primary carbide becomes little bulk by bar, band shape and rolls into a ball spherically, causes its mechanical property to increase substantially, impelling strength reaches 5J/cm 2~8J/cm 2
Hypereutectic high chromium cast iron has castability preferably, and the product yield during cast slag stock pump flow passage part reaches 60%~80%, and scrap rate is about 10%, and KMTBCr26 is suitable with the hypoeutectic rich chromium cast iron.
Adopt the production cost of slag stock pump flow passage part of hypereutectic high chromium cast iron of the present invention preparation high more about 5~10%, and be 1.8~2.5 times of KMTBCr26 work-ing life than common hypoeutectic rich chromium cast iron KMTBCr26.
Be the embodiment that the contriver provides below.
Embodiment:
The consumption that adopts high carbon ferro-chrome, ordinary scrap steel, the pig iron, ferromanganese, copper scrap, the various materials of nickel plate is by technical scheme batching of the present invention (wt%); In the acid medium-frequency induction furnace melting of 500kg.When temperature rises to 1650 ℃, add aluminium, go out molten iron after the deoxidation immediately in casting ladle as reductor;
Be placed with granularity in the casting ladle in advance and be 10mm~13mm's and through roasting and the master alloy of dry, sylvite (potassium permanganate), cerium mischmetal magnesium alloy when processing (in wrapping to adopt safeguard procedures);
The consisting of of nucleating agent (account for and handle alloy liquid weight wt%) in the casting ladle: 0.5~2.0 master alloy+1.0~3.0 sylvite+0.5~3.0% cerium mischmetal magnesium alloy.
The composition of master alloy is: C:1.0~4.0%, Mn:1~5%, Cr:2~4, Nb:0.5~4%, V:0.2~1%, Si:05~1.0%, N:0.04~0.12%, Ti:0.1~1.0%, B:0.1~1.0%, all the other are Fe and unavoidable impurities.
Particles such as the TiC that contains in the master alloy, NbN, VC, NbC, VN and boride can be used as the matrix that promotes the primary carbide forming core, can increase the forming core quantity of primary carbide.Rare earth, magnesium and the potassium etc. that add are enriched in the surface of primary carbide, make its refinement, group's nodularization, help the rich chromium cast iron mechanical property especially toughness increase substantially.The effect of current-following inoculation agent is to accelerate solidifying of alloy greatly, makes primary carbide have little time to grow up, thereby reaches the purpose of refinement primary carbide.
Teeming temperature is 1440 ℃, and 1.5~2.5% the alloy iron powder that adds casting weight with stream in cast carries out late inoculation to be handled.The liquidus line of this alloy liquid is about 1370 ℃, so alloy liquid has cavity filling ability preferably.
3, the casting of flow passage part
1. use the sand mold casting of furane resin cold setresin, coating is selected alcohol zircon flour coating for use;
2. pour into a mould the air cooling of unpacking after 24 hours, spruing, cleaning undesirable root, overlap, burr;
4, thermal treatment
Heat-treat in chamber type electric resistance furnace, its treatment process is: (slowly be warming up to 1010 ℃ * 5 hours, air cooling is to the room temperature)+tempering (300 ℃ * 3 hours) of quenching
Cutting 20mm thin slice tested for hardness on the flow passage part entity is 65HRC.
With the 20mm * 20mm * 110mm non-notch sample of stove cast, the impelling strength of test hypereutectic high chromium cast iron is 6.2J/cm 2
Hypereutectic high chromium cast iron hardness height of the present invention, good toughness, high abrasion resistance, production cost is lower, has good economic benefits.

Claims (1)

1. the preparation method of a hypereutectic high chromium cast iron is characterized in that, this method comprises the following steps:
1) at first according to following weight ratio ingredient batching:
C:3.5~4.5%, Mn:1.0~3.0%, Cr:17~30%, Si:0.5~1.5%, Cu:1.0~2.0%, P :≤0.06%, S :≤0.06%, Ni :≤1%, surplus is an iron,
In acid medium-frequency induction furnace melting, when temperature rises to 1650 ℃, add aluminium then, immediately the alloy liquid that melts is poured in the casting ladle that is placed with nucleating agent after the deoxidation as reductor;
2) adopt the method for late inoculation to carry out the refinement primary carbide, late inoculation is meant and breeds rotten and current-following inoculation in the bag, the granularity that breeds rotten used inoculation modificator in the bag is 10mm~15mm, by master alloy, sylvite, the cerium mischmetal magnesium alloy is formed, and wherein master alloy accounts for and handles 0.5~2.0% of alloy liquid weight, sylvite accounts for handles 1.0~3.0% of alloy liquid weight, and the cerium mischmetal magnesium alloy accounts for handles 0.5~3.0% of alloy liquid weight;
Described master alloy contains the chemical ingredients of following weight percent: C:1.0~4.0%, Mn:1~5%, Cr:2~4%, Nb:0.5~4%, V:0.2~1%, Si:0.5~1.0%, N:0.04~0.12%, Ti:0.1~1.0%, B:0.1~1.0%, all the other are Fe and unavoidable impurities;
Current-following inoculation is to be 70~140 purpose iron alloy particles by add granularity in molten metal in cast; The iron alloy particulate add-on of current-following inoculation is 1.2%~4.0.% of handled hypereutectic high chromium cast iron weight;
The method that adds is: inoculation modificator is put into the bottom of casting ladle in will wrapping earlier, with pouring method hypereutectic high chromium cast iron liquid is poured rapidly; In casting process, the iron alloy particle of current-following inoculation measured on request at the sprue cup place evenly add in the hypereutectic high chromium cast iron liquid;
3) heat-treat then, its method is:
Quench: slowly be warming up to 900 ℃~1050 ℃, be incubated 4~6 hours, air cooling is to room temperature then;
Tempering: the hypereutectic high chromium cast iron after quenching is incubated 2~4 hours under 300 ℃ of conditions of temperature, can obtain hardness more than 64HRC, and impelling strength is at 5J/cm 3Above hypereutectic high chromium cast iron material.
CNB2005100963378A 2005-11-10 2005-11-10 Low cost, high-wearability hypereutectic high chromium cast iron and its production method CN100453674C (en)

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CN111041337A (en) * 2019-12-24 2020-04-21 河北工业职业技术学院 High-chromium cast iron wear-resistant material and production process thereof
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