CN100449443C - Automatic driving system of vehicle - Google Patents

Automatic driving system of vehicle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100449443C
CN100449443C CNB2005100358243A CN200510035824A CN100449443C CN 100449443 C CN100449443 C CN 100449443C CN B2005100358243 A CNB2005100358243 A CN B2005100358243A CN 200510035824 A CN200510035824 A CN 200510035824A CN 100449443 C CN100449443 C CN 100449443C
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China
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signal
track
control system
automobile
vehicle control
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CNB2005100358243A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1746801A (en
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李胜强
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李胜强
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Publication of CN100449443C publication Critical patent/CN100449443C/en

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Abstract

The present invention relates to an automatic driving system of vehicles, which directs the running direction of a vehicle through the mode that a rudder clamping shaft which is installed on the vehicle is clamped in a concave guide track on a road carriageway. A bar code recognizing and reading device and a reflecting counting device are used for obtaining a coordinate of a confirming point of a position coordinate on the carriageway. Thereby, the coordinate reading of a vehicle electronic odometer is amended. Real-time position coordinate data is transmitted to subsequent vehicles by the mode of wireless data transmission. Each vehicle can calculate vehicle distances and vehicle speed by a vehicle load computer according to real-time position coordinates of a front vehicle and an own vehicle, and thereby, a driving decision is worked out for an actuating mechanism to perform. The present invention can be used for the vehicle to automatically drive on a road with a simple highway condition, and has the advantages of low cost and good reliability.

Description

A kind of automatic vehicle control system

Technical field

The present invention relates to automobile and highway, belong to the automatic driving field.

Background technology

In recent years, input lot of manpower and material resources in countries in the world is developed automatic vehicle control system.

Japan has developed an instruction carriage that automatic driving function is arranged in nineteen ninety-five, its way is: bury a bar navigation magnet wire underground in road surface central authorities, automobile travels according to magnet wire, the vehicle body quality testing of placing obstacles is surveyed radar, be equipped with electronic throttle control, electric brake device or the like again, thereby drive automatically.

The robotization bus or train route system force of the U.S. is desired to make money or profit and with the internet road information is inputed to automobile, cooperates global position system car assisted according to set route running again, wishes finally to reach the purpose of automatic driving.

In China, the research of automatic driving aspect also never stops.1999, Yang Gengxin discloses patent of invention---and " automatic vehicle control system ", idea is: camera system is installed on automobile collects traffic information, make definite travel direction, acceleration and deceleration automatically, brake, overtake other vehicles etc. and drive decision-making according to road conditions by truck-mounted computer.2004, the red flag board of company of the First Automobile Group and National University of Defense technology's cooperation research and development was driven car automatically and has been entered the test run stage, and its cardinal principle is that apery is driven.Identify condition of road surface by the environment recognition system, measure the distance and the relative velocity of front vehicles; Then, vehicle-mounted main control computer and corresponding path planning software according to road information, car before vehicle condition and the transport condition of self, decision is to advance or change and prepare to overtake other vehicles along road; Then, drive path and running car dynamics that Control Software is followed the tracks of as required automatically, send action command, carry out automatic driver behavior to bearing circle controller, throttle control and brake controller.

Yet, so far, do not seen the autonomous driving vehicle input as yet and produced in batches and use.Trace it to its cause, have following some;

A) cost an arm and a leg.For example, the automobile of environment recognition system, radar ranging system is installed, the hardware cost that automobile increases is rigidity comparatively, difficult compression; Simultaneously this automated driving system software that need dispose bulky complex toward contact is supported, thereby the automobile cost increases considerably, and causes present stage to promote;

B) poor reliability.Relate to personal safety owing to drive automatically, do not admit of a bit mistake.And existing automated driving system can't guarantee the reliability of road conditions identification, magnet navigation owing to the complicacy of road conditions, and is subjected to the influence of environmental changes such as wind and rain, visibility bigger, does not therefore reach input reality and uses required reliability requirement.

C) error correcting capability is poor.For the automated driving system of magnet navigation, the performance of magnet and maintenance have tangible limitation; System for the identification according to road conditions is navigated for complex road condition or accidental road conditions, can't discern mistake automatically, and bigger hidden danger is arranged.

Summary of the invention

Purpose of the present invention

The objective of the invention is to overcome that existing automatic vehicle control system costs an arm and a leg, the shortcoming of poor reliability and error correcting capability difference, a kind of new automatic vehicle control system is provided, realize that automatic driving can drop into the actual purpose of promoting the use of.

Technical scheme

1, system forms (Fig. 1)

Automatic vehicle control system is obtained by direction control section, position coordinates and confirms that part, position coordinates real-time exchange part, data processing and control are driven topworks's part partly, automatically, slave part is formed.

1.1 direction control section.

The direction control section is made up of rail track and the yaw rudder that is installed on the automobile.

On highway, select a track (for example :) as driving track (Fig. 2) automatically near a track of intermediate isolating band, in the middle of the track, bury a spill guide rail (Fig. 3) underground, after the yaw rudder axis of installing on the automobile snapped in the spill guide rail, steer motor was like clockwork along driving lanes automatically.The spill guide rail is provided with row's sand tube, and in lower and a distance of highway husky well is set, and periodic cleaning lost efficacy the guide rail guide effect in order to avoid sandy soil are piled up.

Yaw rudder on the automobile (Fig. 4, Fig. 5) is made up of the cambered way 18 (Fig. 6) that axis 11, dead axle 12, steering arm 13, change gear 14, axis promote motor 15, spring 16, supporting steering arm rear end.Wherein, steering arm front end 17 links to each other with the cross bar that turns to of vehicle front, dead axle 12 and cambered way 18 are fixed in and are used to support yaw rudder on the automobile chassis, axis promotes motor 15 and is fixed on the steering arm, steel wire links to each other with axis on it, by promoting the effect of motor 15 folding and unfolding steel wires and spring 16, axis can be mentioned or puts down.

Axis (Fig. 7, Fig. 8) is made up of kelly 19, sleeve 20, rubber buffer head 21, steel wire 22.Rubber buffer head 21 is tightened in the axis end, is used to cushion the ground shock power when putting down axis.Sleeve 20 is enclosed within on the kelly 19 by bearing 23, can reduce the friction force of axis and track guide rail around kelly 19 rotations.

When automobile travelled automatically, axis 11 was put into the spill guide rail in automatic driving track, and steer motor travels.By the rotation of steering arm 13, the pulling vehicle front turn to the cross bar side-to-side movement, thereby the pulling front-wheel is realized turning to.When the automobile straight-line travelling, track (being guide rail) and automotive ordinate axis line parallel, steering arm 13 is also parallel with longitudinal vehicle axis, and steering arm 13 does not rotate, and front-wheel does not turn to yet, and automobile keeps straight-line travelling; (being guide rail) turns when the track, when for example turning left, because axis 11 is positioned at the spill guide rail, guide rail forces axis 11 to be moved to the left, drive steering arm 13 and rotate around dead axle 12, the steering arm front end moves right, steering arm front end 17 link to each other with the motor turning cross bar (the motor turning cross bar is connected in the vehicle front rear portion by ball node), thereby pulling motor turning cross bar, front-wheel turn left to; When turning to the back to recover straight-line travelling, under the guide of guide rail, the effect by axis 11 makes steering arm 13 self-aligning directions, recovers straight-line travelling.

1.2 position coordinates obtains and confirms part.

Comprise: edge is affixed on the track recognizes the equipment of reading and reflective counting equipment as the reflective mirror band (Fig. 9, Figure 10) of position coordinates affirmation point, electronics odometer, the bar code that is installed on the automobile.

The position of reflective mirror band is corresponding with the position that bar code is recognized the equipment of reading and reflective counting equipment; When automobile passed through, bar code was recognized the position coordinate value that the equipment of reading can read this place, count pulse of simultaneously reflective counting equipment output.

1. obtaining of position coordinates: obtain automobile by the electronics odometer and confirm the distance data that the some back is moved by each position coordinates, data delivery to the truck-mounted computer correction, is added that the coordinate of position coordinates affirmation point can obtain the real time position coordinate figure (dimension coordinate) of automobilism.

2. the affirmation of position coordinates: in each every fixed range place (example: per 800 meters) of driving the porch, track automatically and driving the track automatically, automatically all laterally inlaying one section reflective mirror band of subsides on the driving track confirms a little as position coordinates, every section reflective mirror band is made of one section horizontal minute surface and one section inclination reflective mirror, be printed on the bar code of this place's position coordinate value on the wherein horizontal minute surface, tilting mirrors can reflect the light of penetrating of reflective counting equipment.Reflective counting equipment is made up of shot-light and photoelectric counter, and the light-receiving tube of shot-light and photoelectric counter is all perpendicular to the tilting mirrors of reflective mirror band.When automobile is confirmed point by position coordinates, reflective counting equipment is transported to truck-mounted computer with counting pulse signal after receiving reflected light, truck-mounted computer can calculate this affirmation point position coordinate value accurately according to the count pulse number, and bar code is recognized position coordinate value and the reflective counting equipment position coordinate value that obtain of the equipment of reading by directly reading this place and confirmed mutually.The real time position coordinate figure of automobile confirms that with the position coordinates of up-to-date process point is the initial calculation point, can eliminate cumulative errors.

For the position coordinate value that makes automobile satisfies the accuracy requirement of driving automatically, 1., automobile enters the reference position coordinate in automatic driving track adopt triple safeguard measures:, confirm that by the position coordinates of porch, track point obtains, the coordinate of this position coordinates affirmation point is calculated by the position coordinates in automatic driving track and is obtained.Automobile slows down to recognize in the porch and reads the reference position coordinate.If occur can't reading of data situation, truck-mounted computer reminds human pilot to press inlet prompter worker input automatically.2., car speed is very fast in the driving process, preferentially adopts the mode of reflective counting to calculate range ability, auxiliaryly adopt bar code to recognize to read confirmation.Because position coordinates confirms that the spacing of point is fixed range S1 (for example: 800 meters) on the track, when the reflective counting equipment on the automobile receives once strong reflected light, the distance of a S1 of promptly having meaned automobilism, with itself and automotive electronics odometer the two positions coordinate confirm to read between point range ability S2 compare, can obtain the correction factor (correction factor=S1/S2) of automotive electronics odometer.When automobile is confirmed to travel between point at two position coordinateses, after its range ability multiply by correction factor, can eliminate the different errors that produce of electronics odometer precision owing to different automobiles.3., recognize in order to prevent reflective counting equipment and bar code that the equipment of reading leaks operation or the electronics odometer breaks down suddenly, the abnormal data alert program is set in computer program.When reflective counting equipment and bar code are recognized the equipment of reading and are leaked operation or electronics odometer and break down suddenly, the range ability that can cause range ability that the electronics odometer obtains and reflective counting equipment to obtain has very big difference, correction factor generation unusual fluctuations (as: when fluctuating) greater than designated value, computing machine is abandoned this correction factor automatically, continue to continue to use last time correction factor, and remind human pilot manually to get involved.

1.3 position coordinates real-time exchange part.

Directional transmitting antenna, sender by the directional receiving antenna that is installed on headstock, receiver and the tailstock are formed.

Position coordinates between automobile and the automobile is by the mode real-time Transmission of wirelessly transmitting data, adopt the method for spread spectrum communication, truck-mounted computer will be put coordinate data through this parking stall of confirming and revise and input to sender, with PN address code orthogonal spectrum expansion with after carrying out orthogonal modulation, the directional transmitting antenna by the tailstock is the directional transmissions signal backward with data message for sender; The directional receiving antenna of headstock receives the data-signal from front vehicles simultaneously, recovers the position coordinate data of front truck after receiver demodulation, despreading, and the input truck-mounted computer is handled.

In the process of transmission data, the automobile of all same direction runnings all adopts identical working frequency range and identical emissive power, and the working frequency range of receiver is identical with sender.Working frequency range adopts the working frequency range of transfer table transmitter in the existing cdma wireless communication network; Sender adopts little emissive power, only guarantees short-range quality of reception (as: only guaranteeing the quality of reception in 600 meters scopes), to reduce the interference to the various communication systems of present use.

The signal channel of tailstock sender comprises pilot channel, synchronizing channel and data channel; Pilot channel is used to distinguish different signal sources and makes signal intensity relatively to be used, the pilot channel of different automobiles all adopts identical guiding PN sequence, but time offset difference, this different time offset corresponds respectively to different PN address codes, make that the receiver of vehicle can be judged different signal sources according to the different time biasing of pilot channel subsequently, and therefore obtain the PN address code of this signal source.Obtain in the identification card that system time in the guiding PN sequence of automobile pilot channel and corresponding PN address code and the synchronizing channel is obtained by the porch; Automobile is given back identification card in the exit after rolling automatic driving track away from, accomplishes " separation of car card ".

The headstock receiver comprises signal selective receiver and signal trace receiver two parts: the signal selective receiver carries out level detection to the pilot signal of front truck, all carry out coherent demodulation, despreading with what signal intensity surpassed threshold value, judge the signal source (this signal source is by that nearest automobile emission of the place ahead) that the front vehicle position coordinate is minimum and put coordinate greater than this parking stall, the PN address code of this signal source is input to the signal trace receiver, by this signal source of signal trace receiver tracking, the position coordinate data input truck-mounted computer that receives is handled.

1.4 data processing and control part.

Be made up of truck-mounted computer and control program thereof, its main task is:

1. calculate the correction factor η of electronics odometer; Calculate the real time position coordinate figure Y of this car;

The distance of η=two reflective mirror interbands/during the electronics odometer read range ability

Position coordinates+the automobile at the last reflective mirror band of Y=place by this reflective mirror band after the electronics odometer read range ability * correction factor η

2. calculate the speed v of distance D, this car of this car and front truck and the safe distance S that should keep with front truck in real time by a minimum time interval (as: 0.02 second) according to the real time position coordinate figure of front truck and Ben Che, carry out automobile according to the situation output steering order of spacing D and speed of a motor vehicle v to topworks and control automatically;

The position coordinate value of spacing D=front vehicle position coordinate figure-Ben Che synchronization

Poor/time interval that coordinate figure is put in this parking stall in the speed of a motor vehicle v=time interval

Safe distance S=road conditions coefficient μ * speed of a motor vehicle v+0.2m

3, receive caution signal and give a warning, require human pilot to get involved; Receive urgent signal, send the emergency brake instruction.

The process flow diagram (as Figure 11) of the control program of data processing and control part.

When wherein, the max. speed of road conditions coefficient μ and automobile enters automatic driving track by automobile, determine by road conditions parameter of artificial input.For example, road conditions can be divided into " road conditions are good ", " misty rain ", " freezing " three kinds of states, then road conditions coefficient μ and max. speed in program respectively correspondence be set to (1,100km/h), (2,70km/h) and (5,50km/h).

1.5 drive topworks's part automatically.

Form by dead-man's device, accelerator control device, caution signal device.

Dead-man's device and accelerator control device are carried out action by stepper motor, steering order according to truck-mounted computer, drive stepping motor is moved one or several step pitch forward or backwards, implements brake or releasing of brake to reach, opens the throttle or reduce throttle or keep the motionless purpose of throttle.

If find caution signal, the caution signal device then gives a warning, and prompting manually gets involved.

1.6 slave part.

Slave part comprises automatically/the pilot steering switching device shifter, automatically drive normal gateway, track, drive track box stall, failure detector automatically.

1, automatically/and the pilot steering switching device shifter: a switch is set, when when automatic driving transfers pilot steering to, switch is dialled to pilot steering, at this moment, the axis of yaw rudder is mentioned the spill guide rail that breaks away from the track, and cutting off the power supply of driving topworks automatically, throttle and brake transfer manually-operated to, and position coordinates is confirmed that the power supply of equipment, sender and receiver and truck-mounted computer still is communicated with and is played a role.Have only the automobile of working as to roll automatic driving track away from, after human pilot was reaffirmed, just the off-position coordinate was confirmed the power supply of equipment, sender and receiver and truck-mounted computer, and automobile transfers pilot steering fully to; When automobile when pilot steering transfers automatic driving to, at first enter the connection track of porch, automatic driving track, in the connection track yaw rudder is put into the spill guide rail, human pilot dials switch to automatic driving, the on position coordinate was confirmed equipment, sender and receiver, truck-mounted computer, was driven the power supply of topworks automatically this moment, and automobile transfers automatic driving fully to.

2, drive the box stall and the gateway in track automatically

A, gateway.Automatically drive the track and adopt organized gateway, and the emergency exit is set, promptly roll automatic driving track when breaking down suddenly away from for the automobile of sailing automatic driving track expert every fixed range.Normal gateway branch is arranged, and at a distance of enough safe distances.The gateway is equipped with and connects track (Figure 12, Figure 13) to guarantee safety.Inlet connects the track and is provided with reference position coordinate affirmation point 6 and spill guide rail 2, the spill guide rail in inlet connection track also is provided with the transition section 29 of guide rail wider width section 30 and guide rail width, makes things convenient for automobile to connect the track at inlet the axis of yaw rudder is put into the spill guide rail.Outlet connects the track spill guide rail is not set.

B, box stall.Automatically drive the track box stall and except that the emergency exit, all adopt ordinary reinforced concrete box stall 36, the place, emergency exit adopts plastics box stalls (Figure 14), when the fixed chuck 34 that thrusts the emergency exit box stall when the accident vehicle or the foreign matter in common track enters automatic driving track, the sender that is installed on the place, emergency exit sends the position coordinates signal immediately, warns vehicle brake subsequently; And the automobile of driving the track is automatically met emergency condition when rolling automatic driving track away from and thrusting the fixed chuck 34 of box stall, does not send signal.

The box stall at place, emergency exit is made up of hurdle body and fixed chuck 34 (Figure 15), and fixed chuck has two side shields and a base plate, and two side shields are all reserved breach, and the side shield of fixed chuck at first is thrust in indentation, there when being hit; Wherein, include detection lead 41 near the side shield 38 of driving track one side automatically, detecting lead 41 is connected with sender 37 by binding post 40, when the accident vehicle in common track or foreign matter are broken through box stall, be thrust near the side shield 38 of driving track one side automatically, detecting lead 41 disconnects, the sender 37 at place, emergency exit sends the position coordinates signal backward by the identical mode of the sender on the automobile immediately, after automobile subsequently receives signal, this signal is judged as the signal that an automobile that is stopped at emergency exit place sends, then carries out decision operation according to itself and the distance that the emergency exit is located; And meet emergency condition (as: mechanical fault etc.) when needing to cross box stall and rolling automatic driving track away from when the automobile of automatically driving the track from the emergency exit, side shield 39 near common track one side is thrust, but because side shield 39 places do not have the detection lead, therefore can not send out an emergency signal by mistake, only need in time to notify the highway maintenance personnel to reinstall box stall and change fixed chuck and get final product.

3, failure detector.Failure detector comprises normal use pick-up unit, the normal use pick-up unit of transmitter, the abnormal data warning device of yaw rudder.

The normal use pick-up unit of A, yaw rudder: on yaw rudder, damage easily and the position of fracture is provided with and detects the loop, when yaw rudder just often, the detection loop that is arranged on the yaw rudder is normal; When yaw rudder damaged, it was obstructed to detect the loop disconnection, and the direction rudder breaks down, and promptly sends out an emergency signal and emergency brake, switches to pilot steering until parking or human pilot.

The normal use pick-up unit of B, transmitter: at the tailstock receiving antenna is installed, the signal of this car emission is fed back to truck-mounted computer, as detect the transmitter no signal and send, then send alerting signal, prompting manually gets involved.

C, abnormal data warning device: when the transmitter no signal is sent, or electronics odometer correction factor fluctuation overshoot value, or when unit interval Nei Benche and front truck spacing amplitude of variation overshoot value, send warning signal.

Technique effect:

The present invention can reach following effect:

1, reduces the expense of automated driving system.Because the present invention is for automobile, only needing increases comparatively simple hardware device and supporting simple software, need not increase the hardware such as radar of expense costliness and the software of allocation function complexity, and therefore the expense that increases for automobile is not high; For highway, the spill guide rail of increase and box stall are the lower common used materials of expense, and therefore the expense that increases is not high yet.

2, improve the reliability of automated driving system.The travel direction of automobile belongs to the mechanical forced guiding, and mechanical damage alarming device is arranged, so reliability is very high by the spill rail guidance among the present invention; And the judgement of spacing is based upon on the reliable vehicle location coordinate, and the spread spectrum radio data transmission manner is adopted in the transmission of data simultaneously, is subjected to environment, climate effect less, and antijamming capability is strong.When being interfered, be provided with the measure that abnormal data is reported to the police, therefore good reliability is also arranged.

3, error correcting capability is strong.In each link of may makeing mistakes that automatic driving can be predicted, be provided with data exception and report to the police or fault alarm, prompting manually gets involved, so security is preferably arranged.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is that system of the present invention forms synoptic diagram

Fig. 2 is the road driveway synoptic diagram

Fig. 3 is a spill guide rail synoptic diagram

Fig. 4 is the yaw rudder structural representation

Fig. 5 is that A among Fig. 4 is to view

Fig. 6 is a yaw rudder cambered way synoptic diagram

Fig. 7 is a yaw rudder axis structural representation

Fig. 8 is that B among Fig. 7 is to cut-open view

Fig. 9 is a reflective mirror band synoptic diagram

Figure 10 is that C among Fig. 9 is to cut-open view

Figure 11 is a truck-mounted computer control program process flow diagram

Figure 12 drives the track inlet to connect the track synoptic diagram automatically

Figure 13 is that the outlet of automatic steered vehicle road connects the track synoptic diagram

Figure 14 is emergency exit punishment jube synoptic diagram

Figure 15 is an emergency exit box stall fixed chuck synoptic diagram

Embodiment

As shown in Figure 1, recognize the equipment of reading, reflective counting equipment, automotive front installation directional receiving antenna and receiver, automobile rear installation directional transmitting antenna and sender at automobile chassis installation direction rudder and bar code, add electronics odometer, truck-mounted computer and control program, drive topworks and rail track automatically, promptly constitute automated driving system of the present invention.

As shown in Figure 2, on highway, select a track (as: near the track of intermediate isolating band 1) as driving the track automatically, in the middle of the track, bury a spill guide rail 2 underground, drive automatically reinforced concrete box stall 3 and emergency exit 4 are set between track and common track, and normal gateway is arranged; Also laterally inlay one section reflective mirror band 6 of subsides every fixed range on the track and confirm point as position coordinates, the lateral attitude of this section reflective mirror band on the track is maintained fixed, and with automobile on bar code to recognize the position of the equipment of reading and reflective counting equipment corresponding, so that automobile is when travelling automatically, the bar code on the automobile recognizes the equipment of reading and reflective counting equipment can read the coordinate that position coordinates is confirmed the some place.

As shown in Figure 3, in the middle of road driveway, do the concavity guide rail, steel plate 8 usefulness anchor bars 7 and highway concrete surface layer 10 strong bonded with steel plate 8.The spill guide rail has row's sand tube 9, and in lower and a distance of highway husky well is set, and periodic cleaning lost efficacy the guide rail guide effect in order to avoid sandy soil are piled up.The present invention is the material and the shape of the row's of qualification sand tube not.

As Fig. 4-shown in Figure 8, the yaw rudder on the automobile is made up of the cambered way 18 that axis 11, dead axle 12, steering arm 13, change gear 14, axis promote motor 15, spring 16, supporting steering arm rear end.Wherein, steering arm front end 17 links to each other with the cross bar that turns to of vehicle front, and dead axle 12 and cambered way 18 are fixed on the automobile chassis, are used to support the steering arm of yaw rudder.Axis promotes motor 15 and is fixed on the steering arm, by promoting the effect of motor 15 folding and unfolding steel wires and spring 16, axis can be mentioned or put down.

Axis is made up of kelly 19, sleeve 20, rubber buffer head 21, steel wire 22.Rubber buffer head 21 is tightened in the kelly end, is used to cushion the ground shock power when putting down axis.Sleeve 20 is enclosed within on the kelly 19 by bearing 23, can reduce the friction force of axis and track guide rail around kelly 19 rotations.

Shown in Fig. 9,10, the reflective mirror band is made of one section horizontal minute surface 25 and one section tilting mirrors 26 on the track, paste material 24 edges every fixed range with edge and be affixed on the track, and corresponding in the position that lateral separation on the track and the bar code on the automobile are recognized the equipment of reading and reflective counting equipment.Be printed on this place's position coordinate value bar code 28 on the wherein horizontal minute surface, tilting mirrors can reflect the light of penetrating of reflective counting equipment on the automobile.

Shown in Figure 12,13, to drive the track automatically and adopt organized gateway, the gateway branch is arranged, and at a distance of enough safe distances.The gateway is equipped with and connects the track to guarantee safety.Inlet connects the track and is provided with the reference position coordinate and confirms point 6 and spill guide rail 2, and the spill guide rail that inlet connects the track also is provided with the transition section 29 of guide rail wider width section 30 and guide rail width, makes things convenient for automobile that the axis of yaw rudder is put into the spill guide rail;

The arrangement of exit position should be avoided the reflective mirror band 6 of projection on the highway, in order to avoid the traffic safety of automobile is rolled in influence away from.Outlet connects the track spill guide rail is not set.

As shown in figure 14, the box stall at place, emergency exit is made up of hurdle body and fixed chuck 34.The hurdle body comprises montant 33, cross bar 35, and cross bar 35 is fixing by the fixed chuck 34 that is fixed on the reinforced concrete box stall 36.Be provided with sender 37 in the reinforced concrete box stall, sender links to each other with detection lead in the fixed chuck, and when detecting lead and disconnect, sender sends the position coordinates signal immediately.

As shown in figure 15, the fixed chuck of emergency exit box stall has two side shields and a base plate, and two side shields are all reserved breach 42, and the side shield of fixed chuck at first is thrust in indentation, there when being hit; Wherein, include detection lead 41 near the side shield 38 of driving track one side automatically, detecting lead 41 is connected with sender 37 by binding post 40, when the accident vehicle in common track or foreign matter are broken through box stall, be thrust near the side shield 38 of driving track one side automatically, the detection lead disconnects, the sender that touches the place, emergency exit sends the position coordinates signal backward by the identical mode of the sender on the automobile, and automobile subsequently carries out decision operation according to itself and the distance that the emergency exit is located after receiving signal; And meet emergency condition (as: mechanical fault etc.) when needing to cross box stall and rolling automatic driving track away from when the automobile of automatically driving the track from the emergency exit, side shield 39 near common track one side is thrust, but, therefore can not send out an emergency signal because side shield place, the outside does not have the detection lead by mistake.

Automatic driving procedure:

During automatic driving, the axis of yaw rudder is put into the spill guide rail in automatic driving track, and the mandatory guidance automobile is by the direction running of track guide rail.

In the process of automatic driving, whenever confirm point by a position coordinates, recognize the equipment of reading and reflective counting equipment by the bar code on the automobile and obtain the position coordinates that this position coordinates is confirmed point, confirm that according to position coordinates the coordinate figure of point revises the reading of automotive electronics odometer, real time position coordinate figure accurately in the time that running car can being obtained.The sender of the tailstock is continuously with the real time position coordinate data of this car transmitted data signal backward; Simultaneously, the receiver of headstock receives the position coordinate data signal of front vehicles, through obtaining the position coordinates of front truck after demodulation, the despreading.Truck-mounted computer goes out spacing, the speed of a motor vehicle according to the real time position coordinate Calculation of Ben Che and front truck, makes according to spacing, the speed of a motor vehicle and drives decision-making for topworks's execution.Above step constantly circulation is carried out, and automobile just can be along the direction of track guide rail, with the enough safe distance of front truck maintenance automatically to overtake.

Automatically drive the track and separate with the reinforced concrete box stall, but automatic driving track promptly is provided away from when providing the emergency exit to supply autonomous driving vehicle to break down suddenly with common track; The accident vehicle that prevents common track is simultaneously broken through the emergency exit and is entered automatic driving track.Break through the emergency exit when entering automatic driving track as the accident vehicle in common track, the sender that is installed on the place, emergency exit sends the position coordinates signal, after automobile subsequently receives this changeless position coordinates signal, be judged as an automobile that is stopped at the place, emergency exit, then according to the distance at itself and emergency exit place, take slowly to slow down or the difference of emergency brake is driven decision-making.

Claims (18)

1, a kind of automatic vehicle control system is characterized by:
Automatic vehicle control system is obtained by direction control section, position coordinates and confirms that part, position coordinates real-time exchange part, data processing and control are driven topworks's part partly, automatically, slave part is formed:
1) the direction control section comprises: rail track and the yaw rudder that is installed on the automobile;
2) position coordinates obtains with the confirmation unit branch and comprises: drive automatically porch, track and every fixed range place the edge be affixed on one section reflective mirror band on the track, electronics odometer, the bar code that is installed on the automobile recognized the equipment of reading and reflective counting equipment;
The position of reflective mirror band is corresponding with the position that bar code is recognized the equipment of reading, reflective counting equipment; When automobile passed through, bar code was recognized the position coordinate value that the equipment of reading can read this place, count pulse of simultaneously reflective counting equipment output;
3) the position coordinates real-time exchange partly comprises: be installed on directional transmitting antenna, the sender of directional receiving antenna, receiver and the tailstock of headstock, the position coordinate data of the mode real-time Transmission automobile by wirelessly transmitting data;
4) data processing and control partly comprises: truck-mounted computer and control program thereof, and it act as:
1. calculate the correction factor η of electronics odometer; Calculate the real time position coordinate figure Y of this car;
The distance of η=two reflective mirror interbands/during the electronics odometer read range ability
Before the Y=-position coordinates+automobile at reflective mirror band place by this reflective mirror band after the electronics odometer read range ability * correction factor η
2. calculate the speed v of distance D, this car of this car and front truck and the safe distance S that should keep with front truck, carry out automatic driving according to the situation output steering order of spacing D and speed of a motor vehicle v to topworks and control;
The position coordinate value of spacing D=front vehicle position coordinate figure-Ben Che synchronization
Poor/time interval that coordinate figure is put in this parking stall in the speed of a motor vehicle v=time interval
Safe distance S=road conditions coefficient μ * speed of a motor vehicle v+0.2
3. receive caution signal and give a warning, require human pilot to get involved; Receive urgent signal, send the emergency brake instruction;
5) driving topworks automatically partly comprises: dead-man's device, accelerator control device, caution signal device;
6) slave part comprise automatically/the pilot steering switching device shifter, automatically drive normal gateway, track, drive track box stall, failure detector automatically.
2, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1, it is characterized by: spill guide rail that described rail track comprises the track and follows that the car direction buries underground in the middle of the track and row's sand tube, but row's sand tube is provided with the husky well of periodic cleaning in highway lower and a distance.
3, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1, it is characterized by: described yaw rudder comprises axis (11), dead axle (12), steering arm (13), change gear (14), axis promotes motor (15), the cambered way (18) of spring (16) and supporting steering arm rear end, wherein steering arm front end (17) links to each other with the cross bar that turns to of vehicle front, dead axle (12) and cambered way (18) are fixed in and are used to support yaw rudder on the automobile chassis, axis promotes motor (15) and is fixed on the steering arm, steel wire links to each other with axis on it, by the effect of axis lifting motor (15) folding and unfolding steel wire and spring (16), axis can be mentioned or puts down.
4, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 3, it is characterized by: described axis (11) is made up of kelly (19), sleeve (20), rubber buffer head (21), steel wire (22), rubber buffer head (21) is tightened in the kelly end, sleeve (20) is enclosed within on the kelly (19) by bearing (23), can rotate around kelly (19).
5, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1 is characterized by: described reflective mirror band comprises that one section is printed on the horizontal minute surface of this place's position coordinate value bar code and can reflects the tilting mirrors of penetrating light that is installed on reflective counting equipment on the automobile.
6, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1 is characterized by: described reflective counting equipment comprises shot-light and photoelectric counter; The light-receiving tube of shot-light and photoelectric counter is all perpendicular to the tilting mirrors of reflective mirror band on the track, and photoelectric counter receives and counting pulse signal is transported to truck-mounted computer behind the reflected light and carries out data processing.
7, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1, it is characterized by: the wirelessly transmitting data mode described in the position coordinates real-time exchange part is meant the mode of spread spectrum communication, the sender of front truck with data message with PN address code orthogonal spectrum expansion and carry out sending signal backward after the orthogonal modulation, after the receiver of back car receives the data-signal of front truck, recover the position coordinate data of front truck, and data are imported truck-mounted computer handle by demodulation, despreading; The process of this wirelessly transmitting data is that constantly circulation is carried out.
8, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1 is characterized by: the sender described in the position coordinates real-time exchange part, and its signal channel comprises pilot channel, synchronizing channel and data channel; The pilot channel of different automobiles adopts identical guiding PN sequence, but the time offset difference; Different time offsets corresponds respectively to different PN address codes.
9, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1, it is characterized by: the receiver described in the position coordinates real-time exchange part comprises signal selective receiver and signal trace receiver two parts: the signal selective receiver is according to the pilot signal strength of front truck, what surpass threshold value carries out coherent demodulation respectively, despreading, judge the signal source that the front vehicle position coordinate is minimum and put coordinate greater than this parking stall, the PN address code of this signal source is input to the signal trace receiver, by this signal source of signal trace receiver tracking, the position coordinate data input truck-mounted computer that receives is handled.
10, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1 is characterized by: the automobile of all same direction runnings, its sender all adopt identical working frequency range and identical emissive power, and the working frequency range of receiver is identical with sender; Working frequency range adopts the working frequency range of transfer table transmitter in the existing cdma wireless communication network; Emissive power adopts the little emissive power that only guarantees the short distance reception quality.
11, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1, it is characterized by: when entering automatic driving track, need road conditions parameter of artificial input, correspond respectively to different road conditions, in the control program of truck-mounted computer, road conditions coefficient μ is carried out different assignment respectively with max. speed according to different road conditions parameters.
12, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1, it is characterized by: dead-man's device and the accelerator control device driven automatically in the topworks are carried out action by stepper motor, steering order according to truck-mounted computer, drive stepping motor is moved one or several step pitch forward or backwards, implements brake or releasing of brake to reach, opens the throttle or reduce throttle or keep the motionless purpose of throttle.
13, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1 is characterized by: drive the track box stall automatically and all adopt the ordinary reinforced concrete box stall except that the emergency exit, the emergency exit is every the fixed range setting; When the fixed chuck that thrusts the emergency exit box stall when the accident vehicle or the foreign matter in common track entered automatic driving track, the sender that is installed on the place, emergency exit sent this place's position coordinates signal immediately; And the automobile of driving the track is automatically met emergency condition when rolling automatic driving track away from and thrusting the fixed chuck of box stall, does not send signal.
14, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 13, it is characterized by: the fixed chuck of emergency exit box stall has two side shields and a base plate, side shield is all reserved breach, and the side shield of fixed chuck at first is thrust in indentation, there when being hit; Wherein, include the detection lead near the side shield of driving track one side automatically, detect lead and be connected with sender, when the detection lead disconnected, sender sent the position coordinates signal backward by the identical mode of the sender on the autonomous driving vehicle; Do not contain the detection lead in the side shield near common track one side, do not send signal when side shield is thrust.
15, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 1 is characterized by: failure detector comprises normal use pick-up unit, the normal use pick-up unit of transmitter, the abnormal data warning device of yaw rudder.
16, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 15, it is characterized by: the normal use pick-up unit of yaw rudder is to damage easily on yaw rudder and the position of fracture is provided with and detects the loop, detects the loop and disconnects and sending out an emergency signal immediately and emergency brake when obstructed.
17, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 15, it is characterized by: the normal use pick-up unit of transmitter is at the tailstock receiving antenna to be installed, the signal of this car emission is fed back to truck-mounted computer, as detect the transmitter no signal and send, then send alerting signal, prompting manually gets involved.
18, automatic vehicle control system according to claim 15, it is characterized by: the abnormal data warning device is to send when the transmitter no signal, or electronics odometer correction factor fluctuation overshoot value, or when unit interval Nei Benche and front truck spacing amplitude of variation overshoot value, send warning signal.
CNB2005100358243A 2005-07-18 2005-07-18 Automatic driving system of vehicle CN100449443C (en)

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