CN100447804C - Methods and systems for estimation of personal characteristics from biometric measurements - Google Patents

Methods and systems for estimation of personal characteristics from biometric measurements Download PDF

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CN100447804C
CN100447804C CN 200480041398 CN200480041398A CN100447804C CN 100447804 C CN100447804 C CN 100447804C CN 200480041398 CN200480041398 CN 200480041398 CN 200480041398 A CN200480041398 A CN 200480041398A CN 100447804 C CN100447804 C CN 100447804C
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individual
light
algorithm
biometric data
plurality
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CN1957360A (en
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罗伯特·K·罗
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光谱辨识公司
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提供了用于估计个体的个人特征的方法和设备。 A method and device for personal characteristics to estimate individual. 从个体收集生物统计数据测量。 Collecting biometric data from individual measurements. 通过在生物统计数据测量和个人特征值之间应用算法关系,来确定个人特征,所述个人特征值是从对之前的测量应用多元算法而得到的。 By applying an algorithm in the relationship between the measured biometric data and personal characteristic values, wherein the individual is determined, said characteristic value from the individual prior to measurement obtained by multivariate algorithm.

Description

根据生物统计测量来估计个人特性的方法和系统本申请是2003年12月11日由Robert K.Rowe递交的题为"DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ESTIMATION FROM DERMATOGLYPHIC AND OTHER BIOMETRIC PATTERNS"的美国临时专利申请No.60/529,299的非临时申请,并且要求其权益,将其内容一并在此作为参考。 According to biometric measurements to estimate the individual characteristics of the method and system of the present application is December 11, 2003 filed by Robert K.Rowe entitled "DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ESTIMATION FROM DERMATOGLYPHIC AND OTHER BIOMETRIC PATTERNS" US Provisional Patent Application No.60 / 529,299 non-provisional application of and claims the benefit of, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. 技术领域本申请涉及2004年4月5日由Robert K. Rowe等递交的题为"MULTISPECTRAL BIOMETRIC SENSOR"的美国专利申请No. 10/818,698,其是以下每一个申请的非临时申请:2003年4月4日递交的题为"NONTINVASIVE ALCOHOL MONITOR"的美国临时专利申请No. 60/460,247; 2003年6月27日由Robert K. Rowe等递交的题为"HYPERSPECTRAL FINGERPRINT READER"的美国临时专利申请No.60/483,281 ; 2003年9月18日递交的题为"HYPERSPECTRAL FINGERPRINTING"的美国临时专利申请No. 60/504,594;以及2004 年3月10日递交的题为"OPTICAL SKIN SENSOR FOR BIOMETRICS" 的美国临时专利申请No. 60/552,662。 The present application relates April 5, 2004 by the Robert K. Rowe et submit entitled "MULTISPECTRAL BIOMETRIC SENSOR" US Patent Application No. 10 / 818,698, which is a non-provisional application each of the following applications: April 2003 filed May 4, US provisional Patent entitled "NONTINVASIVE ALCOHOL MONITOR" application No. 60 / 460,247; US provisional Patent June 27, 2003 by the Robert K. Rowe et submit entitled "hYPERSPECTRAL FINGERPRINT READER" application No .60 / 483,281; US ​​provisional Patent September 18, 2003 filed entitled "hYPERSPECTRAL FINGERPRINTING" application No. 60 / 504,594; and March 10, 2004 filed entitled "OPTICAL SKIN SENSOR FOR BIOMETRICS" US provisional Patent application No. 60 / 552,662. 本申请还涉及2001年6月5日由Robert K.Rowe等递交的题为"APPARATUS AND METHOD OF BIOMETRIC DETERMINATION USING SPECIALIZED OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY SYSTEM"的美国专利申请No. 09/874,740,并且涉及2003年8月12日由Robert K. Rowe 等递交的题为"ELECTRO-OPTICAL SENSOR"的美国专利申请No. 10/640,503 ("'503申请")。 The application also relates June 5, 2001 by the Robert K.Rowe and other filed entitled "APPARATUS AND METHOD OF BIOMETRIC DETERMINATION USING SPECIALIZED OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY SYSTEM" US Patent Application No. 09 / 874,740, and to August 12, 2003 US Patent 2008 by Robert K. Rowe et submit entitled "ELECTRO-OPTICAL SENSOR" application No. 10 / 640,503 ( " '503 application"). '503申请是以下申请的非临时申请:2002年8月13 曰由Robert K. Rowe等递交的题为"BIOMETRIC ENROLLMENT SYSTEMS AND METHODS"的美国专利临时申请No. 60/403,453;2002年8月13日由Robert K. Rowe等递交的题为"BIOMETRIC CALIBRATION AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS AND METHODS"的美国专利临时申请No. 60/403,452; 2002年8月12日由Robert K. Rowe等递交的题为"BIOMETRIC SENSORS ON PORTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES"的美国专利临时申请No. 60/403,593; 2002年8月13日由Robert K. Rowe等递交的题为"ULTRA HIGH-SECURITY IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS"的美国专利临时申请No. 60/403,461; 2002年8月13日由Robert K. Rowe等递交的题为"MULTIFUNCTION BIOMETRIC DEVICES"的美国专利临时申请No. 60/403,449;以及2003年4月4日由Robert K. Rowe等递交的题为"NONINVASIVE ALCOHOL MONITOR"的美国专利临时申请No. 60/460,247。 '503 application is a non-provisional application of the following applications: US patent August 13, 2002 by the Robert K. Rowe said, and so submitted, entitled "BIOMETRIC ENROLLMENT SYSTEMS AND METHODS" Provisional Application No. 60 / 403,453; August 13, 2002 US Patent 2008 by Robert K. Rowe et submit entitled "BIOMETRIC CALIBRATION AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS AND METHODS" provisional application No. 60 / 403,452; August 12, 2002 by the Robert K. Rowe et submit entitled "BIOMETRIC SENSORS oN PORTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES "of US provisional Patent application No. 60 / 403,593; August 13, 2002 by the Robert K. Rowe et submit entitled" ULTRA HIGH-SECURITY IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS "US provisional Patent application No. 60 / 403,461; US ​​Patent August 13, 2002 by the Robert K. Rowe et submit entitled "MULTIFUNCTION BIOMETRIC DEVICES" provisional application No. 60 / 403,449; and April 4, 2003 submitted by Robert K. Rowe, etc. US Patent entitled "NONINVASIVE ALCOHOL MONITOR" provisional application No. 60 / 460,247. 将上述每个申请的整个公幵一并在此作为参考。 The entire disclosure of each of said male Jian incorporated herein by reference. 背景技术本申请大体上涉及生物统计学。 BACKGROUND The present application relates generally to biometrics. 更具体地,本申请涉及例如通过估计人体测量、人口统计和/或根据指纹或其它肤纹(dermatoglyphic)图像的生理参数,根据生物统计测量来估计个体的个人特性的方法和系统。 More particularly, the present application relates to, for example, by estimating body measurements, demographic and / or physiological parameters of a fingerprint image or other skin texture (dermatoglyphic), measured in accordance with biometric methods and systems for estimating characteristics of the individual subject. 生物统计识别系统的传统方法使用生物统计测量来提供个体的唯一标识。 Conventional methods biometric identification system using biometric measurements to provide a unique identification of the individual. 例如,可以由执法人员在犯罪现场收集例如指纹的生物统计, 并且与指纹数据库相比较,以便识别嫌疑犯。 For example, may be collected by law enforcement officers at the crime scene such as biometric fingerprint, and compared to the fingerprint database to identify suspects. 然后由执法机关使用该信息来搜索所识别的疑犯,作为侦察的一部分,侦察还可以包括确定犯罪现场和各个疑犯的动机,以便建立起诉的证据基础。 Then use this information to law enforcement agencies by the search for the suspect identified as part of reconnaissance, surveillance may also include determining a motive for the crime scene and various suspects, in order to establish the basis of the prosecution's evidence. 其它的生物统计识别系统也许致力于确认试图访问安全机构的人员身份等。 Other biometric identification system may confirm the identity of a person is committed to trying to access the security agencies and so on. 除了指纹测量之外,存在大量其它可用于这些目的的生物统计特征,包括面部和手部几何测量、虹膜和视网膜扫描等。 In addition to fingerprint measurement, the presence of a large number of biometric features may be used for these other purposes, including the face and hands measurement geometry, iris and retina scanning. 这些生物统计识别方法的作用受进行比较的数据库的完整性的限制。 The role of statistical methods to identify these organisms limited by the integrity of the database comparison. 例如,在执法情景下,在犯罪现场收集的指纹也许在任意可访问的指纹数据库中没有对应物,因为尚未对犯罪的个人采集指纹。 For example, in the context of law enforcement, collected fingerprints at the crime scene may not have any counterpart in the fingerprint database accessible because it has not fingerprint the individual crime. 当前系统也许为了识别疑犯的证据目的而记录了指纹特征,但是当不存在与现有数据库的匹配时,其通常对于识别嫌疑犯无用。 Perhaps the current system for identification purposes suspect evidence recorded fingerprint characteristics, but when matched with an existing database does not exist, it is generally useless for identifying suspect. 在多种其它情况下出现类似的问题。 Similar problems arise in many other cases. 例如,现在一些国家的移民筛选要求在交界处出现的一些或者所有人测量他们的指纹。 For example, immigration screening in some countries now require some or all of appearing at the junction of measuring their fingerprints. 如果测量的指纹与已知的罪犯或者恐怖分子的记录相匹配,则筛选可以釆取适当的行为。 If the measured fingerprint known criminals or terrorists records match, then the filter may preclude take appropriate action. 同样地,这种过程受限于现有指纹数据库必然不完整的事实。 Again, this process is limited by the existing fingerprint database necessarily incomplete facts. 这存在以下可能:人员利用收集的大量指纹不具有数据库对应物的事实,通过使用修复或其它设备来出示不同指纹的某种欺骗行为。 It has the following possibilities: a large number of people using the collected fingerprint database does not have a counterpart of the fact that, to produce different fingerprints of some cheating by using the repair or other devices. 例如,也许允许已知指纹是通缉犯之一的30岁白人男子进入,因为他欺骗地出示了65岁黑人女子的指纹,仅仅因为数据库没有该女子的指纹记录。 For example, may allow a known fingerprint is wanted for committing one of the 30-year-old white man entered, because he fraudulently presented the 65-year-old black woman fingerprint database is not just because the woman's fingerprint records. 即使筛选权利机构具有有价值的生物统计信息,它也不可能有效使用该信息。 Even if the screening rights organizations have valuable biometric information, it is impossible to effectively use the information. 在一些情况下,生物统计测量系统可以能够产生商业感兴趣或者用户个人感兴趣的其它估计。 In some cases, biometric measurement system may be able to produce other interested estimated interested in business or personal. 例如,提供关于皮肤状况的信息的生物统计可以被用于化妆品工业。 For example, provide information about the condition of the skin of the biometric can be used in the cosmetic industry. 类似地,估计例如血液灌流或含水量的生理参数的生物统计传感器对于在运动的消费者是有用的。 Similarly, it is estimated, for example, a biometric sensor physiological parameters of blood perfusion or water content for the consumer movement is useful. 因此,技术上需要可以适应这些情况的改进的生物统计分析。 So, technically we need to be improved to adapt to these bio-statistical analysis of the situation. 发明内容因此,本发明的实施例提供了根据生物统计测量来估计个体的个人特征的方法和设备。 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, embodiments of the present invention provides a method and apparatus in accordance with the individual biometric measurements to estimate the characteristics of the individual. 在第一组实施例中,提供了一种用于估计个体的连续个人特征的方法。 In a first set of embodiments, there is provided a method of continuous individual personal characteristics estimated for. 从个体收集生物统计数据测量。 Collecting biometric data from individual measurements. 通过在生物统计数据测量和连续个人特征值之间应用算法关系,确定个体的连续个人特征,其中连续个人特征值是从对多个生物统计数据测量和相应收集的个人特征值应用算法而得到的。 By measuring biometric data and applying an algorithm relationship between successive individual characteristic value, determines the individual characteristics of the individual continuous, wherein a continuous personal characteristic value is a statistical data from a plurality of biometric and personal characteristic values ​​corresponding Algorithm collected obtained . 在这样一些实施例中,生物统计数据测量包括肤纹测量。 In some such embodiments, the biometric data comprises measuring DERMATOGLYPHICS measurement. 可以通过利用光照射个体的皮肤部位并且接收从皮肤部位散射的光,使得可以从接收的光中得到多光谱图像,来收集生物统计数据测量。 Skin site can be irradiated with light by using an individual and to receive light scattered from the skin site, making it possible to obtain multispectral images from the received light, to collect biometric data measurements. 连续个人特征的示例包括年龄、体重、身体质量指数、人种、种族和工作分类。 Examples of continuous personal characteristics including age, weight, body mass index, race, ethnicity and job classification. 在一个实施例中,收集多个生物统计测量和相应个人特征值,并且应用算法来得到算法关系。 In one embodiment, a plurality of collecting measurements and corresponding personal biometric characteristic values, and applying an algorithm to obtain the relationship between the algorithm. 在另一个实施例中,通过在生物统计数据测量和第二个人特征值之间应用第二算法关系,来确定第二个人特征,其中第二个人特征值是从对多个生物统计数据测量和相应收集的第二个人特征值应用第二算法而得到的。 In another embodiment, the measured biometric data between individuals and the second characteristic value using the second algorithm relationship, determining a second personal characteristics, wherein the second characteristic value is derived from the individual statistical data on a plurality of biometric and individual features of the respective second collector value obtained by applying a second algorithm. 所述算法可以包括多元(multivariate)算法。 The algorithm may comprise polyols (Multivariate) algorithm. 在第二组实施例中,提供了一种用于估计个体的个人特征的方法。 In a second set of embodiments, there is provided a method of estimating individual feature for an individual. 利用光来照射个体的皮肤部位。 Irradiating with light skin site of an individual. 接收从皮肤部位散射的光。 Receiving light scattered from the skin site. 从接收的光中得到多光谱图像。 Multispectral image obtained from the light received. 通过在多谱图像和个人特征值之间应用算法关系,来确定个体的个人特征,其中个人特征值是从对多个多光谱图像和相应收集的个人特征值应用算法而得到的。 By applying an algorithm in the relationship between multi-spectral image and the individual feature values ​​to determine the individual characteristics of the individual, wherein the individual feature value from a plurality of individual multispectral image and the corresponding feature values ​​collected Algorithm obtained. 在这样一些实施例中,个人特征是二元个人特征,而在其它实施例中,个人特征是连续个人特征。 In some such embodiments, wherein the individual is a binary individual characteristics, while in other embodiments, wherein the individual continuous individual characteristics. 可以通过在多个离散波长处产生光作为多个准单色波束、然后将产生的光对准皮肤部位,来照射皮肤部位。 Can generate light at a plurality of discrete wavelengths as a plurality of quasi-monochromatic beams of light generated are then directed at the skin site, to illuminate the skin site. 可选地,可以通过产生宽带光束并且在多个离散波长处滤波宽带波束、将已滤波宽度波束对准皮肤部位,来照射皮肤部位。 Alternatively, by generating a broadband light beam and a plurality of discrete wavelength beams broadband filter, the filtered beamwidth directed at the skin site, to illuminate the skin site. 在一些示例中,可以利用具有第一偏振的光照射皮肤部位,接收的光具有实质上与第一偏振相交的第二偏振。 In some examples, the skin site may be illuminated with light having a first polarization, receiving light having the second polarization to the first polarization substantially intersect. 在一个实施例中,收集多光谱图像和相应的个人特征值,并且应用算法来得到算法关系。 In one embodiment, the collection multispectral image and corresponding personal characteristic value, and applying an algorithm to obtain the relationship between the algorithm. 在另一个实施例中,通过在多光谱图像和第二个人特征值之间应用第二算法关系,来确定第二个人特征,其中第二个人特征值是从对多个多光谱图像和相应收集的第二个人特征值应用第二算法而得到的。 In another embodiment, a second algorithm by applying between the multispectral image and the second characteristic value personal relationships, determining a second personal characteristics, wherein the second plurality of individual feature values ​​from the multispectral image and the corresponding collection of a second individual characteristic values ​​obtained by applying the second algorithm. 算法可以包括多元算法。 Algorithm may include multi-algorithm. 在第三组实施例中,提供了一种用于估计个体的个人特征的方法。 In a third set of embodiments, there is provided a method of estimating individual feature for an individual. 从个体收集生物统计数据测量。 Collecting biometric data from individual measurements. 通过应用生物统计数据测量和个人特征值之间的算法关系,来确定个人特征,其中个人特征值是从对多个生物统计数据测量和相应收集的个人特征值应用多元算法而得到的。 Algorithm statistics relationship between the measurement values ​​and personal characteristics, personal characteristics determined by the application of biological, wherein the personal individual features characteristic value is a statistical measurement of a plurality of biological data collection and the corresponding value obtained by multivariate algorithm. 在一些示例中,生物统计数据测量包括肤纹测量。 In some examples, the biometric data comprises measuring DERMATOGLYPHICS measurement. 在一个实施例中,通过利用光照射个体的皮肤部位并且接收从皮肤部位散射的光, 使得可以从接收的光中得到多光谱图像,来收集生物统计数据测量。 In one embodiment, the light irradiation by using an individual skin site and receiving light scattered from the skin site, making it possible to obtain multispectral images from the received light, to collect biometric data measurements. 可以利用具有照射子系统、检测子系统以及与检测子系统相接口的计算单元的传感器系统来执行本发明的一些方法。 Can be used with an illumination subsystem, a sensor system and a computing unit detects the detection subsystem interfacing the subsystem to perform some methods of the invention. 放置照射子系统以给个体的皮肤部位提供光。 Illumination subsystem disposed to provide light to the skin site of an individual. 放置检测子系统以从皮肤部位接收光。 Detection subsystem disposed to receive light from the skin site. 计算单元具有实施上述本发明方法的指令。 Computing means having instructions embodiment of the present inventive method. 附图说明参考说明书的其它部分和附图,可以进一步理解本发明的本质和优点,全部附图中,类似参考标记被用于表示类似组件。 Brief Description of other portions of the specification and with reference to the accompanying drawings, further understanding of the nature and advantages of the present invention, the drawings, like reference numerals are used to denote similar components. 在一些示例中,参考标记包括具有拉丁字母后缀的数字部分,仅对于参考标记的数字部分的引用意欲统一指代具有该数字部分但是具有不同拉丁字母后缀的所有参考标记。 In some examples, the reference mark comprises a digital part having a Latin suffix, only a reference to the reference numerals of the digital section is intended to refer to an uniform part but all of the digital reference numerals have different suffixes Latin. 图l是示出了在本发明实施例中用于估计个体的个人特征的方法的流程图;图2是示出了可以与图1的方法一起使用的用于收集生物统计测量的方法的流程图;图3提供了本发明实施例中所用的多光谱生物统计传感器的前视图;图4A提供了一个实施例中所示的多光谱生物统计传感器的侧视图;图4B提供了另一个实施例中所示的多光谱生物统计传感器的侧视图;图5提供了一个实施例中可以用于管理个人特征估计系统的功能的计算机系统的示意表示;图6提供了本发明的一个实施例中计算机断层成像光谱仪("CTIS")的前视图;图7提供了本发明实施例中的触击(swipe)传感器的顶视图;以及图8示出了根据本发明实施例而产生的多光谱数据立方体(datacube)。 Figure l is a diagram illustrating a flowchart of a method embodiment of the present invention for estimating individual characteristics of an individual; Figure 2 is a flow diagram illustrating a method for collecting biometric measurements may be used with the method of FIG. 1 ; Figure 3 provides a front view of the present invention multispectral biometric sensor used in the embodiment of the embodiment; FIG. 4A provides a side view of a multispectral biometric sensor in one embodiment of the illustrated embodiment; FIG. 4B provides another embodiment side view of a multispectral biometric sensor shown; Figure 5 provides an embodiment wherein the individual may be used to manage the computer system estimates a schematic representation of the function of the system; FIG. 6 provides a computer-implemented embodiment of the present invention. tomographic imaging spectrometer ( "CTIS") a front view; FIG. 7 is provided according to the present invention in the strike (swipe) a top view of a sensor of the embodiment; and Figure 8 shows a multi-spectral data according to embodiments of the present invention to produce a cube (datacube). 具体实施方式1.概述本发明的实施例使用生物统计测量和个人特征之间的相关性,使得在估计未知个体的个人特征中可以使用该个体的生物统计测量。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION 1. Overview Embodiments of the present invention using a correlation between a statistical measure biological and personal characteristics, such that the individual characteristics of the individual unknown biometric measurements may be used in the estimation of the individual. 如此处所用,"个人特征"具体地是指个体的人体测量、人口统计和/或生理特征。 As used herein, "personal characteristics" refers to a particular individual anthropometric, demographic and / or physiological features. "人体测量"参数可以包括个体的多个方面,例如身高、体重或身体质量指数或者"利手性(handedness)"(即区分从右手或左手手指获取的指纹)。 "Anthropometric" parameter may comprise a plurality of individual aspects, such as height, weight or body mass index, or "handedness of (handedness)" (ie distinguish fingerprint obtained from a finger right or left). "人口统计"参数可以包括多种类别,例如皮肤色素沉着的量和类型、皮肤含油量、皮肤含水量、皮肤中血液灌流程度等。 "Demographic" argument may include a variety of categories, such as the amount and type of skin oil content, moisture content of the skin, the skin blood perfusion degree of skin pigmentation. 在一些示例中,此处参考"二元个人特征属性",其是可以采用仅仅两个可能状态之一的属性;例如,二元个人特征属性的示例包括性别和利手性。 In some examples, reference is made here "dual personal characteristics Properties", which is only one of two possible states attributes may be employed; for example, two yuan exemplary personal characteristics, including gender and property of handedness. 此处有时还参考"连续个人特征属性",其是通常关于值不受限制并且可以取任意值(可能在特定端点限制内)的属性;连续人体测量属性的示例包括年龄和体重。 Reference is also sometimes herein "continuous personal characteristics Properties", which is usually about the value is not limited and may be any value (within a particular endpoint may limit) attribute; anthropometric exemplary continuous attributes include the age and weight. 取决于应用, 一些个人特征属性可以为二元函数或者连续形式的函数。 Depending on the application, individuals can be characterized as a binary attribute function or a function of a continuous form. 例如,可以将种族属性定义为二元个人特征,其中个人可以或者不可以被划分为属于特定种族。 For example, ethnicity may be defined as a binary personal characteristics, wherein the individual may or may not be classified as belonging to a particular race. 然而,更一般地,例如种族的个人特征被当作连续个人特征来处理, 以便认识到无论怎样分配类别,都存在多个分类可能,并且大多数个体呈现一定程度的多种类别。 However, more generally, personal characteristics such as race are treated as continuous personal characteristics to deal with, in order to realize that no matter how assign categories, there are multiple classification is possible, and most individuals show a certain degree of multiple categories. 根据本发明的实施例,生物统计图样可以被用于建立被研究的分组的特定特征。 According to an embodiment of the present invention, biometric pattern may be used to establish the packet is a particular feature of the study. 例如,可以通过比较在生物统计测量中找到的图样, 来建立特定种族分组之间的遗传距离。 For example, by comparing the pattern found in the biometric measurements to establish the genetic distance between a particular ethnic group. 可以在基因型(分组特征)级别上而不在表型(基因型的个体表达)级别上执行这种估计。 Such estimation can be performed without the phenotype (expression of individual genotypes) levels on genotype (packet features) level. 例如唐氏综合征的特定基因疾病也与特定生物统计图样相关联。 For example, a particular genetic disease Down's syndrome is also associated with a particular biometric pattern. 在一些实施例中,使用的生物统计图样包括肤纹图样,可以从包括手指、手掌、脚趾和脚底的皮肤部位收集肤纹图样。 In some embodiments, a biometric pattern comprises skin grain pattern, the pattern can be collected from the skin site DERMATOGLYPHICS comprises fingers, hands, toes and sole of the foot. 用于获取这种图样的适当方法包括:基于全内反射("TIR")现象的光学图像捕获; 直接光学成像;容性射频("RF")和其它半导体阵列捕获器件;超声、压力阵列等。 Suitable methods for obtaining such a pattern comprising: an optical image ( "TIR") based on the phenomenon of total internal reflection to capture; direct optical imaging; capacitive radio frequency ( "RF"), and other semiconductor array capturing device; ultrasound, pressure array, etc. . 术语"指纹"被用于广义地表示具有肤纹特征的任意皮肤部位的表示。 The term "fingerprint" is used to broadly represent any skin site with characteristics DERMATOGLYPHICS FIG. 此外,可以按照在相同皮肤部位处测量多个光学条件的方式执行光学捕获。 In addition, the measurement may be performed according to a plurality of optical trapping optical condition of the skin at the site the same way. 光学系统可以包括使用多个照明波长来照明的多光谱和/或超光谱捕获器件。 The optical system may comprise a plurality of illumination wavelength used to illuminate the multi-spectral and / or hyperspectral capturing device. 光学系统还可以在两个或多个偏振条件下进行测量。 The optical system can also be measured at two or more polarizing conditions. 收集在例如不同波长和/或不同偏振条件的多个光学条件下获取的图像的系统是"多光谱系统"的示例。 We were collected at different wavelengths, for example, and / or a plurality of optical conditions different polarization conditions of the acquisition system is an example of an image "multispectral system". 下面提供一种多光谱系统的示例的详细描述,该多光谱系统可以相应地被用于本发明实施例中,但是因为在备选实施例中可以使用其它技术,所以这种描述并不意欲成为限制。 The following detailed description provides an example of a multi-spectrum system, the multi-spectral system may accordingly be used in embodiments of the present invention, but as embodiments other techniques may be used in alternative embodiments, this description is not intended to be so limit. 有利地,多光谱数据的收集对于非理想皮肤质量是鲁棒的,例如通常与老年人、进行重要体力劳动的人或者例如理发师或护士的皮肤暴露于化学制剂的人相关联的干燥、缺少弹性和/或憔悴的特征。 Advantageously, collect multispectral data for robust non-ideal quality of the skin, for example, generally elderly, or for an important manual labor drying e.g. barber or nurse skin exposed to the chemical agents associated with a person, the lack of the elastic and / or emaciated. 此外,除了备选指纹传感技术所提供的数据之外,有利地, 这种多光谱数据可以包括执行个人特征估计有用的附加信息。 Further, in addition to data for candidate fingerprint sensor technology provides, advantageously, the multispectral data may include performing personal characteristics estimation useful additional information.

图l的视图提供了本发明的方法的总的概述。 Figure l is a view provides general overview of the method of the present invention. 该方法最初开始于在个人特征和生物统计测量之间建立相关性。 This method was originally established at the beginning of the correlation between individual characteristics and biometric measurements. 如方框104所示,这可以通过对多个人执行生物统计测量来收集生物统计数据来实现。 As shown in block 104, which may be collected biometric data by performing a biometric measurement of a plurality of persons to achieve. 在方框108 处收集例如年龄、性别、利手性、体重等的个人特征信息。 Individual feature information collected at block 108, such as age, gender, sexual handedness, weight and the like. 优选地, 针对这种收集选择的人员分组展示出较广范围的个人特征属性,尤其是对于连续个人特征属性,并且包括例如大范围的年龄、非常高和非常低的体重等的极端值。 Preferably, such a collection person selected for grouping individuals exhibit a wide range of characteristic properties, especially for continuous individual characteristic properties, and include for example a wide range of extremes of age, very high and very low weight and the like. 通常利用更平衡的初始输入和用于相关的相当大量的测量,来提高该方法的可靠性。 Typically utilize more balanced for the initial input and a considerable amount of related measurements, to improve the reliability of the method. 在一些实施例中,分组中的 In some embodiments, the packet

人员数目大于iooo。 Is greater than the number of persons iooo.

在方框112处,对于人员分组,对收集的数据进行多元分析,以使生物统计数据与人体测量信息相关联。 At block 112, a packet for the personnel, for multivariate analysis of data collected, so that the biometric data associated with the body measurement information. 这种分析可以包括各种预处理技术的应用,以减少特征的数目、提高图像质量并且/或者实现其它希望的特征。 Such analysis may include various pre-processing techniques applied to reduce the number of features to improve the image quality and / or to achieve other desirable characteristics. 例如,可以对生物统计数据应用本征分析,以通过与选定数目的本征分析相对应的分数集合来描述每一个生物统计测量。 For example, the application of biometric data eigen analysis, by a score corresponding to a set of statistical measures used to describe each of the selected number of bioanalytical and intrinsic. 属性提取方法可以包括本征分析、线性判别分析以及将图像数据分解为包括正弦和余弦(频率分析)、小波、Gabor滤波器、径向基函数的多个预先建立的基函数,以及技术上已熟知的其它方法。 Attribute extraction method may comprise eigen analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and includes the image data into sine and cosine basis functions (frequency analysis), a plurality of the wavelet, Gabor filters, radial basis function pre-established, and the technology has other well-known methods. 在生物统计测量包括光谱测量的特殊情况下,预处理技术可以提取例如块光谱特征、 对比等级等的特征。 In special cases biometric measurements comprise spectral measurements, such as a block can be characterized pretreatment spectral characteristics, like extraction contrast level. 在一些情况下,使用对于在数据收集期间发生的特定效应不变的特征是有利的。 In some cases, for a particular effect occurring invariant features during data collection it is advantageous. 例如,在特定条件下,频率分析可以产生对于要成像的对象的移动不变的特征。 For example, under certain conditions, the frequency analysis may be generated for the mobile object to be imaged is invariant feature. 在一些示例中,使用直接测量的数据而不是被预处理的数据有利地使多元算法的应用可以辨别出图样中也许通过预处理应用而模糊的精细相关性和光谱关系。 In some examples, the use of direct measurement data rather than the data being preprocessed advantageously allows multivariate algorithm can recognize by pretreatment application may obscure fine correlation and spectral patterns in the relationships.

例如,可以应用于属性和/或原始数据以确定与个人特征的相关性的多元方法的示例包括:线性或二次判别分析、部分最小平方分析、 主分量回归等。 For example, the properties may be applied and / or the raw data to determine the individual characteristics of the exemplary multivariate correlation methods include: linear or quadratic discriminant analysis, partial least squares analysis, principal component regression. 在一些示例中,可以由例如专家系统、神经网络等的训练评估系统来实现多元方法的应用。 In some examples, may be implemented by, for example, the expert system trained evaluation system, such as neural networks multivariate methods. 多元方法的应用使测量的生物统计数据与收集的人体测量数据相关联,以便定义相关关系。 Multivariate method of measuring the biometric data associated with the anthropometric data collected in order to define the relationship. 例如, 可以使根据测量的生物统计数据的本征分析而产生的分数集合与个人特征相关联,从而提供使两者相关联的算法关系。 For example, the score according to Eigenanalysis measured biometric data generated by the feature set associated with the individual, thereby providing that the relationship associated with both algorithms. 可以对二元人体测量属性和连续人体测量属性进行该处理。 The process may be binary and continuous attributes human anthropometric measure properties. 在例如性别或利手性的二元人体测量属性的情况下,可以使用定量回归技术或分类技术来建立相关性。 For example in the case of gender or dicarboxylic anthropometric properties of chiral Lee, using regression techniques or quantitative classification techniques to establish a correlation. 使生物统计测量与例如人种的非定量个人特征相关联的适当技术包括K近邻技术和其它聚类技术。 That the biometric measurement and suitable technique, for example, human non-quantitative personal characteristics associated with K nearest neighbor clustering techniques and other techniques.

在方框112处己经建立算法关系之后,可以对不在相关性集合中的生物统计测量进行特征估计。 After the block 112 the algorithm relationships have been established, can be estimated on the biometric characteristics are not measured correlation set. 在例如年龄和体重的连续个人特征的情况下,进行估计可以包括内插或外推相关模型,尽管如果最初生物统计测量集合是平衡的,则通常极少需要外推法。 In the case of a continuous example age and weight of the individual features, the estimating may include interpolation or extrapolation model related, although if the initial biometric measurement set is balanced, it is generally rarely needed extrapolation. 因此,在方框116处, 通常通过重复与在最初建立相关性关系中执行的测量相同的测量,从 Thus, at block 116, typically by repeating the same measurement to establish the relationship between the correlation performed initially, from

目标个体收集生物统计数据。 Target individuals collect biometric data. 在方框120处,通过对收集的生物统计数 At block 120, the number of the collected biometric

据和/或按照应用于相关性数据集的相同方式对从生物统计数据中提 According to the same manner and / or applied in accordance with the relevant data set of biometric data from the extract

取的属性来应用在方框112中建立的算法关系,相应地估计个人特征。 Taken Algorithm attribute relationship established in block 112, the corresponding estimated individual characteristics.

在一些示例中,可以从单个集合的收集生物统计数据中得到多个相关性关系,利用每一个相关性关系建立从测量的数据到不同个人特征的不同算法关系。 In some examples, a plurality of dependency relationships can be obtained from a single set of biometric data collection, the relationship from the measured data to different individuals using different algorithms for each of characteristics of a relationship correlation. 例如,当最初的人员集合包括具有年龄范围、不同性别、不同人种、不同体重等的人员时,可以关于这些不同属性建 For example, when a person initially set including individuals with age range, gender, different races, body weight, etc. of different, these different properties may be built on

立不同的算法关系。 Li different algorithms relationship. 这种相关性的存在使得能够在方框120处,根据在方框116处执行的测量来建立目标个体的多个个人特征。 This enables the existence of a correlation at block 120, to create a plurality of individual characteristics of the target individual measurements performed in accordance with block 116.

对于从个体的皮肤部位收集生物统计数据作为多光谱数据的实施例,图2的流程图提供了在方框104处对多个个体、或者在方框116处对目标个体如何收集生物统计数据的总概述。 For collecting biometric data from the individual's skin site multispectral data as an embodiment of the flowchart of FIG. 2 provides statistical data on a plurality of individual, or an individual target block 116 at block 104 how to collect at the bio The total overview. 在方框204处,提供具有多个波长的光,并且在方框108处该光进行偏振。 At block 204, to provide light having a plurality of wavelengths, and the light is polarized at block 108. 在方框212处,定向照 At block 212, according to the orientation

明光以照射个体的皮肤部位。 The illumination light to illuminate the skin site of an individual. 在方框126处,接收从皮肤部位散射的光, 并且在方框220处对该光进行偏振。 In block 126, receive light scattered from the skin site and the light polarization block 220. 可能取决于皮肤部位的组织厚度, 散射光通常可以包括反射和/或透射光。 Skin site may depend on the tissue thickness, the scattered light may generally include a reflective and / or transmitted light. 在方框204处提供的光包括多个波长的情况下,在方框224处对接收光进行光谱分离,使得在方框228 处可以将不同波长定向到光检测器。 The case comprises a plurality of wavelengths of light provided at block 204, the received light is spectrally separated at block 224, at block 228 such that different wavelengths may be directed to the photodetector. 然后,在光检测器处收集的光被用于得到可以被用于如上所述个人特征的相关或估计的多光谱图像。 Then, the light is collected at the detector for obtaining multispectral image correlation or estimation may be used for the individual features as described above.

通常,如果照明光在方框208处不经过偏振,检测到的光的主要部分将包括从皮肤表面或者在皮肤里非常浅的深度处反射的光学能量。 Typically, if the illumination light does not pass through the polarizing At block 208, the detected light including a main portion of the optical energy reflected from the skin surface or at a very shallow depth in the skin. 相反地,如果在方框208处使用偏振器来偏振光,并且在方框220处应用第二(正交)偏振器,则检测到的光基本上是由于皮肤表面之下的光学互相作用。 Conversely, if at block 208 to polarized light polarizer, and the application of the second block (quadrature) polarizer 220, then the detected light is substantially due to the interaction of the optical beneath the skin surface. 这种正交偏振系统可以包括对其进行取向以使两个偏振器的轴分离大约90。 Such systems may include orthogonally polarized be oriented so that the axis of the two polarizers 90 about separation. 的两个线形偏振器。 The two linear polarizers. 可选地,偏振器可以是圆形偏振器,其中通过具有相反感知(即右手和左手)的两个圆偏振器来实现正交。 Alternatively, the polarizer may be a circular polarizer, wherein the opposite perception (i.e., right and left) of the two circular polarization by having a quadrature achieved. 由于偏振器的作用,即使在使用相同的照明波长时,也可以通过改变系统的偏振状态来收集多个不同图像。 Since the effect of the polarizer, even when using the same wavelength of illumination, or a plurality of different images may be collected by changing the polarization state of the system.

在特定示例中,仅在整个多光谱数据立方体的一部分中包含希望的信息。 In a particular example, only the information contained in the desired portion of the entire multi-spectral cube of data. 例如,均匀分布的光谱活性物质的估计也许只需要可以从整个多光谱数据立方体中提取的测量光谱特征。 For example, the measured spectrum of an estimated spectral characteristics of the active material uniformly distributed may only need to be extracted from the entire multi-spectral data cube. 在这种情况下,可以通过减少图像象素数目(甚至是减少到一个象素的极限),来简化整个系统设计,以减少或去除收集数据的空间分量。 In this case, by reducing the number of pixels in the image (or even reduced to a limit of the pixel), to simplify the system design, to reduce or remove spatial component to collect data. 因此,尽管在多光谱成像的上下文中描述了公开的系统和方法,可以认识到,本发明包括大大减少成像程度(甚至是减少到存在一个检测器单元)的类似测量。 Thus, although the description of the system and method disclosed in the context of a multi-spectral imaging can be appreciated, the present invention includes a greatly reduced degree of an imaging (or even reduced to a presence detector unit) similar measurements.

多光谱生物统计传感器 Multispectral biometric sensor

参考图3的示意图描绘了用于收集生物统计数据的多光谱传感器的一种结构。 Referring to FIG. 3 depicts a schematic view of a structure for a multi-spectral sensors to collect biometric data. 多光谱传感器301包括:照明子系统321,具有一个或多个光源303;以及检测子系统323,具有成像器315。 Multispectral sensor 301 comprising: an illumination subsystem 321, 303 having one or more light sources; and detection subsystem 323, an imaging device 315. 该图示出了照明子系统321包括多个照明子系统321a和321b的实施例,但是本发明不局限于该照明或检测子系统321或323的数目。 The figure shows the number 321 or the illumination subsystem 321 or 323 includes a plurality of illumination subsystem 321a and 321b of the embodiment, but the present invention is not limited to the detection of the illumination subsystem. 例如,可以方便地选择照明子系统321的数目,以实现特定程度的照明,用以满足封装要求,并且 For example, the number can easily select the illumination subsystem 321 to achieve a certain degree of illumination, to meet packaging requirements, and

满足多光谱生物统计传感器301的其它结构限制。 Meet other structural constraints multispectral biometric sensor 301. 作为另一个示例,特别地可以存在按照不同方式布置的多个检测器子系统323,以在一个或多个子系统中并入例如全内反射的不同光学效果。 As another example, in particular there may be a plurality of detectors arranged in a manner different subsystems 323, a different optical effect, for example, total internal reflection is incorporated in one or more subsystems. 照明光从源303通过照明光学器件305,光学器件305使照明形成希望的形式,例如泛光(flood light)、光线、光点等的形式。 Illuminating light from the source 303 through illumination optics 305, illumination optics 305 formed in a desired form, for example in the form of flood (flood light), the light spot and the like. 为了方便,照明光学器件305被示出为包括透镜,但是通常其包括一个或多个透镜、 一个或多个反射镜和/或其它光学元件的任意组合。 For convenience, the illumination optics 305 is shown to include a lens, but typically includes one or more lenses which, in any combination of one or more mirrors and / or other optical elements. 照明光学器件305还可以包括扫描机构(未示出),用以按照规定的一维或二维图样来扫描照明光。 The illumination optical device 305 may further include a scanning mechanism (not shown), according to a predetermined one or two dimensional pattern to scan the illumination light. 在不同实施例中,光源303可以包括点光源、线光源、面光源,或者可以包括一系列这种光源。 In various embodiments, light source 303 may include a point light source, a line light source, the surface light source, or may comprise a series of such light sources. 在一个实施例中,例如通过放置线形偏振器307, 光在到达要研究的人员的手指319或者其它皮肤部位之前通过该偏振器,照明光被提供为偏振光。 Before one embodiment, for example, by placing a linear polarizer 307, the light reaching the person to study the finger 319 or other skin site through the polarizer, illumination light is provided as a polarized light.

在一些示例中,光源303可以包括在窄波长波段上提供光的一个或多个准单色光源。 In some examples, it may include a light source 303 to provide light in a narrow wavelength band or a plurality of quasi-monochromatic light source. 这种准单色光源可以包括例如发光二极管、激光二极管或量子点激光器的器件。 Such quasi-monochromatic light source device may comprise, for example, light emitting diodes, laser diodes, or quantum dot lasers. 可选地,光源303可以包括例如白炽灯泡或发光条的宽带光源。 Alternatively, light source 303 may include a broadband light source of an incandescent bulb or light bar, for example. 在宽带光源的情况下,照明光可以通过带通滤波器309以使照明光的光谱宽度变窄。 In the case of a broadband light source, the illumination light can pass through the band pass filter 309 so that the illumination light spectral width is narrowed. 在一个实施例中,带通滤波器309 包括一个或多个分离光学带通滤波器。 In one embodiment, the bandpass filter 309 comprises one or a plurality of separate optical bandpass filter. 在另一个实施例中,带通滤波器309包括循环或线性移动(或者具有循环和线性移动的组合)的连续可变滤波器,用以改变照明光的波长。 In another embodiment, the bandpass filter 309 comprises a circular or linear movement (or a combination of linear movement cycle having a) a continuously variable filter, to vary the wavelength of the illumination light. 在另一个实施例中,带通滤波器309包括可调谐滤波器元件,例如液晶可调谐滤波器、声光可调谐滤波器、可调谐Fabry-Perot滤波器或者本领域技术人员公知的其它滤波器机构。 In another embodiment, other filters, the bandpass filter 309 comprises a tunable filter element, for example, liquid crystal tunable filters, acousto-optic tunable filters, tunable Fabry-Perot filter or well known to those skilled in the art mechanism.

在光源303的光通过照明光学器件305、并且可选地通过光学滤波器309和/或偏振器307之后,该光通过压板317,并且照射手指319或其它皮肤部位。 In the light source 303 through illumination optics 305, and optionally 309 after passing through the optical filter and / or polarizer 307, the light passes through the platen 317, and illuminates the finger 319 or other skin site. 有利地,可以选定传感器布局和组件,以使定向到检测光学器件313的照明的直接反射最小化。 Advantageously, the layout and the sensor assembly can be selected so that the orientation of the detection optics direct reflected illumination 313 is minimized. 在一个实施例中,通过相对地取向照明子系统321和检测子系统323,使得检测到的直接反射光的量最小化,来减少这种直接反射。 In one embodiment, the relative orientation of the illumination subsystem 321 and detection subsystem 323, so that the amount of directly reflected light detected is minimized to reduce such direct reflection. 例如,可以以一定角度放置照明子系统321和检测子系统323的光轴,以使放置在压板317上的反射镜并不使明显量的照明光照射到检测子系统323。 For example, 321 may be placed illumination subsystem 323 and detection subsystem optical axis at an angle, so that the platen 317 is placed on the mirror does not make a significant amount of illumination light detection subsystem 323. 此外,可以以相对于压板317 一定角度地放置照明和检测子系统321和323的光轴,使得两个子系统可接受的角度小于系统的临界角度;这种配置避免了由于压板317和皮肤部位319之间的TIR而引起的可感知效果。 Further, with respect to the optical axis placed illumination and detection subsystems 321 and 323 to the platen 317 of an angle, so that the two subsystems angle smaller than the critical acceptance angle of the system; This configuration avoids the platen 317 and the skin site 319 TIR caused between the perceived effect.

用于减少直接反射的光的可选机制是使用光学偏振器。 Optional mechanism for reducing the directly reflected light using an optical polarizer. 如本领域的技术人员所公知的,可以有利地釆用线形和圆形偏振器,以使光学测量对于特定皮肤深度更加灵敏。 As those skilled in the art well known, can be advantageously preclude the use of linear and circular polarizers, optical measurement to make the skin more sensitive to a specific depth. 在图3所示的实施例中,由线形偏振器307来对照明光进行偏振。 In the embodiment illustrated in Figure 3, it consists of a linear polarizer 307 for polarizing the illumination light. 则检测子系统323还可以包括线形偏振器311,其光轴被设置为实质上与照明偏振器307正交。 The detection subsystem 323 may further include a linear polarizer 311, the optical axis is arranged to be substantially orthogonal to the illumination polarizer 307. 按照这种方式, 来自样本的光必须经历多次散射事件,以便显著地改变其偏振状态。 In this manner, the light from the sample must undergo multiple scattering events, so as to significantly change the polarization state. 当光穿透皮肤表面并且在多次散射事件之后散射回检测子系统323时, 出现这种事件。 323 when the light penetrates the skin surface and scattered back to the detector after multiple scattering events subsystem, such an event occurs. 按照这种方式,减少了在压板317和皮肤部位319之间的界面的表面反射。 In this manner, reducing the surface reflection at the interface between the platen 317 and the skin site 319.

检测子系统323可以合并检测光学器件,所述检测光学器件包括在检测器315上形成在压板表面317附近区域的图像的透镜、反射镜和/或其它光学元件。 The detection subsystem 323 may merge detection optics, said lens optical detection device comprises a surface formed in the vicinity of the platen 317 on the detector 315 image, mirrors and / or other optical elements. 检测光学器件313还可以包括扫描机构(未示出),用以依次将压板区域的部分传递给检测器315。 Detection optics 313 may further include a scanning mechanism (not shown), for sequentially transferring the platen portion 315 to the detector region. 在所有情况下,检测子系统323被配置成对于穿透皮肤表面并且在从皮肤出射之前在皮肤和/或皮下组织内经过光学散射的光灵敏。 In all cases, detection subsystem 323 is configured to penetrate the skin surface and the skin prior to exit from the skin and / or subcutaneous tissue of optically scattering or light sensitive. 在一些情况下,光源303可以是不需要光谱滤波器309作为照明子系统而使用的宽带光源。 In some cases, light source 303 may be a broadband light spectrum filter 309 does not need to be used in the illumination subsystem. 相反,可以将包括不同带通滤波器的微阵列的滤色器阵列直接合并在图像阵列315 上。 Instead, a color filter array may be included directly in the merged image array 315 of the microarray different band pass filter. 出现在多种彩色成像芯片上的普通滤色器是Bayer滤波器,如本领域技术人员所公知的,其描述了红色、绿色和蓝色带通滤波器的布置。 Forming a plurality of color appears on the chip is normal Bayer color filter, as is well known to skilled in the art, which describes the red, green and blue bandpass filter arrangement.

如上所述,测量在不同偏振条件下获取的图像是有利的。 As described above, the image taken under different measurement conditions are favorable polarization. 通过参考两个照明子系统312a禾B312b,査看来这么做的方式的示例。 By reference to two illumination subsystem 312a Wo B312b, see exemplary way to do so. 在该实施例中, 一个照明子系统312a将线形偏振器307a并入相对于检测偏振器311的交叉偏振条件。 In this embodiment, an illumination subsystem 312a to the linear polarizer 307a incorporated by cross-polarized with respect to polarization condition detector 311. 第二照明子系统321b省略了线形偏振器307b。 A second illumination subsystem 321b is omitted linear polarizer 307b. 在这种配置下,可以利用偏振的照明子系统321a来收集第一图像,该图像实质上表示在皮肤319表面之下的光学散射和其它效应。 In this configuration, you can use polarized illumination subsystem 321a to collect a first image, which substantially represents the optical scattering and other effects under the surface of the skin 319. 然后,利用未偏振的照明子系统321b来收集第二图像。 Then, using unpolarized illumination subsystem 321b to the second image collection. 尽管偏振器311位于检测 Although a polarizer 311 located at the detection

子系统323中,并未偏振该第二图像中的照明光,并且产生的图像部分地来源于表面反射以及光的非常浅的散射,以及来自手指319的光的深度散射。 Subsystem 323, the illumination light is not polarized in the second image, and the image portion generated from surface reflection and scattering of light is shallow, and the depth of the scattered light from the finger 319. 在个人特征的估计中,两个图像的组合可以被用于提供附加有用信息。 Estimated personal characteristics, the combination of two images may be used to provide additional useful information.

照明子系统321和检测子系统323可以被配置成在多种光学条件和多个波长中工作。 Illumination subsystem 321 and detection subsystem 323 may be configured to operate in a variety of conditions and a plurality of optical wavelengths. 一个实施例使用发射基本上处于400-1000nm范围的光的光源303;在这种情况下,检测器315可以基于硅检测器元件或本领域技术人员所公知的对于这种波长灵敏的其它检测器材料。 One case using a light source emitting substantially in the embodiment range 400-1000nm 303; in this case, the detector 315 may be a silicon-based sensor element, or the skilled person is well known for such other wavelength sensitive detectors material. 在另一个实施例中,光源303可以在包括1.0-2.5pm的近红外条件的波长处发射辐射,在这种情况下,检测器315可以包括由InGaAs、 InSb、 PbS、 MCT以及本领域技术人员所公知的对于这种波长的光灵敏的其它材料组成的元件。 In another embodiment, light source 303 may emit radiation at wavelengths include near infrared 1.0-2.5pm conditions, in this case, the detector 315 may comprise InGaAs, InSb, PbS, MCT and that those skilled in the art other materials for the light sensitive element is composed of such wavelengths is known.

图4A以示意图示出了本发明实施例的侧视图。 FIG 4A schematically illustrates a side view of an embodiment of the present invention. 为了清楚,该视图并未示出检测子系统,但是清楚地示出了照明子系统321。 For clarity, this view does not show detection subsystem, but clearly illustrates the illumination subsystem 321. 本实施例中, 照明子系统321包括可以具有不同波长特征的两个分离光源403和405。 In this embodiment, the illumination subsystem 321 includes features of different wavelengths may have two separate light sources 403 and 405. 例如,光源403和405可以是例如LED的不需要光学滤波器的准单色光源。 For example, the light sources 403 and 405 may be, for example, quasi-monochromatic light source of the LED no optical filter. 光源403a、 403b和403c可以提供实质上相同的第一波长的照明, 而光源405a、 405b和405c可以提供实质上相同的第二波长的照明,第二波长与第一波长不同。 Light sources 403a, 403b and 403c may provide substantially the same illumination of a first wavelength, and the light source 405a, 405b, and 405c may provide substantially the same illumination of the second wavelength, a second wavelength different from the first wavelength. 如图所示,图4A中的照明光学器件被配置成提供泛光照明,但是在可选实施例中,其可以被设置成通过合并圆柱光学器件、聚焦光学器件或本领域技术人员所公知的其它光学组件来提供线点或其它图样的照明。 As shown in FIG. 4A illumination optics is configured to provide a floodlight, in alternative embodiments, it may be provided by combining a cylindrical optics, focusing optics or the skilled person known other optical components to provide a line illumination dots or other patterns. 如前面所述,偏振器307可以出现在所有光源403、 405上,并且可以出现在光源403、 405的一部分上,或者可以完全省略。 As described above, the polarizer 307 may appear on all the light sources 403, 405, and may be present on a portion of the light source 403, 405, or may be omitted entirely.

图4A所示系统的典型测量序列包括激活第一光源403以及收集产生的图像。 A typical measurement sequence shown in Figure 4A system includes activating a first light source 403 and the image collection is generated. 在获取图像之后,关.闭第一光源403,并且在不同的波长处激活第二光源405,并收集产生的图像。 After acquiring the image, turned. Off the first light source 403, and activates the second light source 405 at different wavelengths, and an image was collected. 对于具有多于一个光源波长的传感器,可以针对传感器中所使用的所有不同波长重复该照明测量序列。 For more than one light source having a wavelength sensor, the illumination measurement sequence may be repeated for all the different wavelengths used in the sensors. 还可以认识到,可以在由可调谐光学滤波器、可变光学滤波器、可移动分离光学滤波器等的状态来确定光波长特征的实施例中使用实质上相同的序列。 Also be appreciated that the embodiments may be implemented by the tunable optical filter, variable optical filter, an optical filter or the like can be moved apart to determine the state of light having a wavelength characteristic substantially the same as the sequence used. 可选地,如果检测器阵列315包括滤色镜阵列,则可以同时幵启不同波长的光源403、 405。 Alternatively, if the detector array 315 includes a color filter array, it is possible to simultaneously start light sources of different wavelengths Jian 403, 405. 用于收集不同波长处的图像的另一个可选机构包括并入编码方法,从而当在给定时间处照射多个波长时识别每一个波长的光。 Another alternative means for collecting images at different wavelengths comprises incorporating the coding method, thereby identifying when each wavelength of light at a plurality of wavelengths irradiated at a given time. 然后,按照以下方式收集整个照明序列的数据:根据使用本领域技术人员公知方法的编码,来确定各个波长响应。 Then, the sequence of illumination of the entire collection of data as follows: The well-known method using encoding skilled in the art, in response to each wavelength is determined. 因此,照明技术包括循环法、频分调制、Hadamard编码等。 Therefore, the lighting technologies include cyclic method, frequency division modulation, the Hadamard coding. 不同测量的光源照明序列可以不同。 Light source illuminates the measurement of different sequences may be different. 可以提出这种变化性用以制止重放攻击(replay attack),在重放攻击中,记录有效信号集合并且在以后重放,用以使生物统计传感器失效。 This variability can be made to stop the replay attack (replay attack), in the replay attack, the recording signal is set active and later playback, for causing biometric sensor failure. 还可以在一些实施例中延伸样本之间的测量变化性,其中仅使用可用照明波长的子集,然后与登记数据集中数据的相应子集相比较。 May also extend in some embodiments, the variation between the measurement sample, in which only a subset of the available illumination wavelength, and then compared with the registration data corresponding to a subset of the centralized data. 光源403和405的阵列实际上不需要是如图4A所示的平面。 An array of light sources 403 and 405 need not in fact be planar as shown in FIG. 4A. 例如, 在其它实施例中,光纤、纤维束或纤维光学面板或灯芯(taper)可以将光从位于方便位置的光源传递到照明面上,在照明面上,光再次成像(reimage)到手指上。 For example, in other embodiments, optical fibers, fiber bundles or fiber-optical panel or wick (taper) may be transmitted from the light source at a convenient location to the illumination surface, the surface illumination light imaged again (Reimage) to the finger . 可以通过象LED—样开启和关闭驱动电流, 来控制光源,可选地,如果使用白炽光源,使用例如液晶调制器的一些形式的空间光调制器或使用微电机系统("MEMS")技术来控制孔径、反光镜或其它这种光学元件,来实现光的快速切换。 LED- like it can be opened and closed by the driving current as to control the light source, alternatively, if using incandescent light sources, for example, some form of liquid crystal spatial light modulator, or modulator using micro-electromechanical systems ( "MEMS") techniques control the pore size, or other such optical mirror elements, to achieve fast switching light. 例如光纤和纤维束的光学元件的使用使得可以简化多光谱生物统计传感器的结构。 For example, using optical fibers and the optical element such that the fiber bundle can be simplified in the multispectral biometric sensor. 在图4B中示出了一个实施例,图4B示出了光纤的使用和例如LED的照明源的电扫描。 In FIG. 4B shows an embodiment, FIG. 4B illustrates the use of the scanning optical fiber and the LED illumination such as an electric source. 各个纤维416a使位于照明阵列410处的每个LED与成像表面相连,并且其它纤维416b将反射的光传回成像设备412,成像设备412可以包括光电二极管阵列或CCD阵列。 Each individual fiber 416a and the imaging surface of the LED of the illumination array 410 is connected to the other fibers and the reflected light 416b to return the image forming apparatus 412, the image forming apparatus 412 may include a photodiode array or a CCD array. 因此滤波器416a和416b的集合限定了在中继光中所使用的光纤束414。 Thus set of filter 416a and 416b define in the relay optical fiber bundle 414 is used. 结合图1和2所述的方法的实施可以与计算机系统协作,所述计算机系统与如结合图3-4B所述的多光谱生物统计传感器之一的生物统计传感器等相连或集成。 In conjunction with the method of FIGS. 1 and 2 embodiments may cooperate with a computer system, the computer system such as one with a multispectral biometric sensor in conjunction with FIGS. 3-4B of the biometric sensor or the like is connected to or integrated. 图5所示的设置包括适用于更大系统的多个组件;集成了便携式设备的小型系统可以使用少量的组件。 The arrangement shown in FIG 5 includes a plurality of components suitable for larger system; Small portable devices integrated systems may use a small number of components. 图5大致地示出了怎样按照分离或更集成的方式来实施各个系统元件。 Figure 5 generally illustrates how separate or integrated manner to implement various system elements. 计算设备500被示出为包括经过总线526电连接、并且与生物统计传感器517相连的硬件元件。 Computing device 500 is shown through the bus 526 is electrically connected to include, and the hardware elements connected to the biometric sensor 517. 在一些示例中,生物统计传感器517包括多光谱生物统计传感器,但是这不是必须的,并且在其它实施例中,生物统计传感器517 可以是另一种指纹传感器或者其它生物统计传感器。 In some examples, the biometric sensor 517 comprises a multispectral biometric sensor, but this is not essential, and in other embodiments, the biometric sensor 517 may be another fingerprint sensor or other biometric sensor. 硬件元件包括处理器502、输入设备504、输出设备506、存储设备508、计算机可读存储介质读取器510a、通信系统514、例如DSP或专用处理器的处理加速单元516以及存储器518。 The hardware elements include a processor 502, an input device 504, an output device 506, a storage device 508, a computer-readable storage media reader 510a, communications system 514, a processing acceleration unit, for example, a DSP or special-purpose processor 516 and a memory 518. 计算机可读存储介质读取器510a还与计算机可读存储介质510b相连,该组合综合地表示远程、本地、固定和/或可拆卸的存储设备加上用于暂时和/或更持久地包含计算机可读信息的存储介质。 The computer-readable storage media reader 510a is further connected to a computer-readable storage media 510b, the combination comprehensively representing remote, local, fixed and / or removable storage devices plus for temporarily and / or more permanently containing computer storage medium readable information. 通信系统514可以包括有线、无线、调制解调和/或其它种类的接口连接,并且使得可以与外部设备交换数据。 Communication system 514 may include an interface connected to a wired, wireless, modem and / or other types, and so can exchange data with external devices. 计算设备500还包括软件元件,该软件元件被示出为当前位于工作存储器520内,包括操作系统524和例如设计用于实施本发明方法的程序的其它代码522。 Computing device 500 also comprises software elements, software elements, which is shown as being currently located within working memory 520, including an operating system 524 and other code such as a program designed for implementing the method of the present invention 522. 对于本领域技术人员而言显而易见的是,根据特殊要求,可以使用实质的变化。 Those skilled in the art will be apparent that, according to the special requirements, substantial variation can be used. 例如,也许还使用定制的硬件并且/或者以硬件、软件(包括例如小应用程序的可移植软件)或者这两者来实现特定元件。 For example, customized hardware might also be used and / or implemented in hardware, software (including portable software, for example, applets) or both to achieve a particular element. 此外,可以釆用与例如网络输入/输出设备的其它计算设备的连接。 Further, connection to other computing devices and network input / output devices may preclude. 图6示意地示出了可以用于实施多光谱生物统计传感器的另一种结构的前视图。 FIG 6 schematically illustrates a front view of the embodiment may be used in another configuration of the multispectral biometric sensor. 在本实施例中,多光谱生物统计传感器601包括宽带照明子系统623和检测子系统625。 In the present embodiment, the multispectral biometric sensor 601 comprises a broadband illumination subsystem 623 and detection subsystem 625. 对于结合图3所述的实施例,在一些实施例中可以存在多个照明子系统623,其中图6示出了具有两个照明子系统623的特殊实施例。 For connection with the embodiment according to FIG. 3, in some embodiments, there may be a plurality of illumination subsystem 623, wherein FIG. 6 shows a particular embodiment having two illumination subsystem 623. 照明子系统623所包含的光源603是例如白炽灯泡或发光条的宽带照明光源,或者可以是本领域技术人员公知的其它宽带照明光源。 The light source 603 included in the illumination subsystem 623 is a broadband illumination source, for example, an incandescent bulb or a light bar, or may be known to the skilled person other broadband illumination source. 光源603的光通过照明光学元件605和线形偏振器607, 并且可选地可以通过用于将光波长限制在特定范围内的带通滤波器609。 An illumination light source 603 through optical element 605 and a linear polarizer 607, and optionally can be used for light having a wavelength limited to a specific range of the bandpass filter 609. 光通过压板117并且定向到皮肤部位119。 Skin site and the light directed to the platen 119 through 117. 一部分光从皮肤119反射,定向到检测子系统625,检测子系统625包括成像光学元件615和619、交叉线形偏振器611和色散光学元件613。 Part of the light reflected from the skin 119, directed to the detection subsystem 625, detection subsystem 625 includes an imaging optical elements 615 and 619, 611 and a linear polarization cross dispersive optical element 613. 色散元件613可以包括透射式或者反射式的一维或二维光栅、棱镜或者本领域技术人员公知使光路径作为光波长的函数而偏离的其它光学元件。 Dispersive element 613 may include a transmissive or reflective one or two-dimensional grating, a prism or well known to the person skilled in the optical path as a function of light wavelength and other optical elements of the offset. 在所示实施例中, 第一成像光学元件619用于准直从皮肤619反射的光,使之通过交叉线偏振器611和色散元件613。 In the illustrated embodiment, the first imaging optical device 619 for collimating the light reflected by the skin 619, so as to cross through the linear polarizer 611 and dispersion element 613. 光的频谱分量由色散元件613以角度分离, 并且分别由第二成像光学元件615聚焦到检测器617。 Spectral component of the light separated by the dispersive element at an angle of 613, and are focused by the second imaging optical element 615 to the detector 617. 如结合招3所讨论的,照明和检测子系统623和625分别包含的偏振器607和611用于减少在检测器617处的直接反射光的检测。 As discussed in conjunction with three strokes, the illumination and detection subsystems 623 and 625 each include a polarizer 607 and a detector 611 for reducing direct reflection light from the detector 617. 因此,根据在检测器处接收的光而产生的多光谱图像是按照计算断层成像光谱仪("CTIS")方式"编码的"图像。 Thus, according to the multi-spectral image light received at the detector is generated in accordance with the computed tomography imaging spectrometer ( "the CTIS") embodiment of the image "encoding." 在产生的图像中同时存在波长和空间信息。 Presence wavelength and spatial information simultaneously in the resulting image. 可以通过编码图像的数学反演或"重构"来获得各个光谱图样。 Or inversion may be "reconstructed" to obtain each spectrum by a mathematical pattern encoded image. 以上结合图3和6所述的实施例是"区域(area)"传感器配置的示例。 The embodiments described above in conjunction with FIGS. 3 and 6 are "(Area) area" exemplary sensor configuration. 除了这种面积传感器配置之外,在一些实施例中,多光谱成像传感器可以被配置为"触击"传感器。 In addition to this area of ​​sensor configurations, in some embodiments, multispectral imaging sensor may be configured as a "strike" sensor. 图7示意地示出了触击传感器的一个示例的顶视图。 7 schematically shows a top view of an example of a swipe sensor. 在该图中,传感器701的照明区域703和检测区域705 实质上共线。 In this figure, the illumination sensor 703 and a detection region 705 of region 701 are substantially collinear. 在触击传感器701的一些实施例中,可以存在多于单个的照明区域。 In some embodiments of swipe sensor 701, there may be more than a single illumination area. 例如,可以存在排列在检测区域705的任意一侧上的多个照明区域。 For example, there may be a plurality of illumination areas are arranged on either side of the detection region 705. 在一些实施例中,照明区域703可以部分地或者完全地与检测区域705重叠。 In some embodiments, the illumination area 703 can be partially or completely overlaps with the detection area 705. 通过如图7箭头所示使手指或其它身体部分触击光学有效区域,利用传感器701来收集多光谱图像数据。 That the arrow shown in FIG. 7 by the finger or other body part strike the optical effective region, the sensor 701 to collect multispectral image data. 相应的线性传感器可以是静止系统或者滚子(roller)系统,还可以包括编码器用以记录位置信息并且有助于根据产生的图像块序列来缝合完整的二维图像,如本领域技术人员所公知的。 Corresponding linear sensor may be a stationary system or a roller (Roller) system may further include an encoder for recording position information block and contributes to the image sequence generated according to the stapling complete two-dimensional image, as is well known to those skilled in the of. 当使用滚子系统时,可以将指尖或其它皮肤部位在对于所用光波长透明的滚子上滚动。 When using a roller system may be a fingertip or other skin site for rolling on the wavelength of the light transparent roller. 然后依次从皮肤部位的离散部分接收光,根据从不同部分接收的光来建立多光谱图像。 Followed by receiving light from discrete portions of the skin site to establish a multi-spectral image according to light received from different portions. 一些实施例所包含的偏振器还可以被用于创建或者进一步加强表面特征。 Some embodiments comprise polarizers may also be used to create or further enhance the surface characteristics. 例如,如果沿与釆样压板平行("P")的方向偏振照明光并且检测子系统并入了垂直取向("S")的偏振器,则反射光被阻挡多达偏振器对的消光比。 For example, if a direction parallel to the platen preclude the like ( "P") polarization of the illumination light and the detection subsystem incorporates a vertical alignment ( "S") of the polarizer, the reflected light is blocked by the polarizer extinction ratio of up to . 然而,定向到指纹脊(ridge)点处的光被光学地散射,这有效地使偏振随机化。 However, directed to a fingerprint ridge (Ridge) is optically scattered at the point, which effectively randomize polarization. 这使得由S偏振成像系统观察到吸收和重新发射光的50%量级的部分。 This makes the portion of the order of 50% absorption and re-emitted by the observation light to S-polarized imaging system. 以上结合特殊实施例所述的系统是演示性的,并且并不意欲成为限制。 Above in connection with specific embodiments of the embodiment a system is demonstrative, and are not intended to be limiting. 存在处于本发明目的范围内的对于上述示范实施例的多种改变和备选方案。 In the presence of various modifications and alternatives to the above-described exemplary embodiments within the scope of the object of the present invention. 在多个示例中,在不实质上影响本发明的功能方面的情况下,可以改变光学元件的布置或次序。 In various examples, without substantially affect the functional aspects of the invention may be changed or the order of arrangement of the optical elements. 例如,在使用宽带照明光源和一个或多个光学滤波器的实施例中,滤波器可以位于照明和检测子系统中的任意多个点处。 For example, in embodiments using a broadband illumination source and one or more optical filters, the filter may be located at any number of points in the illumination and detection subsystems. 此外,尽管附图示出了被测量的手指或其它皮肤部位与压板相接触,显而易见的是,实质上可以在不接触的情况下进行相同的测量。 Furthermore, although the drawings show the measured finger or other skin site in contact with the pressure plate, it is apparent that the same measurement can be performed substantially without contact. 在这种情况下,可以将用于照明和检测的光学系统配置用于在一定距离处照射并使皮肤部位成像。 In this case, the optical system for illumination and detection arrangement for imaging irradiated portions of the skin and a distance. 在2004年3月IO日递交的题为"OPTICAL SKIN SENSOR FOR BIOMETRICS"的美国临时专利申请No. 60/552,662中提供了这种系统的一些示例。 In March 2004 IO filed US provisional patent entitled "OPTICAL SKIN SENSOR FOR BIOMETRICS" Application No. 60 / 552,662 provides examples of such systems. 上述实施例产生在不同波长和/或偏振条件下的皮肤部位的图像集合,或者产生使用重构技术可以产生图像集合的数据,与CTIS或编码照明子系统的特定情况一样。 In the above-described embodiments generate a set of images of the skin site at different wavelengths and / or polarization conditions, or may be produced using reconstruction techniques to generate a set of image data, as in the case of a particular illumination subsystem or encoding CTIS. 为了演示,结合这种光谱图像集合来进行下面的讨论,尽管在不直接产生这些图像集合的实施例中对于随后的生物统计处理并不需要产生这些图像集合。 To demonstrate this combination of set of spectral images of the following discussion, although not a direct embodiment of the images for the subsequent set of biometric processing is not required to produce the image set. 图8示出了演示的多光谱图像集合,该集合定义了多光谱数据立方体801。 Figure 8 shows a set of presentation multispectral image, which defines the set of multi-spectral data cube 801. 分解数据立方体801的一种方式是使之分解为与测量处理中用于照明样本的波长和/或偏振条件的每一个相对应的图像。 One way to decompose the data cube 801 and decomposed wavelength of the illumination of the sample and / or the image corresponding to each of the measurement process for the polarization condition. 在附图中,示出了五个分离图像803、 805、 807、 809和811,与五个离散照明波长和/或照明条件(例如,在位置X、 Y处的照明点光源;存在/不存在照明偏振)相对应。 In the drawings, there is shown five separate images 803, 805, 807, 809 and 811, and five discrete illumination wavelengths and / or illumination conditions (e.g., at position X, Y of the point source illumination; presence / the presence of polarization illumination), respectively. 在使用可见光的实施例中,图像可以与使用例如在450nm、 500nm、 550nm、 600nm和650nm处的光所产生的图像相对应。 In embodiments using visible light, the image may be used for example 450nm, 500nm, 550nm, 600nm and 650nm light image generated at the corresponding. 每一个图像代表与皮肤互相作用的特殊波长的光学效应,并且在测量器件皮肤与压板接触的实施例的情况下,每一个图像代表与皮肤互相作用并且还通过皮肤-压板界面的特殊波长的光的光学效应。 The optical effect of each image representing the action of skin another particular wavelength, and in the case where the embodiment of the measuring device the skin with the pressure plate in contact embodiment, each image representing skin interaction and also by the skin - a particular wavelength platen interface light the optical effect. 由于由波长改变的皮肤的光学属性和皮肤成分,通常每个多光谱图像803、 805、 807、 809和811彼此不同。 Since the wavelength changes of the optical properties of skin and skin components, each of the multispectral image usually 803, 805, 807, 809 and 811 different from each other. 例如,短于近似600nm的波长被血液强烈吸收,吸收峰在近似540nm和576nm。 For example, the wavelengths shorter than approximately 600nm is strongly absorbed by blood, the absorption peak at approximately 540nm and 576nm. 在这些波长处的图像强烈地示出了血液属性,包括当手指按压在传感器表面上时手指的发白,以及部分由于更深处血管而引起的斑驳图样。 In the image at these wavelengths strongly it shows properties of blood, including white finger when the finger is pressed against the sensor surface, and partly since deeper mottled pattern caused by a blood vessel. 波长长于近似600nm的光源对于血液不灵敏,并且实际上更加平滑和均匀。 Longer than approximately 600nm wavelength light source for the blood insensitive, and in fact it is more smooth and uniform. 因此数据立方体可以表达为R(XS,YS,XI,YI,X),并且描述了当在光源点XS,YS处照射时在每一个图像点XI,YI处査看到的波长A的散射反射光的量。 Therefore, the data cube can be expressed as R (XS, YS, XI, YI, X), and when the light source is described point XS, YS of the scattering reflector is irradiated to view each image point XI, YI at wavelengths in the A the amount of light. 可以通过在适当光源点位置对点响应求和,来总结不同照明配置(泛型、线型、等)。 It can be achieved by an appropriate response at the summing point light position, to summarize the different lighting configurations (generic, linear, etc.). 传统的非TIR指纹图像F (XI,YI)可以被不确切地描述为给定波长Xo的多光谱数据立方体,并且在所有光源位置上求和:相反地,光谱生物统计数据集sa)使给定波长人的测量光强与照明和检测位置之间的差》相关联:因此,多光谱数据立方体R与传统指纹图像和光谱生物统计数据集相关联。 Conventional non-TIR fingerprint image F (XI, YI) may not exactly be described as multi-spectral data cube for a given wavelength Xo, and summing all source positions: On the contrary, the spectral biometric datasets sa) to make difference "between the associated light intensity measured with the position of a given wavelength illumination and detection of people: Thus, the multi-spectral data cube R conventional fingerprint images and spectra associated with a set of biometric data. 多光谱数据立方体R是其它两个数据集的任意一个的超集(superset),并且包含在两个独立形态中可能丢失的相关性或其它信息。 Multi-spectral data cube R is any of the other two data sets of a superset (superset), and contained in two separate aspect may be lost, or other relevant information. 因为压板材料和皮肤的折射光学指数通常在所用波长范围上并不明显不同,并且光学界面在测量时间间隔期间没有实质的变化,所以皮肤-压板界面的光学互相作用实质上在所有波长处都是相同的。 Because the platen material and the refractive index of the optical skin is usually not significantly different in the wavelength range, and there is no substantial change in the optical interface during the measurement time interval, so the skin - an optical platen interface interaction at all wavelengths are substantially identical. 从皮肤到压板的光以及从压板到皮肤的光在光学界面处受菲涅尔折射的影响。 From the skin to the light from the platen to the platen and a light skin affected Fresnel refraction in the optical interface. 因此,与并不通过气隙的光相比,在接收介质中穿过气隙的光并不强。 Thus, as compared with the light does not pass through the air gap, the light passes through the air gap in the receiving medium is not strong. 该现象形成了多光谱数据立方体中包含的图像信息的一部分。 This phenomenon forms part of multispectral image information is contained in the data cube. 多光谱图像数据立方体包含来自多个源的空间光谱信息。 Multi-spectral image data cube contains spatial spectral information from multiple sources. 仅仅作为示例,对于在与压板接触的指尖上进行测量的情况,产生的数据立方体包含由于以下而引起的效应:(i)指尖和压板之间的光学界面, 与传统非TIR指纹中包含的信息类似;(ii)组织的整体光谱特征,不同人是不同的;(iii)靠近皮肤表面的血管,并且尤其是直接位于组成外部指纹图样的趾掌脊之下的毛细管;以及(iv)按照与静脉成像类似的方式分布在组织深处的血管和其它光谱有效结构。 By way of example only, in the case of measuring the fingertip in contact with the platen, comprising a data cube generated due to the effect caused by: (i) the optical interface between the fingertip and the platen, comprising a conventional non-TIR fingerprint similar information; overall spectral characteristics (ii) organization of different people are different; (iii) blood vessel near the surface of the skin, and in particular the capillary is located directly below the ridge constituting an outer toe palm fingerprint pattern; and (iv) blood vessels and other spectrally efficient tissue structures deep vein imaging and distributed in a similar manner. 同样地,本发明的实施例提供了用于从被测量的指尖或其它皮肤部位内的多个源提取生物统计数据的机制,从而提供了多因子生物统计传感应用。 Likewise, embodiments of the present invention provides a mechanism for extracting biometric data from the measured plurality of sources within the fingertip portions or other skin, thereby providing multifactor biometric-sensing applications. 由于皮肤和皮下组织的复杂的波长依赖属性,与给定图像位置相对应的光谱值集合具有清晰限定且清楚的光谱特征。 Because of the complex wavelength-dependent properties of skin and subcutaneous tissue, with a given position of the image corresponding to the set of spectral values ​​having clearly defined and sharp spectral features. 这些光谱特征可以被用于逐象素地来分类多光谱图像。 These spectral features can be used to classify pixel by pixel multispectral image. 可以通过从符合条件的图像集合中产生典型组织光谱性质,来执行该评估。 May be performed by generating the spectral properties typically assessed tissue from a set of qualified images. 例如,可以以NX5矩阵来记录图8所示的多光谱数据,其中N是包含来自活组织而不是来自周围空气区域的数据的图像象素数目。 For example, the matrix may be recorded NX5 multispectral data shown in Figure 8, where N is the number of image pixels comprising from living tissue, rather than data from the surrounding area of ​​the air. 对于该组矩阵所执行的本征分析或者其它要素分析产生这些组织象素的代表性光谱特征。 For the intrinsic matrices of the set of analysis performed by analysis or other elements produce a representative spectral features of these tissue pixels. 然后使用例如Mahaknobies距离和光谱残留的量度(metrics),将后继数据集中象素的光谱与这种先前建立的光谱特征相比较。 Then using, for example, comparing the spectral characteristics of the spectral concentrated pixel data subsequent to such previously established distance and spectral residual Mahaknobies measure (metrics). 如果不止少量图像象素具有与活组织不一致的光谱性质,则认为样本是非真实并且不合格的, 因此提供了用于将防欺骗方法并入根据样本活性的确定的传感器的机制。 If more than a small amount of image pixel has spectral properties inconsistent with living tissue, then the sample is considered real and non-defective, thus providing a method for fraud prevention mechanism incorporated in the sensor to determine sample activity. FIG. 类似地,在样本是指尖的实施例中,根据光谱性质,多光谱图像象素被分类为"脊(ridge)"、"谷(velley)"或者"其它"。 Similarly, in the embodiment, the sample is a fingertip, the spectral properties, multispectral image pixels are classified as "ridge (Ridge)", "Gu (velley)" or "other." 可以使用判别分析方法来执行该分类,所述方法例如线性判别分析、二次判别分析、主分量分析、神经网络和本领域技术人员公知的其它方法。 Discriminant analysis method may be used to perform this classification, for example, the method of linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, principal component analysis, neural networks and other methods known to those skilled in the art. 由于脊和谷象素在典型的指尖上是邻接的,所以在一些示例中,感兴趣的图像象素周围的局部的多光谱数据被用于分类图像象素。 Since the ridges and valleys in the pixels are contiguous on a typical fingertip, so in some examples, the local data of the multispectral image surrounding the pixel of interest are used to classify the image pixel. 按照这种方式,从传感器提取传统的指纹图像,用于进一步处理和生物统计估计。 In this manner, a conventional fingerprint image extracted from the sensor for further processing and biometric estimation. "其它"的类别可以指示具有与真实样本所预期的不同的光谱性质的图像象素。 "Other" category may indicate image pixels having the intended real samples of different spectral properties. 可以设置图像中被分类为"其它"的总象素数的阈值。 The threshold of the total number of pixels in the image to be classified may be provided "others". 如果超出该阈值,则确定样本是非真实的,并且做出适当的指示,并采取行动。 If the threshold is exceeded, it is determined that the sample is non-real, and make the appropriate instructions, and take action. 可以使用整个数据立方体或者其特定部分来进行个人特征的估计。 You may be used whole or a specific portion of a data cube to estimate the individual features. 例如,可以应用适当的空间滤波器来分离出通常代表组织中较深光谱有效结构的较低的空间频率信息。 For example, an appropriate spatial filter may be applied to separate out low spatial spectrum representative of the deeper tissues generally effective frequency structure information. 可以使用上述类似的空间频率分离和/或象素分类方法来提取指纹数据。 You may be extracted using the fingerprint data similar spatial frequency separation and / or pixel classification. 可以按照上述方式将光谱信息与图像的有效部分分离。 It can be separated as described above effective part of the spectrum of the image information. 然后,处理数据立方体的这三部分,并使用本领域技术人员公知的方法,将其与相关数据相比较。 Then, processing data cube three parts, and using art-known methods in the art, which compared with the relevant data. 根据生物统计数据中相关这些特征的强度,关于相应人体测量特征的估计,做出判决。 According to the intensity of biometric data related to these features, the corresponding measurements on estimated characteristics of the human body, make a decision. 3.示例存在大量可以实施本发明方法和系统的不同的有用应用。 3. The exemplary embodiment can present a lot of different useful applications of the method and system of the present invention. 此处讨论的特殊示例仅作为演示性的,并不成为限制。 Special discussed here only as an example of presentation and are not to be limiting. 每个示例使用结合图l 所述的生物统计数据和个人特征之间的算法关系,所述算法关系是根据收集的生物统计数据和表现出多样的年龄、体重、种族和工作分类(办公室工作、现场工作、机械工作等)以及具有不同性别和利手性的人员的相应个人特征信息而产生的。 Each exemplary combination algorithm statistics and the relationship between the personal characteristics of the biological Figure l, the algorithm is a relationship (office and biometric data according to exhibit diverse age, weight, race and collection of the work, ) and corresponding individual feature information and people of different genders advantageous chiral field work, mechanical work or the like is generated. 产生的关系可以被用于实施法律的背景,例如在检索隐约指印作为犯罪侦察的一部分的情况下。 Relationship may be used to generate the background of law, for example, in a case where retrieval faint fingerprints as part of crime detection. 即使由于在任何执法数据库中没有存储指纹所以不能直接识别疑犯时,可以使用上述方法来将指纹与疑犯的性别、种族、利手性和近似年龄、体重和工作分类进行相关,来分析指纹。 So even if the fingerprint is not stored when not directly identify the suspect, fingerprints and suspects to gender, race, handedness and approximate age, weight and work classification related to fingerprint analysis method described above can be used in any law enforcement database. 可以定义的个人特征的数目越大,则可以使执法人员大大地减少嫌疑犯库(pool)的大小。 The larger the number of individual features may be defined, it is possible to greatly reduce the size of the law enforcement personnel suspect library (the pool) is. 此外,该信息可以与执法人员收集的其它侦察信息相结合,该信息涉及与作为疑犯的特定个体相关的努力。 In addition, other reconnaissance information This information can be collected and combined law enforcement officers, the information associated with a particular effort to involve the individual as a suspect. 从与个人特征的相关性得到的附加信息可以使得侦察努力更加有效, 并且在排除其它情况的情况下,进行逮捕和/或宣告有罪。 Additional information is obtained from the correlation between personal characteristics can make reconnaissance efforts more effective, and in the case of exclusion of other cases, arrest and / or convicted. 算法关系还可以被用于移民背景。 Algorithm can also be used in relations with immigrant backgrounds. 例如,外国公民可以申请一个国家的入境签证,提供证明该人员的年龄、国籍、性别、工作分类等的文件。 For example, foreign citizens can apply for an entry visa to the country, to provide proof of age, nationality, gender, job classifications and other documents of the officer. 尽管可以做出努力来认证该文件,可以通过使用本发明实施例所提供的人体测量属性的相关性,实施这种认证。 Although efforts may be made to authenticate the document, the correlation property anthropometric embodiment can be provided by using the embodiment of the present invention, the embodiment of such authentication. 例如, 一个人可以出示证明他是30岁男性体力劳动者的文件。 For example, a person can show that he is 30-year-old male manual workers file. 该人员的多光谱生物统计测量可以被用于得到人体属性的估计,显示该人员实际是38岁并且具有与办公室工作者一致的特征。 Multi-biometric measurement spectrum of the staff can be used to estimate the human body to get the property, it shows the person is actually 38 years old and have a consistent and office workers features. 该差异则可以被用于在准予签证之前对该人员进行进一步条查。 This difference can be used to further investigate the bar staff before granting a visa. 在试图欺骗性地进入一个国家时,例如一个人使用欺骗机制来隐藏其身份的情况,使用类似过程。 When attempting to fraudulently enter a country, such as the case of a person using a cheat mechanism to hide their identity, using a similar process. 这可以是例如在入境时权利机构测量指纹以便与已知恐怖分子的数据库相比较的情况。 This may be measured, for example, a fingerprint Authority for comparison with a database of known terrorists upon entry. 如果代表本人的一个人具有与其物理性质不一致的人体测量属性,则可以指示出存在欺骗机制,并且需要进一步调查。 Inconsistent if a person has on behalf of himself and physical properties of anthropometric property, it can indicate the presence of spoofing mechanisms, and requires further investigation. 例如,如果看起来象特定人种30岁男子的一个人具有与不同人种70岁女性的相关性,则在准予进入之前需要对该人员进行进一步调查。 For example, if a person looks like a 30-year-old man of a certain race has a correlation with the 70-year-old woman of different races, then granted the need for further investigation of the staff before entering. 算法关系还可以被用于特定商业背景,例如通过使用它作为对于目标广告的营销辅助。 Algorithm may also be used for a particular relationship business background, such as to target advertising through the use of marketing aid. 在多种示例中,已知识别年龄、性别和/或人种的特定人口统计分组对不同广告种类有不同的反映。 In various examples, it is known to identify the age, gender and specific demographic grouping / or race have different reflection of the different types of advertising. 个体生物统计测量使得可以根据人体测量属性的相关性来分类广告,从而使用预期最有效的广告。 Individual biometric measurements make it possible to classify the relevance of ads based on anthropometric properties, which is expected to use the most effective advertising. 在阅读本公开之后,其它应用对于本领域技术人员而言是显而易见的。 After reading the present disclosure, other applications to those skilled in the art will be apparent. 因此,对于所述的几个实施例,对于本领域普通技术人员而言, 只要不偏离本发明的限制,可以作出改变、结构改动和等价方案。 Thus, according to several embodiments, for those of ordinary skill in the art, without departing from the limits of the invention, changes may be made, structural modifications and equivalents. 因此,上述说明并不是本发明的限制范围,所述限制范围由所附权利要求进行限定。 Accordingly, the above description is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, limiting the scope defined by the appended claims.

Claims (33)

1.一种估计个体的连续个人特征的方法,所述方法包括: 从个体收集生物统计数据测量;以及通过在生物统计数据测量和连续个人特征值之间应用算法关系,来确定个体的连续个人特征,所述连续个人特征值是从对多个生物统计数据测量和相应收集的个人特征值应用算法而得到的。 1. A method of estimating individual continuous personal characteristics, the method comprising: collecting biometric data from the individual measurement; and by applying an algorithm in the relationship between the measurement data and the continuous biometric personal characteristic value is determined continuously individual subject wherein the continuous personal characteristic value is measured from the statistical data collected for a plurality of individual organisms and corresponding characteristic values ​​obtained by applying an algorithm.
2. 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其中, 一个或多个生物统计数据测量包括肤纹测量。 The method according to claim 1, wherein the one or more biometric data measuring comprises measuring DERMATOGLYPHICS.
3. 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其中,收集生物统计数据测量包括:利用光照射个体的皮肤部位; 接收从皮肤部位散射的光;以及从接收的光中得到多光谱图像。 3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the biometric data collected measurement comprising: light irradiation using a skin site of an individual; receiving light scattered from the skin site; and a multi-spectral image obtained from the light received.
4. 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其中,连续个人特征是从由以下构成的组中选出的:年龄、体重、身体质量指数、人种、种族和工作分类。 4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the continuous individual characteristics are selected from the group consisting of the following: age, weight, body mass index, race, ethnicity and job classification.
5. 根据权利要求1所述的方法,还包括-收集多个生物统计数据测量和相应的个人特征值;以及对多个生物统计数据测量和相应的个人特征值应用算法来得到算法关系。 5. The method according to claim 1, further comprising - a plurality of collecting biometric data and the corresponding measured values ​​of the individual characteristic; and a plurality of measurements of biological statistics and corresponding individual characteristic values ​​obtained Algorithm Algorithm relationship.
6. 根据权利要求1所述的方法,还包括:通过在生物统计数据测量和第二个人特征值之间应用第二算法关系,来确定个体的第二个人特征,其中第二个人特征值是从对多个生物统计数据测量和相应收集的第二个人特征值应用第二算法而得到的。 6. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: applying a second algorithm by the relationship between the second biometric data and personal characteristics measured value, to determine second individual characteristics of the individual, wherein the second characteristic value is a personal from measurements of statistical data collection and a corresponding plurality of second biological individual characteristic values ​​obtained by applying the second algorithm.
7. 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其中,所述算法包括多元算法。 The method according to claim 1, wherein said algorithm comprises polyhydric algorithm.
8. 根据权利要求l、 2或4到7之一所述的方法,其中,所述生物统计数据测量是空间谱生物统计数据测量。 L according to claim, 2 or 4, the method according to one of 7, wherein said biometric data is measured spatial spectrum measured biometric data.
9. 根据权利要求3所述的方法,其中,所述生物统计数据测量是是空间谱生物统计数据测量,所述多光谱图像是空间谱多光谱图像。 9. The method according to claim 3, wherein said biometric data is measured spatial spectrum is measured biometric data, the multispectral image is multispectral image spatial spectrum.
10. —种估计个体的个人特征的方法,所述方法包括: 利用光照射个体的皮肤部位; 接收从皮肤部位散射的光; 从接收的光中得到多光谱图像;以及通过在多光谱图像和个人特征值之间应用算法关系,来确定个体的个人特征,其中个人特征值是从对多个多光谱图像和相应收集的个人特征值应用算法而得到的。 10. - The method of estimating individual kind of personal characteristics, said method comprising: using a skin site of an individual light irradiation; receiving light scattered from the skin site; multispectral images obtained from the received light; and a multi-spectral image and by application of the relationship between individual characteristic value decomposition, to determine the individual characteristics of the individual, wherein the individual feature value from a plurality of individual multispectral image and the corresponding feature values ​​collected algorithm obtained.
11. 根据权利要求10所述的方法,其中,个人特征是二元个人特征。 11. The method according to claim 10, wherein the personal characteristic is a binary individual characteristics.
12. 根据权利要求10所述的方法,其中,个人特征是连续个人特征。 12. The method according to claim 10, wherein the personal characteristic is a continuous individual characteristics.
13. 根据权利要求10所述的方法,其中,照射皮肤部位包括-在多个离散波长处产生光,作为多个准单色光束;以及使产生的光照射皮肤部位。 13. The method of claim 10, wherein the irradiated skin site comprises - generating a plurality of discrete wavelengths of light, as a plurality of quasi-monochromatic beam; and irradiating the light generated by the skin site.
14. 根据权利要求10所述的方法,其中,照射皮肤部位包括: 产生宽带光束;对宽带光束进行滤波,以便在多个离散波长处提供光;以及使滤波的宽带光束照射皮肤部位。 14. The method according to claim 10, wherein the irradiated skin site comprises: generating a broadband light beam; broadband beam is filtered to provide light at a plurality of discrete wavelengths; skin site and causing broadband illumination beam filtering.
15. 根据权利要求10所述的方法,其中:照射皮肤部位包括利用第一偏振使光偏振;以及接收光包括利用第二偏振使接收的光偏振,所述第二偏振与第一偏振交叉。 15. The method according to claim 10, wherein: irradiating the skin site comprises polarizing the light using a first polarization; and receiving the light comprises using a second polarizer polarizes the light received, the second polarization to the first polarization cross.
16. 根据权利要求10所述的方法,还包括:收集多个多光谱图像和相应的个人特征值;以及对多个多光谱图像和相应的个人特征值应用算法,来得到算法关系。 16. The method of claim 10, further comprising: collecting a plurality of multi-spectral image and a corresponding personal characteristic values; and a plurality of multispectral images corresponding to individual characteristic values ​​and applying an algorithm to obtain the relationship between the algorithm.
17. 根据权利要求IO所述的方法,还包括:通过在多光谱图像和第二个人特征值之间应用第二算法关系,来确定个体的第二个人特征, 其中第二个人特征值是从对多个多光谱图像和相应收集的第二个人特征值应用第二算法而得到的。 IO 17. The method of claim, further comprising: applying a second algorithm between the multispectral image and the second characteristic value personal relationships, to determine second individual characteristics of the individual, wherein the second characteristic value is derived from the individual a plurality of multi-spectral image and the second application personal characteristic value corresponding to the second algorithm collected obtained.
18. 根据权利要求10所述的方法,其中,所述算法是多元算法。 18. The method according to claim 10, wherein said algorithm is a multivariate algorithm.
19. 根据权利要求10到18之一所述的方法,其中,多光谱图像是空间谱多光谱图像。 10 19. The method according to one of claims 18, wherein the multi-spectral image is a spatial spectrum multispectral image.
20. —种估计个体的个人特征的方法,所述方法包括: 从个体收集生物统计数据测量;以及通过在生物统计数据测量和个人特征值之间应用算法关系,来确定个体的个人特征,所述个人特征值是从对多个生物统计数据测量和相应收集的个人特征值应用多元算法而得到的。 20. - The method of estimating the individual characteristics of the individual species, the method comprising: collecting biometric data from the individual measurement; and by applying an algorithm relationship between biometric data and personal characteristics measurement value, to determine an individual's personal characteristics, the wherein said individual values ​​from the individual measurements of a plurality of feature statistics collected biological and corresponding values ​​obtained by multivariate algorithm.
21. 根据权利要求20所述的方法,其中, 一个或多个生物统计数据测量包括肤纹测量。 21. The method of claim 20, wherein the one or more biometric data measuring comprises measuring DERMATOGLYPHICS.
22. 根据权利要求20所述的方法,其中,收集生物统计数据测量包括:利用光照射个体的皮肤部位; 接收从皮肤部位散射的光;以及从接收的光中得到多光谱图像。 22. The method according to claim 20, wherein the biometric data collected measurement comprising: light irradiation using a skin site of an individual; receiving light scattered from the skin site; and a multi-spectral image obtained from the light received.
23. 根据权利要求20或21所述的方法,其中,所述生物统计数据测量是空间谱生物统计数据测量。 23. The method of claim 20 or claim 21, wherein said biometric data is measured spatial spectrum measured biometric data.
24. 根据权利要求22所述的方法,其中,所述生物统计数据测量是空间谱生物统计数据测量,所述多光谱图像是空间谱多光谱图像。 24. A method according to claim 22, wherein said biometric data is measured spatial spectrum measured biometric data, the multispectral image is a spatial spectrum multispectral image.
25. —种传感器系统,包括:照明子系统,被设置成向个体的皮肤部位提供光; 检测子系统,被设置成接收从皮肤部位散射的光;以及计算单元,与检测子系统相接,并且具有:第一指令,用于从接收光中得到多光谱图像;以及第二指令,用于通过在多光谱图像和个人特征值之间应用算法关系,来确定个体的个人特征,所述个人特征值是从对多个多光谱图像和相应收集的个人特征值应用算法而得到的。 25. - kind of sensor system, comprising: an illumination subsystem configured to provide light to the skin site of an individual; a detection subsystem disposed to receive light scattered from the skin site; and a calculation unit, and the phase detection subsystem, and having: a first instruction for obtaining multispectral images from the received light; and a second instruction, by applying an algorithm for the relationship between the multispectral image and the individual feature values ​​to determine the individual characteristics of the individual, the personal feature value from a plurality of individual multispectral image and the corresponding feature values ​​collected algorithm obtained.
26. 根据权利要求25所述的传感器系统,其中,照明子系统包括: 光源,在多个离散波长处提供光;以及照明光学器件,用于使光照射到皮肤部位。 26. The sensor system according to claim 25, wherein the illumination subsystem comprises: a light source, providing a plurality of discrete wavelengths of light; and an illumination optics, for irradiating light onto the skin site.
27. 根据权利要求26所述的传感器系统,其中,所述照明子系统还包括扫描机构,用于按照规定图样来扫描光。 27. The sensor system according to claim 26, wherein the illumination subsystem further comprises a scanning means for scanning the light in accordance with a predetermined pattern.
28. 根据权利要求26所述的传感器系统,其中,所述光源包括多个准单色光源。 28. The sensor system according to claim 26, wherein said light source comprises a plurality of quasi-monochromatic light sources.
29. 根据权利要求25所述的传感器系统,其中,所述照明子系统包括:宽带光源;以及滤波器,设置用于滤波从宽带光源发射的光。 29. The sensor system according to claim 25, wherein the illumination subsystem comprises: a broadband light source; and an optical filter provided for filtering the emitted from the broadband light source.
30. 根据权利要求25所述的传感器系统,其中,检测子系统包括: 光检测器;以及检测光学器件,用于使接收光照射到光检测器。 30. The sensor system according to claim 25, wherein the detection subsystem comprises: a light detector; and an optical detection device for irradiating light receiving photodetector.
31. 根据权利要求25所述的传感器系统,其中-照明子系统包括第一偏振器,设置用于面对提供的光; 检测子系统包括第二偏振器,设置用于面对接收的光;以及第一和第二偏振器彼此交叉。 31. The sensor system according to claim 25, wherein - the illumination subsystem comprises a first polarizer disposed to face the light provided; detection subsystem includes a second polarizer, arranged for the light receiving face; and first and second polarizers cross each other.
32. 根据权利要求25所述的传感器系统,其中,计算单元还包括第三指令,用于通过在多光谱图像和第二个人特征值之间应用第二算法关系,来确定个体的第二个人特征,其中第二个人特征值是从对多个多光谱图像和相应收集的第二个人特征值应用第二算法而得到的。 32. By applying the second algorithm between the multispectral image and the second personal characteristic value relationship is determined according to the second person individual sensor system of claim 25, wherein the calculating unit further comprises a third instructions for feature, wherein the second characteristic value is derived from the individual to a plurality of multi-spectral image and the second application personal characteristic value corresponding to the second algorithm collected obtained.
33. 根据权利要求25到32之一所述的传感器系统,其中,所述多光谱图像是空间谱多光谱图像。 33. The sensor system 25 according to one of claim 32, wherein the multi-spectral image is a spatial spectrum multispectral image.
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