CN100431790C - Processing method of aspherical optical element of optical glass and silicon monocrystal - Google Patents

Processing method of aspherical optical element of optical glass and silicon monocrystal Download PDF

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CN100431790C
CN100431790C CNB2005100107442A CN200510010744A CN100431790C CN 100431790 C CN100431790 C CN 100431790C CN B2005100107442 A CNB2005100107442 A CN B2005100107442A CN 200510010744 A CN200510010744 A CN 200510010744A CN 100431790 C CN100431790 C CN 100431790C
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China
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aspheric
optical
rev
polishing
workpiece
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CNB2005100107442A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1846937A (en
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张有彩
罗刚
段有辉
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云南北方光学电子集团有限公司
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Abstract

The present invention discloses a processing technology for optical elements, which is mainly used for the processing of aspherical optical elements of optical glass and silicon single crystals. The processing technology for optical elements has a main technical characteristic that the optical glass and the silicon single crystals are processed by a computer numerical-control grinding tool and a numerical-control polishing machine tool. A new technological flow, aspherical fine grinding, aspherical polish, aspherical finishing polish, surface type detection, etc. are adopted. The defects of low efficiency and difficult precision guarantee existing by using a traditional polishing technological method to process the aspherical optical elements of the optical glass and the silicon single crystals are fundamentally overcome by the processing technology for optical elements. Thus, the expectation effects of production cost reduction, stable quality and evident efficiency enhancement are achieved.

Description

The processing method of optical glass and silicon single crystal aspherical optical element
One, technical field
The invention belongs to a kind of process technology of optical element, be mainly used in the making of common optical glass and silicon single crystal material aspherical optical element.
Two, background technology
By retrieval, do not find same or analogous therewith technology report, at present,, mainly adopt traditional polishing process technology to the processing of optical glass and silicon single crystal material aspherical optical element, its main technique flow process is:
Generally speaking, only,, can process reluctantly, but the element of producing exists the defective that the cycle is long, cost is high, precision is difficult to guarantee for high order aspheric surface (more than 10 times) to 2 aspherical optical element processing.
Three, summary of the invention
Major technique task of the present invention and purpose are: according to the deficiency of traditional processes aspherical optical element, seek a kind of new method, processing to ordinary optical glass and silicon single crystal material aspherical optical element, realize that production efficiency significantly improves, precision quality is guaranteed, the adaptive optics system develops to weak point, little, smart direction, to meet the need of market.
Main technical schemes of the present invention is: process with computer numerically control grinder and computer numerical control burnishing machine.Its technological process: A, blanking, B, aspheric surface corase grind, C, aspheric surface correct grinding, D, aspheric surface polishing, E, aspheric surface are repaiied throwing, F, detection faces type, G, packing.
The aspherical optical element that is processed, surface quality is better, and roughness Ra reaches 0.003 micron, compares with traditional processing method, and production efficiency improves more than ten times at least, and the element qualification rate reaches absolutely, and cost and quality are obviously improved.
Four, description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a process chart of the present invention, also is main technical schemes figure of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is butterfly emery wheel figure of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is an overall flexibility polishing die drawing of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a correction polishing die drawing of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is 2 aspherical optical element processing and implementation illustrations of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is 10 aspherical optical element processing and implementation illustrations of the present invention.
Fig. 7 is 15 aspherical optical element processing and implementation illustrations of the present invention.
Five, the specific embodiment
Describe the present invention below in conjunction with drawings and Examples.
With the most frequently used representative K in the optical glass 3, K 4, K 9, ZF 2, ZF 5, ZF 6, LaK, baK glass and silicon single crystal material be example, 2 times, 10 times, 15 times aspherical optical elements are processed, with computer numerically control grinder and computer numerical control burnishing machine, adopt rational process and detection means, met the aspherical optical element of specification requirement fully.
With reference to Fig. 1, the present invention is undertaken by following technological process:
A, blanking are carried out cutting stock with inside diameter slicer to optical glass material.
B, aspheric surface corase grind, (1), according to given parameter input equation calculates and the matched radius of curvature R of aspheric surface by computer software Fit, go out radius R with the milling of the model method of forming again Fit, (2) grind aspheric surface with butterfly corase grind emery wheel by track after programming by numerically control grinder according to parameter, 8000-12000 rev/min of emery wheel rotating speed, and workpiece rotational frequency 40-70 rev/min, 0.04 millimeter of cutting-in, amount of feeding 0.1-0.5 millimeter/minute.
C, aspheric surface correct grinding, carry out the workpiece correct grinding with butterfly correct grinding emery wheel (1), 8000-12000 rev/min of emery wheel rotating speed, workpiece rotational frequency 40-70 rev/min, 0.02 millimeter of cutting-in, amount of feeding 0.1-0.05 millimeter/minute.(2) with the aspheric surface behind the accurate edge analysis instrument detection of the contact correct grinding, by the amount of movement of adjustment Digit Control Machine Tool X-axis and the thickness error of workpiece, reach the qualified face shape error of this operation promptly: roughness average Ra<0.2 micron, maximum Rt<2 micron.
D, aspheric surface polishing are polished 600 rev/mins of polished die rotating speeds, 580 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies with overall flexibility polishing mould on digital control polishing machine tool to the aspheric surface workpiece.After polishing tens of branch kinds (time according to workpiece size size decide), by measuring, error Rt<1 micron, eligible commentaries on classics next procedure.If defective, return the aspheric surface precision grinding process and carry out the milling compensation, polished again tens of minutes, measure again.Till qualified.
E, aspheric surface are repaiied throwing, carry out small abrasive nose compensation polishing correction to polishing qualified aspheric surface workpiece with revising the polishing mould.600 rev/mins of polished die rotating speeds, 580 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies.
F, detection faces shape are carried out the check of final face shape, and surface precision reaches Ra<0.05 micron, Rt<0.5 micron, and fineness reaches the II level.
G, packing.
Equipment needed thereby: computer numerical control grinding machine, computer numerical control burnishing machine, the accurate edge analysis instrument of contact.
With reference to Fig. 2, thick, finishing grinding wheel that the present invention uses are the butterfly emery wheel, are made up of diamond 1, bronze body 2, axis hole 3.
With reference to Fig. 3, the overall flexibility polishing mould that the present invention uses is made up of brass body 4, high density sponge 5, polyamine fat 6.
With reference to Fig. 4, be the correction polishing mould that the present invention uses, form by rustless steel body 7, cutting ferrule 8, rubber sleeve 9, small abrasive nose fixed axis 10, small abrasive nose 11.
Embodiment one, 2 aspherical optical elements of processing, as shown in Figure 5, the H face is an aspheric surface, material: optical glass material or silicon single crystal material, Φ=17 millimeter, aspheric surface vertex radius R 0=10.085 millimeters, δ=5 millimeter, 2 aspheric surface equations: Y = CX 2 / 1 + 1 - ( 1 + K ) C 2 X 2 , Wherein Y represents that any promptly claims camber apart from the vertical range on aspheric surface summit arbitrarily on the aspheric surface, and X is any some data on aspheric surface effective radius Φ/2=8.5 millimeter, and K is a face type coefficient, K=-1.490242, C=1/R 0=0.0991571641,
A, blanking by drawing, are carried out blanking with inside diameter slicer to optical glass or silicon single crystal material.
B, aspheric surface corase grind, (1), according to given parameter input equation calculates and the matched radius of curvature R of aspheric surface by computer software Fit, R Fit=12.55 millimeters, go out radius R by the milling of the model method of forming Fit, programme by numerically control grinder according to parameter (2), grinds aspheric surface by track, 8000 rev/mins of emery wheel rotating speeds, 40 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies, 0.04 millimeter of cutting-in, 0.1 millimeter/minute of the amount of feeding with butterfly corase grind emery wheel.
C, aspheric surface correct grinding, (1) finish grindes 8000 rev/mins of emery wheel rotating speeds, 40 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies, 0.02 millimeter of cutting-in, 0.1 millimeter/minute of the amount of feeding with butterfly correct grinding emery wheel to workpiece.(2) detect correct grinding back aspheric surface with the edge analysis instrument, this operation error should reach Ra<0.2 micron, Rt<2 micron.If do not reach, reach by the amount of movement of adjustment Digit Control Machine Tool X-axis and the thickness error of workpiece.
D, aspheric surface polishing, workpiece is polished 600 rev/mins of polished die rotating speeds, 580 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies with overall flexibility polishing mould on numerical control polishing, after polishing 15 fens kinds, qualified by measuring (error should reach Rt<1 micron) changes next procedure.If defective, return the aspheric surface precision grinding process and carry out the milling compensation, polished again 15 minutes, measure again.Till qualified.
E, aspheric surface are repaiied throwing, carry out small abrasive nose compensation polishing correction, 600 rev/mins of polished die rotating speeds, 580 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies to polishing qualified workpiece with revising the polishing mould.
F, detection faces shape are carried out the check of final face shape, and surface precision reaches Ra<0.05 micron, Rt<0.5 micron, and fineness reaches the II level.
G, packing.
Equipment needed thereby is the same in the process.
Embodiment two: process 10 times aspherical optical element, as shown in Figure 6, H is an aspheric surface, material: optical glass or silicon single crystal, Φ=60 millimeter, R=92.04 millimeter, δ 1=12.33 millimeters, δ 2=10.76 millimeters, aspheric surface effective radius Φ/2=30 millimeter, aspheric surface vertex radius R 0=215.985 millimeters.The aspheric surface equation: Y = CX 2 / 1 + 1 - ( 1 + K ) C 2 X 2 + a 2 X 2 + a 3 X 3 + a 4 X 4 + . . . . . . a 10 X 10 , C=1/R wherein 0=0.00463, K=46.308, a 2, a 3, a 5, a 7, a 9Be zero, a 4=-1.027972E-6, a 6=4.53049E-10, a 8=8.80954E-13, a 10=-1.022878E-15, X are any data of any on effective radius Φ/2=30 millimeter.
A, blanking by drawing, are carried out blanking with inside diameter slicer to optical glass or silicon single crystal material.
B, aspheric surface corase grind, (1), according to given parameter input equation calculates and the matched radius of curvature R of aspheric surface by computer software Fit, R Fit=143.22 millimeters, go out radius R by the milling of the model method of forming Fit, programme by numerically control grinder according to parameter (2), grinds aspheric surface with butterfly corase grind emery wheel by track.10000 rev/mins of emery wheel rotating speeds, 60 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies, 0.04 millimeter of cutting-in, 0.2 millimeter/minute of the amount of feeding.
C, aspheric surface correct grinding, (1) finish grindes 10000 rev/mins of emery wheel rotating speeds, 60 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies, 0.02 millimeter of cutting-in, 0.02 millimeter/minute of the amount of feeding with butterfly correct grinding emery wheel to workpiece.(2) detect aspheric surface behind the correct grinding with the edge analysis instrument, error should reach Ra<0.2 micron, Rt<2 micron, if do not reach, the amount of movement by adjusting the Digit Control Machine Tool X-axis and the thickness error of workpiece reach.
D, aspheric surface polishing, workpiece is polished 600 rev/mins of polished die rotating speeds, 580 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies with overall flexibility polishing mould on numerical control polishing, after polishing 60 fens kinds, change next procedure by measuring eligible (error should reach Rt<1 micron).If defective, return the aspheric surface precision grinding process and carry out the milling compensation, polished again 60 minutes, measure again.Till qualified.
E, aspheric surface are repaiied throwing, carry out small abrasive nose compensation polishing correction, 600 rev/mins of polished die rotating speeds, 580 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies to polishing qualified aspheric surface workpiece with revising the polishing mould.
F, detection faces shape are carried out the check of final face shape, and surface precision reaches Ra<0.05 micron, Rt<0.5 micron, and fineness reaches the II level.
G, packing.
Equipment needed thereby is the same in the process.
Embodiment three, process 15 times aspherical optical element, and as shown in Figure 7, H is an aspheric surface, material: optical glass or silicon single crystal material, Φ=82 millimeter, δ 1=4.37 millimeters, δ 2=3.98 millimeters, R=64.86 millimeter, R 0=30.70475 millimeters, 15 aspheric surface equations: Y = CX 2 / 1 + [ 1 - ( 1 + K ) C 2 X 2 + a 2 X 2 + a 3 X 3 + a 4 X 4 + . . . . . . a 15 X 15 , a 2, a 3, a 4, a 5, a 7, a 9, a 11, a 12, a 13, a 14, be zero, a 6=-1.35762E-8, a 8=1.144274E-11, a 10=4.921716E-14, a 15=-3.30473E-18, X are any data of any on effective radius Φ/2=41 millimeter, C=1/R 0=0.03256825, K=0.4811033.
A, blanking according to the drawing requirement, are carried out blanking with inside diameter slicer to optical glass or silicon single crystal.
B, aspheric surface corase grind, (1), according to given parameter input equation calculates and the matched radius of curvature R of aspheric surface by computer software Fit, R Fit=30.924 millimeters, go out radius R by the milling of the model method of forming Fit, programme by numerically control grinder according to parameter (2), grinds aspheric surface by track, 12000 rev/mins of emery wheel rotating speeds, 70 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies, 0.04 millimeter of cutting-in, 0.5 millimeter/minute of the amount of feeding with butterfly corase grind emery wheel.
C, aspheric surface correct grinding, (1) finish grindes 12000 rev/mins of emery wheel rotating speeds, 70 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies, 0.02 millimeter of cutting-in, 0.05 millimeter/minute of the amount of feeding with butterfly correct grinding emery wheel to workpiece.(2) detect aspheric surface behind the correct grinding with the edge analysis instrument, error should reach Ra<0.2 micron, Rt<2 micron, if do not reach, the amount of movement by adjusting the Digit Control Machine Tool X-axis and the thickness error of workpiece reach.
D, aspheric surface polishing, workpiece is polished 600 rev/mins of polished die rotating speeds, 580 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies with overall flexibility polishing mould on numerical control polishing, after polishing 60 fens kinds, qualified by detecting (error should reach Rt<1 micron) changes next procedure.If defective, return the aspheric surface precision grinding process and carry out the milling compensation, polished again several 60 minutes, measure again.Till qualified.
E, aspheric surface are repaiied throwing, carry out small abrasive nose compensation polishing correction, 600 rev/mins of polished die rotating speeds, 580 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies to polishing qualified aspheric surface workpiece with revising the polishing mould.
F, detection faces shape are carried out the check of final face shape, and surface precision reaches Ra<0.05 micron, Rt<0.5 micron, and fineness reaches the II level.
G, packing.
Equipment needed thereby is the same in the process.
Below only enumerate the processing instance of 2 times, 10 times, 15 times optical glass and silicon single crystal aspherical optical element, all realized producing in batches, qualification rate reaches purpose of the present invention fully absolutely.

Claims (4)

1, the processing method of a kind of optical glass and silicon single crystal aspherical optical element is characterized in that: optical glass and silicon single crystal are processed the adopting process flow process with computer numerically control grinder and digital control polishing machine tool:
A, blanking are carried out cutting stock with inside diameter slicer to optical glass material;
B, aspheric surface corase grind, according to given parameter input equation, calculate and the matched radius of curvature of aspheric surface by computer software, go out radius with the milling of the model method of forming, after programming by numerically control grinder according to parameter again, grind aspheric surface by track with butterfly corase grind emery wheel, 8000-12000 rev/min of emery wheel rotating speed, workpiece rotational frequency 40-70 rev/min, 0.04 millimeter of cutting-in, amount of feeding 0.1-0.5 millimeter/minute;
C, aspheric surface correct grinding finish grind workpiece with butterfly correct grinding emery wheel, 8000-12000 rev/min of emery wheel rotating speed, and workpiece rotational frequency 40-70 rev/min, 0.02 millimeter of cutting-in, amount of feeding 0.1-0.05 millimeter/minute;
D, aspheric surface polishing, with overall flexibility polishing mould the aspheric surface workpiece is polished on digital control polishing machine tool, 600 rev/mins of polished die rotating speeds, 580 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies, the polishing back is by detecting, qualified commentaries on classics next procedure, underproof, return the aspheric surface precision grinding process and carry out the milling compensation, polish again, detect again, until qualified;
E, aspheric surface are repaiied throwing, to polishing qualified aspheric surface workpiece, carry out small abrasive nose compensation polishing correction, 600 rev/mins of polished die rotating speeds, 580 rev/mins of workpiece rotational frequencies with revising the polishing mould;
F, detection faces shape are finally detected workpiece with accurate edge analysis instrument;
G, packing.
2, the processing method of optical glass according to claim 1 and silicon single crystal aspherical optical element is characterized in that: the butterfly emery wheel that is adopted, form by diamond (1), bronze body (2), axis hole (3).
3, the processing method of optical glass according to claim 1 and silicon single crystal aspherical optical element is characterized in that: the overall flexibility polishing mould that is adopted, form by brass body (4), high density sponge (5), polyamine fat (6).
4, the processing method of optical glass according to claim 1 and silicon single crystal aspherical optical element, it is characterized in that: the correction polishing mould that is adopted, form by rustless steel body (7), cutting ferrule (8), rubber sleeve (9), small abrasive nose fixed axis (10), small abrasive nose (11).
CNB2005100107442A 2005-04-13 2005-04-13 Processing method of aspherical optical element of optical glass and silicon monocrystal CN100431790C (en)

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