CN100431408C - Method for breeding two hybrid species of fish - Google Patents

Method for breeding two hybrid species of fish Download PDF

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CN100431408C
CN100431408C CNB2006100144770A CN200610014477A CN100431408C CN 100431408 C CN100431408 C CN 100431408C CN B2006100144770 A CNB2006100144770 A CN B2006100144770A CN 200610014477 A CN200610014477 A CN 200610014477A CN 100431408 C CN100431408 C CN 100431408C
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CN1871902A (en
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金万昆
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HUANXIN AQUATIC PRODUCT SEED MULTIPLICATION FARM TIANJIN CITY
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HUANXIN AQUATIC PRODUCT SEED MULTIPLICATION FARM TIANJIN CITY
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The present invention relates to a method for breeding two hybrid species of the fish, which belongs to the technical field of fish breeding and comprises the species production, the fish fry production, the hatch, the black fry distribution in a pound, and the breeding, wherein the species production is formed by the method that a megalobrama amblycephala is used as a female parent, and a top-mouth red carp is used as a male parent so that a hybrid species is formed, or a frame scale glass carp is used as a female parent, and a red carp is used as a male parent so that the hybrid species is produced; the fish fry production is formed by the method that spawning induction drugs are injected for flushing, and mature ova are bred and then carry out the artificial insemination with sperms; the hatch is formed by the method that the zygotes are sprinkled on a fish spawning nest and then hatches in a pound, or the zygotes are sprinkled on the bottom of a waxing processing pound, and then are put in an annular channel for the hatch after being collected; the black fry distribution in a pound is formed by the method that two to three million fish fries are put largely, soybean milk is sprinkled, and then black fries are bred for 10 to 14 days; the breeding is formed by the method that twenty five to thirty five thousand black fries of a big white fish are put largely, or fifteen to twenty five thousand gold carp black fries are put largely, the oxygen content of water is more than 3mg/L, and a breed period is from 4 to 6 months. The fish bed by the present invention has the advantages of unique shape, quick growth, high stress resistance, general food habit, etc.

Description

The cultural method of two hybrid species of fish
Technical field
The invention belongs to the fish culture technical field, particularly relate to the cultural method of two hybrid species of fish.
Background technology
At present, the fish distant hybridization is one of basic means of fish breeding.Because distant hybridization can solve nearly edge intervarietal cross, variation amplitude is little, thereby enlarges and enrich the gene pool of animal and plant breeding, promote the interchange of gene pool between species, import heterogenous gene, create variation type unprecedented, new in the domestic breed, even form new species.But there is a large-scale production application technology difficult problem in distant hybridization, and therefore, the distant hybrids that is applied to large-scale production is few.So far, do not see the report of large-scale production as yet.
Summary of the invention
The present invention provides the cultural method of two hybrid species of fish for solving the problem that prior art exists.
The objective of the invention is to utilize the fish distant hybridization, solve nearly edge intervarietal cross, variation amplitude is little, creates variation type unprecedented, new in the domestic breed, forms new species.Characteristics such as two hybrid species of fish have particular shape, biological character, and growth is very fast, strong stress resistance and feeding habits are extensive.
Novelty that the present invention has and superiority:
1. use the distant hybridization technology and obtain two crossbreed---big whitefish of Lu Tai and gold crucian carp, be applied to large-scale production and obtained favorable economic benefit and social benefit.
2. intergeneric cross is all of fine quality different.The big whitefish of Lu Tai is littler than erythroculter ilishaeformis head, mouth upwarps near anteposition, meat savoury U.S., feeding habits and changes, and adapts to artifical compound feed fully, can lower oxygen concentration resistance, can high-density breeding, and per mu yield can reach about 1500kg, and the mu volume increase can reach 30%.Gold crucian carp shape such as crucian, little, the back of the body is high, meat is thick, growth is fast, and the crucian of culturing than tradition increases weight 1-2 times.
3. suitable seed large-scale production.Present technique accompanies by the artificial induced spawning technology and makes it reach the synchronism maturation according to the natural law of four parent's gonad developments, obtains the high fertilized egg of fertilization rate with technology of artificial insemination again.In order to reach this purpose, will from the reserve parent fish large group of cultivating, select good parent, and impose reinforced cultivating, this is the key that can hybridization successful; Simultaneously, for the scale seed produces, adopted two kinds of hatching techniques and equipment: a kind of is fertilized egg directly to be splashed obtained on the artificial fish nest of patent at this, changes the pond hatching then over to; Another kind is that fertilized egg is splashed at the bottom of the spawning pond pond of handling through waxing, then with fertilized egg with the bar broom sweep from, focus on egg-collecting box after the flushing of boundling current, put into circular hatching channal and hatch.
4. marketable fish cultured output height, the cycle is short.This is two crossbreed that are suitable for high yielding culture and form then.The big whitefish premunition of Lu Tai is extremely strong, the energy lower oxygen concentration resistance, when the pond oxygen content only has 2-3mg/L, still ingests strongly.When culturing small dimension (100g) marketable fish, mu can be put more than 30000 tails, and per mu yield can reach about 1500kg; When culturing the 300-400g marketable fish, mu can be put in a suitable place to breed more than 3000 tails, and per mu yield can reach 800-1000kg.Fish disease did not take place during the breed, was the kind of a suitable high-density breeding.The gold crucian carp is a kind of cryophylactic fish, and water temperature just can be ingested more than 6 ℃ the time, and lower oxygen concentration resistance, consumption rate are extremely low, can eat phytoplankton and artificial feed, efficiency of food conversion height, fast 1~2 times of growth fraction Pengzhe fish, can form marketable fish then, per mu yield can reach more than the 1000kg.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme:
Two hybrid species of fish cultural methods comprise the production of hybrid seeds, seed and breeding technique process, and its production process comprises:
1. the production of hybrid seeds
With the megalobrama amblycephala is maternal, and erythroculter ilishaeformis is that male parent makes big whitefish crossbreed;
Or be maternal with the mirror carp, red crucian carp is that male parent makes gold crucian carp crossbreed;
2. seed produces
Artificial propagation:, obtain fully-developed ovum and sperm to parent population injection oxytocic drug;
Artificial insemination: when light pressure raun belly has the ovum grain to flow out parent population is caught out, extruding raun belly is extruded fully-developed ovum in the abdominal cavity, clamp-ons the seminal fluid of milter simultaneously, makes smart ovum mix fertilization;
3. hatching
Fertilized egg is evenly splashed on artificial fish nest, then artificial fish nest is placed hatching naturally in the pond;
Perhaps fertilized egg is splashed at the bottom of the spawning pond of handling through waxing, again fertilized egg is swept, after the flushing of boundling current, put into the circuit hatching from collecting egg-collecting box;
4. the crow son sends out the pool
Mu is put fry 200-300 ten thousand tails, and sending out pool pool area is 5-10 mu, the soya-bean milk of splashing during the pool, and the new water of annotating was bred black young in 10-14 days;
5. fish culture
Big whitefish is cultured: pond 5-15 mu, and depth of water 0.7-1.3m in early stage, later stage 1.5-2m, mu is put black young 25000-35000 tail or 100g fingerling 2000~2500 tails, and water oxygen level remains on more than the 3mg/L, raises 4-6 month;
The gold crucian carp is cultured: pond 5-15 mu, depth of water 1-1.5m, mu is put black young 15000-25000 tail or summer flower 7000~8000 tails or 150~200g fingerling, 6000 tails, collocation silver carp crow son or summer flower 200-1000 tail, day feeding volume is the 3-7% of pond fish TBW, raises 4-6 month.
The present invention also takes following technical measures:
The cultural method of described two hybrid species of fish is characterized in: oxytocic drug is luteotropin releasing hormone d-ala analog and human chorionic gonadtropin, and the every kg body weight of injected dose raun is respectively 20-25 μ g and 300-500 international unit; The milter consumption is 1/2 of a raun dosage.
The cultural method of described two hybrid species of fish, be characterized in: fully-developed ovum in the raun abdominal cavity is clamp-oned in the ceramic whiteware basin, clamp-on the seminal fluid of milter, shaking the porcelain basin makes smart ovum mix fertilization, fertilization 20-30s, pour in the water of temperature adjustment, it is floating that fertilized egg is rotated with water, on the artificial fish nest at the bottom of depth of water 40-60cm pond of behind the 3-10min fertilized egg being splashed or at the bottom of the spawning pond pond that waxing is handled.
The cultural method of described two hybrid species of fish is characterized in: black young high density is sent out the soya-bean milk of splashing during the pool, uses soya bean 1.5-2.0kg for every mu, the every 4-6 days new water 5-10cm that annotate.
The cultural method of described two hybrid species of fish is characterized in: 90-110g is big, and whitefish is formed then, and mu is put black young 25000-35000 tail, and daily ration of feeding is the 3.5-6% of pond fish TBW, raises 4-6 month.
The cultural method of described two hybrid species of fish is characterized in: the big whitefish of 400g-500g was formed method in 2 years, and mu is put the back 90-110g fingerling 2000-2500 tail of surviving the winter, and daily ration of feeding is the 3.5-6% of pond fish TBW, raises 4-6 month.
The cultural method of described two hybrid species of fish is characterized in: 150-200g gold crucian carp is formed method then, and mu is put black young 15000-25000 tail or summer flower 7000~8000 tails respectively, and daily ration of feeding is the 3-5% of pond fish TBW, raises 4-6 month.
The present invention has following tangible advantage and good effect:
Two hybrid species of fish that the present invention cultures, have particular shape, biological character, growth is very fast, strong stress resistance and feeding habits characteristics widely, and through duplication of production and pond, different regions main support and raise together with in big waters, show that adaptability is strong, survival rate is high, stabilization characteristics of genetics, its seeding technique, fry production process and marketable fish cultural technique are with a wide range of applications.
Embodiment
For further understanding summary of the invention of the present invention, characteristics and effect, enumerate following example now.
Embodiment 1
Lu Tai is big, and the whitefish production method comprises:
1. the production of hybrid seeds
The utilization inter-genera distant hybridization is maternal with the megalobrama amblycephala, and erythroculter ilishaeformis is that male parent obtains the big whitefish crossbreed of Lu Tai.
2. seed produces
(1) adopts the artificial propagation method.To parent population injection oxytocic drug, so that obtain to develop into the ovum and the sperm of heat, oxytocic drug is selected luteotropin releasing hormone d-ala analog (LRH-A) and human chorionic gonadtropin (HCG) for use, and injected dose is that every kg body weight raun is used LRH-A 20-25 μ g and HCG 300-500 international unit.Milter is used half of raun dosage.Twice, twice blanking time of raun injection oxytocic drug is 12h, and injected dose is injected surplus the second time with 1/3 of full dosage for the first time; A milter shot, injection when raun is injected for the second time, the position of injectable drug is thoracic cavity (a pectoral fin base portion).Select inject time, is injected at about 6 of mornings for the first time; Injection for the second time was selected in about 6 pm, and artificial insemination time was carried out during 2-4 the 2nd day morning.
The key of artificial induced spawning is the selection of sexual maturity parent population.Two parents of inter-genera distant hybridization belong to two different genus, and far away between ratio is planted on the affiliation, two parents' the sexual maturity time is not the same, and can't breed synchronously.Therefore, the parent that must choose from the large group of cultivating imposes reinforced cultivating and artificial induced spawning technology again.
(2) adopt artificial insemination method.Behind the parent population injection oxytocic drug, under the effect of oxytocic drug, the former intensive ovum that is wrapped in the fish nest is reached maturity and is fallen into the abdominal cavity, when having the ovum grain to flow out, light pressure raun belly should in time parent population be caught out, put into the fish folder, one people wraps tightly the fish folder, make fish belly portion down, head upwards, another people dries the water on the fish folder, and with the hands push the raun belly gently, fully-developed ovum in the abdominal cavity is clamp-oned in the clean ceramic whiteware basin smoothly, and the 3rd people clamp-ons the seminal fluid of this combination milter, and the 4th people shakes the porcelain basin gently makes smart ovum mix fertilization, be fertilized approximately behind the 20-30S, pour into and meet the water supply standard and through the well water of temperature adjustment of breeding fish, another hand stretches in the basin water simultaneously, and water is rotated, fertilized egg is also rotated and in the floating water with water, on the artificial fish nest at the bottom of being laid on the about 50cm of depth of water pond in advance of behind about 3~5min fertilized egg evenly being splashed or at the bottom of the spawning pond pond of waxing processing.
(3) adopt the scale hatching technique.Fertilized egg is adopted two kinds of hatching techniques: a kind of is that fertilized egg is evenly splashed on artificial fish nest, then artificial fish nest is placed on hatching naturally in the fishpond; Another kind is that fertilized egg is evenly splashed at the bottom of handling the spawning pond pond through waxing, again with fertilized egg with whisk broom sweep from, collect the flushing of egg-collecting box reuse cluster current after, put into the circuit hatching.This dual mode is produced fry all more than 3000-5000 ten thousand tails for every batch, and once hatching all can reach 3000-5000 ten thousand tails, and in above-mentioned two kinds of fertilized egg hatching processes, the herbal control water mo(u)ld medicament of this development of splashing is in case the generation of saprolegniasis.
(4) black young high density is sent out pool technology.Mu is put fry 200-300 ten thousand tails, and sending out a pool pool area is 5-10 mu, sends out during the pool soya-bean milk of splashing 3 times every day, uses soya bean 1.5-2.0kg for every mu, simultaneously, the per 5 days new water 5-10cm that annotate, it is young to breed crow in 12 days, sells or put into other pond rearing summer flower or fingerling.
3. marketable fish is cultured
The big whitefish marketable fish of Lu Tai is cultured two kinds of patterns:
(1) the big whitefish small dimension of Lu Tai (100g) marketable fish cultural technique then: about 10 mu in pond, about depth of water 1m in early stage, later stage 1.5-2m, water oxygen level remains on more than the 3mg/L, mu is put young 30000 tails of crow, the powdery special compound feed of throwing something and feeding early stage, and protein content is about 38%, day bait throwing in 3 times, feeding volume is the 6-8% of pond fish TBW; The later stage special-purpose mixed bait about particle diameter 0.5mm of throwing something and feeding, protein content about 36%, day bait throwing in 2 times, daily ration, feeding quantity is about the 3.5-6% of fish body weight, raises to reach small item fish specification in 5 months and go on the market, about per mu yield 1500kg.
(2) the big whitefish 400g-500g of Lu Tai marketable fish cultural technique: the small dimension fish of forming above, can be used as fingerling and survive the winter, carried out the breed of 400g-500g marketable fish in 1 year.Pond 10-20 mu, depth of water 1.5-2.0m, water oxygen level remains on more than the 3mg/L, mu is put 100g fingerling 2000-2500 tail, and the particle diameter of throwing something and feeding every day is the special compound feed of 0.5mm, and protein content is about 36% in the feed, day bait throwing in 2 times, daily ration, feeding quantity is about the 3.5-6% of pond fish TBW, raises listing in 5 months, about per mu yield 1000kg.
Embodiment 2
Gold crucian carp breeding production process comprises:
1. the production of hybrid seeds
With the mirror carp is maternal, and red crucian carp is that male parent obtains gold crucian carp crossbreed.
2. seed produces
With embodiment 1.
3. culture
Gold crucian carp marketable fish is formed technology, and two kinds of patterns are arranged:
(1) form 150g marketable fish technology then: about 10 mu in pond, depth of water 1-1.5m, mu is put young 20000 tails of crow or summer flower 12500 tails, collocation silver carp crow son or summer flower 500-1000 tail, the powdery special feed of throwing something and feeding, a day feeding volume is the 5-7% of pond fish TBW; When the tail counterpoise reaches 10-30g, change and throw fingerling special feed (particle diameter 1.5mm), daily ration of feeding is the 4-6% of pond fish TBW; When the tail counterpoise reaches 50g, throw adult fish special feed (feed crude protein more than 32%, particle diameter 2.0mm), day bait throwing in 3 times, daily ration, feeding quantity is the 3-5% of pond fish TBW, raises 5 months, more than the tail counterpoise 150g, per mu yield 1500kg (comprising silver carp).
(2) form 200g marketable fish technology then: pond, the depth of water and feed etc. are the same, mu is put summer flower 7000-8000 tail, and collocation silver carp crow son or summer flower 200-300 tail are when the tail counterpoise reaches 5g, throw the special feed of particle diameter 0.5mm, a day feeding volume is the 5-7% of pond fish TBW; When the tail counterpoise reaches 10-30g, change and throw fingerling special feed (particle diameter 1.5mm), daily ration of feeding is the 4-6% of pond fish TBW; When the tail counterpoise reaches 50g, throw adult fish special feed (feed crude protein more than 32%, particle diameter 2.0mm), day 3 people of bait throwing in raised 5 months, on average about cabrage 200g, (comprised silver carp) about per mu yield 1200kg.
Embodiment 3
The big whitefish of embodiment 1 and embodiment 2 gained and the main form of gold crucian carp, biological property are as follows:
(1) main morphological feature
Big whitefish of table 1 Lu Tai and gold crucian carp morphological feature
Project The big whitefish of Lu Tai (the long 19.49-25.94cm of body) Gold crucian carp (the long 18.77-22.61cm of body)
Body length/height 2.93±0.14 2.13±0.14
Body length/body is thick 8.22±0.56 4.25±0.27
Body length/head length 4.37±0.14 3.31±0.19
Head length/kiss is long 3.95±0.28 2.85±0.21
Head length/eye footpath 4.26±0.31 6.42±0.52
Head length/eye spacing 3.26±0.13 2.32±0.10
Caudal peduncle length/caudal peduncle height 0.75±0.10 0.89±0.35
Dorsal fin bar number i,7 iii(iv),16~20
Pectoral fin bar number i,16~18 i,13~14
Abdomeinal fin bar number i,8 i,7~8
Stern fin ray number iii,26~30 iii,5
Number of lateral 60~68 30~34
Left side mandibular arch gill raker number 16~21 28~36
(2) main biological property
Big whitefish of table 2 Lu Tai and the main biological property of gold crucian carp
Project The big whitefish of Lu Tai The gold crucian carp
Adapt to water temperature optimum growh water temperature 0-30℃ 18-25℃ 0-30℃ 16-25℃
Oxygen-resistant ability Can lower oxygen concentration resistance (it is fine to ingest when oxygen content 2-3mg/L) Can lower oxygen concentration resistance (it is not bad to ingest when the oxygen content 3mg/L left and right sides)
Premunition Premunition is very strong Premunition is very strong
Feeding habits Adapt to artificial feed fully Adapt to artificial feed fully
Breeding Female, milter can educate fully Raun can educate on a small quantity, and milter is sterile substantially
(3) flesh quality
Two kinds of fish total amino acid contents that the inventive method makes are also higher than mandarin fish.

Claims (7)

1. the cultural method of two hybrid species of fish comprises the production of hybrid seeds, seed and breeding technique process, and it is characterized in that: production process comprises:
(1) production of hybrid seeds
With the megalobrama amblycephala is maternal, and erythroculter ilishaeformis is that male parent makes big whitefish crossbreed;
Or be maternal with the mirror carp, red crucian carp is that male parent makes gold crucian carp crossbreed;
(2) seed produces
Artificial propagation:, obtain fully-developed ovum and sperm to parent population injection oxytocic drug:
Artificial insemination: when light pressure raun belly has the ovum grain to flow out parent population is caught out, extruding raun belly is extruded fully-developed ovum in the abdominal cavity, clamp-ons the seminal fluid of milter simultaneously, makes smart ovum mix fertilization;
(3) hatching
Fertilized egg is evenly splashed on artificial fish nest, then artificial fish nest is placed hatching naturally in the pond;
Perhaps fertilized egg is splashed at the bottom of the spawning pond of handling through waxing, again fertilized egg is swept, after the flushing of boundling current, put into the circuit hatching from collecting egg-collecting box;
(4) the young pool of sending out of crow
Mu is put fry 200-300 ten thousand tails, and sending out pool pool area is 5-10 mu, the soya-bean milk of splashing during the pool, and the new water of annotating was bred black young in 10-14 days;
(5) fish culture
Big whitefish is cultured: pond 5-15 mu, and depth of water 0.7-1.3m in early stage, later stage 1.5-2m, mu is put black young 25000-35000 tail or 100g fingerling 2000~2500 tails, and water oxygen level remains on more than the 3mg/L, raises 4-6 month;
The gold crucian carp is cultured: pond 5-15 mu, depth of water 1-1.5m, mu is put black young 15000-25000 tail or summer flower 7000~8000 tails or 150~200g fingerling, 6000 tails, collocation silver carp crow son or summer flower 200-1000 tail, day feeding volume is the 3-7% of pond fish TBW, raises 4-6 month.
2. the cultural method of two hybrid species of fish according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: oxytocic drug is luteotropin releasing hormone d-ala analog and human chorionic gonadtropin, and the every kg body weight of injected dose raun is respectively 20-25 μ g and 300-500 international unit; The milter consumption is 1/2 of a raun dosage.
3. the cultural method of two hybrid species of fish according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: fully-developed ovum in the raun abdominal cavity is clamp-oned in the ceramic whiteware basin, clamp-on the seminal fluid of milter, shaking the porcelain basin makes smart ovum mix fertilization, fertilization 20-30s, pour in the water of temperature adjustment, it is floating that fertilized egg is rotated with water, on the artificial fish nest at the bottom of depth of water 40-60cm pond of behind the 3-10min fertilized egg being splashed or at the bottom of the spawning pond pond that waxing is handled.
4. the cultural method of two hybrid species of fish according to claim 1 is characterized in that: black young high density is sent out the soya-bean milk of splashing during the pool, uses soya bean 1.5-2.0kg for every mu, the every 4-6 days new water 5-10cm that annotate.
5. the cultural method of two hybrid species of fish according to claim 1 is characterized in that: 90-110g is big, and whitefish is formed then, and mu is put black young 25000-35000 tail, and daily ration of feeding is the 3.5-6% of pond fish TBW, raises 4-6 month.
6. the cultural method of two hybrid species of fish according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the big whitefish of 400g-500g was formed method in 2 years, mu is put the back 90-110g fingerling 2000-2500 tail of surviving the winter, and daily ration of feeding is the 3.5-6% of pond fish TBW, raises 4-6 month.
7. the cultural method of two hybrid species of fish according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: 150-200g gold crucian carp is formed method then, mu is put black young 15000-25000 tail or summer flower 7000~8000 tails respectively, and daily ration of feeding is the 3-5% of pond fish TBW, raises 4-6 month.
CNB2006100144770A 2006-06-29 2006-06-29 Method for breeding two hybrid species of fish Expired - Fee Related CN100431408C (en)

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(团头鲂♀×翘嘴红鲌♂)杂种F1的含肉率、肌肉营养成分及氨基酸含量. 金万昆等.淡水渔业,第36卷第1期. 2006 *
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101720697B (en) * 2009-12-09 2011-07-27 湖南师范大学 Cultivation method of gynogenesis megalobrama amblycephala
KR101885049B1 (en) 2018-03-16 2018-08-29 전상운 Hybrid production mathod of fishing carp and goldfish
KR101886641B1 (en) * 2018-03-20 2018-08-08 노기중 Method for Producing Hybridized Species of Crucian Carp and Carp

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