CN100420021C - Single slice integration temperature, humidity, pressure sensor chip based on polymer material - Google Patents

Single slice integration temperature, humidity, pressure sensor chip based on polymer material Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100420021C
CN100420021C CNB2005100638028A CN200510063802A CN100420021C CN 100420021 C CN100420021 C CN 100420021C CN B2005100638028 A CNB2005100638028 A CN B2005100638028A CN 200510063802 A CN200510063802 A CN 200510063802A CN 100420021 C CN100420021 C CN 100420021C
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China
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resistance
film
humidity
sensor chip
pressure
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CNB2005100638028A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1845327A (en
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赵湛
王奇
曾欢欢
方震
张博军
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中国科学院电子学研究所
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a temperature, humidity and pressure sensor chip which bases on the monolithic integration of polymeric materials. The present invention is characterized in that a parallel pole plate and three resistors are made on a base piece, wherein the parallel pole plate is an electrode of a capacitor used for measuring humidity; the resistors are used as straining resistors for measuring pressure and thermosensitive resistors for measuring temperature; the parallel pole plate and the resistors are respectively provided with one layer of polymers which are respectively used as capacitance dielectric for sensing humidity and elastic membranes for sensing pressure; the humidity sensing dielectric polymers are provided with a cancellate pole plate which is used as the other electrode of the capacitor; the pressure sensing membranes are provided with resistors which have the same structure with the straining resistors on the base piece; the resistors on the upper and the lower parts form a pressure measuring electric bridge; a cavity is arranged under the pressure sensing membranes and can be used for vacuum seal and for measuring absolute pressure; a single resistor on an integrated chip is used for measuring temperature; the parallel pole plate capacitor is used for measuring humidity; straining resistors on the upper and the lower surfaces of the pressure sensing membranes are used for measuring pressure.

Description

Single slice integration temperature, humidity, pressure sensor chip based on polymeric material
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of structure and manufacture method of transducer, relate in particular to a kind of structure and manufacture method of carrying out ambient temperature, humidity and tonometric multisensor monolithic integrated chip.
Background technology
Miniature integrated multi-sensor is one of important directions of sensor technology research and development.Temperature, humidity and pressure are the important physical amounts that biomedicine, environment and industrial and agricultural production relate to.What usually the measurement of these physical quantitys is adopted is the transducer that separates; What temperature adopted is thermistor or platinum resistance; Moisture measurement adopt at present extensively as capacitance method, moisture absorption method, hydrometer method, optical method etc.; What pressure measxurement was adopted is silicon pressure group transducer etc.The separation sensor characteristics are that volume is bigger, and power consumption is big, can not satisfy the requirement of the micro-system of present fast development to aspects such as the small size of transducer, low-power consumption, integrated levels.
MEMS (micro electronic mechanical system-micromechanics electronic system) is a new developing technology closely during the last ten years, and it is meant can be with the MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) that integrates parts such as microactrator, microsensor, integrated circuit of technique for manufacturing batch manufacturings such as microelectronics micromechanics.Be characterized in that volume is little, stable performance can be produced in batches, thereby cost is low, and consistency of performance is good.To the measurement of humidity is difficult point in designing and producing, and humidity is meant the relative amount of steam in the unit volume, will be subjected to the interference and the restriction of many other factors to its measurement.In order to make miniature integrated sensor, that extensively adopts in the traditional measurement is relatively poor with micromechanics electronic system (MEMS) process compatible as moisture absorption method, hydrometer method, optical method etc., be difficult to realize, so these methods generally to apply the sensitive material of moisture absorption on transducer.Traditional absolute humidity is measured and is adopted two thermistors, also has the microelectric technique utilized to use ceramic and other composite material to make the research that resistance carries out moisture measurement.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to be to provide the manufacture method of a kind of single slice integration temperature, humidity, pressure sensor chip and this chip.It is little, low in energy consumption that chip provided by the invention has a volume, and response is fast, characteristics such as high conformity.
For achieving the above object, technical solution of the present invention provides a kind of single slice integration temperature based on polymeric material, humidity, pressure sensor chip, and it is:
The identical substrate of an affixed area on surface on glass, a cavity is established in substrate right-hand member appropriate location, and four wiring point e, f, g, h are arranged on the cavity Zhou Yuansi angle; Unsettled second resistance that is provided with above cavity, first resistance is positioned at cavity side, and first resistance and second resistance are electrically connected with three wiring point e, f, g routinely, and polyphone is formed a brachium pontis of Wheatstone bridge; Substrate left end appropriate location, be provided with the bottom crown of two blocks of relative up and down parallel plate electrode electric capacity in substrate upper surface, two bottom crowns are electrically connected with left side wiring point a and b, one gap is arranged between two bottom crowns, in the gap, in the ccontaining U-shaped resistance of substrate upper surface, the opening of U-shaped resistance is to right-hand, upper and lower wiring point c, the d of being electrically connected with respectively in its termination;
Above two bottom crowns, be coated with the one layer of polymeric material film, the upper surface of polymer material membrane, the position relative with two bottom crowns is provided with the top crown of parallel capacitance; Above cavity, resistance and resistance, also be coated with another polymeric material film, the upper surface of another polymeric material film, with corresponding the 4th resistance that is installed with of second resistance, the 3rd resistance is positioned at the another side of cavity, be oppositely arranged with first resistance, the 3rd resistance and the 4th resistance are electrically connected with four wiring point e, f, h routinely, and polyphone is formed another brachium pontis of Wheatstone bridge; E, f, g, h form four wiring points of Wheatstone bridge; On pairing another polymeric material film of Wheatstone bridge, be installed with one deck insulation film;
Four wiring point a, b, c, d are positioned at two bottom crowns and top crown Zhou Yuan near four jiaos position.
Described sensor chip, its described substrate is silicon chip or sheet glass.
Described sensor chip, its described two bottom crowns and top crown are gold or platinum film, top crown is made fenestral fabric; The power-on and power-off pole plate is square, rectangle or circle.
Described sensor chip, its described U-shaped resistance, the first, second, third and the 4th resistance are the platinum film, are shaped as snakelike or spirality.
Described sensor chip, the upper surface of its described another polymeric material film also is connected with one deck insulation film.
Described sensor chip, its described insulation film is silicon oxide film.
Described sensor chip, its described polymer material membrane is polyimide film.
Described sensor chip, its course of work is as follows:
Give the U-shaped temperature detecting resistance a logical little electric current,, cause the variation of resistance both end voltage along with the ambient temperature different resistance values is also different; Calibrated and calculated goes out the correlation curve of temperature voltage, determines the temperature value that it is corresponding according to the voltage at the resistance two ends of measuring;
The di-electric polymer material film contacts with ambient atmos by the latticed window of top crown, and when ambient atmos humidity changed, the moisture of polyimide dielectric film absorption was also just different, has caused the variation of electric medium constant, thereby has changed the value of electric capacity; Calibrated and calculated goes out humidity electric capacity correlation curve, determines the humidity value that it is corresponding according to the capacitance of measuring;
Under the effect of ambient pressure, another polymeric material film on the cavity produces deformation, and attached to the also change thereupon of resistance of second on the film, the 4th strain resistor, this has just caused the unbalance of electric bridge, thereby produces the uneven output voltage of bridge circuit; Calibrate the correlation curve of voltage pressure, determine the force value that it is corresponding according to the magnitude of voltage of measuring.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is single slice integration temperature, humidity, the pressure sensor chip plan structure schematic diagram that the present invention is based on polymeric material;
Fig. 2 is the A-A cross section structure schematic diagram of Fig. 1.
Specific embodiments
The present invention adopts micromechanics electronic system (MEMS) technology to make a miniature platinum resistance on silicon chip, both has been used for carrying out temperature survey, also can be used to the sense wet polymer is heated and makes it to volatilize fast moisture.
The present invention utilizes the electric capacity ratio juris to carry out the design of humidity sensor, can carry out relative humidity measurement.
The present invention utilizes the strain resistor ratio juris to carry out pressure sensor design, can carry out the absolute pressure force measurement after the Vacuum Package.
The chip of a kind of single slice integration temperature of the present invention, humidity and pressure sensor, be on a substrate (silicon or other materials), to utilize microelectronic manufacturing technology to produce resistance and plate electrode, two resistance series connection wherein constitute an arm of electric bridge, are tonometric parts; Another one resistance goes between separately, is used to measure temperature.Plate electrode is the bottom crown of hygrometric electric capacity.Make the one layer of polymeric film on plate electrode and resistance, but the thin polymer film on the plate electrode is the dielectric of hygrometric degree electric capacity, the ohmically thin polymer film of pressure measurement is as pressure sensitive film.Corresponding position deposited gold electrode again is lithographically latticed humidity electric capacity top crown on plate electrode.On pressure sensitive film, produce with sensitive membrane below shape and two resistance of identical in structure, constitute the another one arm of electric bridge.The silica of sputter skim is used for protecting pressure sensitive film on pressure sensitive film and electrode again.Substrate etching from the back side the pressure sensitive film correspondence is saturating, forms microcavity.Under the environment of vacuum, make substrate and glass capsulation (bonding) then.
The measuring principle of temperature sensor of the present invention: the resistance of platinum resistance varies with temperature and changes, and its variation relation is Rt=Ro (1+ α T+ β T 2+ ...) high-order term of back can save.α, β is when temperature variation within the specific limits, and its value is changeless, and we just can draw the value of corresponding temperature by measure R t like this.
The principle of moisture measurement of the present invention: produce parallel plate electrode electric capacity on substrate, what the dielectric of electric capacity adopted is the wet polymer of sense.The sense wet polymer is that the netted aperture by top crown contact with ambient atmos, and absorption moisture wherein, thereby the dielectric constant of change polymer itself have changed the size of electric capacity.Therefore just can determine corresponding humidity value by the change of measuring electric capacity.
Under normal conditions, contain steam in the air, and steam is a kind of type dielectric, hydrone is the power molecule, after water is aggregated thing absorption, introduced strong polar molecule, under the effect of electric field, just polarized outside, make the dipole moment of humidity-sensitive film increase the increase that shows dielectric constant on the macroscopic view.So with the organic polymer film is that the compound that the plane-parallel capacitor of medium is actually with polymer and water is a medium.When hydrone concentration during in spatial variations, this film adsorption moisture quantum count is and then respective change also, thereby causes the variation of dielectric constant.The dielectric constant of polymer itself is very little, and the dielectric constant of water is 80 when room temperature.There have been a lot of theories and empirical equation to describe the dielectricity of polymer and water complex, and done in detail relatively with test structure, according to the semi-empirical relation of Looyenga:
ϵ = [ V ( ϵ 2 1 / 3 - ϵ 1 1 / 3 ) + ϵ 1 1 / 3 ] 3
ε in the formula, ε 1And ε 2Be respectively the dielectric constant of compound, polymer and water, V is the percentage by volume of PI stream, and humidity is big more, and the hydrone of thin polymer film absorption is many more, and V is big more, and the compound DIELECTRIC CONSTANT is just big more.Parallel plate electrode CALCULATION OF CAPACITANCE formula is:
C = ω d
Wherein ε is the compound dielectric constant, S be parallel plate electrode effectively over against area, d is a polar plate spacing.
The principle of atmospheric pressure measurement of the present invention: the polyalcohol pressure sensitive membrane is arranged on substrate, sensitive membrane all be distributed with strain resistor up and down, resistance up and down constitutes full-bridge.It below the sensitive membrane vacuum micro chamber.Under the effect of ambient pressure, film produces crooked, thereby causes the alteration of form of resistance, and then changes the size of resistance.The balance of bridge circuit is destroyed like this, produces unbalance voltage.By measuring the size of unbalance voltage, just can determine the barometric absolute pressure that it is corresponding.
The phenomenon that the resistance of metallic conductor changes along with the size of its suffered mechanical deformation is exactly a resistance strain effect.The physical basis that resistance-strain method that Here it is relies on.
Be provided with a long l, the cross section is S, and resistance coefficient ρ then has:
R = ρ l S
If wire is under axial force F effect, length l changes dl, and section S changes dS, and radius r changes dr, and resistance coefficient ρ changes d ρ, causes that R changes dR.Differential (1) formula can get:
dR R = dl l - dS S + dρ ρ = dl l - 2 dr r + dρ ρ ≈ ( 1 + 2 μ ) dl l = ( 1 + 2 μ ) ϵ = kϵ
Wherein μ is the material Poisson's ratio, and ε is axial strain, and r is a section radius, has wherein ignored the variation of ρ.Variation is linear with axial strain relatively for wire resistance as can be seen, and coefficient is k.
A specific embodiments of the present invention is described below.
See also Fig. 1, Fig. 2, the single slice integration temperature based on polymeric material of the present invention, humidity, pressure sensor chip, its structure is: at the identical substrate 1 of the affixed area of glass 11 upper surfaces, substrate 1 can be silicon chip or sheet glass.A cavity 5 is established in substrate 1 right-hand member appropriate location, on cavity 5 week four jiaos of the circles four wiring point e, f, g, h is arranged.The unsettled resistance 8 that is provided with above cavity 5, resistance 7 is positioned at cavity 5 sides, and resistance 7 and resistance 8 are electrically connected with three wiring point e, f, g routinely, and polyphone is formed a brachium pontis of Wheatstone bridge.Substrate 1 left end appropriate location, be provided with the bottom crown 2,3 of two blocks of relative up and down parallel plate electrode electric capacity in substrate 1 upper surface, bottom crown 2 and bottom crown 3 are electrically connected with left side wiring point a and b respectively, between bottom crown 2 and bottom crown 3, a gap is arranged, in the gap, in the ccontaining U-shaped resistance 4 of substrate 1 upper surface, the opening of U-shaped resistance 4 is to right-hand, upper and lower wiring point c, the d of being electrically connected with respectively in its termination.
Above bottom crown 2 and bottom crown 3, be coated with one deck polyimide film 12, the upper surface of polyimide film 12, the position relative with bottom crown 2 and bottom crown 3 is provided with the top crown 13 of parallel capacitance, and top crown 13 is a fenestral fabric.Above cavity 5, resistance 7 and resistance 8, be coated with one deck polyimide film 6, the upper surface of polyimide film 6, with the resistance 8 corresponding resistance 10 that are installed with, resistance 9 is positioned at the another side of cavity 5, be oppositely arranged with resistance 7, resistance 9 and resistance 10 are electrically connected with four wiring point e, f, h routinely, and polyphone is formed another brachium pontis of Wheatstone bridge.Be connected with one deck silicon oxide layer 14 at polyimide film 6 with above the resistance 9,10.Four wiring point a, b, c, d are positioned at the position of justifying in bottom crown 2, bottom crown 3 and 13 weeks of top crown near four jiaos.
The present invention is based on single slice integration temperature, humidity, wiring point a, the b of pressure sensor chip, c, d, e, f, g, the h of polymeric material, be electrically connected on testing circuit separately routinely.
Single slice integration temperature based on polymeric material of the present invention, humidity, pressure sensor chip, its manufacture method is as follows:
At 8.5 * 5.5mm 2Silicon chip 1 upper surface left end, utilize microelectric technique radio frequency sputtering gold thin film 2,3, as the bottom crown of the parallel plate electrode electric capacity of measuring humidity, bottom crown is divided into two, every size is about 2.5 * 1.5mm 2The sputtered platinum film adopts stripping technology (lift-off) to produce three resistance again, and the size of each resistance is about 1k Ω, and resistance 4, takes the shape of the letter U between bottom crown 2 and bottom crown 3 as the resistance of measuring temperature; Two other resistance 7,8 polyphones are formed two brachium pontis of Wheatstone bridge, are positioned at silicon chip 1 upper surface right-hand member.Get rid of the polyimide film that last layer thickness is 5 μ again on the silicon chip 1 of making electrode, adopt the technology of photoetching that polyimides is made two films 12,6 that cover respectively on gold thin film 2,3 and the Wheatstone bridge, size is respectively 2.6 * 3.3mm 2, 3.6 * 4.2mm 2Adopt then sputter, stripping technology (lift-off) on film 6, produce with film 6 below the same resistance 9,10 form two other brachium pontis of Wheatstone bridges, four resistance 7,8,9,10 are formed the Wheatstone bridge gaging pressures up and down.Adopt the fabrication techniques of radio frequency sputtering to go out gold thin film on polyimide film 12, adopt photoetching, corroding method to make latticed parallel capacitance top crown 13 then, the line thickness of grid is 10 μ.On polyimide film 6, also to evaporate one deck silicon oxide layer 14 and be used for isolating contacting of pressure-bearing polyimide film 6 and air.At the back side of silicon chip 1 right-hand member, adopt the method for deep erosion that silicon chip 1 is etched a 2 * 2mm 2The hole, be etched to and expose resistance and polyimide film, at last at the vacuum chamber 5 of the following silicon chip 1 of the condition of vacuum with glass 11 bondings formation gaging pressure.

Claims (6)

1. the single slice integration temperature based on polymeric material, humidity, pressure sensor chip is characterized in that:
At a surface on glass affixed a substrate identical with its area, a cavity is established in substrate right-hand member appropriate location, and four wiring point e, f, g, h are arranged on the cavity Zhou Yuansi angle; Unsettled second resistance that is provided with above cavity, first resistance is positioned at cavity side, and first resistance and second resistance are electrically connected with three wiring point e, f, g routinely, and polyphone is formed a brachium pontis of Wheatstone bridge; Substrate left end appropriate location, be provided with two bottom crowns of two blocks of relative up and down parallel plate electrode electric capacity in substrate upper surface, two bottom crowns are electrically connected with left side wiring point a and b, one gap is arranged between two bottom crowns, in the gap, in the ccontaining U-shaped resistance of substrate upper surface, the opening of U-shaped resistance is to right-hand, upper and lower wiring point c, the d of being electrically connected with respectively in its termination;
Above two bottom crowns, be coated with the one layer of polymeric material film, the upper surface of polymer material membrane, the position relative with two bottom crowns is provided with the top crown of parallel capacitance; Above cavity, first resistance and second resistance, also be coated with another polymeric material film, the upper surface of another polymeric material film, with corresponding the 4th resistance that is installed with of second resistance, the 3rd resistance is positioned at the another side of cavity, be oppositely arranged with first resistance, the 3rd resistance and the 4th resistance are electrically connected with three wiring point e, f, h routinely, and polyphone is formed another brachium pontis of Wheatstone bridge; E, f, g, h form four wiring points of Wheatstone bridge; On pairing another polymeric material film of Wheatstone bridge, be installed with one deck insulation film;
Four wiring point a, b, c, d are positioned at two bottom crowns and top crown Zhou Yuan near four jiaos position.
2. sensor chip as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described substrate is silicon chip or sheet glass.
3. sensor chip as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described two bottom crowns and top crown are gold or platinum film, and top crown is made fenestral fabric; The power-on and power-off pole plate is square, rectangle or circle.
4. sensor chip as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described U-shaped resistance, the first, second, third and the 4th resistance are the platinum film, are shaped as snakelike or spirality.
5. sensor chip as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described insulation film is silicon oxide film.
6. sensor chip as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described polymer material membrane is polyimide film.
CNB2005100638028A 2005-04-07 2005-04-07 Single slice integration temperature, humidity, pressure sensor chip based on polymer material CN100420021C (en)

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