CN100419038C - Water-based drilling fluids using latex additives - Google Patents

Water-based drilling fluids using latex additives Download PDF


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CN100419038C CN 200480017385 CN200480017385A CN100419038C CN 100419038 C CN100419038 C CN 100419038C CN 200480017385 CN200480017385 CN 200480017385 CN 200480017385 A CN200480017385 A CN 200480017385A CN 100419038 C CN100419038 C CN 100419038C
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based drilling
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CN1809622A (en
涛 项
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发明了一种水基钻井液,其具有能在至少部分地下地层上提供可变形的胶乳膜的聚合物胶乳,以便当用于在页岩地层内钻探以供烃回收操作时提供降低的钻井液压力侵入。 A water based drilling fluid of the invention, which provides a latex having a deformable membrane on at least part of the polymer latex subterranean formation, so as to provide a reduced pressure of drilling fluid when used in drilling shale formations for hydrocarbon recovery operations invasion force. 沉淀剂例如硅酸盐或铝络合物(例如铝酸钠)优选与该聚合物组合使用。 Precipitating agents such as silicates or aluminum complexes (e.g., sodium aluminate) is preferably used in combination with the polymer. 典型地,所存在的水含有盐以形成盐水,通常为饱和盐水,尽管本发明可采用新鲜水进行操作。 Typically, the presence of water to form a salt-containing brine, saturated brine is generally, although the present invention may be fresh water to operate. 若使用盐,则附加使用表面活性剂如甜菜碱常常是有益的。 If salt is used, the additional use of a surfactant such as betaines are often useful.


使用胶乳添加剂的水基钻井液 Latex of water-based drilling fluid additive


在地下油气井的钻探中使用的钻井液以及其它钻井液的应用和钻探工序是已知的。 Drilling fluid and other drilling fluid applications and drilling step used in the drilling of subterranean oil and gas wells is known. 在旋转钻探中,希望钻井液(也被称为钻探泥浆)或简称为“泥浆”具有许多功能和特征。 In rotary drilling, the desired drilling fluid (also called drilling mud) or simply "mud" has many functions and features. 期望钻井液在钻头下方向上携带钻屑、将其向上输送到环状空间内,并使其在界面处分离且与此同时冷却并清洗旋转的钻头。 Desirable drilling fluid carries the drill cuttings in the lower direction, delivers it upwardly into the annular space and allowed to separate at the interface and at the same time cooling and cleaning the drill bit rotates. 钻探泥浆还打算降低在钻杆和钻孔侧面之间的摩擦,同时维持钻孔未加套管部分的稳定性。 The drilling mud is also intended to reduce friction between the drill pipe and the side of the bore, while maintaining the stability of the non-cased borehole portion. 配制钻井液,以防止地层流体从穿透的可渗透岩石的不希望涌入且还常常形成薄的低渗透性的滤饼,所述滤饼会临时密封孔隙、其它开口和希望钻头穿透的地层。 Preparation of drilling fluids, to prevent formation fluids from permeable rocks penetrated and often undesirable influx of formation of a thin low permeability filter cake, the filter cake will temporarily seal the pores, openings, and other desired penetration of the drill bit formation. 钻井液也可用于收集和截取获自钻屑、岩芯和电子测井记录的信息。 It may also be used to collect drilling fluid and cuttings taken from the obtained information, electronic well logs and core. 应理解,在此处要求保护的本发明范围内,术语“钻井液”还包括“钻探流体”。 It should be understood, within the scope of the claimed herein the present invention, the term "drilling fluid" also includes "drilling fluid."

钻井液典型地根据其基础材料来分类。 Typically drilling fluids are classified according to their base material. 在水基泥浆中,固体颗粒悬浮在水或盐水内。 In water-based muds, solid particles are suspended in water or saline. 油可以在水或盐水内乳化。 Oil can be emulsified in water or saline. 尽管如此,水是连续相。 Nevertheless, water is the continuous phase. 油基泥浆相反。 In contrast oil-based muds. 固体颗粒悬浮在油内,和水或盐水在油内乳化,因此,油是连续相。 The solid particles are suspended in the oil, and water or brine is emulsified in the oil and therefore the oil is the continuous phase. 油基泥浆(它是油包水乳液)也被称为逆乳液。 Oil-based mud (which is water in oil emulsion) is also known as an invert emulsion. 盐水基钻井液当然是其中含水组分是盐水的水基泥浆。 Of course brine based drilling fluids in which the aqueous component is water-based mud with brine.

优化高性能的水基泥浆设计常常处于在许多钻井液服务和石油操作公司需要的最前端,这是因为逆乳液流体的各种局限性所致。 Optimized design of high-performance water-based mud are often in the forefront of many operating companies and oil drilling services needed because the invert emulsion fluid due to various limitations. 用常规的柴油、矿物油或较新的合成油配制的逆乳液流体在页岩抑制、钻孔稳定性和润滑度方面是最高性能的钻井液。 Conventional diesel, mineral oil or the newer synthetic oils formulated invert emulsion fluid in shale inhibition, borehole stability, and lubricity of the drilling fluid is the highest performance aspects. 然而,这些流体的各种局限性,例如环境担心、经济成本、损失循环的倾向、初馏点的检测和地质评价的担心仍对高性能水基流体保持强的市场需求。 However, the limitations of these fluids, such as worry about the environment, economic costs, losses tend to cycle, fearing detection and geological evaluation of the initial boiling point remains strong market demand for high-performance water-based fluids. 增加的环境担心和可靠度继续产生对水基钻井液的工业需求以补充或替代将导致逆乳液泥浆性能的性能。 Increasing environmental concerns and reliability continue to produce industrial demand for water-based drilling fluids to supplement or substitute performance will lead to an invert emulsion mud performance.

当用水基流体钻探页岩地层时,一个特别的问题是孔隙压力增加并通过流体渗透页岩导致溶胀。 When the water-based drilling fluid shale formation, a particular problem is the pore pressure increase and leads to the swelling of shale by the fluid permeable. 典型地添加页岩稳定剂到泥浆中,以抑制这些现象并稳定页岩以免受到泥浆影响。 Typically shale stabilizer is added to the slurry to suppress these phenomena and stabilize shale mud to avoid being affected.

降低侵入到钻孔壁内的钻井液压力是维持井孔稳定性的最重要的因素之一。 Reduce intrusion into the drilling fluid pressure within the borehole wall is one of the most important factors in maintaining wellbore stability. 已意识到充足的钻孔压力将稳定页岩维持钻孔的完整性。 The drilling has been realized ample pressure will stabilize shales to maintain the integrity of the borehole. 当泥浆或液体侵入页岩时,在孔内的压力升高,且在泥浆柱和页岩之间的压差下降。 When liquid enters the shale or mud, in the hole of the pressure rise, and fall between the mud column and the pressure of the shale. 随着压差下降,页岩不再受到支撑且可容易地破碎并落到井孔内。 As the pressure drops, the shale is no longer supported and can be easily broken and fall within the wellbore. 同样,水侵入到页岩基体内会增加部分脱水的页岩主体的水化或润湿,从而使它软化并丧失结构强度。 Likewise, the invasion of water into the shale matrix increases partially dehydrated shale hydration or wetting of the body, so that it softens and loss of structural strength. 化学反应性也可导致不稳定性。 Chemical reactivity may also lead to instability. 总是需要更好的组合物与方法以稳定页岩地层。 Always a need for better compositions and methods to stabilize the shale formation.

在钻探贫砂的过程中,还需要防止钻井液侵入到钻孔和地层内。 During drilling depleted sands, it is also necessary to prevent invasion of drilling fluid into the borehole and formation. 钻井液的损失和导致较高生产成本是更常见的主要关心因素,这胜过对地层稳定性的关心。 Losses and lead to higher production costs is primarily concerned with the more common factors, which than concern for the stability of the drilling fluid formation. 希望能降低到贫砂内的钻井液损失。 We are hoping to reduce the loss of drilling fluid in the poor sand.

对于选择或使用用于油和/或气开发的钻井液的那些技术人员来说,很明显所选择的流体的主要组分应被合适地平衡以实现对特定最终应用来说所有的必需特征。 For the selection or for oil and / or gas development for those skilled in the drilling fluid, it is clear that the main component of the selected fluid should be properly balanced to achieve all of the required characteristics for specific end applications. 由于要求钻井液同时进行多种任务,这一所需平衡难以实现。 Due to the requirements of drilling fluid at the same time a variety of tasks, it is difficult to achieve the desired balance.

希望可设计组合物和方法以辅助并增强钻井液同时完成这些任务的能力。 Desirable compositions and methods may be designed to assist and enhance the ability of the drilling fluid while completing these tasks.


因此,本发明的目的是提供当用水基钻井液钻探时稳定页岩地层并避免流体损失到贫砂地层内的方法。 Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide a water-based drilling fluid when drilling shale formation stability and prevent fluid loss to the formation method of the depleted sand.

本发明另一目的是提供水基钻井液,其降低到钻孔壁内的钻井液压力侵入速度。 Another object of the present invention to provide water-based drilling fluid, the drilling fluid pressure which reduces the intrusion velocity in the borehole wall.

本发明再一目的是提供组合物和方法,其增加压力堵塞、可靠度、数量级和可用水基流体堵塞的孔尺寸以稳定页岩地层。 A further object of the present invention is to provide compositions and methods that increase the pressure blocked, reliability, and the order of water-based fluids plugged pore size to stabilize the shale formation.

在实施本发明的这些和其它目的时,以一种形式提供水基钻井液,其含有水和能在至少部分地下地层上提供可变形胶乳膜或密封层的聚合物胶乳。 In the implementation of these and other objects of the present invention, there is provided a water-based drilling fluid in a form which contains water and capable of providing a deformable latex film or a sealing layer of polymer latex on at least part of the subterranean formation.


图1示出了对于压力侵入试验来说,使用各种中间试验配方,地层压力作为时间函数的图线; Figure 1 shows the pressure-invasive tests, tests using various intermediate formulations, formation pressure as a function of time in FIG line;

图2是在20%NaCl/1 lb/bbl(2.86g/l)NEWDRILL PLUS/1lb/bbl(2.86g/l)XAN-PLEX D/0.5 lb/bbl(1.43g/l)葡糖酸钠/3lb/bbl(8.58g/l)NaAlO 2 /5%体积GENCAL 7463内,表面活性剂对GENCAL7463粒度影响的图线; FIG 2 is a 20% NaCl / 1 lb / bbl (2.86g / l) NEWDRILL PLUS / 1lb / bbl (2.86g / l) XAN-PLEX D / 0.5 lb / bbl (1.43g / l) sodium gluconate / 3lb / bbl (8.58g / l) NaAlO 2/5% vol inner GENCAL 7463, surfactants FIG line GENCAL7463 impact of particle size;

图3是在150°F(66℃)热辊上16小时之后,在20%NaCl/0.75lb/bbl(2.15g/l)XAN-PLEX D/0.5 lb/bbl(1.43g/l)D-葡糖酸钠/0.4lb/bbl(1.14g/l)NEW-DRILL PLUS/2 lb/bbl(5.72g/l)BIO-PAQ/3lb/bbl(8.58g/l)NaAlO 2 /3%体积GENCAL 7463/1 lb/bbl(2.86g/l)EXP-152内,聚合物树脂(3lb/bbl,8.58g/l)对GENCAL 7463粒度分布影响的图线; FIG 3 is after 150 ° F (66 ℃) 16 hours on a hot roll at 20% NaCl / 0.75lb / bbl (2.15g / l) XAN-PLEX D / 0.5 lb / bbl (1.43g / l) D- sodium gluconate /0.4lb/bbl(1.14g/l)NEW-DRILL PLUS / 2 lb / bbl ( 5.72g / l) BIO-PAQ / 3lb / bbl (8.58g / l) NaAlO 2/3% by volume GENCAL the 7463/1 lb / bbl (2.86g / l) EXP-152, a polymer resin (3lb / bbl, 8.58g / l) GENCAL 7463 Effect of particle size distribution graph;

图4是在12 lb/gal(1.44kg/l)泥浆内,EXP-154与ALPLEX对泥浆性能影响的图线比较;基础泥浆为20%NaCl/0.5 lb/bbl(1.43g/l)XAN-PLEX D/2 lb/bbl(5.72g/l)BIO-LOSE/1 lb/bbl(2.86g/l)NEW-DRILL PLUS/3% EXP-155/150 lb/bbl(429g/l)MIL-BAR/27lb/bbl(77.2g/l)Rev Dust; Figure 4 is the slurry, EXP-154 and ALPLEX Effect mud properties in comparison to FIG line 12 lb / gal (1.44kg / l); base mud was 20% NaCl / 0.5 lb / bbl (1.43g / l) XAN- PLEX D / 2 lb / bbl (5.72g / l) BIO-LOSE / 1 lb / bbl (2.86g / l) NEW-DRILL PLUS / 3% EXP-155/150 lb / bbl (429g / l) MIL-BAR /27lb/bbl(77.2g/l)Rev Dust;

图5是对ALPLEX、EXP-154/EXP-155和ISO-TEQ流体的PPT试验结果的图线; FIG 5 is a ALPLEX, EXP-154 / EXP-155 and test results PPT ISO-TEQ FIG fluid line;

图6是显示循环对EXP-154/EXP-155泥浆性能影响的图线; FIG 6 is a circulation line in FIG Effect EXP-154 / EXP-155 on the mud properties;

图7是显示在9.6lb/gal(1.15kg/l)20%NaCl流体内,在250°F(121℃)热辊上16小时之后,胶乳对泥浆性能影响的图线;基础流体是20%NaCl/1 lb/bbl(2.86g/l)XAN-PLEX D/0.4lb/bbl(1.14g/l)NEW-DRILL PLUS/2 lb/bbl(5.72g/l)BIO-PAQ/5lb/bbl(14.3g/l)EXP-154/10 lb/bbl(28.6g/l)MIL-CARB/27lb/bbl(77.2g/l)Rev Dust; 7 is shown in FIG. 9.6lb / gal (1.15kg / l) 20% NaCl fluid, after a 250 ° F (121 ℃) 16 hours on the hot roller, mud properties of the latex Effect of FIG line; base fluid was 20% NaCl / 1 lb / bbl (2.86g / l) XAN-PLEX D / 0.4lb / bbl (1.14g / l) NEW-DRILL PLUS / 2 lb / bbl (5.72g / l) BIO-PAQ / 5lb / bbl ( 14.3g / l) EXP-154/10 lb / bbl (28.6g / l) MIL-CARB / 27lb / bbl (77.2g / l) Rev Dust;

图8显示在12lb/gal(1.44kg/l)内,在250°F(121℃)热辊16小时之后,胶乳对泥浆性能影响的图线;基础流体是20%NaCl/0.75lb/bbl(2.15g/l)XAN-PLEX D/0.4 lb/bbl(1.14g/l)NEW-DR ILLPLUS/3 lb/bbl(8.58g/l)BIO-PAQ/5 lb/bbl(14.3g/l)EXP-154/150lb/bbl(429g/l)MIL-CARB/27 lb/bbl(77.2g/l)Rev Dust; Figure 8 shows the 12lb / gal (1.44kg / l), after a 250 ° F (121 ℃) heat roller 16 hr, a slurry performance impact on a plot; base fluid is a 20% NaCl / 0.75lb / bbl ( 2.15g / l) XAN-PLEX D / 0.4 lb / bbl (1.14g / l) NEW-DR ILLPLUS / 3 lb / bbl (8.58g / l) BIO-PAQ / 5 lb / bbl (14.3g / l) EXP -154 / 150lb / bbl (429g / l) MIL-CARB / 27 lb / bbl (77.2g / l) Rev Dust;

图9是在12 lb/gal(1.44kg/l)流体内,实验产品96小时Mysidopsisbahia测距仪结果的图线,其中基础流体是20%NaCl/0.5lb/bbl(1.43g/l)XAN-PLEX D/0.4-1 lb/bbl(1.14-2.86g/l)NEW-DRILL PLUS/2 lb/bbl(5.72g/l)MIL-PAC LV(或BIO-PAQ)/150lb/bbl(429g/l)MIL-BAR; FIG 9 is (1.44kg / l) fluid, experimental results of product 96 hours Mysidopsisbahia rangefinder FIG line 12 lb / gal, wherein the base fluid is a 20% NaCl / 0.5lb / bbl (1.43g / l) XAN- PLEX D / 0.4-1 lb / bbl (1.14-2.86g / l) NEW-DRILL PLUS / 2 lb / bbl (5.72g / l) MIL-PAC LV (or BIO-PAQ) / 150lb / bbl (429g / l ) MIL-BAR;

图10是对于含3%胶乳聚合物的泥浆来说,在250°F热辊16小时之后,在50mD水泥圆盘上高温高压(HTHP)流体损失率的图线;和 FIG 10 is a slurry containing 3% for the latex polymer, the 250 ° F after the heat roller 16 hours on a line 50mD cement high temperature and pressure disc (the HTHP) fluid loss rate; and

图11是使用本发明方法形成的内部滤饼的照片。 FIG 11 is a photograph of the interior of the filter cake is formed using the method of the present invention.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

已发现,在钻探过程中,加入到水基钻井液内的聚合物胶乳可降低钻井液压力侵入到地下地层的钻孔壁内的速度。 It has been found, during drilling, is added to the polymer latex in the water-based drilling fluid enters the drilling fluid pressure may reduce the velocity of the borehole wall subterranean formation. 聚合物胶乳优选能在至少部分地下地层上提供可变形的胶乳膜或密封层。 The polymer latex preferably provides a latex film or the sealing layer may be at least partially deformable in the subterranean formation. 在本发明上下文中,术语“膜”或“密封层”不打算指完全不可渗透的层。 In the context of the present invention, the term "film" or "sealing layer" is intended to refer not completely impermeable layer. 密封层被视为可半渗透,但至少部分阻止流体渗透到足以导致渗透效率大幅改进的程度。 The sealing layer may be regarded as a semi-permeable, but at least partially prevent fluid permeable enough to cause penetration efficiency improved significantly. 在具体的非限制性实施方案中,加入到含任选但优选的结合/沉淀剂如铝络合物的高盐水基泥浆内的亚微米聚合物胶乳将显著降低泥浆压力渗透到页岩地层内的速度。 In a specific non-limiting embodiment, optionally but preferably added to a solution containing a binding / precipitating agent, such as sub-micron polymer latex in high aluminum complex salt-based mud will significantly reduce the mud pressure penetration into the shale formation speed. 压力堵塞、可靠度、数量级和可被阻止的孔隙尺寸因添加胶乳而全部增加。 Pressure clogging, reliability, and the number of stages may be blocked by the addition of the pore size of the latex and all increased. 抑制钻井液压力侵入到钻孔壁内是维持井孔稳定性的最重要因素之一。 Inhibition drilling fluid pressure entering into the borehole wall is the most important factor in maintaining wellbore stability.

本发明的水基钻井液的主要组分是聚合物胶乳和水,其构成大部分流体。 The main component of water-based drilling fluids of the present invention is a polymer latex and water, which constitutes most of the fluid. 当然,也可使用许多其它常见的钻井液添加剂以辅助平衡流体的性能与目的。 Of course, also possible to use a number of other common drilling fluid additive to aid and balance the performance of the fluid.

聚合物胶乳优选但不限于羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物或磺化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物。 The polymer latex preferably but not limited to a carboxylated styrene / butadiene copolymers or sulfonated styrene / butadiene copolymers. 特别的非限制的羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物是获自Omnova Solution Inc.的GENCAL 7463。 Carboxylated styrene particular non-limiting / butadiene copolymers are available from GENCAL Omnova Solution Inc. in 7463. 特别的非限制的磺化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物同样是获自Omnova Solution Inc.的GENCEAL 8100。 In particular non-limiting sulfonated styrene / butadiene copolymers are also available from GENCEAL 8100 Omnova Solution Inc.'s. 其它合适的聚合物胶乳含有但不限于聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯、聚乙烯、聚乙酸乙烯酯共聚物、聚乙酸乙烯酯/氯乙烯/乙烯共聚物、聚乙酸乙烯酯/乙烯共聚物、天然胶乳、聚异戊二烯、聚二甲基硅氧烷及其混合物。 Other suitable polymer latex, but not containing polymethyl methacrylate, polyethylene, polyvinyl acetate copolymers to, poly vinyl acetate / vinyl chloride / ethylene copolymers, polyvinyl acetate / ethylene copolymers, natural latex , polyisoprene, polydimethylsiloxane, and mixtures thereof. 略微不优选的聚合物胶乳是聚乙酸乙烯酯共聚物胶乳,更具体为乙烯氯乙烯乙酸乙烯酯共聚物。 Slightly not preferred polymer latex is a polyvinyl acetate copolymer latex, more specifically, an ethylene vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer. 尽管聚乙酸乙烯酯共聚物胶乳在本发明的方法内起作用,但它们通常不如羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物一样良好地起作用。 Although polyvinyl acetate copolymer latex work within the method of the invention, they are generally not as carboxylated styrene / butadiene copolymers as well functioning. 聚合物胶乳的平均粒度优选小于1微米或亚微米,和最优选直径为约0.2微米或0.2微米或更低。 The average particle size of the polymer latex is preferably less than 1 micron or sub-micron, and most preferably a diameter of about 0.2 microns or 0.2 microns or less. 可发现在分散相内的其它聚合物起作用。 Other polymers can be found in the dispersed phase function. 认为可同时使用多种聚合物胶乳。 That can use multiple polymer latex. 在钻井液内聚合物胶乳的比例基于流体总量可以是约0.1-10vol%,优选约1-8vol%,和最优选约2-5vol%。 The proportion of polymer latex in the drilling fluid may be based on the total amount of about 0.1-10vol%, preferably from about 1-8vol%, and most preferably from about 2-5vol%.

本发明的磺化胶乳具有附加的优点,它们可常常在不存在表面活性剂的情况下使用。 Sulfonated latex of the present invention has the additional advantage that they can frequently be used when the surface active agent in the absence. 这可简化钻井液添加剂的配方及到生产场地的运输。 This simplifies the formulation of drilling fluids and additives to transportation and production sites. 在一些应用中,这也可降低成本。 In some applications, it may also reduce costs. 在贫砂应用中,对于新鲜水应用来说,还常常不需要表面活性剂用于羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物。 Lean sand application, for fresh water applications, often does not require a surfactant for carboxylated styrene / butadiene copolymers.

任选的盐可以是在盐水基钻井液中使用的任何常见的盐,包括但不限于氯化钙、氯化钠、氯化钾、氯化镁、溴化钙、溴化钠、溴化钾、硝酸钙、甲酸钠、甲酸钾、甲酸铈及其混合物。 Any common salt, optionally a salt may be used in salt water based drilling fluids, including but not limited to, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium bromide, sodium bromide, potassium bromide, nitrate calcium, sodium formate, potassium formate, cerium, and mixtures thereof. “高盐含量”是指至少20wt%,和在一个非限制实施方案中,优选饱和盐水溶液。 "High salt content" means at least 20wt%, and in one non-limiting embodiment, preferably a saturated salt solution. 应理解,不可能事先预测特定的饱和盐水溶液的盐含量是多少,这是因为饱和点将取决于许多因素,其中包括但不限于水基流体中各组分的种类和比例。 It should be understood, it is impossible to predict in advance the specific salt content of saturated salt solution is much, because the saturation point depends on many factors, including but not limited to the types and proportions of the components in water-based fluids. 盐是任选的,这是因为本发明是在没有盐的情况下即使用新鲜水的情况下进行。 Salt is optional, because this is a case where the present invention is that the use of fresh water in the case of no salt.

另一任选组分是沉淀剂。 Another optional component is a precipitating agent. 合适的沉淀剂包括但不限于硅酸盐、铝的络合物及其混合物。 Suitable precipitating agents include, but are not limited to, silicates, aluminum complexes, and mixtures thereof. 合适的铝络合物包括但不限于铝酸钠、NaAl 2 O 2 (有时写为Na 2 OAl 2 O 3 )、氢氧化铝、硫酸铝、乙酸铝、硝酸铝、铝酸钾和类似物及其混合物(对于在水中可溶的这些化合物来说,特别是在pH>9下)。 Suitable aluminum complexes include, but are not limited to, sodium aluminate, NaAl 2 O 2 (sometimes written as Na 2 OAl 2 O 3), aluminum hydroxide, aluminum sulfate, aluminum acetate, aluminum nitrate, aluminum and the like and potassium mixtures thereof (these compounds is soluble in water, especially at pH> 9). 基于流体的总量,沉淀剂在钻探泥浆内的比例范围可以是约0.25-20lb/bbl(约0.71-57.2g/l),优选约1-10lb/bbl(约2.86-28.6g/l),和最优选约2-7lb/bbl(约5.72-20g/l)。 Based on the total amount of fluid, the ratio of the precipitating agent within the drilling mud may be about 0.25-20lb / bbl (about 0.71-57.2g / l), preferably from about 1-10lb / bbl (about 2.86-28.6g / l), and most preferably from about 2-7lb / bbl (about 5.72-20g / l). 在不局限于特定理论的情况下,据认为沉淀剂化学键合到钻孔粘土的表面上并提供高度活性的极性表面。 Without limited to a particular theory, it is believed that precipitating agent is chemically bonded to the surface of the clay and drilled to provide highly active polar surface.

本发明组合物的另一任选组分是表面活性剂。 Another optional component of the compositions of the present invention is a surfactant. 若存在表面活性剂,则表面活性剂处理的胶乳强烈地润湿表面,并积聚形成密封页岩内断口和缺陷的膜或涂层。 If the presence of a surfactant, the surfactant treatment of the latex strongly wets the surface, and a build-up of shale fracture and defects inner seal film or coating. 合适的润湿表面活性剂包括但不限于甜菜碱、碱金属亚烷基乙酸盐、磺基甜菜碱、醚羧酸酯及其混合物。 Suitable wetting surfactants include but are not limited to betaines, alkali metal alkylene acetates, sultaines, ether carboxylates, and mixtures thereof. 已测定当盐存在于钻井液内时,表面活性剂是尤其有益的,但在新鲜水流体体系内并不同样优选。 When salt is present has been determined in the drilling fluid, the surfactant is particularly beneficial, but the system is not as fresh water, preferably the fluid.

基于总的水基钻井液,这些组分的比例为约0.1-10vol%的聚合物胶乳,至少1wt%的盐(若存在的话),约0.25-20lb/bbl(约0.71-57.2g/l)的沉淀剂(若存在的话),约0.005-2vol%的表面活性剂(若存在的话),余量为水。 Based on the total water-based drilling fluid, the ratio of these components is about 0.1-10vol% polymer latex, at least 1wt% of salt (if present), about 0.25-20lb / bbl (about 0.71-57.2g / l) the precipitating agent (if present), about 0.005-2vol% surfactant (if present), balance water. 在更优选的实施方案中,比例范围为约1-8vol%的聚合物胶乳,至少1wt%的盐(若存在的话),约1-10lb/bbl(约2.86-28.6g/l)的沉淀剂(若存在的话),约0.01-1.75vol%的润湿表面活性剂(若存在的话),余量为水。 In a more preferred embodiment, the ratio ranges from about 1-8vol% polymer latex, at least 1wt% of salt (if present), about 1-10lb / bbl (about 2.86-28.6g / l) precipitating agent (if present), about 0.01-1.75vol% of wetting surfactant (if present), balance water.

希望铝酸钠或其它沉淀剂在泥浆内为亚稳态形式,这意味着它处于悬浮液或溶液内,但在钻孔壁上沉淀析出。 Sodium aluminate or other desired precipitating agent to the slurry in a metastable form, which means that it is within the suspension or solution, but precipitates in the borehole wall. 典型地,铝化合物原地添加到泥浆内。 Typically, the aluminum compound added to the slurry in situ. 若较早地加入到泥浆配方内,则它们倾向于不稳定且过早沉淀。 If the earlier added to the mud formulations, they tend to be unstable and premature precipitation.

由于开发了孔隙压力传输(PPT)测试,因此可评价各种化学添加剂对孔隙压力传输速度的影响。 Since the development of the pore pressure transmission (PPT) test, it is possible to evaluate the effect of various chemical additives pore pressure transmission speed. 测试主要集中在盐、二元醇和沉淀剂如硅酸盐和铝络合物的性能上。 Testing focused on performance salts, glycols such as precipitation of silicate and aluminum complexes. 对PPT实验设备和方法方面的改进伴随着增加更有效的水基泥浆体系的一般兴趣和研究,所述水基泥浆体系接近逆乳液流体的PPT试验性能。 General interest and research aspects of the improved apparatus and method of the experiment with the increase PPT more efficient water-based mud systems, the water-based mud systems close PPT performance test inverse emulsion fluids. 尽管其它研究者发现硅酸盐流体对于降低的较差压力传输速度来说是特别有效的,但硅酸盐流体由于其局限性导致尚未广泛使用。 Although other researchers found that silicates are particularly effective in reducing the fluid in the pressure transmission rate is poor, but because of limitations cause fluid silicates are not widely used. 尽管对于盐、二元醇和铝络合剂来说,证明具有较低的孔隙压力传输速度,但这些产品仍未接近逆乳液流体的性能。 Although for salt, a complexing agent for aluminum dihydric alcohol, demonstrated a lower pore pressure transmission speed, but the performance of these products are not nearly inverse emulsion fluids.

使用新配方方法以及对PPT试验工序的改性的组合,以证明提高水基泥浆体系性能的可供替代方法的效率。 New formulations and methods of using the compositions PPT modified test procedure to demonstrate alternative methods to improve the efficiency for water-based mud system performance. 选择可水分散的聚合物提供小的可变形颗粒源,以提供在页岩上的密封和阻止效果。 Water-dispersible polymers may be selected to provide a small deformable particle source, to provide a seal and prevent the effects on shale. 在具有其它产品的流体内,在PPT试验中首先测试这些聚合物。 In fluid having other product is first tested in the PPT test these polymers.

相对于下述实施例进一步阐述本发明,这些实施例仅仅意味着进一步阐述本发明,且无论如何不限制本发明。 With respect to the following examples further illustrate the present invention, these embodiments are merely meant to further illustrate the invention, and in no way limit the invention.

实施例1 Example 1

流体中间体的制备 Preparation of intermediate fluid

下述实施例是首先制备本发明的中间组合物。 The following examples are first intermediate composition prepared according to the present invention. 除非另有说明,在实施例中的胶乳是728胶乳,即乙酸乙烯酯胶乳。 Unless otherwise indicated, the latex in the examples of the latex is 728, i.e., vinyl acetate latexes.

组分 克/桶(每159升) 克/7桶(每1113升) Component g / barrel (159 liters each) g / barrel 7 (per 1113 liters)

自来水 310 2170 Water 3102170

铝酸钠 2 14 Sodium aluminate 214

LIGCO 2 14 LIGCO 2 14

AIRFLEX 728 10.5 73.5(75cc) AIRFLEX 728 10.5 73.5 (75cc)

热辊该混合物。 The mixture was heat roller. 在6天之后,pH为11.51。 After 6 days, pH 11.51. 罐底约75%被1/32″(0.79mm)小颗粒覆盖。然后分别对于单一的桶和7桶,以g为比例添加下述组分: Bottom of the tank is about 75% 1/32 "covered (0.79mm), respectively, for small particles and single barrel and barrel 7, g is added at a ratio in the following components:


NaCl(20%) 77.5 540 NaCl (20%) 77.5 540


具有胶乳和NEWDRILL PLUS的流体为浅褐色。 Latex fluid and having a light brown NEWDRILL PLUS. 添加LD8以控制发泡。 LD8 added to control foaming. 所得混合物在150°F(66℃)下热辊4小时。 The resulting mixture was at 150 ° F (66 ℃) hot roll 4 hours. 最终pH为10.75。 The final pH was 10.75.

实施例2 Example 2

页岩压力渗透的测定 Shale measured pressure infiltration

孔隙压力传输(PPT)装置以1500psi(10300kPa)的Hassler池为基准,所述Hassler池为2.5cm-7.5cm长度、2.5cm直径的钻芯芯杆设计。 Pore ​​pressure transmission (PPT) means to 1500psi (10300kPa) a Hassler cell as a reference, the Hassler cell length is 2.5cm-7.5cm, 2.5cm diameter core drill stem design. Hassler池是活塞插入每一端内的圆筒。 Hassler cell is inserted into a cylindrical piston within each end. 钻芯保持在两个活塞之间。 Coring held between the two pistons. 橡胶衬套绕钻芯和活塞放置,以便在钻芯周围密封并防止绕钻芯的流动。 Rubber bushing placed around the core drilling and the piston in order to seal around the drill core and prevent flow around the core drilling. 对衬套外侧加压形成良好的密封层。 Pressurizing the liner to the outer layer to form a good seal. 这些试验使用直径25mm和长度25mm的钻芯。 These tests use core drilling diameter 25mm and length of 25mm.

钻芯的低压侧(地层侧)配有1升、2000psi(13800kPa)的不锈钢存储器,以提供背压。 A low pressure side of the drill core (ground side) with a 1 liter, 2000psi (13800kPa) stainless memory to provide back pressure. 钻芯的高压侧连接到两个类似的存储器上,这两个存储器一个用于微孔流体,和另一用于试验流体。 High-pressure side is connected to the core drilling two similar memory, a memory for both the microporous fluid, and the other for the test fluid. 采用通过2200psi(15200kPa)氮气瓶供料的人工调节器控制在每一存储器内的压力。 By using 2200psi (15200kPa) nitrogen bottle feed manually control the pressure regulator in each memory.

采用Heise变换器监控所有压力。 Heise transformer monitor all use of pressure. 变换器压力在预定的间隔处自动计算机记录。 A pressure transducer at predetermined intervals automatically recording computer.

将该池密闭在绝缘腔室内,并采用200瓦特加热器维持温度。 The cell was sealed in an insulating chamber, and maintaining the temperature using the heater 200 watts. 采用驱动Control Concepts相角SCR控制单元的Dwyer控温器来控制加热器。 Control Concepts driven using the phase angle SCR Dwyer temperature control unit controls the heater. 温度控制精确到+/-0.05℃。 Precise temperature control to +/- 0.05 ℃.

施加压力到钻芯的一端并测量流经钻芯的流量。 Applying pressure to one end of the core drill and measure the flow through the drill core. 在低压侧上的活塞配有液体,并被堵塞,从而测量液体压力的增加而不是流量。 On the low voltage side of the piston with the liquid, and is blocked, thereby increasing the fluid pressure measurements rather than flow. 流经钻芯的非常少量的液体使得压力增加较大,从而使得该池足够敏感地测量流经页岩的流量。 Flowing drilling very small amount of liquid core so that a pressure increase is large, so that the cell is sensitive enough to measure the flow through shale. 页岩具有非常低的渗透率,结果流经页岩的流体流量非常小。 Shale has a very low penetration rate, the result of fluid flow through the shale is very small. 将压力对时间作图。 The pressure plotted against time. 结果以地层压力(FP)表示。 Results are expressed as formation pressure (FP). 若FP随着时间增加,则存在压力渗透;若地层压力随着时间下降,则不存在压力渗透,而后者是所希望的。 If FP increases over time, there is the permeate pressure; if the formation pressure decreases with time, then there is no osmotic pressure, which is desirable.

使用实施例1的流体。 Example 1 using a fluid of the embodiment. 在加热试验池过程中和之后,进行每次50cc共3次50%的置换。 And after the heating test cell during co-50% substitution per 50cc 3 times. 一次试验在100%置换下进行,和温度难以控制,因此决定在50%时启动较好。 One test for 100% substitution, and temperature is difficult to control, and therefore is preferably decided to start at 50%.

温度=155°F(68.3℃) Temperature = 155 ° F (68.3 ℃)

钻孔侧压力=250psi(1720kPa) Drilling side pressure = 250psi (1720kPa)

围压压力=370psi(2550kPa) Confining pressure Pressure = 370psi (2550kPa)

地层压力 Formation pressure

时间,小时:分钟 psi kPa Time, hours: minutes psi kPa

0 48.1 332 0 48.1 332

1:30 47.9 330 1:30 47.9 330

2:00 47.6 328 2:00 47.6 328

7:15 50.9 359 7:15 50.9 359

最终,在2°F(1.1℃)的温度变化内,50cc的流体置换最多50%。 Finally, a change in the temperature 2 ° F (1.1 ℃), the fluid displacement 50cc of up to 50%. 压力升高到52.7psi(363kPa)。 Pressure rises 52.7psi (363kPa). 关闭地层热量,和温度为147°F(64℃)。 Close the formation of heat, and a temperature of 147 ° F (64 ℃). 置换促使地层压力下降到36psi(248kPa),然后在接下来的2天内升高到80.2(553kPa)。 Replacement promote formation pressure dropped to 36psi (248kPa), then increased to 80.2 (553kPa) in the next 2 days. 起始的地层压力下降证明本发明的配方抑制压力渗透。 The initial formation pressure drop formulation of the present invention demonstrate inhibition of pressure infiltration.

实施例3 Example 3

流体中间体的制备-以克为比例,除非另有说明。 Preparation of intermediate fluid - the proportion in grams, unless otherwise indicated.

组分 每桶(每159升) 每7桶(每1113升) Barrel components (per 159 liters) per barrel 7 (per 1113 liters)

自来水 310 2170cc Water 310 2170cc

铝酸钠 2 14 Sodium aluminate 214

LIGCO 2 14 LIGCO 2 14

AIRFLEX 728胶乳 10.5 75cc AIRFLEX 728 latex 10.5 75cc


NaCl(20%) 77.5 540 NaCl (20%) 77.5 540


将铝酸钠和AIRFLEX 728胶乳混合在一起并使之静置过周末。 The sodium aluminate mixed together and AIRFLEX 728 latex and allowed to stand over the weekend. 然后将混合物在150°F(66℃)下热辊2小时。 The mixture was then at 150 ° F (66 ℃) hot roll 2 hours. 然后添加盐和聚合物。 Salt was then added and the polymer. 添加到铝酸钠/胶乳混合物内的顺序是:PHPA(部分水解的聚丙烯酰胺;NEWDRILL PLUS),接着混合,然后一半盐,接着MILPAC LV,接着另一半盐。 Sequence added to the sodium aluminate / latex mixture is: PHPA (partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide; NEWDRILL PLUS), followed by mixing, and then half of the salt, then MILPAC LV, then the other half salt. 热辊该混合物过夜。 The mixture was heat roller overnight.

实施例4 Example 4

页岩压力渗透测定 Shale pressure infiltration assay

钻孔侧压力=250psi(1720kPa) Drilling side pressure = 250psi (1720kPa)

围压压力=370psi(2550kPa) Confining pressure Pressure = 370psi (2550kPa)

地层压力 Formation pressure

时间,小时:分钟 psi kPa Time, hours: minutes psi kPa

0 46.3 319 0 46.3 319

5:49 2.3 16 5:49 2.3 16

7:36 0.6 4.1 7:36 0.6 4.1

50:00 65.0 448 50:00 65.0 448

*围压压力升高到410psi(2830kPa),和钻孔压力在该点升高到300psi(2070kPa)。 * Confining pressure pressure rises to 410psi (2830kPa), and drilling the pressure at this point was raised to 300psi (2070kPa).

实施例5和6,对比例AF Examples 5 and 6, Comparative Example AF

制备并测试两种其它的发明配方(实施例5和6)和6个对比例(AF)。 Prepared and tested two other inventive formulations (Examples 5 and 6) and 6 Comparative (AF). 结果如图1所示。 The results shown in Fig. 正如本发明实施例5和6所示,二者得到地层压力随时间下降的所需结果。 As shown in Examples 5 and 6 embodiment of the present invention, both the formation pressure to obtain the desired result fall over time. 对比例则不希望地得到地层压力随时间升高的结果。 Comparative results obtained not undesirably increased formation pressure over time. 在图1本身上给出了组合物的成分。 Components of the composition are given in FIG. 1 itself. 标志“CORE:P2PARALLEL”是指岩芯为平行取向的Pierre页岩。 Mark "CORE: P2PARALLEL" refers to the core is oriented parallel to the Pierre Shale.

这些结果证明需要所有这三种组分:盐、胶乳和铝酸钠(实施例5和6)。 These results demonstrate that all three required components: salt, sodium aluminate, and a latex (Example 5 and 6). 仅仅使用胶乳(对比例A),仅仅使用盐(对比例B),仅仅使用胶乳与盐(对比例C),仅仅使用铝酸钠和盐(对比例D),仅仅使用铝酸钠和盐(对比例E),和仅仅使用铝酸钠和盐(对比例F),发现全部无效,或者至少当然不如本发明的组合物有效。 Using only latex (Comparative Example A), using only salt (Comparative Example B), only the salt with latex (Comparative Example C), and the sodium salt of aluminum only (Comparative Example D), only the sodium and aluminum salts ( Comparative Example E), and using only sodium and aluminum salts (Comparative F.), all found invalid, or at least as good as the composition of the present invention is of course effective.

进一步的实验证据表明,一些胶乳颗粒与铝的络合物显示出协同效果,导致改进的孔隙压力传输特征。 Further experimental evidence that some of the latex particles and the aluminum complex showed a synergistic effect, resulting in improved transmission characteristics of the pore pressure. 采用在高盐水(高盐含量)流体内保持分散和挠性的胶乳配制稳定的钻井液体系。 Employed in formulation of stable high salt (high salt content) and fluid retaining flexible latex dispersion fluid system. 本发明的钻井液提供更接近于油基流体的孔隙压力传输性能,其好于当前的铝基钻井液所显示的性能。 The present invention provides a drilling fluid pore pressure transmission performance closer to the oil-based fluid, and good performance in the current aluminum-based drilling fluids displayed. 据认为该体系的两个特征是页岩稳定化的主要贡献者。 It is believed that two features of the system is a major contributor to shale stabilization. 第一,超细的可变形胶乳颗粒(具有约0.2微米的优选直径)机械地密封页岩的微小断口并物理地防止钻井液进一步侵入到敏感的页岩区内。 First, the ultrafine deformable latex particles (preferably having a diameter of about 0.2 microns) mechanically seal shale minute fracture and physically prevent further intrusion of drilling fluid to the shale sensitive area. 第二,胶乳与沉淀剂(若存在的话)例如铝的络合物共沉淀,在页岩表面上产生可半渗透的膜,该膜化学地改进流体与钻孔之间的渗透效率。 Second, the latex with the precipitating agent (if present) such as aluminum complexes coprecipitation produce semipermeable membrane on the shale surface to improve penetration of the film chemical efficiency between the fluid and the borehole.

对于本发明的流体来说,发现三种实验添加剂:EXP-153、EXP-154和EXP-155。 For the fluids of the invention, the additives found three kinds of experiment: EXP-153, EXP-154, and EXP-155. EXP-153是用于控制在该体系内HTHP流体损失的磺化聚合物树脂。 EXP-153 is used to control the sulfonated polymer resins HTHP fluid loss in the system. EXP-154被视为铝的络合物产品ALPLEX的替代品。 EXP-154 is regarded as a substitute for aluminum complex product ALPLEX. 与ALPLEX相比,EXP-154显示出与胶乳流体好得多的相容性。 Compared with ALPLEX, EXP-154 exhibited better compatibility with the latex fluid. EXP-155是改性的胶乳产品。 EXP-155 is a modified latex products. 与其它可商购的胶乳相比,EXP-155显示出对电解质较少的敏感度,且在20%氯化钠流体内在最多300°F(149℃)的温度下不絮凝。 Compared to other commercially available latex, EXP-155 showed less sensitivity to electrolyte, flocculation and 20% sodium chloride at the inner temperature of the fluid up to 300 ° F (149 ℃) a. 此外,由于在其玻璃化转变温度(Tg)和熔点(Tm)之间的温度范围宽,因此EXP-155的颗粒在大多数应用温度下保持可变形且能堵住微小断口。 Further, since the transition temperature (Tg) and a wide temperature range between the melting point (Tm) in the glass, so EXP-155 is capable of deformable particles remain blocked in most applications slight fracture temperature. 所有这些产品的毒性满足在墨西哥湾中对流体弃置的要求。 All of these toxic products in the Gulf of Mexico meet the requirements for fluid disposal.

配方和流体絮凝 Formulation and fluid flocculation

根据公知的Baker Hughes INTEQ混合工序混合所有流体。 Mixing all of the fluid according to known Baker Hughes INTEQ mixing step. 通过Fann35粘度计,在120°F(49℃)下,测量塑性粘度、屈服点、10秒胶凝和10分钟胶凝的起始和最后的Bingham Plastic流变学性能。 By Fann35 viscometer at 120 ° F (49 ℃), measuring the plastic viscosity, yield point, 10 seconds and 10 minutes gelled gelled initial and final Bingham Plastic rheological properties. 记录起始和最后的pH和API滤液。 Recording start and final pH and API filtrate. 在250°F(121℃)下静态和动态陈化16小时之后测量在250°F(121℃)下的HTHP流体的损失。 HTHP fluid loss at static and dynamic aging after 16 hours measured at 250 ° F (121 ℃) at 250 ° F (121 ℃).

胶乳稳定性 Latex stability

首先通过下述工序,在20%和26%氯化钠溶液内评价胶乳样品的稳定性: First, by the following steps, stability of the latex sample was evaluated at 20% and 26% sodium chloride solution:

1.添加332ml 20%(或26%)氯化钠水溶液到混合器杯内并开始混合。 1. Add 332ml 20% (or 26%) aqueous sodium chloride solution to the mixer and the mixing cup.

2.缓慢添加18ml测试的胶乳样品到该溶液内,并采用Variac和转速计,调节Prince Castle混合器到4000rpm。 2. 18ml sample of latex was slowly added into the test solution, and using Variac and tachometer, Prince Castle mixer adjusted to 4000rpm.

3.在搅拌5分钟之后,缓慢添加3g NaAlO 2到上述溶液内并混合总计20分钟。 3. After stirring for 5 minutes, slowly added to 3g NaAlO 2 the above solution and mixed for a total of 20 minutes. 在混合期间内,若观察到发泡,则可能需要添加约5滴消泡剂(LD-8)。 The mixing period, if foaming is observed, it may be necessary to add about 5 drops of defoamer (LD-8).

4.将该流体放入罐内并在150°F(66℃)下静态陈化16小时。 4. The fluid into the tank and static aged at 150 ° F (66 ℃) 16 h.

5.从烘箱中取出该罐并冷却到室温。 5. Remove the can from the oven and cooled to room temperature. 观察流体的絮凝和分离。 Fluid flocculation and separation was observed.

6.若不存在分离或絮凝,则用100目(0.150mm)筛网筛分该流体。 6. If there separation or flocculation, then a 100 mesh (0.150mm) fluid sieved. 观察筛网上保留的胶乳颗粒量。 The amount of latex particles observed sieve online reservations.

仅仅对通过上述筛分试验的那些样品进行附加的评价。 Only for those samples by the above screening test for additional evaluation. 使用Malvern Mastersizer粒度分析仪测量在所配制的流体内胶乳的粒度分布。 Using Malvern Mastersizer particle size analyzer particle size distribution of the latex fluid formulated. 在所有的粒度分布试验中使用小的样品分散单元和标准折射指数50HD(颗粒RI=1.5295,0.1000和分散剂RI=1.3300)。 Using small sample dispersion unit and the standard 50HD refractive index (RI = 1.5295,0.1000 particles and dispersant RI = 1.3300) in the particle size distribution of all the tests. 20%氯化钠水溶液的pH调节到11.5。 pH 20% aqueous sodium chloride was adjusted to 11.5.

页岩抑制试验 Shale inhibition test

通过页岩分散试验测定页岩抑制特征,所述页岩分散试验包括页岩静态晶片试验和孔隙压力(PPT)试验。 Characterized in shale inhibition, the test measures the shale dispersion by dispersing shale tests including shale pore pressure and static test wafer (PPT) test. 在PPT试验中,在如前面的实施例2中所述的两个活塞之间放置保存的Pierre II页岩岩芯,直径1英寸×长度0.9英寸(2.54cm×2.29cm长)。 In the PPT test, placed Pierre II shale core held between the two pistons as the foregoing embodiment described in Example 2, 1 inch in diameter × length 0.9 inches (2.54cm × 2.29cm long). 用橡胶衬套密封页岩和活塞的周围。 Around the rubber bushing and the piston seal with shale. 在平行或高渗透率方向上用层面取向岩颈。 High permeability in the direction parallel or level orientation with the neck of rock. 300psi(2070kPa)的钻井液置换经过上游活塞(钻孔侧)和50psi(34kPa)的海水置换经过下游活塞(地层侧)。 300psi (2070kPa) through the drilling fluid upstream of the piston displacement (bore side) and 50 psi (34 kPa) through the piston seawater exchange (ground side) downstream. 采用阀门容纳在下游活塞内的海水。 Valve with a piston housed in the downstream water. 当泥浆滤液进入岩颈的钻孔端内时,页岩内的原生水置换到地层活塞内。 When the mud filtrate into the rock drilling end of the neck, connate water in the formation shale displaced into the piston.

胶乳稳定性 Latex stability

如上所述,起始实验表明,一些胶乳产品(乳液聚合物)与铝的络合物产生协同效果,从而导致流体改进的孔隙压力传输特征。 As described above, initial experiments indicate that some latex product (emulsion polymer) complex with aluminum to produce a synergistic effect, resulting in improved pore fluid pressure transmission characteristic. 这一结果表明高度抑制性水基流体设计的新方法。 This result suggests a new method of water-based fluids designed highly suppressed. 然而,胶乳通常被视为亚稳定的体系。 However, latex is generally regarded as metastable system. 大的颗粒表面在热力学上是不稳定的,和影响使聚合物分散体稳定的平衡力的任何扰动导致颗粒聚集动力学的变化。 Large particle surface is thermodynamically unstable, and that the influence of any disturbances stable polymer dispersion of particle aggregation results in a change of the imbalance force dynamics. 为生产合成橡胶或应用于油漆/涂层而设计的大多数商业胶乳,对增加电解质浓度和温度是敏感的。 Most commercial production of synthetic rubber latex is used in paint or / and a coating designed to increase the electrolyte concentration and temperature sensitive.

如表1所示,在于26%和20%的氯化钠溶液内测试的16种胶乳样品当中,无一在26%氯化钠中稳定,和仅仅AIRFLEX 728和GENCAL7463在20%氯化钠内相对稳定。 As shown in Table 1, wherein 16 kinds of latex sample 26% and 20% sodium chloride solution in the test which, without a stable 26% aqueous sodium chloride, and only 20% of the sodium chloride AIRFLEX 728 and GENCAL7463 relatively stable. 显然,对于胶乳在钻井液内的成功应用来说,在高盐环境和在升高温度下的胶乳稳定性必须得到改进。 Obviously, for the latex in the successful drilling fluid applications, high salt environment, and the latex stability at elevated temperatures must be improved. 在电解质溶液内增加胶乳稳定性所使用的常规技术是添加一些表面活性剂。 Conventional techniques to increase the stability of the latex used in the electrolyte solution is to add some surfactants. 图2比较了EXP-152对AIRFLEX 728以及对GENCAL 7463的粒度分布的影响。 Figure 2 compares the influence EXP-152 and pair of AIRFLEX 728 GENCAL 7463 pair of particle size distribution. 这些结果表明,对于钻井液应用来说,GENCAL 7463和EXP-152的共混物可以是稳定的产品。 These results indicate that, for drilling fluid applications, GENCAL 7463 and EXP-152 blends can be stable product.

表1胶乳产品在NaCl溶液内的稳定性试验 TABLE 1 Latex Product stability test in NaCl solution

铝的络合物 Aluminum complex

尽管通过PPT试验结果证明了ALPLEX与胶乳对稳定页岩的协同效应,但该体系脆弱且对增加的盐浓度和温度非常敏感。 Although it demonstrated a synergistic effect on latex stability and shale ALPLEX by PPT test results, but are very fragile and sensitive to the increased salt concentration and temperature of the system. 已发现,在20%氯化钠溶液中,通过添加4lb/bbl(11.4g/l)ALPLEX,3%AIRFLEX 728或3%GENCAL 7463在数分钟内絮凝。 It has been found in 20% sodium chloride solution by adding 4lb / bbl (11.4g / l) ALPLEX, 3% AIRFLEX 728 3% GENCAL 7463 or flocculation in minutes. 在新鲜水内使APLEX预脱水或者添加一些表面活性剂(例如EXP-152)确实改进该体系在低温下的稳定性,但胶乳粒度仍大大地受到ALPLEX的影响。 So that in the dehydration of fresh water or add some pre APLEX surfactants (e.g. EXP-152) does improve the stability of the system at low temperatures, the latex particle size but still greatly influenced by the ALPLEX. 在含ALPLEX的流体内大于100微米的那些颗粒可部分来自于不溶的木质素(ALPLEX中的一种组分)。 Those particles within the fluid-containing ALPLEX may be greater than 100 microns from the insoluble portion of the lignin (a component of the ALPLEX). 采用GENCAL 7463也观察到类似的效果。 Similar effects were also observed using GENCAL 7463. 在高盐浓度下木质素的较差溶解度和缓慢溶解可能是导致降低胶乳稳定性的主要因素。 At high salt concentrations poor solubility and slow dissolution of lignin can be a major factor leading to reduced stability of the latex.

为了寻找与胶乳体系相容的聚合物树脂,进行附加的试验。 In order to find compatible with the polymer resin latex system, carry out additional tests. 图3示出了不同聚合物树脂对EXP-155粒度分布的影响。 Figure 3 shows the effect of different polymer resin EXP-155 particle size distribution. 在所测试的样品当中,EXP-153显示出与该胶乳体系最好的相容性。 Among the tested samples, EXP-153 showed the best compatibility with the latex system.

对于所述胶乳体系,发明了新的铝络合物产品,EXP-154(45%NaAlO 2 、45%EXP-153和10%D-葡糖酸钠的共混物)。 For the latex system, invented a new product aluminum complex, EXP-154 (45% NaAlO 2, 45% EXP-153 and 10% D- blend of sodium gluconate). 图4比较了在12lb/gal(1.44kg/l)20%NaCl/NEW-DRILL/EXP-155流体内,EXP-154和ALPLEX对泥浆性能的影响。 Figure 4 compares the NEW-DRILL EXP-155 fluid, affecting 20% ​​NaCl / / EXP-154 and ALPLEX mud properties at 12lb / gal (1.44kg / l). 实验的铝络合物显示出与胶乳和生物聚合物改进的相容性。 Aluminum complex experiments show improved latex polymer and biologically compatible. 另外,发现与ALPLEX相比,EXP-154更好地控制过滤API和HTHP二者。 Further, it was found as compared with ALPLEX, EXP-154 filter to better control both API and HTHP.

孔隙压力传输测试 Pore ​​pressure transmission test

采用前面所述的孔隙压力传输(PPT)测试机评价实验胶乳体系对钻孔稳定性的影响。 Using the previously described pore pressure transmission Effect (PPT) tester latex system of the evaluation test of the stability of the borehole. 如前面实施例2中所述,在两个活塞之间放置保存的Pierre II页岩岩颈(直径1英寸×长度0.9英寸,即2.54cm×2.29cm长)。 Pierre II shale neck in the foregoing embodiment as Example 2, is placed between the two pistons saved (1 inch diameter × length 0.9 inches, i.e., 2.54cm × 2.29cm long). 用橡胶衬套密封页岩和活塞四周。 The rubber bushings and seals around the piston shale. 在平行或高渗透度方向上用层面取向岩颈。 In a parallel direction or a high permeability rock level alignment with the neck. 300psi(2070kPa)的钻井液置换经过上游活塞(钻孔侧)和50psi(345kPa)的海水置换经过下游活塞(地层侧)。 300psi (2070kPa) through the drilling fluid upstream of the piston displacement (bore side) and 50psi (345kPa) seawater exchange through the piston (ground side) downstream. 采用阀门容纳在下游活塞内的海水。 Valve with a piston housed in the downstream water. 当泥浆滤液进入岩颈的钻孔端内时,在页岩内的原生水置换到地层活塞内。 When the mud filtrate into the rock drilling end of the neck, the connate water in the shale formation displaced into the piston. 这一附加的水压缩在活塞内部的水,从而引起压力升高。 This additional water in the water inside the compression piston, causing pressure. 当地层压力(FP)增加时,测量在地层活塞水内的压力增加。 When the formation pressure (FP) increase in the formation of the piston measured pressure of the water increases.

EXP-154/EXP-155流体产生迄今为止如图5所示的最好的PPT结果。 EXP-154 / EXP-155 fluid produced the best results so far PPT as shown in FIG. 5. 顶部曲线是标准盐/聚合物。 The top curve is the standard salt / polymer. 下面一个是ALPLEX,接下来的曲线是EXP-154/AIRFLEX 728配方,其下方是EXP-154/EXP-155配方,最后描绘在底部的为80/20ISOTEQ流体,25%CaCl 2 、6ppb(17.2g/l)CARBO-GEL和10ppb(28.6g/l)OMNIMUL。 The following is a ALPLEX, the next curve EXP-154 / AIRFLEX 728 formulation, which is below EXP-154 / EXP-155 formulation, depicted at the bottom of the last 80 / 20ISOTEQ fluid, 25% CaCl 2, 6ppb ( 17.2g / l) CARBO-GEL and 10ppb (28.6g / l) OMNIMUL. 在不必局限于一种解释的情况下,据认为EXP-154/EXP-155流体的优异性能至少部分由于其小的粒度。 In case not necessarily limited to an explanation, it is believed EXP-154 / excellent performance EXP-155 fluid at least in part due to its small particle size. 如前所述,GENCAL 7463更有效地通过EXP-152分散,从而导致小于1微米的颗粒的百分数多得多。 As described above, GENCAL 7463 more effectively dispersed by the EXP-152, resulting in the percentage of particles less than 1 micron much.

在这些试验中还观察到胶乳与铝络合物之间的协同效果。 In these tests, a synergistic effect was also observed between the latex and the aluminum complex. 这种结果可涉及EXP-155和EXP-154的共沉淀行为。 This result may involve EXP-155 and EXP-154 coprecipitation behavior. 发现EXP-154在pH<10变得不溶。 EXP-154 was found to become insoluble at pH <10. 在这一条件下,EXP-155单独不沉淀。 Under this condition, EXP-155 alone did not precipitate. 然而,当EXP-154存在于该体系内时,EXP-155与EXP-154共沉淀。 However, when the EXP-154 present in the system, EXP-155 and EXP-154 coprecipitation. 由于其共沉淀行为,在页岩表面上沉积的颗粒由亲水和疏水组分组成,这一多相体系能产生半渗透的膜,从而导致渗透效率的显著改进。 Because co-precipitation of its behavior in the shale particles deposited on the surface of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, the multi-phase system to produce a semipermeable membrane, resulting in significant improvement of the efficiency of penetration. EXP-155的另一特征是,超细颗粒在宽的温度范围内是弹性体状。 Another feature of EXP-155 is an ultrafine particle is an elastomeric over a broad temperature range. 当接受差动液压时,这些超细颗粒没有剪切或破坏,而是变形并渗透到发状断口内并形成不可渗透的密封层。 When accepting hydraulic pressure differential, these ultrafine particles without shear or break, but deform and penetrate into the hair-like fracture and forming a sealing layer impermeable. 在介于Tg(玻璃化转变温度)和Tm(熔点)之间的温度下,大多数聚合物显示出橡胶状弹性。 At a temperature between (melting point) Tg (glass transition temperature) and Tm lower, most polymers exhibit rubbery elasticity. EXP-155的玻璃化转变温度为52°F(11℃)。 The glass transition temperature EXP-155 is 52 ° F (11 ℃). 根据Boyer于1963年绘制的Tg与Tm之间的关系,该关系再现于Billmeyer的Textbook of Polymer Science,第二版,Wiley-Interscience,New York,1971,p.230,可估计EXP-155的Tm为约300°F(422°K)。 The relationship between the Tg and the Tm Boyer drawn in 1963, the relationship is reproduced in Textbook Billmeyer of Polymer Science, Second Edition, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971, p.230, EXP-155 may estimate the Tm about 300 ° F (422 ° K). 这一温度范围覆盖钻井液内的大多数应用。 Most applications within this temperature range covers drilling fluid.

发现循环流体是胶乳插入(plugging)机理的重要因素。 Found circulating fluid is inserted into the latex (plugging) is an important factor in the mechanism. 在利用EXP-155的试验中发现了这一点。 This is found in the use of EXP-155 trials. 当配方仅仅为1.5vol%的胶乳颗粒(EXP-155是50%活性的)时,在静态条件下,在泥浆内得不到充足的胶乳产生插入。 When the formulation was only 1.5vol% latex particles (EXP-155 is a 50% active), under static conditions, not sufficient to produce the latex is inserted within the mud. 然而,在采用这种循环的情况下,胶乳在表面上累积并形成插入的膜。 However, in the case of such a cycle, the accumulated and inserted into the latex film is formed on the surface. 标准工序是循环泥浆约7小时,接着静态暴露过夜。 Standard procedures circulating mud is about 7 hours, followed by overnight static exposure. 在早晨开始试验之前,在没有循环的情况下经历4或5小时。 In the morning before starting the test, without experiencing the cyclic four or five hours. 通过循环使温度变化达成平衡,这一静态时间段消除了因温度影响导致的压力偏移。 By cycling the temperature to reach equilibrium, this time to eliminate the static pressure due to temperature effects due to the offset.

当试验开始时,地层压力从50psi(345kPa)下降到0,从而压差从250psi增加到300psi(1720-2070kPa),如图6所示。 When the start of the test, formation pressure drops from 50 psi (345 kPa) to 0, so that increased pressure from 250psi 300psi (1720-2070kPa), as shown in FIG. 在约30小时内,岩颈开始泄漏且地层压力升高。 Within about 30 hours, begin to leak and neck rock formation pressure. 然而,附加的循环在1小时内密封泄漏处,和压力再次下降到0。 However, the additional loop over 1 hour seal leaks and pressure drops to zero again. 在前面的试验中,在1小时后终止试验,和在另外30小时之后,岩颈再次开始泄漏。 In the previous experiment, the experiment was terminated after one hour, and after another 30 hours, the rock begins to leak neck again. 在该试验中,在70小时内,在压力升高到60psi(414kPa)之后,再次开始循环(图6)。 After this test, within 70 hours, the pressure was increased to 60 psi (414 kPa), the cycle begins again (FIG. 6). 然而,维持循环5小时而不是前面的1小时。 However, it maintained for 5 hr rather than the foregoing one hour. 在建立较大的压差之后继续循环数小时的情况下,密封层更加稳定。 A case where the cycle continues for several hours after establishing the large pressure difference, the sealing layer is more stable. 在45小时内,压力仅仅升高数psi。 Within 45 hours, the pressure only increased the number of psi.

岩颈面的显微照片显示出在页岩内胶乳沿着微小断口累积。 Micrograph shows the rock face latex neck along a minor fracture in the cumulative shale. 当流入到这些裂纹内的滤液的体积和速度非常小时,滤液单独不可能导致在裂纹入口处的胶乳累积。 When the filtrate flows into the volume and velocity within these very small cracks, and the filtrate alone could not lead to accumulation of a crack in the latex inlet. 在这些裂纹内部,粘土的表面积与滤液的体积比非常大,从而导致重质EXP-154沉淀。 In these internal cracks, surface area to volume of the filtrate is greater than the clay, resulting in heavy precipitation EXP-154. 在不局限于任何特定解释的情况下,该原因可涉及如上所述的EXP-154和EXP-155的共沉淀行为。 Without limited to any particular explanation of the reason described above may involve EXP-154 and EXP-155 coprecipitation behavior. 在pH<19下铝络合物的沉淀显然提高在裂纹入口处的胶乳累积。 At pH <precipitate the aluminum complex 19 is clearly improved accumulation at the inlet of the latex crack. 当充足的胶乳沉积以便桥连裂纹开口时,断口被密封,并在胶乳上建立压差。 When the latex is deposited to a sufficient crack bridging the opening, the fracture is sealed, and the establishment of a pressure differential on the latex. 压差使胶乳沉积物固结成固体密封层。 The latex pressure consolidated into a solid deposit the sealing layer. 增加压差显然引起这一密封层随时间流逝变形(在图6的结果的情况下,约30小时)和/或在页岩内生成附加的裂纹并使页岩开始泄漏,尽管发明人不一定想要受到这一解释的限制。 Obviously this increase the pressure differential caused by deformation of the sealing layer over time (in the case where the result of FIG. 6, about 30 hours) and / or in the shale and shale generating additional cracks begin to leak, although the invention is not necessarily want people to this restricted interpretation. 然而,附加的循环快速密封泄漏处并重新建立密封层。 However, an additional seal leaks cyclic fast re-established and the sealing layer. 在达到充分的压差之后,循环形成稳定的密封层且压力仅仅较小地升高。 After reaching the sealing layer is sufficient pressure, to form a stable circulation and the pressure rises only be small.

胶乳对泥浆性能的影响 Latex impact on the performance of the mud

前面的结果和讨论涉及在钻井液内胶乳的稳定性以及其与铝络合物在改进泥浆对页岩地层的抑制性方面的协同效应。 Results and Discussion The foregoing relates to latex stability and the drilling fluid in the aluminum complex with a synergistic effect on inhibition of shale formation in terms of improvement in the mud. 除此以外,还认识到通过该胶乳产品实现的改进的性能参数。 In addition, also recognized by the latex product to achieve improved performance parameters. 在9.6lb/gal(1.15kg/l)20%NaCl和12lb/gal(1.44kg/l)20%NaCl流体内,评价两种胶乳样品,胶乳A(8∶1共混的AIRFLEX 728和EXP-152)和EXP-155(8∶1共混的GENCAL 7463和EXP-152)。 In 9.6lb / gal (1.15kg / l) 20% NaCl and 12lb / gal (1.44kg / l) 20% NaCl fluid, two kinds of evaluation samples latex, latex A (8:1 blend of AIRFLEX 728 and EXP- 152), and EXP-155 (8:1 blended GENCAL 7463 and EXP-152). 图7和8示出了添加3%体积的这些胶乳产品的效果。 7 and FIG. 8 shows the effect of adding 3% by volume of these latex products. 在没有观察到对流体流变学明显影响的情况下,通过分别添加胶乳A和EXP-155,在250°F(121℃)下HTHP流体的损失在9.6lb/gal(1.15kg/l)泥浆内下降多达45%和52%,和在12lb/gal(1.44kg/l)泥浆内下降多达35%和40%。 In the case of learning significant effect was not observed rheological fluid, by addition of latex A and EXP-155, respectively, at 250 ° F (121 ℃) HTHP fluid loss at 9.6lb / gal (1.15kg / l) Mud inner drop as much as 45% and 52%, and decreased up to 35% and 40% in the slurry 12lb / gal (1.44kg / l). EXP-155比AIRFLEX 728呈现出更好的结果。 EXP-155 than AIRFLEX 728 showed better results. 在下表II中列出了利用EXP-155的附加试验。 Additional tests are listed in the table below using the EXP-155 II.

表II Table II

12lb/gal 20%NaCl/EXP-155流体的典型性能参数 Typical performance parameters 12lb / gal 20% NaCl / EXP-155 fluid

毒性试验 Toxicity Test

图9列出了在12lb/gal(1.44kg/l)20%NaCl/NEW-DRILL流体内AIRFLEX 728、GENCAL 7463、EXP-152、EXP-154和EXP-155的96小时测距仪的生物分析结果。 Figure 9 lists the 12lb / gal (1.44kg / l) 20% NaCl / NEW-DRILL stream AIRFLEX 728 in vivo bioassay 96 hours rangefinder GENCAL 7463, EXP-152, EXP-154, and EXP-155 of result. 所有产品满足在墨西哥湾内对流体弃置的要求(30000ppm),且对于固体污染来说,毒性变得较弱。 All products meet the requirements in the Gulf of Mexico fluid discarded (30000 ppm), and the solid is pollution, toxicity becomes weaker.

实施例7 Example 7

由于胶乳聚合物含有可变形的胶态颗粒,因此它可提供优良的桥连和密封能力,以降低其中可能发生钻井液的受损循环的地层的渗透性。 Since the colloidal particles of the latex polymer comprising a deformable, it can provide excellent sealing capacity and bridging, to reduce the permeability of the formation in which drilling fluid circulating damage may occur. 表III示出了典型配方以供测试胶乳聚合物对可渗透的地层的密封能力。 Table III shows a typical formulation for testing the sealing capacity of the latex polymer permeable formations. 在没有胶乳聚合物的情况下,这一泥浆的流体损失失控。 In the case where no latex polymer, the mud fluid loss control. 然而,添加3%乙酸乙烯酯/乙烯/氯乙烯胶乳聚合物(以牌号Airflex 728获得)到这一泥浆内,导致流体损失随时间显著下降,如图10所示。 However, 3% vinyl acetate / ethylene / vinyl chloride polymer latex (obtained under the designation Airflex 728) into the slurry, resulting in a significant loss of fluid decreases with time, as shown in FIG. 表IV-VI示出了图10的数据。 Table IV-VI shows the data of FIG. 10.

图11示出了用含3%胶乳聚合物的流体在300°F下测试4小时之后,破碎的50milliDarcy(mD)圆盘的截面照片。 After 11 illustrates a fluid containing 3% latex polymer tested at 300 ° F 4 hours broken 50milliDarcy (mD) sectional photograph disc. DFE-245是体积比为约9∶1的GenCal7463和Mirataine BET-O30的混合物。 DFE-245 is about 9 by volume mixture of GenCal7463 and Mirataine BET-O30 of. 显然可观察到在50mD的圆盘内部形成了内部滤饼。 Clearly observed in the interior of the disc is formed inside 50mD cake.

表III.测试胶乳对高压流体损失影响的泥浆配方 Table III. Effect of mud formulations latex of the high-pressure fluid loss test

表IV对于含3%Airflex 728的泥浆来说,在50mD圆盘上,在500psi和75°F下的高温高压流体损失 Table IV for containing slurry of 3% Airflex 728, on a disk 50mD, high temperature high pressure fluid loss at 500psi and 75 ° F of

时间间隔,分钟 Interval minutes HPHT FL,ml HPHT FL, ml HPHT FL的平均流量,ml/min The average flow rate of HPHT FL, ml / min 0-1 0-1 4.5 4.5 4.50 4.50 1-10 1-10 2 2 0.22 0.22 10-30 10-30 1.5 1.5 0.08 0.08 30-60 30-60 1.5 1.5 0.05 0.05 60-120 60-120 2.5 2.5 0.04 0.04

表V对于含3%Airflex 728的泥浆来说,在50mD圆盘上,在500psi和250°F下的高温高压流体损失 Table V for containing slurry of 3% Airflex 728, on a disk 50mD, high temperature high pressure fluid loss at 250 ° F of 500psi and

时间间隔,分钟 Interval minutes HPHT FL,ml HPHT FL, ml HPHT FL的平均流量,ml/min The average flow rate of HPHT FL, ml / min 0-1 0-1 6 6 6.00 6.00 1-10 1-10 4 4 0.44 0.44 10-30 10-30 6 6 0.30 0.30 30-60 30-60 4 4 0.13 0.13 60-120 60-120 4 4 0.07 0.07

表VI对于含3%Airflex 728的泥浆来说,在50mD圆盘上,在500psi和300°F下的高温高压流体损失 Table VI for containing slurry of 3% Airflex 728, on a disk 50mD, high temperature high pressure fluid loss at 300 ° F of 500psi and

时间间隔,分钟 Interval minutes HPHT FL,ml HPHT FL, ml HPHT FL的平均流量,ml/min The average flow rate of HPHT FL, ml / min 0-1 0-1 10 10 10 10 1-10 1-10 13 13 1.44 1.44 10-30 10-30 8 8 0.4 0.4 30-60 30-60 6 6 0.20 0.20 60-120 60-120 10 10 0.17 0.17 120-180 120-180 5 5 0.08 0.08

在前述说明中,参考其具体实施方案描述了本发明,且证明在提供水基钻井液方面是有效的,所述水基钻井液可有效降低钻井液压力侵入到钻孔壁内的速度。 In the foregoing description, the embodiment described with reference to specific embodiments of the present invention, and in providing proof of water-based drilling is effective, the water-based drilling mud can effectively reduce the velocity pressure enters the borehole wall. 但很明显,可在不偏离所附权利要求中列出的本发明的较宽的精神或范围的情况下,对其作出各种改进和改变。 It is apparent that the broader spirit or scope of the present invention may be set forth in the appended claims without departing from, various modifications and changes made thereto. 因此,这些说明只是例举而不是限制。 Therefore, these instructions only example and not limitation. 例如,落在所要求保护的参数以内,但在特定的组合物中没有具体验证或试验以降低泥浆压力渗透到页岩、砂子和其它地层内的盐水和胶乳以及与沉淀剂和/或润湿表面活性剂或盐的特定组合,均被视为在本发明的范围内。 For example, falling within the claimed parameters, but not specifically in a particular test or verify the composition to reduce the mud pressure to penetrate the shale, sand, and brine, and latex as well as in other formation with a precipitating agent and / or wetting the particular combination of surfactants or salts, are considered within the scope of the present invention.

术语汇编 Glossary

4025-70 由Amoco销售的低分子量两性聚合物,据发现是无效的(也简称为4025) 4025-70 marketed by Amoco low molecular weight amphoteric polymers have been found to be ineffective (also referred to as 4025)

AIRFLEX 728 由Air Products销售的聚乙酸乙烯酯胶乳(更具体地说,乙烯氯乙烯乙酸乙烯酯共聚物)分散体 AIRFLEX 728 latex of polyvinyl acetate sold by Air Products (more specifically, ethylene-vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer) dispersion

AIRFLEX 426 获自Air Products的乙酸乙烯酯/乙烯共聚物 Available from Air Products AIRFLEX 426 vinyl acetate / ethylene copolymer

AIRFLEX 7200 获自Air Products的乙酸乙烯酯/乙烯共聚物 Available from Air Products AIRFLEX 7200 vinyl acetate / ethylene copolymer 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的专用铝络合物产品 Available from Baker Hughes INTEQ special aluminum complex products

Aqs 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的一种二元醇,简写为AQUACOL-S Aqs available from Baker Hughes INTEQ a diol, abbreviated as AQUACOL-S

BIO-LOSE 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的衍生淀粉 BIO-LOSE available from Baker Hughes INTEQ derivatized starch

BIOPAQ 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的衍生淀粉流体损失添加剂 BIOPAQ eligible derivatized starch fluid loss additive from Baker Hughes INTEQ

CARBO-GEL 由Baker Hughes INTEQ销售的胺处理的粘土 CARBO-GEL clay treated with an amine is sold by Baker Hughes INTEQ

CARBO-MUL 由Baker Hughes INTEQ销售的逆乳液乳化剂 CARBO-MUL inverse emulsion sold by Baker Hughes INTEQ emulsifier

ELVACE 40722-00 获自Reichhold的乙酸乙烯酯/乙烯共聚物胶乳 ELVACE 40722-00 from Reichhold obtained vinyl acetate / ethylene copolymer latex

EXP-152 油基酰氨基丙基甜菜碱表面活性剂 EXP-152 oleyl amidopropyl betaine surfactant

EXP-153 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的磺化聚合物树脂(或具有树脂的磺化腐殖酸) EXP-153 available from Baker Hughes INTEQ sulfonated polymer resin (or a resin having a sulfonated humic acid)

EXP-154 45%NaAlO 2 、45%EXP-153和10%D-葡糖酸钠的混合物 EXP-154 45% NaAlO 2, a mixture of 45% EXP-153 and 10% D- sodium gluconate

EXP-155 GENCAL 7463和EXP-152的8∶1体积的共混物 EXP-155 GENCAL 7463 and EXP-152 8:1 volume of a blend of

FLOWZAN 获自Drilling Specialties的生物聚合物 FLOWZAN available from Drilling Specialties of biopolymers

FT-1A 由Baker Hughes INTEQ销售的SULFATROL,90%水溶性磺化沥青分散体 FT-1A sold by Baker Hughes INTEQ's SULFATROL, 90% dispersion of water-soluble sulfonated asphalt

GENCAL 7463 获自Omnova Solution Inc.的羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯 GENCAL 7463 available from Omnova Solution Inc. of carboxylated styrene / butadiene

GENCAL 7470 获自Omnova Solution Inc.的羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯 GENCAL 7470 available from Omnova Solution Inc. of carboxylated styrene / butadiene

GENFLO 576 获自Omnova Solution Inc. GENFLO 576 obtained from Omnova Solution Inc.

LD8 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的商业消泡剂 LD8 obtained from Baker Hughes INTEQ commercial defoamers

LIGCO 由Baker Hughes INTEQ销售的木质素 LIGCO sold by Baker Hughes INTEQ lignin

MIL-BAR 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的重晶石增重剂 MIL-BAR available from Baker Hughes INTEQ barite weighting agent

MIL-CARB 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的碳酸钙增重剂 MIL-CARB available from Baker Hughes INTEQ calcium carbonate weighting agent

MILPAC LV 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的低粘度聚阴离子纤维素(有时简称为PacLV) MILPAC LV available from Baker Hughes INTEQ low viscosity polyanionic cellulose (sometimes abbreviated as PacLV)

MAX-PLEX 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的用于页岩稳定性的铝络合物 MAX-PLEX aluminum complex is eligible for shale stability from the Baker Hughes INTEQ

MIRATAINE 获自Rhodia的甜菜碱表面活性剂 MIRATAINE obtained from Rhodia betaine surfactant

BET-O-30 BET-O-30

NEWDRILL PLUS 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的部分水解的聚丙烯酰胺 NEWDRILL PLUS is eligible for partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide is from Baker Hughes INTEQ

ROVENE 4823L 获自Mallard Creek的苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物 ROVENE 4823L available from Mallard Creek styrene / butadiene copolymer

ROVENE 6140 获自Mallard Creek的羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯 ROVENE 6140 obtained from Mallard Creek carboxylated styrene / butadiene

ROVENE 9410 获自Mallard Creek的羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯 ROVENE 9410 obtained from Mallard Creek carboxylated styrene / butadiene

SA 简写的铝酸钠 Sodium aluminate SA shorthand

SYNTHEMUL 97982 获自Reichhold的羧化丙烯酸共聚物 SYNTHEMUL 97982 carboxylated acrylic copolymer obtained from Reichhold

SYNTHEMULCPS 401 获自Reichhold的羧化丙烯酸共聚物 SYNTHEMULCPS 401 carboxylated acrylic copolymer obtained from Reichhold

TYCHEM 68710 获自Reichhold的羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物 TYCHEM 68710 available from Reichhold carboxylated styrene / butadiene copolymers

TYLAC 68219 获自Reichhold的羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物 TYLAC 68219 available from Reichhold carboxylated styrene / butadiene copolymers

TYLAC CPS 812 获自Reichhold的羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物 TYLAC CPS 812 obtained from Reichhold carboxylated styrene / butadiene copolymer

VINAC XX-211 获自Air Products的乙酸乙烯酯/乙烯共聚物 VINAC XX-211 available from Air Products, vinyl acetate / ethylene copolymer

XAN-PLEX D 获自Baker Hughes INTEQ的生物聚合物 XAN-PLEX D available from Baker Hughes INTEQ biopolymer

Claims (21)

1. 当在含有贫砂的地下地层内用水基钻井液钻探时抑制钻孔壁侵入的方法,该方法包括: 1. When the borehole wall during invasive method of inhibiting the lean sand subterranean formation containing a water-based drilling mud, the method comprising:
提供水基钻井液,所述水基钻井液含有水和聚合物胶乳;和 To provide water-based drilling fluid, said drilling fluid comprising water and a water-based latex polymers; and
循环与含有贫砂的钻孔壁接触的水基钻井液,所述聚合物胶乳在至少部分含有贫砂的地下地层上产生可变形的胶乳密封层。 Water based drilling fluid circulating in contact with the borehole wall containing depleted sand, the polymer latex is a latex produced deformable sealing layer at least partially depleted subterranean formation containing sand.
2. 权利要求1的方法,包括提供水基钻井液,所述水基钻井液还含有选自硅酸盐、铝络合物及其混合物的沉淀剂。 The method includes providing a water-based drilling fluid, the water-based drilling further comprises a precipitating agent selected from silicates, aluminum complexes, and mixtures thereof of claim 1.
3. 权利要求1的方法,包括提供苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物作为聚合物胶乳。 The method of claim 1, comprising providing a styrene / butadiene copolymer as polymer latex.
4. 权利要求2的方法,包括提供苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物作为聚合物胶乳。 The method of claim 2, comprising providing a styrene / butadiene copolymer as polymer latex.
5. 权利要求1的方法,其中所述水基钻井液还含有表面活性剂。 The method of claim 1, wherein said water-based drilling fluid further contains a surfactant.
6. 权利要求2的方法,其中所述水基钻井液还含有表面活性剂。 The method of claim 2, wherein said water-based drilling fluid further contains a surfactant.
7. 权利要求3的方法,其中所述水基钻井液还含有表面活性剂。 The method of claim 3, wherein said water-based drilling fluid further contains a surfactant.
8. 权利要求4的方法,其中所述水基钻井液还含有表面活性剂。 The method of claim 4, wherein said water-based drilling fluid further contains a surfactant.
9. 权利要求1-8任一项的方法,包括提供羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物作为聚合物胶乳。 9. The method of any of claims 1-8, comprising providing a carboxylated styrene / butadiene copolymer as polymer latex.
10. 权利要求1-8任一项的方法,包括提供磺化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物作为聚合物胶乳。 10. The method of any of claims 1-8, comprising providing a sulfonated styrene / butadiene copolymer as polymer latex.
11. 权利要求9的方法,包括提供含有0.1-10vol%羧化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物的水基钻井液。 11. The method of claim 9, including providing / butadiene copolymer containing water-based drilling 0.1-10vol% carboxylated styrene.
12. 权利要求10的方法,包括提供含有0.1-10vol%磺化苯乙烯/丁二烯共聚物的水基钻井液。 12. The method of claim 10, comprising providing a water-based drilling comprising 0.1-10vol% sulfonated styrene / butadiene copolymers.
13. 权利要求1-8任一项的方法,包括提供含有盐和聚合物胶乳的水基钻井液。 13. The method of any of claims 1-8, comprising providing a water-based drilling containing salt and polymer latex.
14. 权利要求9的方法,包括提供含有盐和聚合物胶乳的水基钻井液。 14. The method of claim 9, comprising providing a water-based drilling containing salt and polymer latex.
15. 权利要求10的方法,包括提供含有盐和聚合物胶乳的水基钻井液。 15. The method of claim 10, comprising providing a water-based drilling containing salt and polymer latex.
16.权利要求1-8任一项的方法,还包括提供含有饱和盐水和聚合物胶乳的水基钻井液。 16. The method of any of claims 1-8, further comprising providing a drilling fluid containing a water-based polymer latex and a saturated saline.
17. 权利要求9的方法,还包括提供含有饱和盐水和聚合物胶乳的水基钻井液。 17. The method of claim 9, further comprising providing a drilling fluid containing a water-based polymer latex and a saturated saline.
18. 权利要求10的方法,还包括提供含有饱和盐水和聚合物胶乳的水基钻井液。 18. The method of claim 10, further comprising providing a drilling fluid containing a water-based polymer latex and a saturated saline.
19. 权利要求1的方法,包括提供另外含有选自甜菜碱、碱金属亚烷基乙酸盐、磺基甜菜碱、醚羧酸酯及其混合物的表面活性剂的水基钻井液,所述表面活性剂占总水基钻井液0.005-2vol%。 The method of claim 19 further comprising providing a selected betaine containing, water-based drilling surfactant alkali metal alkylene acetates, sultaines, ether carboxylates and mixtures thereof, said total surfactant water-based drilling 0.005-2vol%.
20. 权利要求9的方法,包括提供另外含有选自甜菜碱、碱金属亚烷基乙酸盐、磺基甜菜碱、醚羧酸酯及其混合物的表面活性剂的水基钻井液,所述表面活性剂占总水基钻井液0.005-2vol%。 9. A method of claim 20 further comprising providing a selected betaine containing, water-based drilling surfactant alkali metal alkylene acetates, sultaines, ether carboxylates and mixtures thereof, said total surfactant water-based drilling 0.005-2vol%.
21. 权利要求10的方法,包括提供另外含有选自甜菜碱、碱金属亚烷基乙酸盐、磺基甜菜碱、醚羧酸酯及其混合物的表面活性剂的水基钻井液,所述表面活性剂占总水基钻井液0.005-2vol%。 21. The method of claim 10, further comprising providing a selected betaine containing, water-based drilling surfactant alkali metal alkylene acetates, sultaines, ether carboxylates and mixtures thereof, said total surfactant water-based drilling 0.005-2vol%.
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