用于体组织电外科硬化的装置技术领域本发明涉及一种用于施加高频电流来进行体组织热硬化的施加装置。 BACKGROUND electrosurgical tissue for curing the present invention relates to an apparatus for applying a high-frequency current is applied to heat the body tissue hardening apparatus. 该施加装置包括一电极阵列，该电极阵列具有可以插入体组织的至少三个作用电极（active electrode)。 The applying means includes an electrode array, the electrode array having at least three working electrode (active electrode) may be inserted into body tissue. 该施加装置还包括：高频生成器，用于产生高频电压，该高频生成器与一个或更多个电极可切换地连接；以及测量装置，用于测量所有或者所选择的作用电极之间的体组织阻抗。 The applying apparatus further comprising: a frequency generator for generating a high frequency voltage, the high-frequency generator may be connected to switch one or more electrodes; and measuring means for measuring a selected or all of the working electrode tissue impedance between. 背景技术病变组织（在下文中简称为组织）的电外科硬化，特别是电热硬化， 是在医学领域公知的方法。 BACKGROUND electrosurgical sclerosis lesions (hereinafter simply referred to as the organization), in particular electric hardening, in the medical field is well-known methods. 该方法对于器官肿瘤（特别是肝脏肿瘤）的治疗特别有用。 The method is particularly useful for the treatment of organ tumors (especially the liver tumor). 对于硬化过程，将一个或更多个电极置入待硬化的组织(即肿瘤组织）中，或与其紧邻，并使交流电流在该多个电极之间或一电极与固定在体外的一中性电极之间流过。 For the hardening process, one or more electrodes into tissue to be hardened (i.e., tumor tissue), or in close proximity thereto, and a neutral electrode alternating current or in vitro with a fixed electrode between the plurality of electrodes flows between. 如果电流在该电极和该中性电极之间（也可以是多个电极与一个或更多个中性电极之间）流过，则将其称为单极电极结构。 If the current between the electrode and the neutral electrode (between the plurality of electrodes may be one or more neutral electrode) flows, it is referred to as a monopolar electrode configuration. 如果相反，电流在置入组织中的多个电极本身之间流过（在这种情况下，组织中必须有至少两个电极），则将其称为双极结构。 If instead, the current flows between the plurality of electrodes themselves into tissue (in this case, the organization must have at least two electrodes), it is called a bipolar structure. 若组织中存在多于两个的电极（交流电流在这些电极之间流过）， 则将该结构称为多极结构。 If the presence of more than two electrodes (alternating current flowing between the electrodes) in the tissue, then the structure is called a multi-gate structure. 要置入组织中的电极通常是电极针的形式。 Electrode was inserted into the tissue to be generally in the form of needle electrodes. 它们具有导电圆柱杆， 除一个或更多个末端区域（即所谓的电极作用区域，或简称为作用电极） 外，该导电圆柱杆相对于周围的组织电绝缘。 They conductive cylindrical rod having, in addition to the one or more terminal region (i.e., a so-called active area of the electrode, or simply a working electrode), the conductive cylindrical rod relative to the electrical insulation surrounding tissue. 相反地，作用电极与体组织导电连接。 Conversely, the working electrode is connected electrically conductive with body tissues. 可选择地，作用电极可以具有集成的热传感器。 Alternatively, the working electrode may have an integrated thermal sensor. 在特定的实施例中，可以在杆的末端机械地延伸出另外的作用电极，以扩大可以进行治疗的组织的体积。 In certain embodiments, may extend further mechanical working electrode at the end of the rod to expand the volume of tissue can be treated. 在单极结构中，通过高频生成器在作用电极和中性电极之间，或者多个作用电极之间感应出电流。 In monopolar configuration, the high-frequency generator acting between the electrode and the neutral electrode, a current is induced between the electrodes or a plurality of action. 在另选的双极结构中，可以取消中性电极。 In an alternative bipolar arrangement, the neutral electrode can be canceled. 在这种情况下，通过另一作用电极使电路闭合，在这方面，可以将所需的作用电极相互绝缘地以同轴的结构设置在电极针上，或者设置在两个独立的电极针上。 In this case, by the other working electrode closing the circuit, in this regard, the role of electrodes are required to be insulated from a coaxial structure is provided on the needle electrode, or on two separate needle electrodes . 组织的欧姆电阻（为复合组织阻抗的一部分）使通过电极施加的交流电流被转换为焦耳热。 Tissue ohmic resistance (as part of a complex tissue impedance) applied by the electrodes an alternating current is converted into Joule heat. 在50'C到IOO'C之间的温度下，体特异(body-specific)蛋白发生大规模的变性，结果使有问题的组织区域死亡。 At a temperature between 50'C IOO'C of specific body (body-specific) large-scale protein denaturation, resulting in the death of the tissue region in question. 通过在作用电极处的高密度电流，主要在这些电极区域进行了加热，从而可以进行局部热肿瘤破坏。 The main areas of these electrodes is heated by a high current density at the working electrode, so that heat can be localized tumor destruction. 在美国专利No.5630426中以示例的方式公开了一种用于病理组织电热硬化的装置和方法。 In U.S. Patent No.5630426 discloses by way of example in the hardening apparatus and method for heating pathological. 对于治疗效果尤其是治疗的可靠性至关重要的是产生最适合于病理组织（即肿瘤组织）范围的热破坏区域。 For therapeutic effect, especially the reliability of treatment is critical to produce the most suitable for pathological tissue (i.e. tumor tissue) in the range of thermal damage zone. 发明内容本发明的目的是提供一种装置，用于组织的电热硬化，使得能够可靠地破坏病理组织。 Object of the present invention is to provide an apparatus for heating tissue hardening, making it possible to reliably destroy the pathological tissue. 通过本说明书开始部分所述的用于施加高频电流的那种装置来实现该目的，该装置具有选择器装置，该选择器装置与测量装置相连，并用于根据所测量的阻抗从电极阵列中选择包括至少两个作用电极的子阵列。 That means for applying a high-frequency current through the specification of the portion for beginning to achieve the object, the device having selector means which is connected to the selector means and the measuring means, and according to the measured impedance from the electrode array selecting sub-array comprising at least two of the working electrode. 用于施加高频电流的该装置还具有控制装置，该控制装置与该选择器装置相连，并用于将高频电压施加给所选子阵列的作用电极，以使高频电流通过体组织在作用电极之间流过。 The working electrode means for applying a high-frequency current also has a control means, the control means is connected to the selector means, and means for applying high frequency voltage to the selected sub-array, so that a high frequency current through the tissue in effect flows between the electrodes. 在优选结构中，该施加装置具有下述构造：高频生成器、测量装置、 选择器装置和控制装置组合在一个或更多个壳体中，以形成施加生成器， 该施加生成器具有用于电极及其馈线的连接插头。 In a preferred construction, the application device having a configuration: a high-frequency generator, measuring means, selecting means and control means are combined in one or more housing to form a generator is applied, which is applied to a generator having and an electrode connecting plug feeder. 因此可以选择性地将电极与施加生成器相连。 Can be selectively applied to electrodes are connected to the generator. 该施加生成器优选地包括连接检测单元，该连接检测单元与连接插头相连，并用于自动检测电极是否与连接插头相连。 The applied generator preferably includes a connection detection unit, the connection detecting plug is connected to the connecting means, and for automatically detecting whether the electrode is connected to the connection plug. 该连接检测单元优选地与控制单元相连。 The connection detection unit is preferably connected with the control unit. 相应地，该控制单元优选地具有下述构造：所有所连接的电极都参与电疗法，以在预定的时间内，通过选择器装置向各个所连接的电极施加至少一次高频电压。 Accordingly, the control unit preferably has the following configuration: connecting all electrodes are involved electrotherapy to within a predetermined time, a high frequency voltage is applied to each of the at least one electrode connected via the selector means. 在一另选结构中，可以为施加生成器提供多个开关，可以通过这些开关选择性地切断给定电极，以不将高频电压以上述方式施加给被切断的电极。 In an alternative arrangement, the generator may be provided to apply a plurality of switches, the electrode can be given off by the switch selectively to the high frequency voltage is not applied to the electrodes in the above manner is cut. 其它的从属权利要求说明了本发明的更好的构造。 Better described configurations of the invention the further dependent claims. 本发明基于下述事实，即电极在肿瘤中的排列在产生最适于肿瘤组织的破坏区域方面起关键作用。 The present invention is based on the fact that the electrodes are arranged in the tumor area in the destruction of tumor tissue to generate the most suitable play a key role. 在临床实践中，当处理相对大的待破坏组织区域时，通常在组织中同时置入多个电极针，以通过叠加由单个电极产生的热破坏区域来提高功效。 In clinical practice, when processing a relatively large area of tissue to be destroyed, usually simultaneously into the plurality of electrode needles in the tissue, in order to improve the efficacy of destruction by heat generated by a single region of superposed electrodes. 此外，在一些应用中，通过多通道温度测量来实现均匀的热破坏区域。 Further, in some applications, to achieve uniform thermal destruction zone through a multi-channel temperature measurement. 然而实践证明这是不够的，因为其只涉及点的测量，而不能考虑与测量位置有一定距离的组织特性。 However, this has proven to be insufficient because it only involves the measurement point, not considering the position measuring tissue characteristics have a certain distance. 这需要反复的治疗，也就是说，在进行治疗的组织区域中没有达到完全破坏肿瘤组织所需的温度。 This requires repeated treatment, that is, the tissue region undergoing treatment is not necessary to achieve the complete destruction of tumor tissue temperature. 因而，病人会受复发的困扰，并不得不再次接受治疗。 Thus, the patient will be plagued by recurrent, and had to undergo treatment again. 组织阻抗在很大程度上取决于热组织破坏的进展。 Tissue impedance depends largely on thermal tissue damage progress. 具体地，随着组织硬化的增加，其欧姆电阻增大，同时阻抗也增大。 Specifically, as the hardening of the tissue, the ohmic resistance increases, while also increasing the impedance. 本发明的基本原理在于：与温度相比，组织阻抗表示一条体积信息（volume information), 该体积信息完整地描述了阻抗测量所需的两个测量位置之间的组织特性。 The basic principles of the present invention is that: compared with the temperature, tissue impedance indicates a volume information (volume information), the volume of information is a complete description of the tissue desired impedance characteristics between two measuring positions. 因此，根据本发明，可以将与多极施加结构相结合的阻抗特性的变化用于最优治疗控制。 Thus, according to the present invention may be applied to changes in impedance characteristics electrode structure combined with multi-treatment for optimal control. 意外地发现，在涉及多极施加的情况下，也就是说，在使高频电流在多个作用电极对之间流过的情况下，各作用电极之间的组织阻抗没有表现出一致的特性。 Surprisingly found that, in cases involving the application of a multi-pole, that is to say, in the case where the high-frequency current between the working electrode of the plurality of flows, the tissue impedance between the working electrode does not exhibit uniform characteristics . 相反地，各作用电极对之间的组织可能已转变为干枯状态（drying-out)，在这种情况下，该组织具有非常高的阻抗，而其它电极对之间的组织还没有达到该状态，因而表现出较低的阻抗。 Conversely, tissue between the working electrode pair may have been converted into dry state (drying-out), in which case, in which it has a very high impedance, and other tissue between the pair of electrodes have not yet reached the state , which showed a lower impedance. 这与临床诊断（recognition)相关，即使利用点温度测量，也不能保证可靠的大量破坏。 This is associated with the clinical diagnosis (Recognition), even with a temperature measuring point, can not guarantee a reliable lot of damage. 导致体组织非均质干枯的原因例如是非均匀分布的血管，血管产生局部限定的冷却效果，因而抵消了治疗效果。 Reasons leading to tissue heterogeneity, for example, dry non-uniform distribution of the blood vessels, blood vessels generated locally limited cooling effect, thus canceling the effect of the treatment. 另外，在多电极结构的情况下，与纯粹的双极结构的情况相类似， 可以完全取消中性电极。 Further, in the case of a multi-electrode structure, and a pure case of a bipolar structure similar to the neutral electrode can be completely eliminated. 通过这种方式，电流的流动仍然被限制在目标区域中，因而不再产生单极施加模式中的公知的次生效应（secondary effect)o测量单元优选地用于根据所测量的阻抗获得所有所连接电极的子阵列（19)的预定数量的作用电极（5， 6)之间的欧姆电阻。 In this manner, the flow of current is still limited in the target region, therefore not produce secondary effects (secondary effect) is applied to the monopole mode of a known o measuring unit preferably according to the measured impedance to obtain all the ohmic resistance between the predetermined number of sub-arrays (19) of the working electrode connection electrodes (5, 6). 优选地，对于低值R (0-200欧姆），这通过将欧姆电阻或作用电阻R确定为在根据所测量的作用功率和所测量电流的平方而获得的商的范围内来实现。 Preferably, for low values of R (0-200 ohms), which is determined as a squared function of the power within the measured current and the measured quotient obtained range achieved by the action of the resistance or the ohmic resistance R. 相反地，对于高值R (大约4200欧姆），主要通过所测量电压的平方与同时测量的功率之间的商来确定欧姆电阻或作用电阻R。 Conversely, a high value for R (around 4200 ohms), the ohmic resistance is mainly determined by resistor or by the quotient between measured voltage and the square of the power measured simultaneously R. 这种另选结构的优点在于可以根据对实际关注的欧姆组织电阻的关键依赖关系来实现组织切除（tissue ablation)功率的控制，而相反地，依赖于所测量阻抗的控制在很大程度上受到可变电抗性阻抗（reactive impedance)元件（例如，由于线路电容和线路电感）的影响。 The advantage of this alternative structure is that the control may be cut (tissue ablation) according to the critical power dependence of the ohmic resistance of the tissue to achieve the organization of practical interest, and conversely, depending on the measured impedance controlled largely by variable reactive impedance (reactive impedance) element (e.g., due to the line inductance and capacitance of the line) of the impact. 确定有效欧姆电阻的目的在于使用简单的手段来减少电抗性阻抗对电极作用的影响。 Determining the effective ohmic resistance of the object using simple means to reduce the effect of the reactive impedance as an electrode. 根据本发明的施加装置用于施加高频电流以进行体组织的热硬化， 该施加装置包括：电极阵列，具有可以插入体组织的至少三个作用电极； 高频生成器，用于产生高频电压，该高频生成器可切换地连接到一个或更多个电极；以及测量装置，用于测量全部或所选择的作用电极之间的组织的阻抗或欧姆电阻。 The apparatus of the invention for applying a thermosetting applying a high frequency current for body tissue, the applicator device comprising: an electrode array having at least three working electrode may be inserted into the body tissue; high frequency generator for generating a high frequency voltage, switching the high-frequency generator may be connected to one or more electrodes; and measuring means for measuring the impedance of tissue between all or a selected working electrode or ohmic resistance. 该施加装置还包括选择器装置，该选择器装置与测量装置相连，并用于根据所测量的阻抗或欧姆电阻从电极阵列中选择包括至少两个作用电极的子阵列。 The applying means further comprises selector means, which is connected to the selector means and the measuring means, and for selecting the electrode array comprises at least two working electrode in accordance with the measured impedance or ohmic resistance of the sub-arrays. 还包括控制装置，该控制装置与选择器装置相连，并用于向所选择子阵列的作用电极施加高频电压，以使高频电流通过体组织在这些作用电极之间流过。 Further comprising a control means connected to the control means and the selector means, and for applying high frequency voltage to the working electrode to the selected sub-array, so that high-frequency current flows through the tissue between the working electrode. 在这种情况下，术语"子阵列"用于表示电极阵列的包括至少两个作用电极的任一部分，包括选择整个电极阵列作为子阵列的情况。 A working electrode comprising at least two of any part in this case, the term "sub-array" is used in the electrode array, the entire array of electrodes comprises selecting as the sub-array. 由于作为与组织特性相关的体积信息的阻抗（特别是欧姆电阻）表示对硬化效果的进展的测量，所以阻抗或作用电阻测量适用于在待硬化的组织区域中确定硬化的不同程度。 Because the impedance of a volume of tissue properties related information (particularly ohmic resistance) represents a measurement of the progress of the hardening effect, the impedance or resistance measurements adapted to determine the role of different degrees of hardening of the tissue in the area to be hardened. 可以通过向电极阵列的所选作用电极施加高频电压，以指定目标的形式治疗各种组织区域。 High frequency voltage may be applied to the selected electrode through the working electrode array, the treatment of various tissue region in the form of targeting. 在这种情况下，电极的选择（即，子阵列的形成）确定了通过待硬化组织的电流路径。 In this case, the selection electrodes (i.e., formation of subarrays) determines the current path through the tissue to be hardened. 在本发明的实施例中，选择器装置具有下述构造：当从前一次选择开始经过预定时间时，进行新的阻抗或作用电阻测量操作并选择新的包括至少两个作用电极的子阵列。 In an embodiment of the present invention, the apparatus has a selector configured: when the selected time has elapsed since the previous predetermined time, a new impedance or resistance measuring operation and effect of selecting a new sub-array comprising at least two of the working electrode. 仅仅在预定的时间内施加高频电流，并且根据新的阻抗或作用电阻选择新的子阵列，意味着可以以预定的时间间隔检査硬化处理的进展， 并可使高频电流的进一步施加与所检测的进展相适应。 A high frequency current is applied only within a predetermined time, and select a new sub-array according to the new role of impedance or resistance means at predetermined time intervals may check the progress of the hardening, and high-frequency current can be applied and further progress detected adapt. 在这方面，该新的选择可以选择与先前使用的子阵列不同的电极子阵列，以通过待硬化组织中的变化的电流路径对硬化的进展作出反应。 In this regard, the new selected sub-array may select different electrode previously used sub-array to respond to the progress of hardening by varying the current path to be hardened tissue. 尤其在不是对所有待硬化组织都均匀硬化，而是以不同的速度局部进行硬化的情况下，这是优选的。 In particular, not all uniformly cured to be hardened tissue, but at different speeds for local hardened case, which is preferable. 此外，通过按时间顺序限制施加的周期，可以避免因过长时间施加高频电流而导致所治疗的组织区域被灼伤（buming)。 Furthermore, restrictions imposed by chronological cycle, can be avoided by applying a high-frequency current caused by prolonged tissue region being treated burns (buming). 在本发明的另一构造中，在施加高频电流的过程中，采用测量装置测量体组织的阻抗或作用电阻。 In another embodiment of the invention, the process of applying high-frequency current, an impedance measuring device or a measuring body tissue resistance effect. 所测量的阻抗或作用电阻值例如可以与电热治疗开始前测量的基准值相关。 The measured impedance or the resistance value may effect measured before the start of the reference value associated with electric thermal treatment. 这种构造具有下述优点：可以根据电极之间组织的阻抗或作用电阻测量，尤其是相对于基准值的阻抗或作用电阻的变化，来连续地检测硬化的进展。 This configuration has the following advantages: according to measure tissue impedance or resistance acting between the electrodes, in particular with respect to the change in the impedance value of the reference resistance or action, continuously detecting the progress of curing. 因此，可以根据硬化的进展来确定通过电极子阵列施加高频电流的持续时间。 Thus, it is possible to determine the duration of high-frequency current is applied through the electrode sub-array according to the progress of hardening. 通过将所测量的阻抗或作用电阻值与先前确定的基准值进行比较，使得在确定施加持续时间时可以考虑对所测量的阻抗或作用电阻值的不良影响，该不良影响例如是由不同电极之间的不同间隔而引起的，或者是由在治疗开始前已经存在的与不同的待治疗组织区域相关的不同阻抗而引起的。 It is compared with a previously determined reference value of the impedance or the action of the resistance value measured, making it possible to consider the adverse effect on the impedance or action resistance value measured when determining the duration of the application, the adverse effect, for example, by different electrodes different spacing between caused by, or associated with different impedances from the different tissue area to be treated before starting treatment existing caused. 优选地，将选择器装置设计为使得：如果子阵列的预定数量的作用电极之间的体组织的阻抗或作用电阻达到或超过预定值，则选择包括至少两个作用电极的新的子阵列。 Preferably, the selection means is designed such that: if the body tissue between the predetermined number of sub-arrays working electrode impedance or resistance action reaches or exceeds a predetermined value, selecting a new sub-array comprising at least two of the working electrode. 达到或超过预定的阻抗或作用电阻值的事实表明硬化已进行到给定的程度。 Reaches or exceeds the predetermined action fact impedance or the resistance value has been hardened to indicate that a given degree. 随后可以对待硬化组织的还没有硬化到这种程度的其它部分进行硬化处理。 May then be treated is not yet hardened hardened tissue to other parts of such a degree of hardening treatment. 这使得可以避免不必要的过长施加持续时间以及由此导致的患者紧张。 This makes it possible to avoid unnecessarily long duration of the application and the resulting nervous patient. 此外，这也可以特别有效地避免由于在组织区域过长时间地施加高频电流而灼伤该组织。 Further, it may be particularly effectively avoid the high frequency current is applied for too long in the tissue burns the tissue region. 可以组合依赖于时间的选择和依赖于阻抗的选择，从而只要经过预定时间或达到预定的阻抗或预定的作用电阻就进行新的选择。 Dependent on the choice and composition can depend on the impedance selection time, so long as the predetermined time elapses or a predetermined impedance or resistance of a predetermined action on the new selection. 在本发明的另一构造中，选择器装置构造为使得：在选择或重新选择包括至少两个作用电极的子阵列之前，该选择器装置使测量装置进行与所有可能的作用电极对之间的体组织的阻抗或作用电阻相关的测量， 并选择其之间的阻抗或作用电阻最小或未超过预定值的那些电极作为子阵列。 In another embodiment of the invention, the selector means is configured such that: prior to selection or reselection comprises at least two sub-arrays of the working electrode, the selecting means between the measuring means and the working electrode for all possible pairs effect of impedance or resistance measurements related to body tissue, and select the role of impedance or resistance between those electrodes which exceeds a predetermined minimum value or as sub-arrays. 在新的选择中，由于选择了其之间的体组织表现出最低阻抗或最低作用电阻的那些作用电极，所以可以有目的地将高频电压施加到硬化进展程度最低的那些组织区域。 In the new selection, since those selected working electrode between which the body tissue exhibits the lowest impedance or minimum resistance effect, it is possible purposefully frequency voltage is applied to those with the lowest degree of progress of hardening of the tissue region. 根据本发明的施加装置的有益进展在于，控制装置被构造为使得： 在施加过程的开始，将以预定周期变化的高频电压施加给作用电极，并在施加过程中根据在稍后时刻产生的阻抗或欧姆电阻及时地选择包括至少两个作用电极的子阵列。 According to an advantageous progress of the application device of the present invention is characterized in that the control device is configured such that: at the start of the application process, the high-frequency voltage will vary in a predetermined cycle is applied to the working electrode, and based on the time during application of later generated impedance or ohmic resistance in time selected sub-array comprising at least two of the working electrode. 在施加操作的开始，整个待硬化组织中的阻抗或作用电阻通常仍为相同或大致相同的值。 At the beginning of the application operation, be hardened throughout the tissue impedance or resistance effect remains generally the same or substantially the same value. 阻抗或作用电阻的局部差异仅在施加过程期间产生，从而与阻抗或作用电阻相应的电极选择仅在施加过程期间才有意义。 Local variations in impedance or resistance effect is applied only during the generation process, whereby the impedance or resistance of the respective electrode selection action only during the course of significance only applied. 施加装置的另一有益进展在于，选择器装置设计为选择至少三个作用电极作为子阵列，并且控制装置被设计为使得作用电极受到相互之间分别相移了固定相位角的高频电压的作用。 Another advantageous apparatus applying the progress that the selector means designed to select at least three sub-arrays as a working electrode, and the device is designed such that the working electrode be respectively mutually phase-shifted by a fixed phase angle of the high-frequency voltage control effect . 相移高频电流改善了在待硬化组织中施加的高频电流的均匀性。 Phase-shifted high frequency current improves the uniformity of the high-frequency current applied in the tissue to be hardened. 优选地选择三个作用电极作为子阵列，相位角为120度。 Three working electrode is preferably selected as a subarray, the phase angle is 120 degrees. 这使得可以使用三相电流来操作作用电极。 This makes it possible to operate the three-phase current working electrode. 优选地将选择器装置或控制装置设计为使得：选择器装置或控制装置断开阻抗或欧姆电阻超过预定的最大值Rn^的子阵列或电极组合。 Preferably the selector means or device is designed to control such that: the control means or selector means is disconnected impedance or ohmic resistance exceeds a predetermined maximum value Rn ^ or the combination of sub-array electrode. 随后在对应的体积单元（volume element)中终止组织硬化。 Then terminates hardening of the tissue in the corresponding volume elements (volume element) in the. 另外地或另选地，控制装置用于将待输送的最大功率Pmax减少到预定量，该最大功率Pmax是在超过小于Rmax的限定阻抗或限定欧姆电阻时通过分别选择的子阵列预先确定的。 Additionally or alternatively, the means for controlling the maximum power to be delivered to a predetermined amount to reduce Pmax, Pmax is the maximum power at less than Rmax exceeds defined impedance or ohmic resistance is defined by selecting each of a predetermined sub-array. 以这种方式，通过单纯地使基本硬化的组织干枯，可以防止在硬化将要结束之前，所选择的电极子阵列被过早地断开。 In this way, simply by making the hardened tissue substantially dry, before hardening can be prevented to an end, the selected sub-array electrode is disconnected prematurely. 优选地，选择器装置或控制装置被设计为使得：选择器装置或控制装置切断阻抗或欧姆电阻小于预定的最小值Rmin的子阵列或电极组合。 Preferably, the selection means or the control device is designed such that: the control means or selector means cut impedance or ohmic resistance of the electrode is less than a predetermined sub-array, or a combination of the minimum value Rmin. 通过这种方式可以检测短路，以防止危及患者。 A short-circuit can be detected in this way, to avoid endangering the patient. 优选地，在选择子阵列之后，控制装置将通过分别选择的子阵列传输的功率初始调节为较低，并在预定的时间内，以一个或更多个阶段或连续地将功率增大到预定的最大功率Pmax。 Preferably, after selecting sub-arrays, the initial adjustment of the control means through lower transmission power sub-arrays individually selected, and within a predetermined period of time, in one or more stages or continuously increased to a predetermined power maximum power Pmax. 这避免了"爆玉米花效应"， 该效应是指在突然施加最大功率时，由于可能的蒸汽泡不能足够快地消散，所以突然产生的压力使组织破裂或者使该电极针脱离。 This avoids the "popcorn effect" refers to the effect on the maximum power is applied suddenly due to possible steam bubbles can not dissipate fast enough, the pressure of sudden rupture of the tissue or to the electrode pin disengaged. 在本发明的优选构造中，将施加装置的作用电极或所选择的电极设置在电极针上，这使得能够在待硬化的组织区域中或待硬化的组织区域周围精确地设置这些作用电极。 In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the working electrode or electrodes of the device will be applied to the selected electrode needles, which makes the surrounding tissue in the tissue region can be hardened in the region to be hardened or to accurately set the working electrode. 电极针可以是双极电极针的形式，即，这些电极针分别包括两个相互绝缘的作用电极，这两个作用电极可以相互独立地受到高频电压的作用。 Electrode needle may be in the form of a bipolar needle electrode, i.e., the electrode pins respectively include two mutually insulated active electrode, these two electrodes acting independently of each other by the action of high-frequency voltage. 通过这种方式，不仅可以使高频电流在不同的电极针之间流动而且可以使高频电流沿单个电极针流动，这增加了电流路径的可变性，并由此增加了待硬化组织区域的可单独硬化部分的数量。 In this way, not only the high-frequency current to flow between the needle electrode and can be different high-frequency current flows along a single needle electrode, which increases the variability of the current path, and thereby increasing the tissue region to be hardened part number hardenable separately. 通过使用多极电极针（即，具有多于两个的作用电极的电极针）可以进一步增加可变性因素。 By using a multi-electrode needle (i.e., more than two electrode pins having the working electrode) can further increase the variability factor. 电极针的有益进展在于，它们被绝缘套（enclosure)包围，并且可以从绝缘套延伸出预定的长度，从而可以通过从套中延伸或回縮电极针来调节多极电极针的电极数量。 Useful progress electrode needles is that they are insulating sheath (Enclosure) surrounded by an insulating sheath and may extend from a predetermined length, so that the number of electrodes may be adjusted by the multipole electrode pin extending from the sleeve or retract the needle electrodes. 电极针可以具有一个或更多个流体通道，用于冷却或加热作用电极或整个针。 Needle electrode may have one or more fluid channels for cooling or heating the working electrode, or the entire needle. 具体地，将气体和液体看作为流体。 In particular, see the gas and liquid as the fluid. 可以使用加热或冷却来使由于高频电流而引起的组织温度升高（即，组织中的温度模式（pattem))03812074.7说明书第8/12页变得均匀。 May be used to heat or cool the temperature of the tissue caused by the high-frequency current increases (i.e., tissue temperature pattern (pattem)) 03812074.7 description on page 8/12 becomes uniform. 也可以将流体通道用于现有的普通电极针中，以实现更均匀的温度模式。 Fluid channels may also be used for existing common electrode needles in order to achieve a more uniform temperature profile. 在一种构造中，通道的特征在于，它们通向作用电极，并用于提供冷却流体。 In one configuration, characterized in that the channel, which leads to the working electrode, and for providing a cooling fluid. 高频电流的电流密度最大的地方，组织温度的升高最大。 The maximum current density where high-frequency current, the maximum tissue temperature rise. 通常电流密度在作用电极处最大。 Typically the maximum current density at the working electrode. 对电极进行冷却可以降低与电极直接相邻的组织的温度，并由此使组织中的温度模式更加均匀。 Cooling the electrodes can be reduced immediately adjacent the electrode temperature of the tissue, the tissue and thereby more uniform temperature profile. 在一实施例中，该流体为去离子液（deionised liquid)。 In one embodiment, the fluid is deionized liquid (deionised liquid). 液体的导热系数通常比气体的高，但通常导电，从而需要为通道提供良好的电绝缘。 The thermal conductivity of the liquid is generally higher than the gas, but is generally conductive, so that the need to provide good electrical insulation for the channel. 使用经过去离子并由此而不导电的液体意味着基本上可以省去通道的电绝缘。 After using deionized and thus without substantially conducting means electrically insulating liquid passage may be omitted. 液体的去离子程度越好，绝缘所需的范围和费用就相应地越低。 Deionized better degree of liquid, scope and cost of the insulating correspondingly lower. 附图说明下文中参照附图通过详细的实施例，以示例的方式描述本发明的其它特征和优点，在附图中：图1是表示本发明的组件的电路方框图；图2是表示本发明一另选结构的电路方框图；图3a和图3b表示在根据本发明的装置中使用的电极针；图4a和图4b以示例的方式表示了组织中电极针的设置的平面图和侧视图以及相关电流；以及图5a和图5b以示例的方式表示了组织中电极针的另一设置的平面图和侧视图以及相关电流。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF below with reference to the accompanying drawings in detail by way of example, be described by way of example Other features and advantages of the present invention, in the drawings: FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the circuit assembly of the present invention; FIG. 2 is a diagram of the present invention Alternatively a block diagram showing a circuit configuration; Figures 3a and 3b shows the apparatus according to the present invention, the electrode needle used; Figures 4a and 4b show a plan view and by way of example a side view of a needle electrode disposed in tissue and related current; and Figures 5a and 5b shows a plan view and a side view of another tissue needle electrode and associated current provided by way of example. 具体实施方式图1是根据本发明的用于硬化体组织的装置的示例方式的实施例的电路方框图。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION Figure 1 is a circuit block diagram of an apparatus according to example embodiment for the hardened tissue of the present invention. 该装置包括多个作用电极1到6，这些作用电极一起形成电极阵列7。 The apparatus comprises a plurality of working electrode 1-6, the working electrode 7 together form an electrode array. 电极1到6分别通过各自的独立线路9与控制单元11相连。 Electrodes 1-6 are connected to a respective separate lines 9 and 11 by the control unit. 与控制单元11相连的还有：测量装置13，用于测量电极1到6之间的组织的阻抗或作用电阻；选择器装置15，用于选择电极；以及高频生成器17，用于产生高频交流电压。 And the control unit 11 also connected to: a measurement means 13 for measuring the tissue between the electrodes 1-6 by resistor or impedance; selector means 15 for selecting the electrode; and a high frequency generator 17 for generating high frequency AC voltage. 在多极的情况下，高频生成器17例如具有在20-50Q,工作频率为470kHz条件下的250W输出功率。 In the case of multi-pole, for example, a high-frequency generator 17 at 20-50Q, operating frequency of 470kHz 250W output power conditions. 在双极的情况下，输出功率例如为在IOOQ，工作频率同样为470kHz条件下的125W。 In the case of the bipolar output power is, for example, under the same conditions 125W at 470kHz IOOQ, the operating frequency. 高频生成器的工作范围为10到IOOOQ之间。 Operating range of the high-frequency generator is between 10 to IOOOQ. 由测量装置13进行的阻抗或作用电阻测量可以在470kHz的工作频率或其它频率，尤其是低频（例如20kHz)下实现。 Effect of impedance or resistance measurement by the measuring device 13 may be operating frequency or other frequencies of 470kHz, in particular to achieve the low frequency (e.g. 20kHz). 将高频生成器设计为适于在满负荷下工作20分钟的典型施加时间或者更长时间。 The high-frequency generator is typically designed to be 20 minutes or longer application time adapted to operate at full load. 将测量装置13设计为能够测量电极阵列7中的每两个电极之间的组织的阻抗或作用电阻。 The measuring device 13 designed to measure the effect of impedance or resistance of tissue between the two electrodes of each electrode array 7. 例如通过下述过程来实现测量操作：在电极阵列7 的两个电极之间施加交流电压，然后测量装置13测量流过两个电极的交流电流。 For example by the following measuring sequence: AC voltage is applied between the two electrodes of the electrode array 7, and then the measuring device 13 measures the AC current flowing through the two electrodes. 在这方面，这足以测量阻抗的幅值（即，组织的作用电阻）。 In this regard, it is sufficient to measure the magnitude of the impedance (i.e., resistance effect tissue). 然而，另选地，测量装置13可以确定流过两个电极的交流电流和施加给电极的交流电压之间的相位差，从而可以完全地确定阻抗。 However, alternatively, the measuring means 13 can determine a phase difference between the flow through the two electrodes and the alternating current AC voltage is applied to the electrodes, so that the impedance can be completely determined. 根据阻抗测量的结果，选择器装置15可以确定电极之间的组织的硬化程度。 The results of impedance measurements, the selector means hardening of the tissue between the electrodes 15 can be determined. 硬化程度越高，组织的阻抗相应地越高。 The higher the degree of hardening, with a corresponding higher the impedance of the tissue. 为了在确定组织状态时，能够考虑阻抗的频率依赖性，可以以多种频率进行阻抗测量。 In order to determine when the tissue state, can be considered the frequency dependence of the impedance, the impedance can be measured at a plurality of frequencies. 例如在确定施加高频电流的施加参数时，可以考虑包含在阻抗的频率依赖性中的信息。 For example, when determining the application of high frequency current is applied to the parameters to be considered in the information contained in the frequency dependence of the impedance. 在本实施例中，对电极阵列7的所有可能的电极对进行所述的阻抗测量操作，以使选择器装置15可以获得每两个相应电极对之间的所有组织区域的阻抗值。 In the present embodiment, all possible array of electrode pair 7 of the impedance measuring operation, to cause the selector means 15 can obtain the impedance values of all tissue region between each two corresponding pair of electrodes. 然后，基于这些阻抗值，选择器装置15选择电极阵列7的至少两个电极，该至少两个电极构成电极阵列7的子阵列。 Then, based on these impedance values, the selector means 15 selects at least two electrodes of the electrode array 7, the at least two sub-arrays of electrodes of the electrode array 7. 选择器装置15将所选择的子阵列与控制单元11连通，然后控制单元11通过线路9将由高频生成器17产生的高频电压提供给子阵列19的多个电极（这里为电极5和6)。 Selector means 15 communicating with the sub-array control unit 11 selected, then the control unit 11 is supplied to the plurality of electrodes by the high-frequency sub-array 9 by voltage line 17 generates a high-frequency generator 19 (here, the electrodes 5 and 6 ). 为此，控制单元ll包括开关单元，利用该开关单元，可以将多个线路9分别连接到高频生成器17。 For this purpose, the control unit comprises a switching unit ll by the switching unit 9 can be connected to the high frequency generator 17 a plurality of lines. 该高频生成器17例如可以是恒流源或恒压源。 The high frequency generator 17 may be, for example, a constant current source or constant voltage source. 当向子阵列19的电极5和6施加高频电压时，高频交流电流在电极5和6之间流过，导致组织温度升高，结果使组织变性。 When a high frequency voltage is applied to the sub-arrays of electrodes 519 and 6, between the high frequency alternating current flows through the electrodes 5 and 6, resulting in tissue temperature, resulting in tissue degeneration. 在预定的时间周期之后，控制单元11终止向子阵列19的电极提供高频电压，并使测量装置13再次测量电极阵列7的所有可能电极对之间的阻抗。 After a predetermined period of time, the control unit 11 terminates the sub-high-frequency voltage to the electrode array 19, and again measuring means 13 measure the resistance between the electrodes of the electrode array of all possible 7. 选择器装置15随后例如从电极阵列中选出其之间组织的阻抗升高最小的电极对作为子阵列19。 Selector means 15 then select, for example, the impedance of the tissue between the electrodes from the array of electrodes increases as the smallest sub-array 19. 还可以使用不同的加权因子对阻抗值进行加权。 Impedance values may also be weighted using different weighting factors. 所选择的电极对可以是与前一选择过程中相同的电极对5、 6，或者是不同的电极对。 The selection of the electrodes 5, 6, or different electrode pairs may be the same during the previous selection electrode. 后者可能是下述的情况：由于电热治疗，电极5和6之间组织的阻抗增大，使其高于至少另一对电极之间的组织的阻抗。 The latter may be the case following: Since electric thermal treatment, impedance of the tissue between the electrodes 5 and 6 is increased to be higher than at least one other tissue impedance between the electrodes. 电极阵列7的子阵列19还可以包括多于两个的电极。 7 subarray electrode array 19 may also comprise more than two electrodes. 在这种情况下，预先确定一阻抗阈值是适宜的，该阈值预先设定是否向对应电极对之间的组织施加高频电流。 In this case, a predetermined impedance threshold is appropriate, the threshold value set in advance whether to apply a high frequency current to the tissue between the corresponding pair of electrodes. 如果电极对之间的阻抗没有达到或超过该阻抗阈值，则将所关注的电极对并入子阵列19。 If the impedance between the electrodes does not meet or exceed the threshold impedance value, then the electrode is of interest to sub-array 19 is incorporated. 在本发明的一另选结构中，在施加高频电流的过程中，测量装置13 连续测量电极之间的阻抗，并且只要电极5和6之间组织的阻抗或阻抗的增幅超过预定阈值，就向控制单元ll输出信号。 In an alternative structure of the present invention, during the application of high frequency current, the measuring means 13 continuously measuring the impedance between the electrodes, and as long as the increase in tissue between electrodes 5 and 6, impedance or impedance exceeds a predetermined threshold, ll output signal to the control unit. 控制单元随后终止施加高频电流。 The control unit applies a high frequency current is then terminated. 在终止施加高频电流之后，控制单元11使测量装置13再次测量所有电极对之间组织的阻抗，并随后根据阻抗测量过程的结果， 使选择器装置15选择电极阵列7的新的子阵列19，然后通过该新的子阵列19向组织施加高频电流。 After applying high-frequency current is terminated, the control unit 11 again, the measuring means 13 for measuring the tissue impedance between the electrodes of all, and then the result of the impedance measurement process in accordance with the selector means 15 select a new electrode array 197 of sub-arrays then applying high-frequency current through the new sub-array 19 to the tissue. 如果子阵列19包括多于两个的电极，则可以假定只要多个电极对中的一对之间的阻抗超过预定值或者另选地当预定数量的电极对之间的组织的阻抗超过预定的阻抗阈值，控制装置11就终止施加高频电流。 If the sub-array 19 comprises more than two electrodes, it can be assumed as long as the impedance between the electrodes on the plurality of the pair exceeds a predetermined value, or alternatively, when the impedance of the tissue between the electrodes exceeds a predetermined number of predetermined impedance threshold, the control means 11 applies a high frequency current is terminated. 本发明的一另选实施例在图2中被表示为电路方框图。 An alternative embodiment of the present invention is represented in FIG. 2 is a circuit block diagram. 由相同的标号表示与图1所示的实施例中相同的组件，并且在下文中不再进行描述。 Denote the same components as those in the embodiment shown in Figure 1, and will not be described below by the same reference numerals. 该另选构造与图1所示实施例的不同在于，具有与控制单元11分离的单元形式的开关单元12。 Different embodiments of this alternative configuration as shown in FIG. 1 in that the separate unit has a form of a control unit 11 of the switch unit 12. 与开关单元12直接相连的有高频生成器17 和A/D转换器14， A/D转换器14用于将由阻抗测量获得的模拟信号转换为数字信号，该数字信号被传送给处理器16。 And the switch unit 12 is directly connected to the high-frequency generator 17 and A / D converter 14, A / D converter 14 for converting analog signals obtained by the impedance measurement to a digital signal, the digital signal processor 16 is transmitted to the . 幵关单元12用于将各个电极1-6分别连接到高频生成器17和减A/D转换器14。 Jian closing unit 12 for the respective electrodes are respectively connected to a high frequency generator 17 1-6 Save and A / D converter 14. 处理器16包括测量或评估单元13'，该测量或评估单元13'与A/D转换器14相连，用于接收由阻抗测量获得的数字信号，并根据所接收的信号确定体组织的阻抗。 The processor 16 includes a measurement or the evaluation unit 13 ', the measurement or the evaluation unit 13' is connected to the A / D converter 14 for receiving the digital signal obtained by the impedance measurement, and the impedance of the body tissue is determined in accordance with the received signal. 评估单元13'还与选择器单元15相连，用于输出阻抗值，选择器单元15进而连接到控制单元11。 The evaluation unit 13 'is also connected to a selector unit 15 for the output impedance value, the selector unit 15 is in turn connected to the control unit 11. 该选择器单元15根据阻抗值选择要使用的作用电极（在所示实施例中为电极5和6)，并随后将该选择通知给控制单元11。 The impedance value selecting unit 15 select the working electrode to be used, and then notifies the selection control unit 11 (Examples 5 and 6 of the electrodes in the illustrated embodiment) in accordance with. 根据该选择，控制单元11通过控制线路对开关单元12进行控制，从而将所选择的作用电极连接到高频生成器17。 According to the selection, the control unit 11 controls the switching unit via control lines 12, so that the working electrode is connected to the selected frequency generator 17. 另选地，控制单元11可以通过控制线路另外连接到高频生成器17， 以能够调节由高频生成器17传送的高频电压的频率。 Alternatively, the control unit 11 may be additionally connected via a control line to the high frequency generator 17, to be able to adjust the frequency of the high frequency voltage delivered by the generator 17. 在所示的实施例中，作用电极为电极针的形式。 In the embodiment shown, the working electrode is in the form of needle electrodes. 在图3a中示出了这种电极针。 In Figure 3a shows such an electrode needle. 在其近端（即，凸出到组织外部的那一端），电极针100具有柄区102，而在其末端（即，要插入到组织中的那一端104)，具有两个作用电极120和122 (见图3b)。 At its proximal end (i.e., projecting to the outside of that end of the tissue), electrode 100 having a pin shank region 102, and at its end (i.e., that end 104 to be inserted into tissue), and having two working electrode 120 122 (see FIG. 3b). 设置在两个电极120和122之间的是绝缘区124，该绝缘区124使两个电极相互电绝缘。 Disposed between the two electrodes 120 and 122 is an insulating region 124, the insulating region 124 are electrically insulated from the two electrodes. 虽然图3a和图3b中所示的电极针具有两个电极，但电极针也可以具有多于两个的作用电极或只有一个电极。 Although the electrode pins shown in FIGS. 3a and 3b has two electrodes, electrode needles but may have more than two or only one electrode the working electrode. 如果存在多于两个的作用电极，则在所有的电极之间的具有各自的绝缘区。 If the presence of more than two working electrode, the insulating region having respective between all the electrodes. 电极针100的所有电极通过各自的独立线路与控制装置（未示出）相连，以使得可以向各个电极分别施加高频电压。 All the electrode pin electrode 100 via respective separate lines to the control device (not shown), so that a high frequency voltage may be applied to the respective electrodes. 在其内部，电极针100可以包括一个或更多个用于提供流体以冷却或加热该作用电极或整个针的通道。 In its interior, the electrode needles 100 may comprise one or more cooling or heating to the working electrode or the entire needle for providing a fluid passageway. 图4a和4b图示了该施加装置的应用的第一示例。 Figures 4a and 4b illustrate a first example of application of the applicator device. 该图示出了病理组织200 (目标组织），通过穿刺将三个电极针100插入病理组织200中， 以使三个电极针的作用电极120和122与该目标组织直接电接触。 200 illustrates the (target tissue) tissue pathology by puncture needle 100 is inserted into the three electrodes pathological 200, so that the three electrode pin 120 and the working electrode 122 in contact with the target tissue directly electrically. 首先由控制单元11向电极120和122施加高频电压，以使高频电流沿电极针100的轴向在电极120和122之间流动。 First, a high frequency voltage is applied to the electrodes 11 and 122 by the control unit 120, high-frequency current to the axial direction of the needle electrode 100 to flow between the electrodes 120 and 122. 在图4b中示出了这些电流，而在图4a中通过虚线示出对应的电势。 In Figure 4b illustrates these currents, the potential shown by the corresponding dashed line in Figure 4a. 图4a表示三个电极针100的平面图，而图4b表示三个电极针100 中的两个的侧视图。 Figure 4a shows a plan view of three electrode needles 100, and Figure 4b shows a side view of two of the three electrodes 100 needles. 通过所有三个电极针100的电流的叠加，在这些针之间产生了电流均匀的组织区域，从而可以实现该组织区域的均匀加热。 All three superimposed current through the electrode pin 100, produces a current between the needle uniform tissue area, thereby enabling a uniform heating of the tissue region. 同时，随着高频电流的施加，利用测量装置13在工作频率或者其它频率下测量电极120和122之间的组织阻抗。 Meanwhile, with the high-frequency current is applied, the tissue 13 measures the impedance between the electrodes 120 and 122 at the operating frequency or other frequencies with the measuring apparatus. 具体地，如果为此采用了与工作频率不对应的频率，则通过正在进行的施加，可以测量单个电极对之间的组织的阻抗，而施加的电流基本不会妨碍该测量过程。 Specifically, if the frequency used for this purpose does not correspond to the operating frequency, through the application of an ongoing, tissue impedance may be measured between a single pair of electrodes, base current is applied does not interfere with the measurement process. 为此， 该测量装置包括鉴频器或滤波器，该鉴频器或滤波器能够将阻抗测量频率（例如20kHz)与工作频率（例如470kHz)分离。 For this purpose, the measuring device includes a frequency discriminator or a filter, the discriminator or a filter capable of impedance measurement frequency (e.g. 20kHz) and the operating frequency (e.g. 470kHz) separation. 图5a和图5b表示根据本发明的施加装置的应用的另一示例。 5a and 5b show another example of the application of the application device of the present invention. 在该实施例中，不是将三个电极针100插入到目标组织中，而是通过穿刺插入在目标组织的外部，以将目标组织设置在三个电极针100之间。 In this embodiment, instead of the three electrode pin 100 is inserted into the target tissue, but by inserting the puncture outside of the target tissue to the target tissue is disposed between the three electrode needles 100. 与图4a和图4b所示的示例相反，在这种情况下，电流与针的轴线不平行，而是从一个电极针到另一电极针。 Example shown in FIG. 4a and 4b of the opposite, in this case, the axis of the needle is not parallel with the current, but the other electrode from a needle to the needle electrode. 通过这种方式，可以在目标组织200中获得均匀的电流。 In this way, it is possible to obtain a uniform current 200 in the target tissue. 另外，可以避免在去除电极针时夹带恶性组织。 Further, to avoid the entrainment of malignant tissue when the electrode needle is removed. 该施加装置可以仅使用沿针流动的轴向电流或仅使用在两个不同的针之间流动的电流或者使用两者的组合来进行工作。 The application device may use only the axial current flowing along the needle or only a current flowing between the two different needles or using a combination of both to work. 在重新选择作用电极的子阵列之后，电流流动的方向可以从一种模式切换到另一种模式。 After re-selecting sub-arrays of the working electrode, the direction of current flow can be switched from one mode to another mode. 虽然通过示例的方式在各个实施例中示出了具有6个电极的电极阵列，但是电极阵列也可以包括多于或少于6个的电极。 Although by way of example in various embodiments, the electrode array is shown having six electrodes, the electrode array may include more or less than six electrodes.