CN100405048C - Automatic determination device of soil moisture solute moving parameter - Google Patents

Automatic determination device of soil moisture solute moving parameter Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100405048C
CN100405048C CNB200510124583XA CN200510124583A CN100405048C CN 100405048 C CN100405048 C CN 100405048C CN B200510124583X A CNB200510124583X A CN B200510124583XA CN 200510124583 A CN200510124583 A CN 200510124583A CN 100405048 C CN100405048 C CN 100405048C
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China
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solute
soil
water
probe
feeder
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CNB200510124583XA
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1793881A (en
Inventor
王全九
樊军
赵军
郑纪勇
邵明安
张兴昌
李世清
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中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
西安理工大学
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Abstract

The present invention discloses an automatic determination device for soil moisture and solute transfer parameters, which comprises a water and solute feeder, a three-way magnet valve, a pressure sensor, soil horizon poles, a probe, an automatic collector and a computer control unit, wherein the computer control unit is respectively connected with the pressure sensor, the three-way magnet valve, the probe and the solution collector through connection lines to control the automatic switchover of the water and the solute in the water and solute feeder and automatically collect liquid signals in the solution collector, and the conductivity and the infiltration capacity of soil samples in different positions in different soil horizontal poles can be obtained. The variation processes following the time of soil wetting front, the position of the solute frontal surface and the infiltration capacity can be calculated automatically according to the collected data. The same soil sample is used by the device for automatically determining the soil hydraulic parameters and solute transfer parameters, and the parameters obtained by the determined data are coincident with actual conditions.

Description

Soil moisture, solute transfer parameter apparatus for automatically measuring
Technical field
The invention belongs to the research soil and water conservation field, relate to a kind of measurement mechanism, the device that particularly a kind of soil moisture, solute transfer parameter are measured automatically.
Background technology
For arid and semi-arid area shortage of water resources is the key factor of restriction industrial and agricultural development and all-side social progress.Efficiently utilize limited water resources to become and extenuate shortage of water resources, realize the industrial or agricultural sustainable development, and the important means of ecological recovery.Soil is as the supply and the storage of the required various energy of plant growth, and the material cycle process is to implement the important content of High-efficient Agricultural Water Use and improvement of the ecological environment in prediction and the in good time regulation and control soil.Soil moisture is not only the solvent and the carrier of the various nutrients of crop, it also is one of essential nutrient of plant growth, it plays this key effect for material cycle process in the reasonable regulation and control soil, and therefore disclosing the soil water movement feature and rationally regulating and control soil water regime is the basis of improvement of the ecological environment.
Chinese scholars has been carried out number of research projects with regard to soil moisture and solute determination techniques, soil water movement and Solute Transport Theory, and is progressively developed into by simple experimental study and utilize mathematical model to predict soil moisture and solute transfer process.With regard to mathematical simulation, Richards equation at present commonly used is described the soil water movement feature, utilize the convection current dispersion theory to describe the soil solute migration process, the accuracy of analog computation directly depends on the reliability and the precision of related hydraulic parameters and soil solute migration parameter.The main hydraulic parameters that relates to is characteristic curve of soil moisture, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, diffusivity, and the solute migration parameter comprises hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient and retention factor.Determine that at present parametric technique has direct determination method and inquires into method indirectly.Measure the direct determination method of hydraulic parameters and mainly utilize tensiometer, pressure membrane, hydro-extractor to measure characteristic curve of soil moisture, utilize rainfall infiltration, evaporation and the ponding method of infiltrating to measure unsaturated hydraulic conductivity.These method definite conception, but consuming time, experimental expenses is expensive, the uncertainty of parameter, soil space variability often limit the application of these methods in the field.The sample of measuring water characteristic curve simultaneously is not consistent with the sample that carries out soil water movement research, produces sample error.If soil exists layer structure and preferential flow path, there are serious problems in the application of these methods.In recent decades, people are in order to overcome the shortcoming that exists in the direct determination method, seek to utilize straightforward procedure to estimate the soil water movement parameter, as utilize soil particle to form and estimate characteristic curve of soil moisture (Arya et al.1999), and utilize characteristic curve of soil moisture and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity Relationship Prediction unsaturated hydraulic conductivity set up, but, therefore utilize particle to form and determine that characteristic curve of soil moisture still is in the theory study stage because the soil hydraulic characteristic is subjected to the influence of the soil weight and soil texture.People can utilize soil water movement equation and corresponding experimental data in addition, carry out the counter of parameter by mathematical model and push away, but the not uniqueness of the parameter that studies show that this method in a large number and caused and development and the application that the method convergence is limiting this method.Shao Mingan (1998) has developed an integration method and has determined soil water movement parameter (van Genuchten model, 1980).Wang Quanjiu (2002) has developed and utilizes horizontal one dimension to infiltrate test to inquire into the method for Brooks-Corey (1964) model parameter, this method only need be measured infiltration capacity and wetting front change procedure in time, for determining that holard force parameter provides effective theory.
Measure the direct determination method of hydraulic parameters at present and mainly utilize tensiometer, pressure membrane, hydro-extractor to measure characteristic curve of soil moisture, utilize rainfall infiltration, evaporation and the ponding method of infiltrating to measure unsaturated hydraulic conductivity.These method definite conception, but consuming time, experimental expenses is expensive, the uncertainty of parameter, soil space variability often limit the application of these methods in the field.The sample of measuring water characteristic curve simultaneously is not consistent with the sample that carries out soil water movement research, produces sample error.If soil exists layer structure and preferential flow path, there are serious problems in the application of these methods.
The soil solute migration parametric measurement often adopts breakthrough curve to determine, time-consuming, the effort of this method.The boundary layer theory that Shao Mingan proposes is for determining that the solute migration parameter provides effective theory.But because the restriction of experimental system and research method is inconsistent at the mensuration soil sample that hydraulic parameters and solute transfer adopted, produced sample error at present, therefore needed the same soil sample of development and use to measure hydraulic parameters and solute transfer parameter devices.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to, a kind of soil moisture, solute transfer parameter apparatus for automatically measuring are provided.
In order to realize above-mentioned task, the technical solution that the present invention takes is: a kind of soil moisture, solute transfer parameter apparatus for automatically measuring is characterized in that this device comprises:
One water and solute feeder are used for providing water and solute to earth pillar, and this feeder is made up of two plexi-glass tubulars that water and solute are housed respectively, can keep constant head by Ma Shi bottle principle.Each plexi-glass tubular is connected to the switch of control water or solute outflow, and is connected with three-way solenoid valve by pipeline; At each plexi-glass tubular liquid outlet, be useful on the pressure transducer of the infiltration capacity of monitoring water or solute respectively;
One horizontal soil column, be used to place tested pedotheque, be evenly distributed with the probe of measuring conductivity on this horizontal soil column, horizontal soil column one end is communicated with the solute feeder by three-way solenoid valve and pipeline, and there is a solution catcher that the flow liquid body below of the other end;
One computer control unit, computer control unit is connected with pressure transducer, three-way solenoid valve, probe and solution catcher respectively by connecting line, be used to control the water of water and solute feeder, the automatic switchover of solute, and the liquid signal in the solution catcher gathered automatically, obtain the conductivity and the infiltration capacity of the pedotheque of diverse location in the different soils horizontal columns, and automatically according to the data computation soil wetting front, solute front position and the infiltration capacity that collect change procedure in time.
Device of the present invention possesses following function:
(1) utilize same soil sample to measure holard force parameter and solute migration parameter automatically;
(2) adopt computer controlled automatic, realize man-machine conversation;
(3) according to the related variable of measuring, computing machine calculates correlation parameter automatically.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is an apparatus structure synoptic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is two kinds of quality soil wetting fronts processes over time; Wherein figure (a) is that scheme over time at the wetting peak of loessal soil; Figure (b) is that Lou Tu Feng schemes over time.
Fig. 3 is a differing texture soil solute breakthrough curve, and wherein figure (a) is a black mature soil, and figure (b) is a sand, and (c) Shi Lou soil, figure (d) is a loessal soil to figure.
Fig. 4 is experiment process figure of the present invention.
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with the principle of work of accompanying drawing and device and process.
Embodiment
Referring to Fig. 1, soil moisture of the present invention, solute transfer parameter apparatus for automatically measuring, form by three parts:
(1) water and solute supply, this part adopts Ma Shi bottle principle to provide water and solute to horizontal soil column, form by two plexi-glass tubulars, and the switch of the outflow of control water or solute arranged, and be connected with three-way solenoid valve by pipeline, at each plexi-glass tubular liquid outlet, be useful on the pressure transducer of the infiltration capacity of monitoring water or solute respectively.
(2) horizontal soil column, this horizontal soil column are the plexi-glass tubulars of long 60cm internal diameter 5cm, and 8cm inserts the mensuration that probe carries out conductivity at interval in the above, the one end is the inlet of water or solution, the other end is for going out head piece, go out head piece below, have the solution automatic collector of flow liquid body.
Probe is one group with 5 and is fixed on the probe, long 3.5cm, diameter 1mm, and four probes distribute one of center around being square with spacing 1cm.
(3) computer control unit, computer control unit is connected with pressure transducer, three-way solenoid valve, probe and solution catcher respectively by connecting line, be used to control the water of water and solution feeder, the automatic switchover of solute, and the liquid signal in the solution catcher gathered automatically, obtain the conductivity and the infiltration capacity of the pedotheque of diverse location in the different soils horizontal columns, and automatically according to the data computation soil wetting front, solute front position and the infiltration capacity that collect change procedure in time.
Solution catcher is selected the BS-100A model of west, Shanghai, Qingpu, Shanghai instrument plant, and this solution catcher adopts singlechip chip control, and six charactrons show, can carry out falling in 1 second-9 hours 59 minutes 59 seconds, along timing controlled.Experiment process is as shown in Figure 4:
Process of the test is: at first according to certain unit weight tested pedotheque of packing in horizontal soil column, pedotheque inserts conductivity probe in the horizontal soil column, and is connected with computer control unit through air-dry and cross the 2mm sieve.In water and solute supply, be respectively charged into distilled water and solute.
Open the control program (SWSP) of computer control unit, water and solute supply be water supply start at first, the water that control program can be opened three-way control valve automatically supplies water to horizontal soil column, pressure transducer begins the infiltration capacity that automatic sample record flows into horizontal soil column, the probe of diverse location writes down the change procedure of conductivity automatically on the horizontal soil column, to determine the position at moistening peak.After water penetrates into the last probe of horizontal soil column, the head piece that goes out of horizontal soil column has solution to flow out, collected by solution catcher, the solution automated collection systems of computer control unit brings into operation, and that gathers horizontal soil column goes out flow liquid body (promptly flowing into the liquid of solution catcher).Behind the stable conductivity of last probe, illustrate that horizontal soil column is saturated fully at this moment, can obtain saturated hydraulic conductivity according to liquor capacity in the solution catcher and time.At this moment control program stops to supply water, and switch transition switch, water and solute supply begin for solute.Computer control unit is gathered the infiltration capacity of the inflow horizontal soil column of solute equally with said procedure, the solute peak data, and what collect goes out to flow solution and can analyze the accuracy of determining the automatic calculating parameter of instrument to contrast.
Verification experimental verification:
Use device of the present invention to carry out moistening peak and measure, before the sensing point of last probe of moisture no show, the reading of device is very little, and the relative electric conductivity value of dry ground earth is between 3-6 reading at this moment.After moistening peak arrived the monitoring point, the device reading increased suddenly, and the time that reading increases suddenly is exactly the time that moistening peak arrives the monitoring point.The minute of device is compared with moistening peak position curve plotting and the resulting curve of personal monitoring, and the two curve almost overlaps, and illustrates with this device to measure moistening peak and time relation very accurate (referring to Fig. 2).
Treat that the saturated and solution of pedotheque in the horizontal soil column flows out when stablizing, and changes KCl solution into and carries out Cl -Migration research.When the solute peak face does not arrive sensing point, the relative electric conductivity value that device shows is a steady state value substantially, after the solute peak face arrives, show that numerical value begins to rise gradually, be reflected on the soil salt is exactly that soil liquid concentration begins to increase, the variation of the similar breakthrough curve that plots, the feasibility of solute peak face is surveyed in the variation explanation of this rule with this device.Table 1 is the probe location of each sensing point and the time that solute peak arrives.
Table 1 measurement data
Below measurement data in the table 2 be to handle according to three expression formulas of boundary layer theory, and carry out the quadratic polynomial match, can draw the mathematic(al) representation of solute peak in several soil:
Table 2
Soil sample The match mathematic(al) representation ??R 2
Lou soil (Yang Ling) ??y=1.4042x 2-0.4583x ??0.9942
Sand (Weihe River) ??y=0.1896x 2-0.7674x ??0.9176
Black mature soil ??y=0.5731x 2-0.2911x ??0.9866
Loessal soil ??y=0.2618x 2-1.0579x ??0.6658
Because solute is non-reacted Cl -, at first assert R=1, institute's D value of asking is as shown in table 3:
Table 3
As seen, except that sand, D value that draws by the boundary layer in the table 3 and soil solute breakthrough curve income value are very approaching.The parameter of utilizing Boundary Layer Method to draw is brought into and is inquired into the soil solute breakthrough curve that soil solute breakthrough curve and classic method (titration goes out the flow liquid concentration change) obtain in the CXTFIT program and be plotted in simultaneously among the figure, sees Fig. 3.As we know from the figure, the parameter of trying to achieve with this device determination data conforms to actual conditions.

Claims (2)

1. a soil moisture, solute transfer parameter apparatus for automatically measuring is characterized in that this device comprises:
One water and solute feeder, be used for providing water and solute to earth pillar, this feeder is made up of two plexi-glass tubulars that water and solute are housed respectively, and each plexi-glass tubular is connected with the switch of control water or solute outflow, and is connected with three-way solenoid valve by pipeline; At each plexi-glass tubular liquid outlet, be useful on the pressure transducer of the infiltration capacity of monitoring water or solute respectively;
One horizontal soil column, be used to place tested pedotheque, be evenly distributed with the probe of measuring conductivity on this horizontal soil column, horizontal soil column one end is communicated with the solute feeder by three-way solenoid valve and pipeline, and there is a solution catcher that the flow liquid body below of the other end;
One computer control unit, computer control unit is connected with pressure transducer, three-way solenoid valve, probe and solution catcher respectively by connecting line, be used to control the water of water and solute feeder, the automatic switchover of solute, and the liquid signal in the solution catcher gathered automatically, obtain the conductivity and the infiltration capacity of the pedotheque of diverse location in the different soils horizontal columns, and automatically according to the data computation soil wetting front, solute front position and the infiltration capacity that collect change procedure in time.
2. device as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the long 3.5cm of the probe of described mensuration conductivity, and diameter 1mm is one group with per 5 and is fixed on the probe that 4 probes wherein are square profile with spacing 1cm, foursquare center is placed 1.
CNB200510124583XA 2005-12-20 2005-12-20 Automatic determination device of soil moisture solute moving parameter CN100405048C (en)

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