CN100388115C - Optical fibre Bragg grating sensing demodulating equipment and demodulating method thereof - Google Patents

Optical fibre Bragg grating sensing demodulating equipment and demodulating method thereof Download PDF

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CN100388115C
CN100388115C CNB2005100148777A CN200510014877A CN100388115C CN 100388115 C CN100388115 C CN 100388115C CN B2005100148777 A CNB2005100148777 A CN B2005100148777A CN 200510014877 A CN200510014877 A CN 200510014877A CN 100388115 C CN100388115 C CN 100388115C
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fiber
grating
wavelength
coupling
fiber bragg
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CNB2005100148777A
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CN1737676A (en
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江俊峰
刘铁根
王云新
张以谟
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天津大学
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a fiber Bragg grating sensing and demodulating device and a demodulation method. The light of a wideband light source arrives at a fiber Bragg grating sensor array to be measure through a first coupler, signals are reflected back to a second coupler and arrive at a linear filter based on a fiber fused biconical taper device after reflected light is transmitted to a chirped fiber grating for regulation through the first and the second couplers, and the signals are then sent into a signal processing and modulating control system for collection and processing after converted by a pair of sensors into electrical signals. The present invention can carry out dynamic and static measurement, can demodulate the fiber Bragg grating sensor array in single connection in series through wavelength division multiplex, and both the sensitivity and the range of measurement can be adjusted. Since the requirement of the system toward reflectance spectrums in centering precision and spectral pattern variation is comparatively low, the fabrication can be completed easily with lower cost. Due to the adoption of the linear filter based on the fused biconical taper technology, the light path loss and the device cost are greatly reduced. Additionally, the chirped fiber grating and the fused biconical taper device can be changed as required, and the present invention can be applied to multiple sensing systems adopting different wideband light sources consequently.

Description

Optical fibre Bragg grating sensing demodulating equipment and demodulation method

[technical field]:

The present invention relates to can be used for various sensory field of optic fibre, especially the demodulating equipment of optical fibre Bragg grating sensing and demodulation method based on optical fiber Bragg raster.

[background technology]:

Optical fiber Bragg raster (FBG) sensor is the maximum fiber-optic grating sensor of present applied research, and in whole optical fiber grating length, cycle and refractive index are uniformly, Bragg tuned reflection wavelength:

λ B=2nΛ (1-1)

In the formula, Λ is the grating cycle, and n is the fibre core effective refractive index.Extraneous disturbance meeting as strain to be measured causes the refractive index and the variation in fiber grating cycle of fiber grating, and then makes the Bragg reflection wavelength drift of fiber grating.Can know change information to be measured by the drift value that measures wavelength.

A very important demodulation method that link is an optic fiber grating wavelength in the optical fibre Bragg grating sensing, the method that proposes can be divided into five big classes according to the principle of institute's use demodulating equipment at present:

● spectrometer directly measures

Spectrometer is the most directly way that the fiber grating reflectance spectrum is measured, and it is used widely in initial experimental study, but spectrometer and is not suitable for that sensing is on-the-spot to be used as expensive instrument.Monitoring when present this method is mainly used in the fiber grating making.

● passive ratio demodulation

Its principle is to utilize the light wave transmitance variation characteristic of linear filtering to differentiate.In the working range of linear filter, therefore the corresponding transmitance of each wavelength detects transmitance, just can instead release wavelength information.Utilize double light path to survey the influence of eliminating the light source power fluctuation simultaneously.As technology [1] Melle S M formerly, LiuK, Measures R M.Practical fiber optic Bragg grating strain gauge system.Applied Optics, 1993,32 (19): 3601-3609; Technology [2] Davis M A. formerly, Kersey A D.Allfiber Bragg grating strain-sensor demodulation technique using a wavelengthdivision coupler.Electron. Lett, 1994,30 (1): 75-77.This technical disadvantages is the FBG array of not energy measurement serial, can not give full play to the advantage of Fibre Optical Sensor.

● the demodulation of tunable narrow-band filter filtering

The signal that wideband light source obtains after optical fiber Bragg raster reflection is a narrow band signal, and three dB bandwidth is about 0.2mm usually, and the reflectance spectrum profile is near Gaussian lineshape, and this signal arrives detector after through the tunable narrow-band wave filter with Gauss's spectral pattern subsequently.When the centre wavelength of the transmission spectrum of the reflectance spectrum centre wavelength of optical fiber Bragg raster and narrow band filter or reflectance spectrum overlaps, detector is output as maximal value, according to this judgment criterion, can determine the optical fiber Bragg raster wavelength by the transmission spectrum centre wavelength of narrow band filter.Whether this class methods foundation adopts FEEDBACK CONTROL and is operated under two kinds of patterns, scan pattern and tracking self-locking cover half formula.The tunable narrow-band wave filter can use the Fabry-perot optical fiber wave filter, as technology [3] Kersey A D formerly, Berkoff T A., Morey W W.Multiplexed fiber Bragg grating strain sensor system with a fiberFabry-Perot wavelength filter.Optics Letters, 1993,18:1370-1372; Use tunable fiber grating to make up demodulating system as narrow band filter, as technology [4] Jackson D A formerly, LoboR, Reekie L, et al.Simple multiplexing scheme for a fiber optic grating sensornetwork.Optic.Lett., 1993,18:1192-1194; Can utilize acousto-optic modulator as narrow band filter, as technology [5] Davis M A formerly, Kersey A D.Serially configured matched filterinterrogation technique for Bragg rating arrays.SPIE 1995,2444:295-312.This class technology is very strict to tuning matching requirements, and the piezoelectric ceramics that needs usually accurately to control is regulated the installation cost height.

● the interferometer demodulation

At technology [5] Kersey A D formerly, Berkoff T A, Morey W W. High resolutionfibre-grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength-shiftdetection. Electronics Letters, 1992,28 (3): proposition utilizes the Mach-Zehnder interferometer of non-equilibrium interference arm to detect the demodulation scheme of dynamic strain among the 236-238.Because there are relation in interferometer output phase φ and Bragg wavelength X: φ=2 π nd/ λ, wherein, n is a refractive index, and d is two arm optical path differences, and therefore detecting output phase can know wavelength information.At technology [6] Davis M A formerly, Kersey AD.Application of afiber Fourier transform spectrometer to the detection of wavelength-encodedsignals from fiber Bragg grating sensors.Journal of LightwaveTechnology, 1995,13 (7): propose optical fiber Fourier transform spectrum demodulation method among the 1289-1295 based on optical fibre Michelson interferometer.This class technology requires relatively strictness to the working environment of detuner usually, and device is complicated, the cost height.

● the source laser demodulation is arranged

Can utilize the terminal reflector of sensor fibre grating as fiber laser, be the variation of laser output wavelength with the information translation of strain, is equipped with above-mentioned Wavelength demodulation method demodulation again, so system complex.As technology [7] Melle S M formerly, Alavie A T, Karr S, et al.A Bragg grating-tuned fiber laser strainsensor system. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 1993,5 (2): 263-266.

Maturation along with the optical fiber Bragg grating sensor manufacturing technology, the price of fiber-optic grating sensor declines to a great extent, and in the market the fiber grating demodulation device mainly based on the Fabry-perot optical fiber wave filter, cost an arm and a leg, and being difficult to measure dynamic strain, this becomes fiber grating sensing technology is promoted development in fields such as oil temperature, pressure and monitoring structural health conditions obstacle.

[summary of the invention]:

The objective of the invention is to solve deficiency in the said method, provide a kind of with low cost, portable, can realize static state and kinetic measurement, the optical fibre Bragg grating sensing demodulating equipment and the demodulation method of dependable performance.

Optical fibre Bragg grating sensing demodulating equipment based on full optical fibre device provided by the invention, comprise wideband light source, the light of wideband light source arrives testing fiber Bragg grating sensor array by first coupling mechanism, reflected light reaches the chirped fiber grating place through first coupling mechanism and second coupling mechanism, the spectrum width of chirped fiber grating is poor less than adjacent light fiber Bragg grating centre wavelength, after chirped fiber grating regulated, chirped fiber grating will be in the signal reflex of the optical fiber Bragg raster in its reflectance spectrum and return second coupling mechanism and arrive the linear filter that draws the awl device based on fiber fuse, fiber fuse draws the two ends Output optical power of awl device to be converted into through a pair of detector that electric signal is sent into signal Processing and tuning control system is gathered and handled, signal Processing and tuning control system simultaneously respectively drive adjusting device linear filter and chirped fiber grating are regulated control.

A kind of optical fibre Bragg grating sensing demodulation method, the demodulating process of this method is:

The light of wideband light source arrives testing fiber Bragg grating sensor array by first coupling mechanism, reflected light reaches the chirped fiber grating place through first coupling mechanism and second coupling mechanism, the spectrum width of chirped fiber grating is poor less than adjacent light fiber Bragg grating centre wavelength, chirped fiber grating is regulated, its reflectance spectrum centre wavelength is moved near the optical fiber Bragg raster centre wavelength to be detected, chirped fiber grating will be in the signal reflex of the optical fiber Bragg raster in its reflectance spectrum and return second coupling mechanism and arrive the linear filter that draws the awl device based on fiber fuse, the two ends Output optical power is converted into electric signal and is gathered and handled by signal Processing and tuning control system through a pair of detector, and it is handled according to the following relation of electric signal with the existence of optical fiber Bragg raster foveal reflex wavelength:

V = k V lg P 1 P 2 = k V k p ( λ - λ 0 ) = k total ( λ - λ 0 )

In the formula, V is an output voltage, P 1, P 2Be based on the Output optical power that fiber fuse draws two ports of the linear wave device of boring device respectively, k vBe the proportionality constant relevant with circuit parameter, k pFor (by drive adjusting device the fused biconical taper light-splitting device being regulated control, can change k by the proportionality constant of fused biconical taper light-splitting device decision pThereby, the sensitivity and the demodulation scope of change demodulating equipment), k TotalBe total scale-up factor, i.e. k Total=k vk p, λ 0Be reference wavelength, λ is a FBG sensor reflection wavelength; Get final product the wavelength that inverse goes out optical fiber Bragg raster by following formula by the voltage of measuring.

Advantage of the present invention and good effect:

1. propose the complete optical fiber Bragg raster demodulation method of a cover, can carry out dynamically and static measurement, can realize optical fiber Bragg raster array demodulation by wavelength-division multiplex to single serial connection based on full optical device, and measure sensitivity and measurement range adjustable.

2. adopt chirped fiber grating from the optical fiber Bragg grating sensor array, to select optical fiber Bragg grating sensor to be demodulated.Chirped fiber grating has the reflectance spectrum of broad, and spectrum width is less than poor (usually at the 3-5nm) of adjacent light fiber Bragg grating centre wavelength.By regulating device, can be regulated chirped fiber grating reflectance spectrum centre wavelength.System is lower to reflectance spectrum center adjustment precision and spectral pattern variation requirement, therefore is easy to make of lower cost.

3. employing as linear filter, makes optical path loss and device cost descend greatly based on the device of fused biconical taper technology.The wimble fraction that draws of this device can be fixed on the regulating device, by the length that trim is drawn wimble fraction, can change the output characteristics of this device two-port, measures sensitivity and measurement range thereby change.

4. can be according to the external interference size, metering system comprises that direct current is directly measured and modulation is measured.Intensity of light source external modulation comprises the optical attenuation modulation system according to magneto-optic effect, based on the mechanical type optical attenuation modulation system and the modulation of chopper formula of MEMS technology.

5. chirped fiber grating and fused biconical taper device can be changed as required, thereby the sensor-based system of different wideband light sources formations can be adapted to adopt.

[description of drawings]:

Fig. 1 is a demodulating equipment structural representation of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is the reflectance spectrum synoptic diagram that has the chirped fiber grating of regulating device;

Fig. 3 is based on the dichroism synoptic diagram that fiber fuse draws the linear filter of awl device;

Fig. 4 is signal Processing and tuning control system synoptic diagram;

Fig. 5 is a used pre-amplification circuit in signal Processing and the tuning control system;

Fig. 6 is a used bandwidth-limited circuit in signal Processing and the tuning control system;

Fig. 7 is a used phase-sensitive detection circuit in signal Processing and the tuning control system;

Fig. 8 is a used modulation generating circuit in signal Processing and the tuning control system.

[embodiment]:

Embodiment 1: demodulating equipment

As shown in Figure 1, the optical fibre Bragg grating sensing demodulating equipment, comprise wideband light source 1, the light of wideband light source arrives testing fiber Bragg grating sensor array 3 by first coupling mechanism 2, reflected light reaches chirped fiber grating 5 places through first coupling mechanism 2 and second coupling mechanism 4, after chirped fiber grating regulated, chirped fiber grating will be in the signal reflex of the optical fiber Bragg raster in its reflectance spectrum and return second coupling mechanism and arrive the linear filter 6 that draws the awl device based on fiber fuse, fiber fuse draws the two ends Output optical power of awl device to be converted into through a pair of detector 8 that electric signal is sent into signal Processing and tuning control system 9 is gathered and handled, signal Processing and tuning control system simultaneously respectively drive adjusting device linear filter 6 and chirped fiber grating 5 are regulated control.

Embodiment 2: demodulation method

The demodulating process of above-mentioned demodulating equipment is as follows:

The light of wideband light source 1 arrives testing fiber Brgagg grating sensor array 3 by first coupling mechanism 2, reflected light reaches chirped fiber grating 5 places through first coupling mechanism 2 and second coupling mechanism 4, and (chirped fiber grating 5 that has regulating device is used to realize the selection to optical fiber Bragg raster, Fig. 2 is seen in its reflectance spectrum signal), chirped fiber grating is regulated, its reflectance spectrum centre wavelength is moved near the optical fiber Bragg raster centre wavelength to be detected, chirped fiber grating will be in the signal reflex of the optical fiber Bragg raster in its reflectance spectrum and return second coupling mechanism and arrive the linear filter that draws the awl device based on fiber fuse, and fiber fuse draws the ratio 101g (P of the power of the two ends output of boring device 1/ P 2) be linear change with wavelength, dichroism synoptic diagram as shown in Figure 3, the two ends Output optical power is converted into electric signal and is gathered and handled by signal Processing and tuning control system through a pair of detector, and its processing is the following relation that exists according to electric signal and optical fiber Bragg raster foveal reflex wavelength:

V = k V lg P 1 P 2 = k V k p ( λ - λ 0 ) = k total ( λ - λ 0 )

In the formula, k vBe the proportionality constant relevant with circuit parameter, k pFor (regulating control by 7 pairs of line style wave filters 6 of regulating device, can change k by the proportionality constant of fused biconical taper light-splitting device decision pThereby, the sensitivity and the demodulation scope of change demodulating equipment) and λ oBe reference wavelength, λ is a FBG sensor reflection wavelength; Get final product the wavelength that inverse goes out optical fiber Bragg raster by following formula by the voltage of measuring.

In the demodulation method of the present invention:

1. light source can be the wideband light source of centre wavelength in the 600-1600nm scope, as SLD and ASE light source, and the photo-detector that adopts sensitivity spectrum to adapt with it according to light source.As required, can take the external intensity modulation to light source.

2. this method metering system comprises that direct current is directly measured and modulation is measured.Intensity of light source external modulation comprises the optical attenuation modulation system according to magneto-optic effect, based on the mechanical type optical attenuation modulation system and the modulation of chopper formula of MEXS technology.

3. this method utilizes the scalable chirped fiber grating to realize the selection of optical fiber Bragg grating sensor, and control method comprises mechanical adjustment and electric heating adjustment.

4. this method utilizes the fused biconical taper device as linear filter, and the wimble fraction that draws of fused biconical taper device can place on the regulating device, and control method comprises mechanical adjustment and electric heating adjustment.

Embodiment 3: signal Processing and tuning control system

Signal Processing and tuning control system structure are as shown in Figure 4,10,11 is pre-amplification circuit (connecting circuit is referring to Fig. 5), 12,13 is change-over switch, 14,15 is bandwidth-limited circuit (connecting circuit is referring to Fig. 6), 16,17 is phase-sensitive detector (PSD) (connecting circuit is referring to Fig. 7), 18,19 is low-pass filter circuit, 20 is the logarithm division circuit, 21 is pga circuit, 22 is the regulating device driving circuit of linear filter, 23 is the driving circuit of chirped fiber grating regulating device, 24 is the modulation generating circuit (connecting circuit is referring to Fig. 8) of external modulator, 25 is man-machine interface circuit, and 26 is the single-chip microcomputer signal processing circuit, and 27 is liquid crystal display circuit.

Light intensity signal is after detector is converted into electric signal, by pre-amplification circuit 10,11 carry out the first order amplifies, single-chip microcomputer opens the light 10 according to metering system utilization switching, 11 carry out circuit switches, when metering system is measured for modulation, bandwidth-limited circuit 12,13 are switched on and are used for undesired signal beyond the filtering modulating frequency, with the modulation signal 24 of external modulator as with reference to signal, by phase-sensitive detector (PSD) 16,17 and low-pass filter circuit 18,19 come out the modulation signal demodulation, when metering system is directly to measure, then electric signal is directly by low-pass filter circuit 18,19 back filtering high frequency interference are also carried out demodulation.The resulting electric signal of demodulation carries out data acquisition and analysis by logarithm division circuit 20 and pga circuit 21 backs by single-chip microcomputer signal processing circuit 26.Man-machine interface circuit 25 is used for man-machine interactive operation, and the driving circuit 23 of moving circuit 22 of the regulating device of linear filter and chirped fiber grating regulating device correspondingly drives linear filter and chirped fiber grating regulating device according to the setting of man-machine interface circuit 25.Liquid crystal display circuit is used to show measurement result and parameter setting result.

Embodiment 4: applicating example

Demodulating equipment of the present invention and method can be used for quasi-distributed strain of fiber grating and temperature sensing.Fiber grating with different reflection wavelengths constitutes sensor array.Sensor array be connected on the demodulating equipment typical structure as shown in Figure 1.Wherein light source 1 adopts the ASE light source, and utilize and carry out outside sinusoidal modulation with frequency f according to the optical attenuation modulation system of magneto-optic effect, the 3rd, first fiber-optic grating sensor in the sensor array, wavelength are λ 1Other be followed successively by λ 2, λ 3..., λ nThe spectrum of all fiber gratings all is in the spectral range of ASE light source.The fiber-optic grating sensor array is fixed on strain and the temperature structural member to be measured.According to the sensitivity and the measurement range requirement of measuring, linear adjustment wave filter regulating device 7 makes the dichroism of linear filter 6 to setting value.When we need detect wavelength is λ 1Fiber-optic grating sensor, regulate the reflectance spectrum of chirped fiber grating 5, make it to cover the reflectance spectrum of fiber-optic grating sensor to be detected.At this moment, the two ends output frequency of linear filter 6 is the light intensity signal of f, be converted into the two-way current signal through a pair of detector, phase-locked amplifying circuit in signal Processing and the tuning control system is to its amplification and carry out the two-way difference, thereby obtain the output voltage linear, promptly obtain λ through simple inverse with wavelength 1The wavelength of fiber grating and temperature and strain are linear again, thereby further inverse can obtain temperature and the strain information that the fiber grating place is located.λ for other wavelength 2, λ 3..., λ nFiber-optic grating sensor, the reflectance spectrum that can regulate mobile chirped fiber grating 5 scans, and isolates λ successively 2, λ 3..., λ nFiber-optic grating sensor obtain the drift of corresponding optic fiber grating wavelength, thereby obtain the temperature and the strain information at diverse location place.

Claims (3)

1. optical fibre Bragg grating sensing demodulating equipment based on full optical fibre device, it is characterized in that this device comprises wideband light source, the light of wideband light source arrives testing fiber Bragg grating sensor array by first coupling mechanism, reflected light reaches the chirped fiber grating place through first coupling mechanism and second coupling mechanism, the spectrum width of chirped fiber grating is poor less than adjacent light fiber Bragg grating centre wavelength, after chirped fiber grating regulated, chirped fiber grating will be in the signal reflex of the optical fiber Bragg raster in its reflectance spectrum and return second coupling mechanism and arrive the linear filter that draws the awl device based on fiber fuse, fiber fuse draws the two ends Output optical power of awl device to be converted into through a pair of detector that electric signal is sent into signal Processing and tuning control system is gathered and handled, and signal Processing and tuning control system are regulated control to linear filter regulating device and chirped fiber grating respectively simultaneously.
2. optical fibre Bragg grating sensing demodulation method, it is characterized in that this demodulating process is: the light of wideband light source arrives testing fiber Bragg grating sensor array by first coupling mechanism, reflected light reaches the chirped fiber grating place through first coupling mechanism and second coupling mechanism, the spectrum width of chirped fiber grating is poor less than adjacent light fiber Bragg grating centre wavelength, chirped fiber grating is regulated, its reflectance spectrum centre wavelength is moved near the optical fiber Bragg raster centre wavelength to be detected, chirped fiber grating will be in the signal reflex of the optical fiber Bragg raster in its reflectance spectrum and return second coupling mechanism and arrive the linear filter that draws the awl device based on fiber fuse, the two ends Output optical power is converted into electric signal and is gathered and handled by signal Processing and tuning control system through a pair of detector, and it is handled according to the following relation of electric signal with the existence of optical fiber Bragg raster foveal reflex wavelength:
V = k V lg P 1 P 2 = k V k p ( λ - λ 0 ) = k total ( λ - λ 0 )
In the formula, V is an output voltage, P 1, P 2Be based on the Output optical power that fiber fuse draws two ports of the linear filter of boring device respectively, k VBe the proportionality constant relevant with circuit parameter, k pBe the proportionality constant by the decision of fused biconical taper light-splitting device, k TotalBe total scale-up factor, i.e. k Total=k Vk p, λ 0Be reference wavelength, λ is a FBG sensor reflection wavelength; Get final product the wavelength that inverse goes out optical fiber Bragg raster by following formula by the voltage of measuring.
3. according to the demodulation method of claim 2, it is characterized in that to change k by the linear filter regulating device is regulated control pThereby, the sensitivity and the demodulation scope of change demodulating equipment.
CNB2005100148777A 2005-08-26 2005-08-26 Optical fibre Bragg grating sensing demodulating equipment and demodulating method thereof CN100388115C (en)

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