CN100373981C - Realization method for mixed network structure in cognitive radio - Google Patents

Realization method for mixed network structure in cognitive radio Download PDF

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CN100373981C
CN100373981C CN 200610020992 CN200610020992A CN100373981C CN 100373981 C CN100373981 C CN 100373981C CN 200610020992 CN200610020992 CN 200610020992 CN 200610020992 A CN200610020992 A CN 200610020992A CN 100373981 C CN100373981 C CN 100373981C
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唐万斌
廖楚林
劼 陈
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电子科技大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02DCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES [ICT], I.E. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AIMING AT THE REDUCTION OF THIR OWN ENERGY USE
    • Y02D70/00Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks
    • Y02D70/20Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks independent of Radio Access Technologies

Abstract

认知无线电中一种混合网络结构的实现方法,属于无线通信技术领域,特别涉及认知无线电(CognitiveRadio)系统的频谱使用方式,以及对认知无线电混合网络结构的物理传输媒介的实现。 Implementation cognitive radio network in a hybrid structure, belonging to the wireless communication technology, and in particular relates to a cognitive radio spectrum usage (CognitiveRadio) system, and the realization of the physical transmission medium hybrid cognitive radio network structure. 包括根据干扰温度模型计算该时刻接收终端允许的最大接收功率、计算发射终端的实际发射功率、计算两类有效频谱的集合、实现混合结构下的点到多点(PMP)和网状(Mesh)拓扑等步骤。 Including interference temperature model calculates the maximum received power at that time to allow the receiving terminal according to the actual transmit power calculation transmitting terminal calculates a set of two active spectrum to realize multipoint (PMP) and the mesh (the Mesh) under the hybrid structure topology and other steps. 本发明提出的分级频谱共享方法实现了同时支持点到多点(PMP)拓扑以及网状(Mesh)拓扑的混合结构,并拓展了可用频谱集合,增加了系统的容量,扩大了小区覆盖范围,能提供更健壮的通信。 Hierarchical spectrum sharing method proposed by the present invention achieves a hybrid structure and topology of the mesh (the Mesh) supports multipoint topology (PMP), and expanding the collection of available spectrum, the system capacity is increased, expanding the cell coverage, to provide a more robust communication.

Description

认知无线电中一种混合网络结构的实现方法技术领域认知无线电中一种混合网络结构的实现方法,属于无线通信技术领域,特别涉及认知无线电(Cognitive Radio)系统的频谱使用方式,以及对认知无线电混合网络结构的物理传输媒介的实现。 Cognitive radio implementation configuration of a hybrid network implemented method of art-recognized techniques a hybrid radio network structure, belonging to the wireless communication technology, and particularly relates to a cognitive radio spectrum use (Cognitive Radio) systems, as well as cognitive achieve physical transmission medium hybrid structure of the radio network. 背景技术认知无线电系统是一个智能无线通信系统,它能够感知、学习周围环境,调整自己通信的参数(如调制方式,通信频带等)来适应周围的环境变化。 BACKGROUND intelligent cognitive radio system is a radio communication system capable of perception, learning surroundings, adjustment parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, the communication band, etc.) of its own communication to adapt to environmental changes around. 目前认知无线电主要用来解决无线通信中频谱资源的紧缺问题。 Currently cognitive radio is mainly used to solve the problem of shortage of spectrum resources for wireless communication. 利用认知无线电的智能感知能力,未授权(unlicensed)用户可以在授权(licensed)用户未使用licensed频谱资源时,在不对授权用户造成干扰的情况下,使用原来分配给授权用户的频谱资源。 The use of cognitive radio intelligent perception, unauthorized (unlicensed) users can authorization (licensed) user is not licensed spectrum resources, in the case of an authorized user does not interfere with the use originally assigned to authorized users of spectrum resources. 以下提及的认知无线电(CR)用户,如未特别声明,均指未授权用户。 (CR) user, if not specifically stated cognitive radio mentioned below, refer to an unauthorized user. 为了衡量和管理未授权的认知无线电系统对授权系统的干扰,美国联邦通信委员会(Federal Communications Commission, FCC)提出了干扰温度模型(interference temperaturemodel),如图1所示。 In order to measure and manage unauthorized interference cognitive radio system authorization system, the US Federal Communications Commission (Federal Communications Commission, FCC) proposed interference temperature model (interference temperaturemodel), shown in Figure 1. 只要共享授权的频带时,CR系统引入的干扰不超过干扰温度限(interference temperature limit),那么CR系统对该频带的使用是允许的。 Whenever authorization shared band, the interference introduced by the CR system does not exceed a temperature limit interference (interference temperature limit), then the CR system using the frequency bands are allowed. FCC给出了千扰温度的定义:<formula>formula see original document page 4</formula>式中,r,是接收机射频感知的干扰温度,单位是开尔文度(Kelvin degree), P,是干扰功率,S是带宽,A是波兹曼(Boltzmiin)常数,等于U"1(T"焦耳/开尔文度。当带宽趋于无穷小时可以得到干扰温度对频率的函数。实际上干扰温度乘上波兹曼常数就是干扰功率谱密度,在某个频带/n上的千扰功率可以由下式得到:<formula>formula see original document page 4</formula>同理,干扰功率限制可以通过干扰温度限来计算,在某个频带w上的干扰功率限4„可以由下式得到:<formula>formula see original document page 4</formula>关于干扰温度的其他说明详见Federal Communications Commission, "Establishment of interference temperature metric to quantify and manage interference and to expand available unlicensed operation in certain fixed mobile and satellite frequency bands," ET Docket FCC gives the definition of one thousand interference temperature: <formula> formula see original document page 4 </ formula> where, r, a receiver radio frequency perceived interference temperature in Kelvin degrees (Kelvin degree), P, is the interference power, S is the bandwidth, a is the Boltzmann (Boltzmiin) constant, is equal to U "1 (T" joule / degree Kelvin. when the bandwidth approaches infinity hours to obtain a function of frequency of the interference temperature fact multiplied wave interference temperature is the Boltzmann constant interference power spectral density, one thousand interference power at a certain frequency band / n may be obtained by the following formula: <formula> formula see original document page 4 </ formula> Similarly, the interference by the interference power limit temperature limit calculating the interference power on a limited frequency band w 4 "can be obtained by the following formula: <formula> formula see original document page 4 </ formula> other detailed description about the Federal Communications Commission's interference temperature," Establishment of interference temperature metric to quantify and manage interference and to expand available unlicensed operation in certain fixed mobile and satellite frequency bands, "ET Docket 03-289,Notice of Inquiry and Proposed Rulemaking, 2003。现在人们正在推动认知无线电(CR)技术在大区覆盖的集中控制式网络中的应用,比如IEEE 802.22正在制定的WRAN (Wireless Regional Area Network)标准。在大区域覆盖的集中控制式的认知无线电网络中,采用点到多点的星状拓扑结构,非授权的CR认知无线电终端(Cognitive Radio Service Access Point, CR-SAP)的通信都必须通过CR基站(CR-BS)控制和转发。这种结构存在以下一些缺点:第一,由于覆盖范围大,覆盖小区边缘的CR-SAP和CR-BS 距离较远,所要发射的功率水平也要求比较高,这使得其更容易超过干扰温度限制,于是可用于CR-SAP和CR-BS直接通信的频带数量较少。 03-289, Notice of Inquiry and Proposed Rulemaking, 2003. It is now pushing cognitive radio (CR) technology in the centralized control network in the region covered, such as IEEE 802.22 is developing WRAN (Wireless Regional Area Network) standard. in the centralized control type large area coverage cognitive radio networks, a star topology uses point to multipoint communication unauthorized CR cognitive radio terminal (cognitive radio Service Access Point, CR-SAP) are CR must be controlled by the base station (CR-BS) and forwarding such a configuration the following drawbacks: first, because of the large coverage, cell edge coverage CR-SAP and CR-BS distance, the level of power to be transmitted requirements are relatively high, which makes it easier for the interference exceeds the temperature limit, then the number of bands can be used for small and CR-SAP CR-BS to communicate directly. 第二,由于覆盖区域的广阔,在CR-BS 的覆盖区域内可能出现某些与授权系统相交叠的区域,当授权系统通信时,这些区域将变成CR系统的通信盲区,并且由于CR系统无法预知授权系统的出现的时间和地点,通信盲区的出现将呈现随机性和多变性,从而使得CR小区的覆盖范围变得多变和不规则,小区内的通信的连续性可能遭到破坏。 Second, since a wide coverage area, some of the authorization system and overlapped areas may occur within the coverage area of ​​the CR-BS, when the communication system is authorized, these areas will become blind CR communication system and the CR system since unpredictable occurrence authorization system time and place, the communication appears random and blind will exhibit variability, so that the coverage of the cell CR becomes irregular and varied, continuity of communication in the cell may be damaged. 现在点到多点的结构下的认知无线电系统采用共享多个授权频带的方式来解决这个问题,当一个频带被授权用户使用时,切换到其他未被授权用户使用的频带;并且可以进一步采用定向天线来提高频谱的空间利用率和维持小区通信的连续性。 Now cognitive radio system in a multipoint configuration using a plurality of shared frequency bands authorized way to solve this problem, when a frequency band used by authorized users, unauthorized users to switch to another frequency band used; and may further employ directional antennas to improve space utilization and maintain the continuity of the spectrum communications cell. 但是这并不能完全解决通信盲区的问题。 But this does not completely solve the problem of communications blackout. 假设CR系统可以共享两个授权频带(F1和F2),使用这两个频带的两个授权系统的覆盖如图2所示,则在不改变发射功率的前提下,即使采用定向天线,也只能覆盖区域D1,对于区域D2则变为通信盲区(图2中阴影扇区部分)。 Under the assumption CR systems can share two unlicensed bands (F1 and F2 of), covering the two authorization system using two frequency bands as shown, then the transmission power without changing the premise 2, even if the directional antenna, only to cover the area D1, region D2 for the communication becomes a blind spot (hatched sector portion in FIG. 2). 第三, 点到多点的大区域覆盖网络由于长距离传输导致传输速率受限,不能满足髙速率业务传输的要求,而实际上并不是所有业务都一定要CR-BS接入转发,如覆盖区内的本地业务就没这个必要。 Third, the large area coverage multipoint network results in long-distance transmission because the transmission rate is limited and can not meet the requirements of traffic transmission rate Gao, in fact, not all traffic must be forwarded CR-BS access, such as cover local service area there is no need. 无线网状网(Wireless Mesh Network , WMN)是移动AdHoc网络的一种特殊形态,它的早期研究均源于移动AdHoc网络的研究与开发。 Wireless mesh network (Wireless Mesh Network, WMN) is a mobile AdHoc network of a special form, which are derived from early research and development of mobile research AdHoc network. 在WMN中,终端用户/设备(Client)兼备主机和路由器两种角色。 In WMN, the end user / device (Client) two roles both hosts and routers. 一方面,节点作为主机运行相关的应用程序;另一方面,节点作为路由器需要运行相关的路由协议,参与路由发现、路由维护等常见的路由操作。 On the one hand, node-related applications as master; on the other hand, we need to run as a router node associated routing protocols, to participate in route discovery, route maintenance and other common routing operations. WMN有2 种典型的实现模式:终端用户mesh模式(clientmeshing)和基础设施mesh模式(infrastructure meshing)。 WMN There are two typical implementation mode: the end-user mesh mode (clientmeshing) and mesh infrastructure mode (infrastructure meshing). 第一种模式是典型的AdHoc网络,第二种模式可以与多种现有的网络结合,比如现在的Wi-Fi无线局域网,WiMax和无线城域网。 The first mode is typically AdHoc networks, the second mode can be combined with various existing networks, such as the current Wi-Fi WLAN, WiMax, and wireless metropolitan area network. 发明内容本发明的目的是提供一种认知无线电中同时支持点到多点(PMP)拓扑以及网状(Mesh) 拓扑的混合结构的实现方法——基于分级频谱共享(hierarchical spectrum sharing, HSS)实现方法。 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the present invention is to provide a cognitive radio support both point to multipoint (PMP) architecture implemented method of mixing and the mesh topology (the Mesh) Topology - based on a hierarchical spectrum sharing (hierarchical spectrum sharing, HSS) Implementation. 分级频谱共享是把非授权用户该时段可用的有效频带集合分成两类,第一类(TYPE Grading the effective band spectrum sharing is to non-authorized users of the set of available time into two categories, a first category (TYPE

I)是用于CR-SAP和CR-BS的直接通信,第二类(TYPE II)是用于CR-SAP间的直接通信。 I) is a direct communication CR-SAP and CR-BS of the second type (TYPE II) is a direct communication between the CR-SAP. 采用本发明方法实现的免执照的认知无线电系统,可以结合认知无线电技术和网状网的优势, 实现非授权用户在授权频带上的单跳以及多跳通信,在改善小区覆盖的同时大大增加通信系统的容量并提供更灵活的通信方式。 Using unlicensed cognitive radio system implemented method of the present invention may combine the advantages of cognitive radio technology and mesh achieve unauthorized users on the licensed band single-hop and multi-hop communication, at the same time greatly improving cell coverage increase the communication capacity of the system and to provide a more flexible communication system. 本发明技术方案为:认知无线电中一种混合网络结构的实现方法,由以下几个步骤组成: 步骤1:根据干扰温度模型获得该时刻接收终端允许的最大接收功率。 Aspect of the present invention are: implementation cognitive radio network in a hybrid structure, consists of the following steps: Step 1: the time of maximum reception power based on the interference reception terminal permissible temperature model. 考虑一个免执照认知无线电系统的小区,由W个认知无线电终端CR-SAP (下标范围从1到AO和一个认知无线电基站CR-BS (以下标0表示)组成,射频RF端可以支持的频谱划分为M个频带,下标范围从1到A/。由干扰温度模型我们可以得到接收终端功率限制集合<formula>formula see original document page 6</formula>^(/)和〜("分别是接收终端it干扰温度限和感知到的千扰温度以及背景p/,h表示发射终端s在频带加传输信号给接收终端it时,接收终端it的接收功计算发射终端的实际发射功率集合。 定义传输函数集合为<formula>formula see original document page 6</formula>/»,,.«表示发射终端s到接收终端;t在频带附上的信道状况,1^.,f则表示功率的衰减因子。则在发射终端5允许发射的功率限制为",.^%, ^为可调整系数,用于留取一定的功率冗余度,取值范围为(o,i],这是为了更可靠的保证非授权用户对 Consider a unlicensed cognitive radio system cells, the cognitive radio terminal W CR-SAP (subscript range from 1 to AO cognitive radio base station and a CR-BS (represented by a subscript 0), with the radio frequency RF side can supported spectrum is divided into M frequency bands, index ranging from 1 to a /. by the interference temperature model, we can obtain the reception terminal the power limitation set <formula> formula see original document page 6 </ formula> ^ (/), and - ( "are the reception terminal it interference temperature limits and perceived thousand interference temperature and a background p /, h represents the actual transmission power of the transmitting terminal s when the frequency band applied transmission signals to the reception terminal it, the receiving terminal it received power calculation transmitting terminal the set of transfer functions is defined as a set of <formula> formula see original document page 6 </ formula> / »,,« s represents a transmitting terminal to a receiving terminal;.. T enclosed in a frequency band channel conditions, 1 ^, f indicates power attenuation factor. 5 is allowed in the transmitting terminal transmit power is limited to ". ^% ^ adjustable coefficients, specimens for certain power redundancy, in the range of (o, i], which in order to ensure a more reliable non-authorized users 权用户的干扰在授权用户可以承受的范围内。A的取值与对干扰温度的估计的精确性有关。假设发射终端s在频带加的最大发射功率为PwaM,m,则发射终端s在频带加的实际发射功率为<formula>formula see original document page 7</formula>(6)步骤3:计算两类有效频谱的集合定义环境噪声集合为<formula>formula see original document page 7</formula> (7)其中表示发射终端s在频带发g信号给接收终端A时,接收终端A的环境噪声大小定义可靠传输要求的最小信噪比集合为<formula>formula see original document page 7</formula> (8)其中C.-表示发射终端S在频带w发送信号给接收终端it,时,接收终端it能可靠接收信号的信噪比。定义有效频谱集合为<formula>formula see original document page 7</formula>(9)其中于是,根据干扰温度模型和可靠传输的要求,可以通过比较能达到的信噪比和可靠接收信号的最小信噪比r,,〜, .A weight of the user interference and the accuracy of the estimated value of the temperature related to the interference in the authorized user can afford. Assumed that the transmitting terminal increase in the frequency band s maximum transmit power PwaM, m, the emission band in the terminal s plus actual transmission power of <formula> formula see original document page 7 </ formula> (6) step 3: calculating a set of defined set of environmental noise spectrum for the two effective <formula> formula see original document page 7 </ formula> (7) where s represents the transmitting terminal when the terminal a to the receiving band signal sent g, the terminal a receiving ambient noise magnitude defining reliable transfer of the required minimum SNR set of <formula> formula see original document page 7 </ formula> (8) where C.- S represents a transmitting terminal transmits a signal in the frequency band w it to the receiving terminal, when the reception terminal it is possible to reliably received signal to noise ratio. efficient spectrum is defined as a set of <formula> formula see original document page 7 < / formula> (9) which, upon the request and the interference temperature model reliable transmission, by comparing the minimum signal to noise ratio r and to achieve a reliable signal to noise ratio of the received signal ,, -, 判断频带M是否可以用来传输发射终端s到接收终端*之间的数据。<formula>formula see original document page 7</formula>』(10)v,,M=o表示发射终端s不允许在频带加传输信号给接收终端;t, v,," - o表示频带加可以用于发射终端j和接收终端it的通信,即频带加对发射终端s和接收终端矢的通信来说是有效的,并且v,^还表征了发射终端s和接收终端it之间的信道质量。 M may be determined whether the frequency band used to transmit data between a transmitting terminal s receiving terminal *. <Formula> formula see original document page 7 </ formula> "(10) v ,, M = o indicates a transmitting terminal s are not allowed band transmission signal applied to a receiving terminal; t, v ,, "- o represents the communication frequency band may be used to increase the transmitting terminal and the receiving terminal j of it, i.e. the frequency band applied to the communication terminal transmitting a vector s and the receiving terminal is effective and v, ^ further characterize the channel quality between the transmitting terminal and the receiving terminal s it. 由此,可以得到两类频谱的可用信息,以矩阵形式表示为:V。 Thereby, it is possible to obtain two types of information available spectrum, expressed in matrix form as: V. = {v0*-,l"SW,lSmSA/} ,V0' "Vi。 = {V0 * -, l "SW, lSmSA /}, V0 '" Vi. -,lS"W,lS/nSA/!0 l 。,t,綱, , JWxM, 0 l *'0."", JWxM (11)通过频谱有效性分析,可以得出两类可用的频谱。在有效频谱集合中,矩阵V。, V。'表征了用于CR-BS和CR-SAP之间通信的TYPE I频带的可用信息(其中v。表示用于下行频带信息,V。'表示用于上行的频带信息),矩阵v,,…v,…Vw表征了用于CR-SAP之间直接通信的TYPE II频带的可用信息。步骤4实现混合结构下的PMP和Mesh拓扑设认知无线电系统中,网络划分为一个或者多个小区(cell),每个小区由一个CR-BS和多个CR-SAP组成。CR-BS作为小区的中心控制器和小区外通信的转发与接入点。CR-SAP 可以用TYPEI频带与CR-BS直接通信,用TYPEII频带与同一个小区内的"邻居"直接通信。定义如果v," ^0(1《:a《A0 ,则CR-SAP it是CR-SAP s可以以频带w相连的邻居(Neighbor)-1. PMP拓扑的实现通过步骤3得到矩阵v。 , v。'表征的TYPE I频带的可用信息,CR-SAP直接 -, lS "W, lS / nSA / 0 l, t, classes,, JWxM, 0 l * '0!.." ", JWxM (11) through the spectrum effectiveness analysis, two types of available spectrum can be obtained. in the active set of the spectrum, the matrix V., V. 'characterized TYPE information available for communication between CR-BS and CR-SAP I-band (where v. represents a downlink frequency band information, V.' represented by band information in the uplink), the matrix v ,, ... v, ... Vw characterized TYPE II information available for direct communication between the CR-SAP band. step 4 PMP and Mesh topology implemented disposed under the hybrid structure cognitive radio system, the network is divided into one or more cells (cell), each cell consists of a CR-BS and a plurality of CR-SAP composition .CR-BS access point as a repeater and the central controller of a communication cell outer cell .CR-SAP may communicate directly with TYPEI band with CR-BS, and the direct communication band of the same cell TYPEII "neighbor" is defined if v, "^ 0 (1":. a "A0, the CR-SAP it I -1 band information available. PMP topology is implemented neighbors (neighbor) CR-SAP s may be connected to the band obtained in step 3 matrix w v., v. 'characterized TYPE, CR-SAP directly 过TYPE I频带与CR-BS进行连接,CR-BS通过TYPE I频带与CR-SAP进行点到多点的通信,如附图3d所示。2. Mesh拓扑的实现通过步骤3得到矩阵V,,…V,…VN表征的TYPEI1频带的可用信息,CR-SAP与其邻居之间通过TYPE II频带实现点到点直接连接。根据是否多跳以及是否接入CR-BS分为3种情况:① CR-SAP与其邻居间点到点的单跳通信,如图3a所示② CR-SAP间的多跳方式,不经过CR-BS。这是前面背景中介绍的WMN实现的第一种模式一终端用户mesh模式,是一种典型的Ad-hoc方式,小区内的所有CR-SAP都具有路由功能,可以作为中继,如图3b所示。③ CR-SAP通过多跳连接到CR-BS,再通过CR-BS转发或接入,如图3c所示。这是前面背景中介绍的WMN实现的第二种模式——基础设施mesh模式。在这种模式下,小区内的所有CR-SAP均可能作为路由器,CR-SAP间用TYPE II频带互连。源节点(source node , SN)持续地搜 TYPE I over the frequency band with CR-BS connection, CR-BS-to-multipoint communication by the band TYPE I and CR-SAP, as shown in the drawings .2 3d. Mesh topology achieved by the matrix obtained in step 3 V, , ... V, ... TYPE II band by point to point across the available frequency band information TYPEI1 characterized VN, CR-SAP according to whether a direct connection from its neighbors and if a multi-hop access CR-BS is divided into three cases:. ① CR-SAP between the point of its neighbors single-hop communication, multi-hop mode as shown in ② CR-SAP between FIG 3a, without CR-BS. this is a first mode in front of the background described WMN implemented end user mesh pattern, is a typical Ad-hoc mode, all CR-SAP in the cell having a routing function, as a relay, as shown in FIG .③ CR-SAP is connected to the multi-hop CR-BS 3b , through the forward or CR-BS access, shown in Figure 3c it is the second mode in front of the background described WMN implemented -. infrastructure mesh mode in this mode, all the cells within CR- SAP may be used as both a router, interconnecting with CR-SAP TYPE II band between source node (source node, SN) continuously search 路由直至路由的最后一个CR-SAP可以和CR-BS用TYPE I频带直接通信。 Route until the last route CR-SAP and CR-BS can directly communicate with band TYPE I.

通过以上步骤,就可以实现认知无线电系统中同时支持PMP和Mesh拓扑的混合网络结构,如图4所示。 Through the above steps, the network structure can be achieved hybrid cognitive radio system supports both PMP and Mesh topology, as shown in FIG. 本发明的核心创新是将无线网状网的结构引入认知无线电系统中,从而构成一种混合的同时支持PMP和Mesh拓扑的网络结构,并提供一种基于分级频谱共享的实现方法。 The core of the present invention is innovative structure into a cognitive radio system of the wireless mesh network to support the network structure composed of PMP and Mesh topology a mixed simultaneously, and to provide a hierarchical implementation method based on spectrum sharing. 具体思想是:非授权用户通过认知无线电技术智能地感知周围的环境,根据干扰温度模型和可靠传输的要求,计算出不对授权用户产生不可忍受的干扰的可用频谱资源,并对有效频带集合进行分类,第一类(TYPED是用于CR-SAP和CR-BS的直接通信,第二类(TYPE II)是用于CR-SAP间的直接通信。通过引入可以在较低功率水平下共享频谱资源的TYPEII频带, 为网状结构的CR-SAP间的直接通信以及多跳通信提供了物理手段。本发明的有益效果是:1、 采用本发明方法实现的混合结构的认知无线电系统与PMP结构的集中式控制的大区域覆盖系统相比,引入了可以在较低功率水平下共享频谱资源的TYPEII频带,增加了可用频带的数量,拓展了可用频带集合,增加了系统的容量。在大区域覆盖的集中控制式的认知无线电网络中,用户终端的通信都必须通过CR-BS控制和转发,而且由 DETAILED idea is: a non-authorized users perceive cognitive radio intelligence surroundings, according to the requirements and the interference temperature model reliable transmission is calculated not an authorized user to generate intolerable interference spectrum resources available, and the set of effective band classification, the first type (TYPED for direct communication CR-SAP and CR-BS of the second type (tYPE II) is used for direct communication between the CR-SAP may be shared at a lower power level by introducing spectrum TYPEII band resources, physical means to provide direct communication between the multi-hop communication and network structure CR-SAP advantages of the present invention is: 1, using cognitive radio system configuration of a hybrid method of the present invention implemented with the PMP large area centralized control structure of a covering system as compared to the introduction of the spectrum resources can be shared at a lower power level TYPEII band, increasing the number of available frequency bands, the available set of frequency bands to expand, increasing the capacity of the system. large cognitive centralized control network area covered by the radio communication terminal, the user must go through CR-BS and forwarding control, and the 覆盖范围大,CR-SAP 和CR-BS距离较远,所要发射的功率水平也要求比较高,而大功率更容易超过干扰温度限制, 于是可用于CR-SAP和CR-BS的直接通信的频带数量较少。但是不能用于CR-SAP和CR-BS 的直接通信的频带不一定不能用于低功率的频率复用。当相邻CR-SAP间的位置比较近,两者间可以以低功率进行通信而不对授权用户造成不可忍受的干扰时,低功率复用是可行的。2、 采用本发明方法实现的混合结构的认知无线电系统还可以扩大小区的覆盖范围。利用认知无线电技术的非授权用户,对授权频带的使用严格受到授权用户使用授权频带的情况的限制。采用类似蜂窝小区的网络结构,必须在使用某授权频带的时段内保证在小区内没有授权用户使用该频带。由于授权用户使用频带的随机性和时变性,免执照的认知无线电系统的小区覆盖范围也可能呈现随机化 Large coverage area, and CR-SAP CR-BS distance, the power level to be transmitted is also relatively high, and interference power more easily than the temperature limit, the frequency band may then be used for direct communication CR-SAP, and the CR-BS a small number, but not the direct communication band for CR-SAP and CR-BS can not be used is not necessarily a low power frequency multiplexing. when the position between the adjacent CR-SAP relatively close, between the two may be low when power without causing intolerable communication interference to authorized users, low power multiplexed .2 is feasible, using cognitive radio system configuration of a hybrid method of the present invention may also be implemented to expand the cell coverage. using cognitive radio technology non-authorized users, use of the licensed band is strictly limited circumstances authorized users authorized band. similar cell network structure, must ensure that the time period using a licensed band is not authorized users using the band within the cell. Since the authorized user to use the random and time-varying frequency band, cell unlicensed cognitive radio system coverage may exhibit randomized 时变化。采用第二类频带的低功率频谱共享的方法以及网状网多跳的方式,可以扩大小区覆盖范围以及尽可能的避免授权用户重新占用频带对覆盖范围造成的剧烈变化。如图5所示,在授权系统LS正在工作时,采用PMP结构认知无线电小区覆盖范围只能达到C3,小区的CR-BS将不能和用户SAP1直接通信,而采用本发明实现的混合结构的认知无线电系统,小区的CR-BS通过多跳的方式和SAP1通信,使通信路径绕开了授权系统LS,既避免了对授权系统LS的干扰,又扩大了覆盖范围。图5还表示了另外一层含义,就是原来免执照认知无线电小区的覆兼范围是C4,但是在某个时段授权系统LS重新占用频带时,PMP结构下的小区为了避免对LS的干扰必须把覆盖范围收縮到C3。 When changes. The second type using low-frequency band power spectrum sharing method and a multi-hop mesh network approach can expand cell coverage and prevent authorized users as possible to re-occupy the frequency band of the dramatic changes caused coverage. FIG. 5 , in the authorization system LS it is operating, using cognitive radio cell structure PMP the coverage is only C3, CR-BS cell, and the user will be unable to communicate directly SAP1, while the use of cognitive radio hybrid structure of the present invention is achieved system, the CR-BS cell by way of multi-hop communication and SAP1, so that the communication path bypassing the authorization system LS, LS avoids interference with the authorization system, and improved coverage. FIG. 5 also shows another layer meaning that the original unlicensed cognitive radios and cell covering the range of C4, but in a period of re-authorization system LS occupied band, the cell structure in order to avoid interference with PMP LS must shrink the coverage to C3. 即使采用定向天线,在LS—侧的扇形覆盖区域,比如用户SAP1,仍然会变为通信盲区。 Even with directional antennas, in the coverage area of ​​sector LS- side, such as user SAP1, still it becomes communications blackout. 而且由于 And because

授权用户使用频带的随机性和时变性,盲区的出现可能不规则,这会导致小区覆兼范围的不稳定。 Authorized users and the random time-varying frequency band, the blind spots may be irregular, which can lead to unstable range and cell coating. 采用本发明实现的多跳的方式则可避免这种通信盲区的出现。 Multi-hop manner using the present invention may be implemented to avoid such a communications blackout. 2、在本发明实现的混合结构的认知无线电系统中,同时支持PMP和Mesh结构,从而提供更为灵活的通信方式, 一个CR-SAP可以用多种方式进行通信连接,当一条连接无效时(比如在该连接的路径上有授权系统重新开始工作),还有其他连接方式可以维持原有通信, 从而使得网络通信更具有健壮性。 2, the cognitive radio system according to the present invention realizes the hybrid structure, the support PMP and Mesh structure, thereby providing a more flexible communication system, a CR-SAP can connect a variety of ways to communicate, when a connection is not available (For example, there is connected in the path of the authorization system to start operating again), there are other existing communication connections can be maintained, so that the network communication is more robust. 而且,还可以根据业务的要求和特性选择不同的通信方式, 从而在保证服务质量的前提下提高系统的频谱利用率。 Also, you can select different communication modes according to the requirements and characteristics of the traffic, thus ensuring improved spectrum utilization system without compromising quality of service. 附图说明图1是认知无线电的干扰温度模型示意图。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a schematic model of interference temperature cognitive radio. 最底层点状阴影部分是背景噪声谱密度,中间一层斜线阴影部分是现有的对授权用户的干扰功率谱密度,最上面的阶梯状的直线是干扰温度限导出来的干扰功率限制。 Bottom dot shaded background noise spectrum density, the middle layer portion is diagonally shaded conventional interference power spectral density of the authorized user, the uppermost stepped straight line is guided by the interference temperature limit interference power limit. 1一13表示频带。 1 13 represents a band. 图2是PMP结构下一种通信盲区的示意图。 FIG 2 is a schematic diagram of a communications blackout of the PMP structure. 图中认知无线电系统可以共享授权系统的Fl和F2频带,Cl和C2分别是使用Fl和F2 频带的授权系统的覆盖范围,C0是认知无线电系统的覆盖范围,D2的阴影扇区区域是当两个授权系统均正在工作状态时,认知无线电系统的通信盲区,Dl为此时采用定向天线可以通信的区域。 FIG cognitive radio systems may share the authorization system band Fl and F2, Cl and C2, respectively, using a frequency band Fl and F2 authorization system coverage, C0 is the coverage of a cognitive radio system, D2 shaded area is the sector when the two systems are being authorized operating state, the cognitive radio communication system is blind, Dl directional antenna is used at this time may be in communication area. 图3是本发明的认知无线电混合网络结构的PMP和Mesh拓扑基于分级频谱共享实现的示意图。 3 is a schematic PMP and Mesh topology cognitive radio hybrid network structure of the present invention is implemented based on a hierarchical spectrum sharing. 图中子图a~c分别表示了点到点的Mesh拓扑的3种情况,子图d是PMP结构的实现的示意图。 FIG neutron FIG. A ~ c respectively show the three cases, the Mesh point, the sub-d are schematic FIG implemented PMP structure. SAP1—SAP7是认知无线电终端,CR-BS1和CR-BS2是认知无线电系统的基站, B6和B7是第一类频谱资源,Bl-B5是第二类频谱资源。 SAP1-SAP7 cognitive radio terminal, CR-BS1 is a base station and CR-BS2 cognitive radio system, B6 and B7 are a first type of spectrum resources, Bl-B5 is the second type of spectrum resources. 图4是本发明的认知无线电混合网络结构的一个小区的示意图,表征了PMP和Mesh拓扑以及其连接的实现方式。 FIG 4 is a schematic diagram of a cell configuration of a cognitive radio hybrid network according to the present invention, characterized PMP and Mesh topology, and the implementation of their connection. 图中20是认知无线网状网的基站(CR-BS),21—31是认知无线电终端(CR-SAP),B11-B13 是用于CR-SAP和CR-BS通信的第一类频谱资源(TYPE I), B14—B18是用于CR-SAP间直接和多跳通信的第二类频谱资源(TYPE 11)。 FIG 20 is a base station cognitive wireless mesh network (CR-BS), 21-31 cognitive radio terminal (CR-SAP), B11-B13 is a first type, and CR-SAP CR-BS communication spectrum resources (tYPE I), B14-B18 is a CR-SAP between the direct and multi-hop communication spectrum resources of the second type (tYPE 11). 图5是本发明的混合结构的认知无线电系统的一个小区的覆盖示意图。 FIG 5 is a schematic view of a cover of a cognitive radio system cell hybrid structure of the present invention. CR-BS是认知无线电的小区基站,SAP1—SAP4是认知无线电终端,LS是授权系统,C3 是PMP结构下认知无线电小区的覆盖范围,C4是本发明的混合结构下认知无线电系统小区的獲盖范围。 CR-BS cell cognitive radio base station, SAP1-SAP4 cognitive radio terminal, LS is the authorization system, C3 cognitive radio coverage of a cell structure of the PMP, C4 cognitive radio system of the hybrid structure of the present invention cover the range of eligible cell.

具体实施方式本发明的认知无线电中同时支持PMP以及Mesh拓扑的混合结构采用分级频谱共享实现。 Cognitive radio DETAILED embodiment of the present invention to support both PMP and Mesh topology hierarchical hybrid structure achieved spectrum sharing. 考虑一个免执照认知无线电系统的小区,由W个CR-SAP (下标范围从l到iV)和一个CR-BS (以下标O表示)组成,射频RF端可以支持的频谱划分为M个频带,下标范围从l 到M。 Consider a cell-free license cognitive radio system, a W by the CR-SAP (subscript range from l to the iV) and a CR-BS (represented by a subscript O), with the end supports (RF) spectrum is divided into M band index ranging from l to M. 本发明提供的分级频谱共享的实现方法分为以下几个步骤:步骤1:根据干扰温度模型获得该时刻接收终端允许的最大接收功率。 The present invention provides a graded-implemented method of spectrum sharing into the following steps: Step 1: The maximum time the receiver terminal receives power permissible interference obtained according to the temperature model. <formula>formula see original document page 11</formula>LCO、 CCO和w,(/)分别是接收终端Jt干扰温度限和感知到的干扰温度以及背景噪声谱密度。 <Formula> formula see original document page 11 </ formula> LCO, CCO and w, (/), respectively receiving terminal Jt temperature limit interference perceived interference and background noise spectral density and temperature. p/,^表示发射终端s在频带M传输信号给接收终端A:时,接收终端fc的接收功率限制。 p /, ^ s represents a transmitting terminal to a receiving terminal in a frequency band A transmission signal M: when the receiving terminal receives the power limitation of fc. 步骤2:计算发射终端的实际发射功率。 Step 2: calculate the actual transmission power of the transmitting terminal. <formula>formula see original document page 11</formula>A紐u为发射终端s在频带m的最大发射功率,A 为由干扰温度模型导出的在发射终端S允许发射的功率限制,A,^表示发射终端S到接收终端t在频带w上的信道状况,|\m|2表示功率的衰减因子,A为可调整系数,用于留取一定的功率冗余度,取值范围为(O,l】。 步骤3:计算两类有效频谱的集合V。 = {Wl"mSA/)歸,V。' = d,l"試lA/)m V. = (v,",l" ",1 Sm ,歸,s = l…W矩阵V。, V。'表征了用于CR-BS和CR-SAP之间通信的TYPEI频带的可用信息(其中v。 表示用于下行频带信息,v。'表示用于上行的频带信息),矩阵v,,…v,…Vw表征了用于CR-SAP 之间直接通信的TYPEII频带的可用信息。v,.〜^o表示频带m可以用于发射终端s和接收终端fc的通信。p','"i ,当p'.:k.'.-i〜,或^a时和分别表示发射终端s在频带m发送信号给接收终端a时,接收终端a的环境噪声大小和 <Formula> formula see original document page 11 </ formula> A New u s transmitting terminal by the transmitting terminal S allows transmission power limit interference temperature model derived in the maximum transmit power in the band m, A, A, ^ represents transmitting terminal to the receiving terminal S t w in the band channel conditions, | \ m | 2 represents the power of the attenuation factor, a is the adjustable coefficient, specimens for certain power redundancy, in the range of (O, l] step 3: calculate the spectrum of the two active set V. = {Wl "mSA /) return, V '= d, l." test lA /) m V. = (v, ", l" ", 1 Sm, owned, s = l ... W matrix V., V. 'characterizes the information available for the communication between the CR-BS and the CR-SAP TYPEI band (where v. represents a downlink frequency band information, v.' uplink band information indicating a), the matrix v ,, ... v, ... Vw characterized .v TYPEII information available for direct communication between the CR-SAP band, .~ ^ o represents the band m can be used for transmitting terminal fc s communication terminal and the received .p ',' "i, when p ':. k .'.- i~, or when ^ a and s denote the frequency band while the transmitting terminal to the receiving terminal m transmission signal a, receiving a size of the terminal and ambient noise 靠接收信号的信噪比。步骤4根据两类频谱集合实现混合结构下的PMP和Mesh拓扑在本发明的混合网络结构的认知无线电系统中,网络划分为一个或者多个小区(cell), 每个小区由一个CR-BS和多个CR-SAP组成。CR-BS作为小区的中心控制器和小区外通信的转发与接入点。CR-SAP可以用TYPE I频带与CR-BS直接通信,用TYPE II频带与同一个小区内的"邻居"直接通信。1. PMP拓扑的实现通过步骤3得到矩阵V。, V。'表征的TYPEI频带的可用信息,CR-SAP直接通过TYPE I频带与CR-BS进行连接,如附图3d所示。2. Mesh拓扑的实现通过步骤3得到矩阵V,,…V,…Vw表征的TYPE II频带的可用信息,CR-SAP与其邻居之间通过TYPE II频带实现点到点直接连接。根据是否多跳以及是否接入CR-BS分为3种情况:① CR-SAP与其邻居间点到点的单跳通信,如图3a所示② CR-SAP间的多跳方式,不经过CR-BS。小区内的所有CR-SAP By the SNR of the received signal. Step 4 The set of spectrum types to achieve PMP and Mesh topology in a mixed system of a hybrid structure in a cognitive radio network structure of the present invention, the network is divided into one or more cells (Cell), each external cell consists of a central controller and a CR-BS cell, and a plurality of CR-SAP composition .CR-BS cell as a communication with the access point forwarding .CR-SAP may communicate directly with the band TYPE I and CR-BS ,. PMP achieved with the topology obtained matrix V. TYPE II band with the same cell "neighbor" .1 direct communication in step 3, V. 'TYPEI available information characterizing the band, CR-SAP band directly TYPE I available information with the CR-BS is connected, as shown in the drawings .2 3d. Mesh topology implemented matrix V obtained in step 3 ,, ... V, ... Vw band TYPE II characterized by its neighbors among CR-SAP TYPE II band according to whether a direct connection point to point and whether the access multihop CR-BS is divided into three cases:. ① single-hop communication between the CR-SAP point of its neighbors, as shown in FIG. 3a ② CR- multi-hop between the SAP, without CR-BS. All cells in the CR-SAP 具有路由功能,可以作为中继,如图3b所示。③CR-SAP通过多跳连接到CR-BS,再通过CR-BS转发或接入,如图3c所示。 在这种情况下,小区内的所有CR-SAP均可能作为路由器,CR-SAP间用TYPE II频带互连。 Routing function can be used as a relay, as shown in FIG .③CR-SAP 3b is connected to the multi-hop CR-BS, then forwarding or by CR-BS access, shown in Figure 3c. In this case, the cell All are within the CR-SAP may act as a router, a TYPE II interconnection between CR-SAP band. 源节点(source node , SN)持续地搜索路由直至路由的最后一个CR-SAP 可以和CR-BS用TYPE I频带直接通信。 A source node (source node, SN) continuously search for a route until the last route CR-SAP and CR-BS can directly communicate with band TYPE I. 通过以上步骤,就可以实现认知无线电系统中同时支持PMP和Mesh拓扑的混合网络结构。 Through the above steps, the network structure can be achieved hybrid cognitive radio system supports both PMP and Mesh topology.

Claims (1)

1、认知无线电中一种混合网络结构的实现方法,假设一个认知无线电系统的小区中,有N个认知无线电终端和一个认知无线电基站组成,射频RF端可以支持的频谱划分为M个频带,其特征是,由以下几个步骤组成: 步骤1:根据干扰温度模型获得该时刻接收终端允许的最大接收功率PL={pls,k,m,0≤s,k≤N,1≤m≤M}(N+1)×(N+1)×M 其中<math-cwu><![CDATA[<math> <mrow> <msub> <mi>pl</mi> <mrow> <mi>s</mi> <mo>,</mo> <mi>k</mi> <mo>,</mo> <mi>m</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mfenced open='' close=''> <mrow> <mo>=</mo> <mfenced open='{' close=''> <mtable> <mtr> <mtd> <munder> <mo>&Integral;</mo> <mi>Bm</mi> </munder> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mi>k</mi> <mo>&CenterDot;</mo> <msub> <mi>T</mi> <mrow> <mi>L</mi> <mo>,</mo> <mi>k</mi> </mrow> </msub> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mi>f</mi> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mo>-</mo> <mi>k</mi> <mo>&CenterDot;</mo> <msub> <mi>T</mi> <mrow> <mi>l</mi> <mo>,</mo> <mi>k</mi> </mrow> </msub> < 1, implementation of cognitive radio network in a hybrid structure, assuming a cognitive radio system cell, there are N cognitive radio terminal and a cognitive radio base stations, can support end (RF) spectrum is divided into M frequency bands, characterized by the following steps: step 1: obtaining the allowable maximum time reception terminal reception power based on the interference temperature model PL = {pls, k, m, 0≤s, k≤N, 1≤ m≤M} (N + 1) × (N + 1) × M where <math-cwu> <! [CDATA [<math> <mrow> <msub> <mi> pl </ mi> <mrow> <mi > s </ mi> <mo>, </ mo> <mi> k </ mi> <mo>, </ mo> <mi> m </ mi> </ mrow> </ msub> <mfenced open = '' close = ''> <mrow> <mo> = </ mo> <mfenced open = '{' close = ''> <mtable> <mtr> <mtd> <munder> <mo> & Integral; </ mo > <mi> Bm </ mi> </ munder> <mrow> <mo> (</ mo> <mi> k </ mi> <mo> & CenterDot; </ mo> <msub> <mi> T </ mi> <mrow> <mi> L </ mi> <mo>, </ mo> <mi> k </ mi> </ mrow> </ msub> <mrow> <mo> (</ mo> <mi > f </ mi> <mo>) </ mo> </ mrow> <mo> - </ mo> <mi> k </ mi> <mo> & CenterDot; </ mo> <msub> <mi> T </ mi> <mrow> <mi> l </ mi> <mo>, </ mo> <mi> k </ mi> </ mrow> </ msub> < mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mi>f</mi> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mo>-</mo> <msub> <mi>N</mi> <mi>k</mi> </msub> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mi>f</mi> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> <mi>df</mi> <mo>,</mo> </mtd> <mtd> <mi>k</mi> <mo>&NotEqual;</mo> <mi>s</mi> </mtd> </mtr> <mtr> <mtd> <mn>0</mn> <mo>,</mo> </mtd> <mtd> <mi>k</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mi>s</mi> </mtd> </mtr> </mtable> </mfenced> </mrow> </mfenced> </mrow></math>]]></math-cwu><!--img id="icf0001" file="C2006100209920002C1.gif" wi="490" he="57" img-content="drawing" img-format="tif"/--> TL,k(f)、TI,k(f)和Nk(f)分别是接收终端k干扰温度限和感知到的干扰温度以及背景噪声谱密度,pls,k,m表示发射终端s在频带m传输信号给接收终端k时,接收终端k的接收功率限制; 步骤2:计算发射终端的实际发射功率 mrow> <mo> (</ mo> <mi> f </ mi> <mo>) </ mo> </ mrow> <mo> - </ mo> <msub> <mi> N </ mi> < mi> k </ mi> </ msub> <mrow> <mo> (</ mo> <mi> f </ mi> <mo>) </ mo> </ mrow> <mo>) </ mo> </ mrow> <mi> df </ mi> <mo>, </ mo> </ mtd> <mtd> <mi> k </ mi> <mo> & NotEqual; </ mo> <mi> s </ mi> </ mtd> </ mtr> <mtr> <mtd> <mn> 0 </ mn> <mo>, </ mo> </ mtd> <mtd> <mi> k </ mi> <mo> = </ mo> <mi> s </ mi> </ mtd> </ mtr> </ mtable> </ mfenced> </ mrow> </ mfenced> </ mrow> </ math>]]> </ math-cwu> <-! img id = "icf0001" file = "C2006100209920002C1.gif" wi = "490" he = "57" img-content = "drawing" img-format = "tif" / -> TL , k (f), TI, k (f) and Nk (f) respectively receiving terminal k interference temperature limits and perceived interference temperature and background noise spectral density, pls, k, m denotes a transmitting terminal s band m transmission upon receiving the signal to the terminal k, received by the receiving terminal k of the power limit; step 2: calculate the actual transmission power of the transmitting terminal
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CN102291713B (en) * 2011-08-23 2013-10-30 浙江大学 Method for reducing influence of master user simulation attack
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