CN100337260C - Multifunctional virtual surgery equipment - Google Patents

Multifunctional virtual surgery equipment Download PDF

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CN100337260C
CN100337260C CN 200510027052 CN200510027052A CN100337260C CN 100337260 C CN100337260 C CN 100337260C CN 200510027052 CN200510027052 CN 200510027052 CN 200510027052 A CN200510027052 A CN 200510027052A CN 100337260 C CN100337260 C CN 100337260C
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China
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displacement sensor
connected
drum
sensor
angular displacement
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CN 200510027052
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CN1700264A (en
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谢叻
周印
李敏
吴巧教
肖波
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上海交通大学
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Abstract

一种多功能虚拟外科手术器械,属于医疗训练器械领域。 A multi-functional virtual surgical instruments, medical training equipment belonging to the field. 本发明中,立柱固定在底座上,一角位移传感器设置在立柱的末端,转臂与立柱通过该角位移传感器相连,转臂上设置一角位移传感器,转筒通过该角位移传感器与转臂相连,直线位移传感器与转筒相连,直线位移传感器的末端设置联轴器,一角位移传感器设置在联轴器中,连接筒与该角位移传感器相连,连接筒的后端插入一角位移传感器,一剪刀手柄固定在连接筒上,另一剪刀手柄与一角位移传感器相连,各传感器通过端子板连接到数据采集卡。 In the present invention, the column fixed to the base, a displacement sensor provided at the end of the corner pillar, the pillar is connected to the pivot arm by the angular displacement sensor, displacement sensor tumbler is provided a corner, through which the drum is connected with the boom angular displacement sensor, linear displacement sensor connected to the drum, the end linear displacement transducer coupling is provided, the displacement sensor is disposed in a corner joint, the connecting tube is connected to the angular displacement sensor, the rear end of the connecting tube is inserted into a corner of a displacement sensor, a scissors handle fixed to the connecting cylinder, and another corner of the scissors handle connected to the displacement sensor, each sensor is connected to a data acquisition card through the terminal plate. 本发明能够实时地采集手术器械的空间运动的信息,精度高,鲁棒性能佳,使用灵活方便,实时准确真实地模拟多种手术器械的操作运动。 The present invention is able to acquire real-time information on spatial movement of the surgical instrument, high precision, good robustness and easy to use, accurate real-time operation of the motion more realistic simulation of the surgical instrument.

Description

多功能虚拟手术器械 Multi-function virtual surgical instruments

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及的是一种虚拟手术器械,特别是一种可应用于医学培训系统的多功能虚拟外科手术器械,属于医疗训练器械领域。 The present invention relates to a virtual surgical instruments, in particular, a medical training system can be applied to multi-function virtual surgical instruments, medical training equipment belonging to the field.

背景技术 Background technique

现代科学技术的发展越来越体现多学科的交叉和渗透。 The development of modern science and technology increasingly reflect the multidisciplinary and cross-penetration. 虚拟现实在医学领域中的应用,使虚拟手术成为正在发展起来的研究方向。 Application of Virtual Reality in the medical field, virtual surgery become the research is being developed. 虚拟手术是利用各种医学影像数据,利用虚拟现实技术建立一个虚拟环境,医生借助虚拟环境进行手术计划、训练等。 Virtual surgery is the use of a variety of medical imaging data to create a virtual environment using virtual reality technology, virtual environments help doctors plan surgery, training. 虚拟手术可以帮助医生制定手术方案;也可重复练习,降低手术训练费用,缩短培养外科医生的周期。 Virtual surgery may help doctors surgical planning; also repeat the exercise, reduce surgical training costs, shorten cycle train surgeons. 虚拟手术训练系统具有低代价、零风险、多重复性、自动指导的优点,对于医学手术培训具有重要的意义。 Virtual surgery training system has low costs, zero-risk, multi-repetitive, the advantages of automatic guidance, training for medical procedures is of great significance. 目前,虚拟手术的研究在国内尚处于起步阶段。 At present, the virtual surgery in China is still in its infancy. 实施虚拟手术的重要条件之一是提供虚拟的手术器械进行手术操作,作为操作者与虚拟场景进行实时交互的工具。 One of the important conditions of virtual surgery is to provide a virtual surgical instruments surgical operation, as an operator with the virtual scene in real-time interactive tools.

经对现有技术的文献检索发现,中国专利申请号:02118522.0,名称为:虚拟手术刀装置,该专利中使用了磁传感器的三维跟踪装置测出手术刀的三维位置和姿态信息,但满足需求的三维跟踪装置成本较高,会受电磁噪声的干扰,且不能适用于手术剪刀的操作,也不能适用于钳夹的操作,而手术剪刀的操作在许多外科手术中是重要的操作之一,手术钳夹的操作同样也是外科手术中的一个重要操作。 Been found that prior art literature retrieval, Chinese Patent Application No: 02118522.0, entitled: virtual scalpel apparatus, this patent uses a three-dimensional position and attitude of the three-dimensional information measured by tracking device scalpel magnetic sensor, but needs the three-dimensional tracking means high cost, will be affected by electromagnetic noise interference and can not be adapted to operate the surgical scissors can not be adapted to operate the jaws, and surgical scissors operation is an important operation in many surgical procedures, surgical clamp operation is also an important operation in surgery.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明针对现有技术的不足和缺陷,提供一种多功能虚拟手术器械。 The present invention is directed to deficiencies and drawbacks of the prior art, to provide a multifunctional virtual surgical instrument. 使其适用于手术剪刀操作,也适用于手术钳夹、手术刀、手术磨钻等操作,抗电磁噪声的干扰,实现虚拟手术系统中操纵者与虚拟场景的交互。 Making it suitable for operation of surgical scissors, surgical forceps are also suitable, scalpel, surgical operations such as burr, anti-electromagnetic noise interference, interact with a virtual surgery system operator virtual scene.

本发明是通过以下技术方案实现的,包括:控制检测系统,操作工作台。 The present invention is achieved by the following technical scheme, comprising: detecting a control system, operating table. 控制检测系统包括四个角位移传感器,一个直线位移传感器,数据采集卡,端子板。 The control system comprises detecting four corners of a displacement sensor, a linear displacement sensor, data acquisition card, a terminal plate. 操作工作台包括底座,立柱,转臂,转筒,联轴器,连接筒,两个剪刀手柄。 Operating table comprising a base, column, boom, drum, clutch, connecting tube, two scissor handles. 其连接关系为:立柱固定在底座上,第一个角位移传感器设置在立柱的末端,转臂与立柱通过该角位移传感器的转轴相连。 The connection is as follows: the column fixed to the base, a first angular displacement sensor disposed at the end of the column, and the column is connected to the pivot arm via a shaft of the angular displacement sensor. 转臂上设置第二个角位移传感器,转筒通过该角位移传感器的转轴与转臂相连。 Tumbler second angular displacement sensor is provided, which is connected to the drum through the shaft and the angular displacement sensor boom. 直线位移传感器与转筒相连,直线位移传感器的末端设置联轴器,联轴器中设置第三个角位移传感器,连接筒前端的中心与该角位移传感器的转轴相连,连接筒的后端插入第四个角位移传感器,一个剪刀手柄固定在连接筒上,另一个剪刀手柄与第四个角位移传感器的转轴相连。 Linear displacement sensor connected to the drum, the end linear displacement transducer coupling is provided, coupling the third angular displacement sensor is provided, connected to the central tube distal end is connected to the rotary shaft of the angular displacement sensor, connected to the rear end of the insertion tube the fourth corner displacement sensor, a scissors handle secured to the connecting tube, and a handle connected to the shaft of the other scissor four corners of the displacement sensor.

直线位移传感器含有接触片装置,该接触片装置设置在转筒中,直线位移传感器穿过转筒上的接触片与转筒相连。 Linear displacement sensor comprising contact piece means, the contact piece provided in the drum means, the linear displacement sensor through the contact sheet on the drum and the drum is connected.

控制检测系统中还设有直流电源,直流电源与各传感器连接,给传感器供电,传感器与端子板连接,端子板与数据采集卡连接。 Control detection system is further provided a DC power source, DC power source and each sensor is connected to a power sensor, the sensor is connected to the terminal plate, the terminal plate is connected with a data acquisition card.

工作台采用轻质铝合金或塑料件,在各个传感器和工作台之间,均增加一个塑料垫套,如塑料套,材料为尼龙。 The use of lightweight aluminum or plastic table member between the respective sensor and the table, both increase a plastic cushion cover, such as a plastic cover, the material is nylon. 塑料垫套和工作台之间过盈配合固定。 Fixing an interference fit between the plastic sleeve and the table mat.

以直流电源为外加信号源,给各传感器输送电压,操作手柄带动工作台中各机构的运动,由四个角位移传感器和一个直线位移传感器分别采集对应的角位移和直线位移数据,通过端子板传递到数据采集卡,采集卡上A/D模块得到数字信号,输入到虚拟系统中。 DC power is applied to the signal source, to the respective voltage sensors conveyor, driven by movement of the operating handle workbench agencies, linear displacement and angular displacement collecting data corresponding to the four corners by the displacement sensors and a linear displacement transducer, respectively, passing through the terminal plate the data acquisition card, the acquisition card A / D module to obtain a digital signal, is input to the virtual system. 通过实时获取以上的角位移和直线位移数据,从而检测到手术器械在三维空间自由运动过程中的信息,包括剪刀整体的空间自转位移、剪刀两柄的相对转动位移,剪刀整体沿空间任意转动的姿态信息,剪刀整体沿刀柄方向的直线位移。 Acquired in real time by the above angular and linear displacement data, so that the information in the course of the surgical instrument in three-dimensional space of free movement, including rotation of the entire displacement space scissors, scissors Liangbing the relative rotational displacement, scissors along the entire rotation space detected any attitude information, linear displacement along the overall direction of the shank scissors.

本发明是一套虚拟手术剪刀的器械,也可以应用于其他种类的手术刀器械如手术钳夹、手术刀、手术磨钻等的虚拟操作,可以实现虚拟手术中的刀割、钳紧(夹紧)、剪断、磨骨头、钻孔等多种功能。 The present invention is a virtual surgical scissors instrument, it may be applied to other types of virtual operating devices such as surgical scalpel clamp, scalpel, surgical burr or the like, can be realized in a virtual surgical knife, clinching (pinched tight), cut, grind a variety of functions bones and drilling.

本发明能够实时地采集手术器械的空间运动的信息,精度高,鲁棒性能佳,使用灵活方便,可以实现虚拟手术过程中,手术剪、手术钳、手术刀、手术磨钻、手术打孔钻等操作,实时准确真实地模拟手术器械的操作运动。 The present invention is able to acquire real-time information on spatial movement of the surgical instrument, high precision, good robustness and easy to use, can be realized a virtual surgery, surgical scissors, forceps, scalpel, surgical burr, drill hole surgery and other operations, real-time accurate realistically simulate the operation of the motion of surgical instruments. 可适用多种手术器械的多项培训任务。 A variety of training tasks applicable to a variety of surgical instruments.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1为本发明的结构示意图图2为本发明的控制检测系统结构框图具体实施方式如图1、图2所示,本发明包括:控制检测系统1,操作工作台2。 A control block diagram of FIG 1 DETAILED DESCRIPTION detection system structural diagram of the present invention. FIG. 2 of the present invention 1, as shown in FIG. 2, the present invention comprises: a control detection system 1, the operation table 2. 控制检测系统1包括四个角位移传感器3、4、5、6,一个直线位移传感器7,数据采集卡8,端子板9,操作工作台2包括底座11,立柱12,转臂13,转筒15,联轴器16,连接筒17,两个剪刀手柄18、19,其连接关系为:立柱12固定在底座11上,角位移传感器3设置在立柱12的末端,转臂13与立柱12通过该角位移传感器3的转轴相连,转臂13上设置角位移传感器4,转筒15通过角位移传感器4的转轴与转臂13相连,直线位移传感器7与转筒15相连,直线位移传感器7的末端设置联轴器16,联轴器16中设置角位移传感器5,连接筒17前端的中心与角位移传感器5的转轴相连,连接筒17的后端插入角位移传感器6,剪刀手柄18固定在连接筒17上,剪刀手柄19与角位移传感器6的转轴相连,角位移传感器3、4、5、6和直线位移传感器7通过端子板9连接到数据采集卡8。 Detecting four corners of the control system 1 includes a displacement sensor 3, 4, 7 a linear displacement sensor, data acquisition card 8, a terminal plate 9, the operation table 2 includes a base 11, a pillar 12, boom 13, the drum 15, coupling 16, connecting tube 17, two scissor handles 18 and 19, connected relationship: uprights 12 fixed to the base 11, angular displacement sensor 3 is provided at the end of the column 12, the boom 13 and the column 12 by the angular displacement sensor shaft 3 is connected to the boom is provided the angular displacement sensor 134, connected to the drum 15 by the angular displacement sensor shaft and the pivot arm 4, 13, linear displacement sensor 7 is attached to the drum 15, linear displacement sensor 7 end of the coupling 16 is provided, connected to the coupling 16 provided in angular displacement sensor 5, the front end of the connecting tube 17 and the center of the rotating shaft angular displacement sensor 5 is connected to the rear end of the cartridge 17 is inserted into the angular displacement sensor 6, the handle 18 is fixed to the scissors the connecting tube 17, the scissors handle 19 and the shaft 6 is connected to the angular displacement sensor, angular displacement sensor and 3,4,5,6 linear displacement transducer 7 is connected to a data acquisition card 8 through the terminal plate 9.

直线位移传感器7含有接触片装置,该接触片装置设置在转筒15中,直线位移传感器7穿过转筒15上的接触片与转筒15相连。 Linear displacement sensor comprising contact piece 7 means that the contact piece is provided in a tumbler apparatus 15, linear displacement transducer connected to the drum 7 through the contact piece 15 on the drum 15.

在各个传感器3、4、5、6、7和操作工作台之间设置塑料垫套14,塑料垫套14和操作工作台2之间过盈配合固定。 Plastic between the respective sensors disposed 3,4,5,6,7 pad sets 14 and operating table, a plastic cushion cover 14 and the operating table 2 interference fit between the fixation.

控制检测系统1中还设有直流电源10,直流电源10与各传感器3、4、5、6、7连接,给传感器3、4、5、6、7供电,传感器3、4、5、6、7与端子板9连接,端子板9与数据采集卡8连接。 Detecting control system 1 is further provided a DC power supply 10, the DC power supply 10 is connected to each sensor 3,4,5,6,7, 3,4,5,6,7 power to the sensor, the sensor 3,4,5,6 , 7 and 9 connected to the terminal plate, a terminal plate 9 is connected to the data acquisition card 8. 当操作虚拟手术器械运动时,四个角位移传感器3、4、5、6和一个直线位移传感器7会分别采集对应的角位移和直线位移数据,通过端子板9将电压信号传递数据采集卡8,数据采集卡8上A/D模块得到数字信号,输入到虚拟系统中。 When the operation of the virtual surgical tool motion, the four corners 3,4,5,6 displacement sensors and a linear displacement sensor 7 will collect the angular and linear displacement data corresponding to the voltage signal 9 is transmitted through the data acquisition card terminal board 8 , the data acquisition card 8 A / D module to obtain a digital signal, is input to the virtual system.

虚拟手术器械剪刀手柄19相对于剪刀手柄18转动,得到剪刀的开合的角位移;连接筒17相对于联轴器16转动,得到剪刀轴自转的角位移;直线位移传感器7相对于转筒15运动,得到手术剪刀的直线移动;转筒15相对于转臂13转动,转臂13相对于立柱12转动,得到手术刀轴三维姿态和三维空间的位置。 Virtual surgical scissors instrument 19 of the handle 18 is rotated relative to the handle scissors, obtain angular displacement of the scissors to open and close; connecting tube 17 with respect to the coupling 16 rotates, the scissors to obtain angular displacement of the axis of rotation; linear displacement sensor 7 with respect to the drum 15 motion, to obtain the linear movement of surgical scissors; drum 15 is rotated with respect to the boom 13, the boom 13 is rotated with respect to the column 12, three-axis attitude and a scalpel to obtain three-dimensional position. 这样,可以实时获取手术器械的空间运动的信息,准确真实地模拟手术器械的操作运动。 In this way, real-time access to information spatial movement of surgical instruments, accurately simulate the real operation of the motion of surgical instruments.

在计算机中虚拟手术剪刀的头部,再构造一双剪刀刀片的模型,通过计算出剪刀头部两刀片的相对运动与剪刀的一双剪刀手柄18、19的相对运动的对应关系,并根据测得的一双剪刀手柄18、19的相对位移,得到一双剪刀刀片的相对位移,并在虚拟环境中实时显示。 The head of the virtual surgical scissors in a computer, and then the blade configuration of one pair of scissors model, and by calculating from the measured correspondence relationship relative movement of the head two scissor blades relative movement of one pair of scissors and the scissors handles 18, 19 of the relative displacement of one pair of scissors handles 18, 19, get a pair of scissor blades of the relative displacement, and real-time display in a virtual environment. 其他的手术器械,如手术钳夹、手术磨钻、手术打孔的实现原理相同。 Other surgical instruments, such as surgical forceps, surgical burr, to achieve the same operation principle punctured. 在实现虚拟手术刀的动作时,忽略一对剪刀手柄18、19转动角位移,就可得到手术刀的操作。 In carrying out the operation of the virtual scalpel, scissors handles 18 and 19 are ignored rotational displacement, surgical operation can be obtained for each other. 在实现虚拟手术磨钻、手术打孔的动作时,再忽略剪刀体的自转角位移,就可得到手术磨钻、手术打孔的操作。 When implementing a virtual surgical burr, perforated surgical operation, since the angular displacement of the scissors and then ignored body, surgical burr can be obtained, the operation of the surgical punch.

Claims (4)

1.一种多功能虚拟手术器械,包括:控制检测系统(1)、操作工作台(2),其特征在于,还包括:直线位移传感器(7)、数据采集卡(8)、端子板(9),所述的控制检测系统(1)包括四个角位移传感器(3、4、5、6),所述的操作工作台(2)包括底座(11)、立柱(12)、转臂(13)、转筒(15)、联轴器(16)、连接筒(17)、两个剪刀手柄(18、19),立柱(12)固定在底座(11)上,第一角位移传感器(3)设置在立柱(12)的末端,转臂(13)与立柱(12)通过该第一角位移传感器(3)的转轴相连,转臂(13)上设置第二角位移传感器(4),转筒(15)通过第二角位移传感器(4)的转轴与转臂(13)相连,直线位移传感器(7)与转筒(15)相连,直线位移传感器(7)的末端设置联轴器(16),联轴器(16)中设置第三角位移传感器(5),连接筒(17)前端的中心与第三角位移传感器(5)的转轴相连,连接筒(17)的后端插入第四角位移传感器(6),剪刀手 1. A multifunctional virtual surgical instrument, comprising: a control detection system (1), the operating table (2), characterized by further comprising: linear displacement transducer (7), data acquisition card (8), the terminal plate ( 9), said detection control system (1) comprises a displacement sensor of the four corners (3,4,5,6), said operating table (2) includes a base (11), the post (12), the boom (13), the drum (15), the coupling (16), connecting tube (17), two scissor handles (18, 19), uprights (12) fixed to the base (11), a first angular displacement sensor (3) disposed through the first coupled rotating shaft angular displacement sensor (3) of the column (12) of the end of the boom (13) and the column (12), the boom (13) is provided on the second angular displacement sensor (4 ), the drum (15) (13) is connected by a second angular displacement sensor (4) and the pivot arm axis of rotation, linear displacement transducer (7) and the drum (15) is connected to the end linear displacement transducer (7) is provided with the shaft (16), the coupling (16) provided in the third corner a displacement sensor (5) is connected (17) is connected to the center of the front end of the first cylindrical cam displacement sensor (5) of the shaft, the rear end of the connecting tube (17) inserted into the fourth angular displacement sensor (6), Scissorhands (18)固定在连接筒(17)上,剪刀手柄(19)与第四角位移传感器(6)的转轴相连,四个角位移传感器(3、4、5、6)和直线位移传感器(7)连接端子板(9),端子板(9)连接到数据采集卡(8)。 (18) is fixed to the connecting tube (17), connected to the scissors handle (19) and the fourth angular displacement sensor (6) shaft, the four corners of the displacement sensor (3,4,5,6) and a linear displacement transducer (7 ) connected to the terminal plate (9), terminal plate (9) is connected to a data acquisition card (8).
2.根据权利要求1所述的多功能虚拟手术器械,其特征是,直线位移传感器(7)含有接触片装置,该接触片装置设置在转筒(15)中,直线位移传感器(7)穿过转筒(15)上的接触片与转筒(15)相连。 2. Multifunctional virtual surgical instrument according to claim 1, characterized in that the linear displacement transducer (7) containing a contact piece means, the contact piece provided on the drum means (15), a linear displacement transducer (7) through drum through the drum contact piece (15) (15) is connected.
3.根据权利要求1所述的多功能虚拟手术器械,其特征是,控制检测系统(1)中还设有直流电源(10),该直流电源(10)与各传感器(3,4,5,6,7)连接。 3. The multifunctional virtual surgical instrument according to claim 1, characterized in that the detection control system (1) further provided with a DC power supply (10), the DC power supply (10) with each sensor (3,4, 5 , 6, 7) is connected.
4.根据权利要求1或者3所述的多功能虚拟手术器械,其特征是,在各个传感器(3、4、5、6、7)和操作工作台(2)之间设置塑料垫套(14),塑料垫套(14)和操作工作台(2)之间过盈配合固定。 The virtual multi-function surgical instrument of claim 1 or claim 3, characterized in that the plastic cushion cover set (14 between the respective sensor (3,4,5,6,7) and the operating table (2) ), interference between the plastic cushion cover (14) and an operating table (2) is fitted and fixed.
CN 200510027052 2005-06-23 2005-06-23 Multifunctional virtual surgery equipment CN100337260C (en)

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