CH663466A5 - Method and device for determining the position of an object in relation to a reference. - Google Patents

Method and device for determining the position of an object in relation to a reference. Download PDF

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Publication number
CH663466A5
CH663466A5 CH495083A CH495083A CH663466A5 CH 663466 A5 CH663466 A5 CH 663466A5 CH 495083 A CH495083 A CH 495083A CH 495083 A CH495083 A CH 495083A CH 663466 A5 CH663466 A5 CH 663466A5
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CH
Switzerland
Prior art keywords
light
lens
surface element
waves
beam
Prior art date
Application number
CH495083A
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Daniel Maurice Gross
Claus Daehne
Original Assignee
Battelle Memorial Institute
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Battelle Memorial Institute filed Critical Battelle Memorial Institute
Priority to CH495083A priority Critical patent/CH663466A5/en
Publication of CH663466A5 publication Critical patent/CH663466A5/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/02Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring length, width or thickness
    • G01B11/026Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring length, width or thickness by measuring distance between sensor and object
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B2210/00Aspects not specifically covered by any group under G01B, e.g. of wheel alignment, caliper-like sensors
    • G01B2210/50Using chromatic effects to achieve wavelength-dependent depth resolution

Description

The subject of the present invention is a method and a device for determining the position of a surface element of an object with respect to a reference scale, of the type in which a light beam focusing including a plurality of light waves is focused. a plurality of points corresponding to the foci of each wave, and the wavelength whose focal point is on this surface element is determined.

We already know the patents DE 19 62515, GB 2 077 421 and FR 1 506 196 describing a process and devices of this kind.

Patent DE 19 62515 deals with a non-contact optical distance sensor, in which a light beam is focused in a plurality of distinct focal points. This sensor makes it possible to determine the position of an object located between two of these foci. We compare the respective intensity of the two light waves reflected by the object and converging in these foci. The position of the object relative to the sensor is defined when these waves have an equal intensity. We move the sensor to obtain this equality. The final position of the sensor makes it possible to locate the object. This sensor is actually a hybrid sensor, since it includes a mechanical (location of the sensor position) and optical (location of the object relative to the sensor) measurement system.

The patent GB 2 077 421 describes an optical sensor and a method for measuring the displacements of an object, where two monochromatic beams of different color, of equal intensity, with identical axes are focused, to obtain two focal points. distinct equidistant from a reference plane. The relative intensity 2q of the light waves of the two beams is measured, after reflection by the object. This relative intensity can be characterized by the difference or by the quotient of the respective intensities of the light waves. The evolution of the value of this relative intensity is characteristic of the object's movements.

The subject of patent FR 1 506 196 is a non-contact measuring device intended to focus two light waves of different wavelength at two different points, but using two concentric optical systems integral with one of the 'other. In addition, this device comprises a servo system intended to move the two optical systems axially so that the intensities of the waves reflected by the surface to be located are equal to each other, the position of the surface element being then defined with respect to the measuring device. Such a device is difficult to implement, on the one hand, as regards the optics and, on the other hand, as regards the servo system, which comprises mobile mechanical members. The device is therefore ill-suited to high precision measurements.

Furthermore, in the above three cases, the position of an object is determined by comparing two optical signals. The accuracy of this comparison is obviously linked to the intensity of the signals. Consequently, the precision and the resolving power of such sensors are very closely linked to the optical properties of the surface of the object to be located.

Furthermore, in the journal IBM Technical Disclo-45 sure vol. 16, No. 2, pages 433-434, to focus a light beam successively on each side of a surface to be located and then analyze the light reflected by this surface. This solution makes it impossible to follow one another very quickly over time and is therefore difficult to apply to the measurement of the position of moving objects 50.

The object of the present invention is to remedy the faults of existing sensors.

To this end, the invention firstly relates to a method for measuring the position of a surface element with respect to a reference, according to claim 1.

The invention further relates to a device for implementing this method.

The appended drawing very schematically illustrates, and by way of example, two embodiments of the device according to the invention, as well as an explanatory diagram.

Figure 1 is a schematic representation of a first embodiment of the device according to the invention.

Figure 2 is an explanatory diagram showing a calibration curve.

Figure 3 is a schematic representation of another embodiment of the device according to the invention.

The device of FIG. 1 comprises a polychromatic light source 1, generating a light beam. Axis 2 of this beam

3

663,466

this is directed onto a surface element 4 whose position is to be determined. A holographic lens 3, with circular concentric lines of a common type, focuses the various waves constituting the beam as a function of their respective wavelength Xlt X2, ..., Xn.

If only the order 1 diffractions are taken into account, these various light waves are focused in a plurality of focal points (Fl5 F2, ..., Fn) the whole of which constitutes a focal point F. For this type of holographic lens, the focal distance is in first approximation proportional to the inverse of the wavelength of the focused wave. A semi-transparent mirror 5 directs the light waves coming from the source 1 focused by the lens 3 and reflected by the surface element 4 towards a concave diffraction grid 6. This diffraction grid breaks down the spectrum of the light reflected by l element of surface and converges the waves of this spectrum at distinct points of a linear array of photodetectors 7, like a CCD circuit. The diffraction grid 6 deflects the light waves according to the relationship:

a- (sina + sinß) = kX

where a is the distance between two lines of grid 6,

a is the angle of incidence of the light waves,

P is the diffraction angle of these waves,

k is an integer (for 1st order diffractions, k = 1),

and

X is the wavelength of the incident light.

The waves of the spectrum of the reflected light, diffracted by the grid 6 and focused on the photodetectors (P1; P2, ..., P „) of the network 7, have an intensity all the greater as their respective foci (Fl F2j ..., Fn) of the location F are close to the surface element 4. An analyzer 8 compares the respective intensities of the electrical signals (Ij, I2, ..., I „) from the photodetectors, representative of the respective intensity of the light waves focused on said photodetectors, to search for the wave X2 of the spectrum of the reflected light whose intensity is maximum. A computer 9 introduces this wavelength X2 into a calibration function r (X)

specific to lens 3. This function associates a focusing distance with each wave focused by the lens.

FIG. 2 shows an example of the calibration curve of a holographic lens with 270 circular concentric lines, the external line of which is approximately 5 mm in diameter. The focusing distances are shown on the abscissa and the wavelengths on the ordinate. To obtain this curve, six monochromatic light beams of known wavelength were focused by means of the holographic lens to be calibrated. A mirror was then placed in the focal point of the lens, and the position of the mirror for which the intensity of the reflected light was maximum was measured for each beam.

The computer 9 generates a signal Xj = r (X2). This signal is characteristic of the position of the surface element 4 with respect to a reference point or a reference scale. The position of the reference point, respectively the position of the reference scale, is defined by the calibration curve v (X). The reference point can for example be constituted by the lens 3. The reference scale can in particular consist of all or part of the focal point F.

For certain models of holographic lenses with circular lines, it is possible to measure the diffractions of order 2 and even sometimes the diffractions of order greater than 2. The diffractions of the second order focus a portion of the waves of wavelength

X2, ..., X „on focal points F'l5 F'2j ..., F '„ constituting a secondary focal point F' situated between the focal point F and the lens. The intensity of the waves focused at F 'is lower than that of the waves focused at F. It is nevertheless possible to analyze the spectrum of light reflected by a possible object placed in this place of secondary focusing. It is thus possible to define at least two focal points for each holographic lens and therefore to define at least two distinct measurement domains for the same sensor.

A portion of light from the beam coming from the source 1 is reflected by the holographic lens 3. This stray light is superimposed on the waves reflected by the surface element 4, thus constituting a non-negligible source of background noise. In a second embodiment of the invention, it is possible to remedy this defect by replacing the lens 3 with circular concentric lines by a lens with slightly elliptical concentric lines, inclined by a fraction of a degree of angle by compared to the plane normal to axis 2 of the light beam. This arrangement makes it possible to direct the portion of stray light reflected by the lens out of the beam of waves reflected by the surface element 4.

In a third embodiment of the invention, it is advantageous to have a diaphragm 10, between the mirror 5 and the concave diffraction grid of the spectral analysis system, at the location of minimum section of the reflected light beam. by the surface element. This diaphragm eliminates from the reflected beam a portion of the waves focused outside the surface element 4, to better highlight the wave focused on the surface element. This diaphragm therefore improves the resolving power of the sensor.

In a fourth embodiment of the device according to the invention, a removable conventional optical system, consisting of at least one refractive lens, is placed between the lens 3 and its focal point F. It makes it possible to adapt a single lens to many different applications, by moving the location F relative to the lens 3 as desired.

In a fifth embodiment of the device according to the invention, it is possible to use a refractive lens with high chromatic aberration, in place of the holographic lens 3, 30 to focus the light waves of the beam 2 in a plurality F1 homes; F2, ..., F „.

In a sixth embodiment of the device according to the invention, a holographic lens with parallel lines is used, called a cylindrical holographic lens. This type of lens differs from lenses with circular stripes by the shape of its focal point consisting of a plurality of focal points Flt F2, F "in the form of straight line segments parallel to the lines of the lens.

This embodiment can be used to measure the distance separating two adjacent surface elements a and b, not coplanar. In this case, the reflected light spectrum analysis system highlights two light waves X3 and A.b focused on the surface element a, respectively on the surface element b. The distance sought is the difference of the respective distances from each surface element to the lens. These distances are determined as above using the calibration curve specific to the lens with parallel lines. This embodiment also makes it possible to find the lateral position in the focal point of the line of separation of the surface elements a and b by comparing the relative intensity of the waves and reflected by each of said 50 surface elements.

FIG. 3 describes a seventh embodiment of the invention using a multimode optical fiber 26, the diameter of which is between 0.1 and 0.6 mm connecting a measurement head 20 and an optoelectric system 21. This system 21 is intended to generate a polychromatic light beam 55 and to analyze the light reflected by a surface element 31 whose position is sought. A polychromatic light source 22 makes it possible to direct a divergent beam towards a first refractive lens 23 intended to make this beam parallel. A second refractive lens 24 focuses said beam 60 on the first end 25 of the optical fiber 26 fixed by a connector 27. A second connector 29 makes the second end 28 of the optical fiber 26 integral with the measuring head 20. The end 28 acts as a point light source and directs the waves constituting the beam from the source 22 onto a ho-65 lographic lens 30. This lens converts the light waves as a function of their respective wavelength, to form a focal point F. The waves reflected by the surface element 31 are focused by the lens 30 on the end 28 of the optical fiber 26.

663,466

4

The end 25 acts as a point source of light waves reflected by the surface element 31, to direct these on the lens 24 whose role is to form a beam parallel to said reflected waves. A semi-transparent mirror 32, placed between the lenses 23 and 24, directs the parallel beam of the reflected waves towards a converging refractive lens 33. The lens 33 directs these waves on a diffraction grid 34 similar to the grid 6 of FIG. 1 The waves diffracted by the grid 34 are directed onto a network of photodetectors 35, similar to the network 7 of FIG. 1. The electrical signals coming from the photodetectors are processed by a logic unit 36 associating the functions of comparator 8 and of computer 9 Figure 1.

It should be noted that, in this embodiment, a diaphragm such as the diaphragm 10 of FIG. 1 is not useful, since the input 28 of the optical fiber 26 has an effect similar to this diaphragm as regards elimination of part of the stray reflections on the holographic lens 30.

As an example of application of the sensor according to the invention, it is possible to measure the width of a mechanical part. For this purpose, two sensors placed in opposition on either side of the part to be measured make it possible to find the width of said part by the relation:

X = d — Xj — X2

with: X = dimension sought,

d = distance separating the two sensors,

Xi = distance separating the part from the first sensor, X2 = distance separating the part from the second sensor.

The sensor according to the invention obviously makes it possible to carry out dynamic measurements by studying the modifications of the spectrum of the reflected light as a function of time. The analysis of this spectrum at regular intervals makes it possible to measure the displacements of a surface element. This last variant of use can in particular find application in the servo-control in position, in speed, or in acceleration, of a robot arm.

The application examples mentioned do not constitute an exhaustive list: the device according to the invention can advantageously be used in all cases where a contactless distance measurement is desirable.

It should be noted that the light spectrum analysis system described above is given by way of example. It will, for example, be possible to use an analysis system comprising a diffraction grid animated by oscillatory movements to successively direct each diffracted wave on a single photodetector. When the photodetector measures a maximum light intensity, the corresponding position of the grid will be representative of the position of the surface element in the focal point of the lens, therefore of the distance separating the surface element from the sensor. . In another embodiment of the system for analyzing the spectrum of the reflected light, the diffraction grid could be fixed and the photodetector mobile.

R

1 sheet of drawings

Claims (8)

663,466
1. Method for measuring the position of a surface element (4) relative to a reference scale, according to which a light beam (2) is formed encompassing a plurality of light waves (Xj, X2, ..., Xn) of different wavelengths and substantially equal amplitudes and that said light waves are focused at separate points (Flt F2, Fn) located along an axis, these points constituting said reference scale, the position of each of said points along the axis being defined by the focal distance proper to each wave, each focal distance being characteristic of a single wavelength, characterized in that the spectrum of light is broken down reflected by the surface element (4), that the respective intensity of the waves constituting said spectrum is measured and that these intensities are compared with one another to determine the wave whose intensity is maximum, this wave being characteristic of the position of said surface element with respect to the so-called reference scale.
2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that one selects part of the waves constituting the light beam reflected by the surface element, before decomposing the spectrum of said light beam.
2
3. Device for implementing the method according to claim 1, comprising a polychromatic light source (1) whose beam (2) includes a plurality of light waves (Ä, x, X2, ..., X „ ) of substantially equal amplitude, characterized in that it further comprises a lens (3) focusing each light wave of this beam at a separate point (Fj, F2, ..., Fn), characteristic of the respective wavelength, all of these points (F ^ F2, ..., F „) constituting a focal point of said beam (2), the surface element (4) of which the position is to be measured intended to be placed at a point of said place, means for analyzing the spectrum of the light beam reflected by this surface element (4), means for determining the wavelength of the component of this spectrum whose light intensity is maximum, and means for determining the position in said location of the focus of this component and, therefore, that of the surface element.
4. Device according to claim 3, characterized in that the lens focusing each light wave is a holographic lens with circular concentric lines.
5. Device according to claim 3, characterized in that the lens focusing each light wave is a holographic lens with concentric lines of elliptical shape and is placed in a plane inclined with respect to the plane normal to the axis of the light beam.
6. Device according to claim 3, characterized in that the lens focusing each light wave is a refractive lens with high chromatic aberration.
7. Device according to claim 3, characterized in that it further comprises a conventional optical system consisting of at least one refractive lens, between the lens focusing each light wave and its focal point.
8. Device according to claim 3, characterized in that it further comprises a diaphragm for selecting a portion of the waves constituting the beam of waves reflected by the surface element.
CH495083A 1983-09-12 1983-09-12 Method and device for determining the position of an object in relation to a reference. CH663466A5 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH495083A CH663466A5 (en) 1983-09-12 1983-09-12 Method and device for determining the position of an object in relation to a reference.

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH495083A CH663466A5 (en) 1983-09-12 1983-09-12 Method and device for determining the position of an object in relation to a reference.
JP18661384A JPS6073405A (en) 1983-09-12 1984-09-07 Method and device for measuring position of surface element
EP84810435A EP0142464A1 (en) 1983-09-12 1984-09-10 Process and device to determine the position of an object with respect to a reference
US06/650,300 US4585349A (en) 1983-09-12 1984-09-12 Method of and apparatus for determining the position of a device relative to a reference

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CH663466A5 true CH663466A5 (en) 1987-12-15

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EP (1) EP0142464A1 (en)
JP (1) JPS6073405A (en)
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