CA2739366C - Enhanced natural gas liquid recovery process - Google Patents

Enhanced natural gas liquid recovery process Download PDF

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CA2739366C
CA2739366C CA2739366A CA2739366A CA2739366C CA 2739366 C CA2739366 C CA 2739366C CA 2739366 A CA2739366 A CA 2739366A CA 2739366 A CA2739366 A CA 2739366A CA 2739366 C CA2739366 C CA 2739366C
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ngl
carbon dioxide
rich stream
rich
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CA2739366A1 (en
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Eric Prim
Naomi Baker
Jhansi Garikipati
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Pilot Energy Solutions LLC
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Pilot Energy Solutions LLC
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P90/00Enabling technologies with a potential contribution to greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions mitigation
    • Y02P90/70Combining sequestration of CO2 and exploitation of hydrocarbons by injecting CO2 or carbonated water in oil wells

Abstract

A method comprises receiving a hydrocarbon feed stream; separating the hydrocarbon feed stream into a heavy hydrocarbon rich stream and a recycle stream, wherein the recycle stream comprises a gas selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, air, and water; and separating the recycle stream into a natural gas liquids (NGL) rich stream and a purified recycle stream. A plurality of process equipment configured to receive a hydrocarbon feed stream, separate the hydrocarbon feed stream into a heavy hydrocarbon rich stream and a recycle stream comprising at least one C3+ hydrocarbon and a gas selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, air, and water, and separate the recycle stream into a NGL rich stream and a purified recycle stream.

Description

ENHANCED NATURAL GAS LIQUID RECOVERY PROCESS
BACKGROUND
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a naturally occurring substance in most hydrocarbon subterranean formations. Carbon dioxide also may be used for recovering or extracting oil and hydrocarbons from subterranean formations. One carbon dioxide based recovery process involves injecting carbon dioxide into an injection well, and recovering heavy hydrocarbons and perhaps some of the carbon dioxide from at least one recovery well.
Carbon dioxide reinjection process also may produce natural gas liquids (NGLs).
SUMMARY
In one aspect, the disclosure includes a method comprising receiving a hydrocarbon feed stream, separating the hydrocarbon feed stream into a heavy hydrocarbon rich stream and a carbon dioxide recycle stream, separating the carbon dioxide recycle stream into a NGL rich stream and a purified carbon dioxide recycle stream, and injecting the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream into a subterranean formation.
In another aspect, the disclosure includes a plurality of process equipment configured to implement a method comprising receiving a recycle stream comprising at least one C3+ hydrocarbon and a gas selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, air, and water, and separating the recycle stream into a NGL rich stream and a purified recycle stream, wherein the NGL rich stream comprises less than about 70 percent of the C3+ hydrocarbons from the recycle stream.
In a third aspect, the disclosure includes a method comprising selecting a first recovery rate for a NGL recovery process, estimating the economics of the NGL
recovery process based on the first recovery rate, selecting a second recovery rate that is different from the first recovery rate, estimating the economics of the NGL recovery process based on the second recovery rate, and selecting the first recovery rate for the NGL
recovery process when the estimate based on the first recovery rate is more desirable than the estimate based on the second recovery rate.
In a fourth aspect, the disclosure includes a method comprising receiving a hydrocarbon feed stream; separating the hydrocarbon feed stream into a heavy hydrocarbon rich stream and a recycle stream, wherein the recycle stream comprises a gas selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, air, and water; and separating the recycle stream into a NGL rich stream and a purified recycle stream.
In a fifth aspect, the disclosure includes a plurality of process equipment configured to receive a hydrocarbon feed stream; separate the hydrocarbon feed stream into a heavy hydrocarbon rich stream and a recycle stream comprising at least one C3+ hydrocarbon and a gas selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, air, and water; and separate the recycle stream into a NGL rich stream and a purified recycle stream.
In another aspect there is presented a method comprising receiving a feed stream comprising hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, cooling the feed stream with a purified carbon dioxide-rich stream, separating the cooled feed stream into a vapor stream, a liquid stream, and a water stream in a three-phase separator, adding a dehydration solvent to the vapor stream, subsequently removing the dehydration solvent from the vapor stream to produce a dry vapor stream, wherein the dry vapor stream is substantially free of water and directing the dry vapor stream and the liquid stream to a tower, wherein the tower produces a natural gas liquids (NGL) rich stream and the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream, wherein the NGL rich stream comprises C3+
hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide, and wherein the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream comprises less than 5 molar percent C3 hydrocarbons and at least 90 molar percent carbon dioxide.

2 In another aspect there is provided a plurality of process equipment configured to receive a feed stream comprising hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, cool the feed stream with a purified carbon dioxide-rich stream, separate the cooled feed stream into a vapor stream, a liquid stream, and a water stream in a three-phase separator, and direct the vapor stream and the liquid stream to a tower, wherein the tower produces a natural gas liquids (NGL) rich stream and the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream, and wherein the NGL rich stream comprises C3+
hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide.
In another aspect there is presented a method comprising receiving a feed stream comprising hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, separating the feed stream into a vapor stream, a liquid stream, and a water stream, and directing the vapor stream and the liquid stream to a tower, wherein the tower produces a natural gas liquids (NGL) rich stream and a purified carbon dioxide-rich stream, and wherein the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream comprises less than 5 molar percent C3 hydrocarbons and at least 90 molar percent carbon dioxide.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a process flow diagram for an embodiment of a carbon dioxide reinjection process.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of a NGL recovery process.
FIG. 3 is a chart depicting an embodiment of the relationship between the NGL
recovery rate and the energy requirement.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of a NGL upgrade process.
FIG. 5 is a process flow diagram for another embodiment of a reinjection process.
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of another embodiment of a NGL recovery process.
2a FIG. 7 is a flowchart of an embodiment of a NGL recovery optimization method.
2b DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
It should be understood at the outset that although an illustrative implementation of one or more embodiments are provided below, the disclosed systems and/or methods may be implemented using any number of techniques, whether currently known or in existence.
The disclosure should in no way be limited to the illustrative implementations, drawings, and techniques illustrated below, including the exemplary designs and implementations illustrated and described herein, but may be modified within the scope of the appended claims along with their full scope of equivalents.
Disclosed herein is a NGL recovery process that may be implemented as part of a carbon dioxide reinjection process to recover NGLs from a carbon dioxide recycle stream.
When implementing a carbon dioxide reinjection process, the carbon dioxide is typically injected downhole into an injection well and a stream comprising hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide is generally recovered from a recovery well. The carbon dioxide may be separated from the heavy hydrocarbons and then recycled downhole, e.g., in the reinjection well. In some cases, the carbon dioxide recycle stream may comprise some NGLs, which may be recovered prior to injecting the carbon dioxide recycle stream downhole. The NGL
recovery process may be optimized by weighing the NGL recovery rate against the amount of energy expended on NGL recovery.
FIG. 1 illustrates an embodiment of a carbon dioxide reinjection process 100.
The carbon dioxide reinjection process 100 may receive hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide from a subterranean hydrocarbon formation 114, separate heavy hydrocarbons and some of the NGLs from the carbon dioxide, and inject the carbon dioxide downhole. As shown in FIG.
1, additional process steps may be included in the carbon dioxide reinjection process, such as compressing the carbon dioxide, dehydrating the carbon dioxide, and/or adding additional

3 carbon dioxide to the carbon dioxide recycle stream. The specific steps in the carbon dioxide reinjection process 100 are explained in further detail below.
The carbon dioxide reinjection process 100 may receive a hydrocarbon feed stream 152 from a subterranean hydrocarbon formation 114. The hydrocarbon feed stream may be obtained from at least one recovery well as indicated by the upward arrow in FIG. 1, but also may be obtained from other types of wells. In addition, the hydrocarbon feed stream 152 may be obtained from the subterranean hydrocarbon formation 114 using any suitable method. For example, if a suitable pressure differential exists between the subterranean hydrocarbon formation 114 and the surface, the hydrocarbon feed stream 152 may flow to the surface via the pressure differential. Alternatively, surface and/or downhole pumps may be used to draw the hydrocarbon feed stream 152 from the subterranean hydrocarbon formation 114 to the surface.
Although the composition of the hydrocarbon feed stream 152 will vary from one location to another, the hydrocarbon feed stream 152 may comprise carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, NGLs, heavy hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), helium, nitrogen, water, or combinations thereof. The term "hydrocarbon" may refer to any compound comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms. The term "natural gas" may refer to any hydrocarbon that may exist in a gas phase under atmospheric or downhole conditions, and includes methane and ethane, but also may include diminishing amounts of C3 ¨ Cg hydrocarbons. The term "natural gas liquids" or NGLs may refer to natural gases that may be liquefied without refrigeration, and may include C3 ¨ Cg hydrocarbons. Both natural gas and NGL are terms known in the art and are used herein as such. In contrast, the term "heavy hydrocarbons" may refer to any hydrocarbon that may exist in a liquid phase under atmospheric or downhole conditions, and generally includes

4 liquid crude oil, which may comprise C9+ hydrocarbons, branched hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, and combinations thereof.
The hydrocarbon feed stream 152 may enter a separator 102. The separator 102 may be any process equipment suitable for separating at least one inlet stream into a plurality of effluent streams having different compositions, states, temperatures, and/or pressures. For example, the separator 102 may be a column having trays, packing, or some other type of complex internal structure. Examples of such columns include scrubbers, strippers, absorbers, adsorbers, packed columns, and distillation columns having valve, sieve, or other types of trays. Such columns may employ weirs, downspouts, internal baffles, temperature control elements, and/or pressure control elements. Such columns also may employ some combination of reflux condensers and/or reboilers, including intermediate stage condensers and reboilers. Alternatively, the separator 102 may be a phase separator, which is a vessel that separates an inlet stream into a substantially vapor stream and a substantially liquid stream, such as a knock-out drum, flash drum, reboiler, condenser, or other heat exchanger.
Such vessels also may have some internal baffles, temperature control elements, and/or pressure control elements, but generally lack any trays or other type of complex internal structure commonly found in columns. The separator 102 also may be any other type of separator, such as a membrane separator. In a specific embodiment, the separator 102 is a knockout drum. Finally, the separator 102 may be any combination of the aforementioned separators arranged in series, in parallel, or combinations thereof.
The separator 102 may produce a heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 and a carbon dioxide recycle stream 156. The heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 may comprise most of the heavy hydrocarbons from the hydrocarbon feed stream 152. In embodiments, the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 may comprise at least about 90 percent, at least about 95 percent, at least about 99 percent, or substantially all of the heavy hydrocarbons from the hydrocarbon feed stream 152. The heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 may be sent to a pipeline for transportation or a storage tank 104, where it is stored until being transported to another location or being further processed. In contrast, the carbon dioxide recycle stream 156 may comprise most of the carbon dioxide from the hydrocarbon feed stream 152. In embodiments, the carbon dioxide recycle stream 156 may comprise at least about percent, at least about 95 percent, at least about 99 percent, or substantially all of the carbon dioxide from the hydrocarbon feed stream 152. Similarly, the carbon dioxide recycle stream 156 may comprise at least about 80 percent, at least about 90 percent, at least about 95 percent, or substantially all of the natural gas from the hydrocarbon feed stream 152. All of the percentages referred to herein are molar percentages until otherwise specified.
The carbon dioxide recycle stream 156 may enter a compressor 106. The compressor 106 may be any process equipment suitable for increasing the pressure, temperature, and/or density of an inlet stream. The compressor 106 may be configured to compress a substantially vapor phase inlet stream, a substantially liquid phase inlet stream, or combinations thereof. As such, the term "compressor" may include both compressors and pumps, which may be driven by electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, or pneumatic means.
Specific examples of suitable compressors 106 include centrifugal, axial, positive displacement, turbine, rotary, and reciprocating compressors and pumps. In a specific embodiment, the compressor 106 is a turbine compressor. Finally, the compressor 106 may be any combination of the aforementioned compressors arranged in series, in parallel, or combinations thereof.
The compressor 106 may produce a compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158.

The compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 may contain the same composition as the carbon dioxide recycle stream 156, but at a higher energy level. The additional energy in the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 may be obtained from energy added to the compressor 106, e.g., the electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, or pneumatic energy. In embodiments, difference in energy levels between the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 and the carbon dioxide recycle stream 156 is at least about 50 percent, at least about 65 percent, or at least about 80 percent of the energy added to the compressor 106.
The compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 may enter a dehydrator 108.
The dehydrator 108 may remove some or substantially all of the water from the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158. The dehydrator 108 may be any suitable dehydrator, such as a condenser, an absorber, or an adsorber. Specific examples of suitable dehydrators 108 include refrigerators, molecular sieves, liquid desiccants such as glycol, solid desiccants such as silica gel or calcium chloride, and combinations thereof. The dehydrator 108 also may be any combination of the aforementioned dehydrators arranged in series, in parallel, or combinations thereof. In a specific embodiment, the dehydrator 108 is a glycol unit. Any water accumulated within or exiting from the dehydrator 108 may be stored, used for other processes, or discarded.
The dehydrator 108 may produce a dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160.

The dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 may contain little water, e.g., liquid water or water vapor. In embodiments, the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 may comprise no more than about 5 percent, no more than about 3 percent, no more than about 1 percent, or be substantially free of water.
The dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 may enter a NGL recovery process 110. The NGL recovery process 110 may separate the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 into a NGL rich stream 162 and a purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164. The NGL rich stream 162 may only comprise a portion of the total NGLs from the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160. For example, the NGL rich stream 162 may comprise less than about 70 percent, from about 10 percent to about 50 percent, or from about 20 percent to about 35 percent of the NGLs from the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160. By taking a less aggressive cut of the NGLs and/or disregarding the recovery of methane, ethane, and optionally propane from the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160, the NGL recovery process 110 may produce a relatively high quality NGL rich stream 162 with relatively little process equipment or energy. A
specific example of a suitable NGL recovery process 110 is shown in FIG. 2 and described in further detail below.
As mentioned above, the NGL recovery process 110 may produce a relatively high-quality NGL rich stream 162. Specifically, while the NGL recovery process 110 recovers only a portion, e.g., about 20 to about 35 percent, of the NGLs in the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160, the resulting NGL rich stream 162 is relatively lean with respect to methane and the acid gases. For example, the NGL rich stream 162 may comprise most of the butane and heavier components from the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160. For example, the NGL rich stream 162 may comprise at least about 90 percent, at least about 95 percent, at least about 99 percent, or substantially all of the C4+
from the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160. In an embodiment, the NGL rich stream 162 may comprise at least about 20 percent, at least about 40 percent, at least about 60 percent, or at least about 70 percent of the C3+ from the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160. In embodiments, the NGL rich stream 162 may comprise no more than about percent, no more than about 5 percent, no more than about 1 percent, or be substantially free of ethane. Similarly, the NGL rich stream 162 may comprise no more than about

5 percent, no more than about 3 percent, no more than about 1 percent, or be substantially free of methane. Moreover, the NGL rich stream 162 may comprise no more than about 5 percent, no more than about 3 percent, no more than about 1 percent, or be substantially free of acid gases, such as carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide. It will be realized that the composition of the NGL rich stream 162 may be dependent on the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 composition. The examples provided below show the composition of the NGL
rich stream 162 for three different dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream compositions. The NGL rich stream 162 may be sent to a pipeline for transportation or a storage tank, where it is stored until being transported to another location or being further processed.
In an embodiment, the NGL rich stream 162 optionally may be processed in an NGL
upgrade process 170. The NGL upgrade process 170 may produce a relatively heavy NGL
stream 172 that may be combined with the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154. When combined, the heavy NGL stream 172 and the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 may meet or exceed the pipeline and/or transportation thresholds or standards for a heavy hydrocarbon stream, as described in more detail with respect to Figure 4. A relatively light NGL stream 174 may be sent to a pipeline for transportation or a storage tank, where it may be stored until transported to another location or further processed, as described in more detail with respect to Figure 4. A specific example of a suitable NGL upgrade process 170 is shown in FIG. 5 and described in further detail below.
As mentioned above, the NGL recovery process 110 may produce a purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164. The purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 may comprise most of the carbon dioxide from the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160, as well as some other components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. In embodiments, the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 may comprise at least about 90 percent, at least about 95 percent, at least about 99 percent, or substantially all of the carbon dioxide from the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160. In addition, the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 may comprise at least about 90 percent, at least about 95 percent, at least about 99 percent, or substantially all of the methane from the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160. As such, the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 may comprise at least about 65 percent, at least about 80 percent, at least about 90 percent, or at least about 95 percent carbon dioxide. In embodiments, the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 may comprise no more than about 10 percent, no more than about 5 percent, no more than about 1 percent, or be substantially free of C3+. Similarly, the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 may comprise no more than about 20 percent, no more than about 10 percent, no more than about percent, or be substantially free of C2+.
The purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 may enter a compressor 112. The compressor 112 may comprise one or more compressors, such as the compressor described above. In a specific embodiment, the compressor 112 is a turbine compressor.
The compressor 112 may compress the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164, thereby producing a carbon dioxide injection stream 168. The carbon dioxide injection stream 168 may contain the same composition as the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164, but at a higher energy level. The additional energy in the carbon dioxide injection stream 168 may be obtained from energy added to the compressor 112, e.g., the electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, or pneumatic energy. In some embodiments, the difference in energy levels between the carbon dioxide injection stream 168 and the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 is at least about 50 percent, at least about 65 percent, or at least about 80 percent of the energy added to the compressor 112.
In some embodiments, a makeup stream 166 may be combined with either the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 or the carbon dioxide injection stream 168.
Specifically, as the carbon dioxide reinjection process 100 is operated, carbon dioxide and other compounds will be lost, e.g., by replacing the hydrocarbons in the subterranean hydrocarbon formation 114, by leakage into inaccessible parts of the subterranean hydrocarbon formation 114, and/or to other causes. Alternatively, it may be desirable to increase the amount of carbon dioxide and other compounds injected downhole.
As such, the makeup stream 166 may be combined with either the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 and/or the carbon dioxide injection stream 168, for example in the compressor 112. Alternatively or additionally, the makeup stream 166 may be combined with the carbon dioxide recycle stream 156, the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158, the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160, or combinations thereof. The makeup stream 166 may comprise carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, ethane, air, water, or any other suitable compound. In an embodiment, the makeup stream 166 comprises at least percent, at least 85 percent, or at least 95 percent carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, air, water, or combinations thereof. Finally, the carbon dioxide injection stream 168 may be sent to a carbon dioxide pipeline rather than being immediately injected downhole. In such a case, the carbon dioxide injection stream 168 may meet the carbon dioxide pipeline specifications. One example of a carbon dioxide pipeline specification is: at least about 95 percent carbon dioxide, substantially free of free water, no more than about 30 pounds of vapor-phase water per million cubic feet (mmcf) of product, no more than about 20 parts per million (ppm) by weight of hydrogen sulfide, no more than about 35 ppm by weight of total sulfur, a temperature of no more than about 120 F, no more than about four percent nitrogen, no more than about five percent hydrocarbons (wherein the hydrocarbons do not have a dew point exceeding about -20 F), no more than about 10 ppm by weight of oxygen, and more than about 0.3 gallons of glycol per mmcf of product (wherein the glycol is not in the liquid state at the pressure and temperature conditions of the pipeline).
FIG. 2 illustrates an embodiment of a NGL recovery process 200. The NGL
recovery process 200 may recover some of the NGLs from a carbon dioxide recycle stream described above. For example, the NGL recovery process 200 may be implemented as part of the carbon dioxide reinjection process 100, e.g., by separating the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 into a NGL rich stream 162 and a purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164. Alternatively, the NGL recovery process 200 may be implemented as a stand-alone process for recovering NGLs from a hydrocarbon containing stream.
The NGL recovery process 200 may begin by cooling the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 in a heat exchanger 202. The heat exchanger 202 may be any equipment suitable for heating or cooling one stream using another stream. Generally, the heat exchanger 202 is a relatively simple device that allows heat to be exchanged between two fluids without the fluids directly contacting each other. Examples of suitable heat exchangers 202 include shell and tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers, plate fin heat exchangers, bayonet heat exchangers, reboilers, condensers, evaporators, and air coolers. In the case of air coolers, one of the fluids comprises atmospheric air, which may be forced over tubes or coils using one or more fans. In a specific embodiment, the heat exchanger 202 is a shell and tube heat exchanger.
As shown in FIG. 2, the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 may be cooled using the cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 258.
Specifically, the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 is cooled to produce the cooled carbon dioxide recycle stream 252, and the cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 258 is heated to produce the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164. The efficiency of the heat exchange process depends on several factors, including the heat exchanger design, the temperature, composition, and flowrate of the hot and cold streams, and/or the amount of thermal energy lost in the heat exchange process. In embodiments, the difference in energy levels between the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 and the cooled carbon dioxide recycle stream 252 is at least about 60 percent, at least about 70 percent, at least about 80, or at least about 90 percent of the difference in energy levels between the cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 258 and the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164.
The cooled carbon dioxide recycle stream 252 then enters a NGL stabilizer 204.
The NGL stabilizer 204 may comprise a separator 206, a condenser 208, and a reboiler 210. The separator 206 may be similar to any of the separators described herein, such as separator 102. In a specific embodiment, the separator 206 is a distillation column. The condenser 208 may receive an overhead 254 from the separator 206 and produce the cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 258 and a reflux stream 256, which is returned to the separator 206. The condenser 208 may be similar to any of the heat exchangers described herein, such as heat exchanger 202. In a specific embodiment, the condenser 208 is a shell and tube, kettle type condenser coupled to a refrigeration process, and contains a reflux accumulator. As such, the condenser 208 may remove some energy 282 from the reflux stream 256 and cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 258, typically by refrigeration. The cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 258 is substantially similar in composition to the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 described above.

Similarly, the reboiler 210 may receive a bottoms stream 260 from the separator 206 and produce a sour NGL rich stream 264 and a boil-up stream 262, which is returned to the separator 206. The reboiler 210 may be like any of the heat exchangers described herein, such as heat exchanger 202. In a specific embodiment, the reboiler 210 is a shell and tube heat exchanger coupled to a hot oil heater. As such, the reboiler 210 adds some energy 284 to the boil-up stream 262 and the sour NGL rich stream 264, typically by heating. The sour NGL rich stream 264 may be substantially similar in composition to the NGL
rich stream 162, with the exception that the sour NGL rich stream 264 has some additional acid gases, e.g., acid gases 270 described below.
The sour NGL rich stream 264 then may be cooled in another heat exchanger 212.

The heat exchanger 212 may be like any of the heat exchangers described herein, such as heat exchanger 202. For example, the heat exchanger 212 may be an air cooler as described above. A cooled, sour NGL rich stream 266 may exit the heat exchanger 212 and enter a throttling valve 214. The throttling valve 214 may be an actual valve such as a gate valve, globe valve, angle valve, ball valve, butterfly valve, needle valve, or any other suitable valve, or may be a restriction in the piping such as an orifice or a pipe coil, bend, or size reduction. The throttling valve 214 may reduce the pressure, temperature, or both of the cooled, sour NGL rich stream 266 and produce a low-pressure sour NGL rich stream 268.
The cooled, sour NGL rich stream 266 and the low-pressure sour NGL rich stream 268 have substantially the same composition as the sour NGL rich stream 264, albeit with lower energy levels.
The low-pressure sour NGL rich stream 268 then may be sweetened in a separator 216. The separator 216 may be similar to any of the separators described herein, such as separators 102 or 206. In an embodiment, the separator 216 may be one or more packed columns that use a sweetening process to remove acid gases from the low-pressure sour NGL rich stream 268. Suitable sweetening processes include amine solutions, physical solvents such as SELEXOL or RECTISOL, mixed amine solution and physical solvents, potassium carbonate solutions, direct oxidation, absorption, adsorption using, e.g., molecular sieves, or membrane filtration. The separator 216 may produce the NGL rich stream 162 described above. In addition, any acid gases 270 accumulated within or exiting from the separator 216 may be stored, used for other processes, or suitably disposed of. Finally, while FIGS. 1 and 2 are described in the context of carbon dioxide reinjection, it will be appreciated that the concepts described herein can be applied to other reinjection processes, for example those using nitrogen, air, or water.
FIG. 3 illustrates an embodiment of a chart 300 depicting the relationship between the NGL recovery rate and the energy expended to recover NGLs in the NGL
recovery process. The NGL recovery rate may be a percentage recovery, and may represent the amount of C3+ in the carbon dioxide recycle stream that is recovered in the NGL rich stream.
The energy requirement may be measured in joules (J) or in horsepower (hp), and may represent the energy required to generate the condenser energy and reboiler energy described above. If additional compressors are needed at any point in the carbon dioxide reinjection process than would be required in an otherwise similar carbon dioxide reinjection process that lacks the NGL recovery process, then the energy required to operate such compressors may be included in the energy requirement shown in FIG. 3.
As shown by curve 302, the energy requirements may increase about exponentially as the NGLs are recovered at higher rates. In other words, substantially higher energy may be required to recover the NGLs at incrementally higher rates. For example, recovering a first amount 304 of from about 20 percent to about 35 percent of C3+ may require substantially less energy than recovering a second amount 306 of from about 40 percent to about 65 percent of C3+. Moreover, recovering the second amount 306 of from about 40 percent to about 65 percent of C3+ may require substantially less energy than recovering a third amount 308 of from about 70 percent to about 90 percent of C3+. Such significant reduction in energy requirements may be advantageous in terms of process feasibility and cost, where relatively small decreases in NGL recovery rates may require significantly less energy and process equipment, yielding significantly better process economics.
Although the exact relationship of the curve 302 may depend on numerous factors especially the price of C3+, in an embodiment the economics of the NGL recovery process when the NGL
recovery rate is in the second amount 306 may be better than the economics of the NGL
recovery process when the NGL recovery rate is in the third amount 308.
Similarly, the economics of the NGL recovery process when the NGL recovery rate is in the first amount 304 may be significantly better than the economics of the NGL recovery process when the NGL recovery rate is in the second amount 306. Such a relationship is counterintuitive considering that in many other processes, the process economics generally improve with increased recovery rates.
FIG. 4 illustrates an embodiment of a NGL upgrade process 500. The NGL upgrade process 500 may separate a portion of the heavier components of the NGL rich stream 162 for blending with the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154. For example, the NGL
upgrade process 500 may be used to produce a relatively heavy NGL stream 172 for combining with the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 and a relatively light NGL stream 174 that may be sold and/or used as a NGL product. In general, the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 may sell for a higher price than the NGL rich stream 162. By mixing at least a portion of the NGL rich stream 162 with the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154, the NGL upgrade process 500 may be used to improve the economics and/or revenue from the NGL recovery process. As a result, the NGL upgrade process 500 may be considered in the NGL recovery optimization method 400 described in more detail below.
The NGL upgrade process 500 may begin by passing the NGL rich stream 162 into an NGL upgrade unit 502. The NGL rich stream 162 may be in the liquid phase after passing through separator 216. The NGL upgrade unit 502 may comprise a separator 506, and a reboiler 510. While not illustrated in FIG. 4, some embodiments of the NGL upgrade unit 502 also may comprise a condenser. The separator 506 may be similar to any of the separators described herein, such as separator 102. In a specific embodiment, the separator 506 is a stripping column with a partial reboiler 510, and the separator 506 may not comprise a condenser. The downcoming liquid phase may be provided by the liquid NGL
rich stream 162, which may be introduced at or near the top of the separator 506. In an embodiment, a condenser may be used to at least partially condense overhead stream 524 to produce at least a portion of the downcoming liquid in separator 506. For example, the condenser may be similar to any of the heat exchangers described herein, such as heat exchanger 202. The reboiler 510 may receive a bottoms stream 508 from the separator 506 and produce a heavy NGL stream 514 and a boil-up stream 512, which is returned to the separator 506 to provide the rising vapor phase within the separator 506. The reboiler 510 may be like any of the heat exchangers described herein, such as heat exchanger 202. In a specific embodiment, the reboiler 510 is a shell and tube heat exchanger coupled to a hot oil heater. As such, the reboiler 510 adds some energy 516 to the boil-up stream 512 and the heavy NGL stream 514, typically by heating. The heavy NGL stream 514 may be substantially similar in composition to the heavy NGL stream 172.

The heavy NGL stream 514 then may be cooled in a heat exchanger 518. The heat exchanger 518 may be any equipment suitable for heating or cooling one stream using another stream. Generally, the heat exchanger 518 is a relatively simple device that allows heat to be exchanged between two fluids without the fluids directly contacting each other (i.e., indirect heat exchange). In an embodiment, heat integration that comprises using one or more streams in the overall process to cool the heavy NGL stream 514, and thereby heating the one or more streams, may be used with heat exchanger 518. Examples of suitable heat exchangers 518 include shell and tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers, plate fin heat exchangers, bayonet heat exchangers, reboilers, condensers, evaporators, and air coolers. In the case of air coolers, one of the fluids comprise atmospheric air, which may be forced over tubes or coils using one or more fans. In a specific embodiment, the heat exchanger 518 is a shell and tube heat exchanger with the heavy NGL stream 514 passing on one side of the exchanger and a cooling fluid stream 522 passing on the other. The cooled, heavy NGL stream 172 may have substantially the same composition as the heavy NGL stream 514, albeit with lower energy levels.
The overhead stream 524 from separator 506 may comprise at least a portion of the lighter NGL components and may be cooled in another heat exchanger 526. The heat exchanger 526 may be like any of the heat exchangers described herein, such as heat exchanger 202. For example, the heat exchanger 526 may be an air cooler as described above. The cooled, light NGL stream 174 may have substantially the same composition as the overhead stream 524, albeit with lower energy levels.
As shown in FIG. 4, one or more additional NGL input streams 530, 532 may be introduced into the NGL upgrade process 500 upstream of the NGL upgrade unit 502. The additional NGL input streams 530, 532 may comprise NGL streams from any suitable source, such as one or more additional recovery plants. The NGL input streams 530, 532 may be transported to the NGL upgrade unit 502 by any suitable means. For example, the NGL input streams 530, 532 may be transported to the NGL upgrade unit 502 through a pipeline or by truck. The additional NGL input streams 530, 532 may contain one or more acid gases and/or other contaminants. Depending on their compositions, the additional NGL
input streams 530, 532 may be introduced at various input locations in the NGL
recovery process. For example, an input location may comprise a point upstream of the separator 216 for an NGL input stream 530 comprising acid gas components at or above a threshold level (e.g., a pipeline or storage threshold), thereby allowing for sweetening prior to being introduced to the downstream processes. As another example, an input location for an NGL
input stream 532 that comprises acid gas components below the threshold level may comprise a point downstream of the separator 216, thereby reducing the energy use of the overall recovery process. The use of one or more additional input streams may allow an NGL upgrade process 500 to upgrade the NGL streams from a plurality of NGL
recovery processes. For example, multiple NGL recovery processes and/or additional sources of =
NGL rich streams may feed the NGL product to a NGL upgrade process, thereby reducing the need to install an NGL upgrade process at each source of an NGL stream.
In general, the NGL upgrade process may be used to separate a relatively heavy NGL stream 172 for blending with the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154. The composition and flowrate of the heavy NGL stream 172 may vary depending on the composition and flowrate of the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154. As discussed above, the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 may be sent to a pipeline for transportation or a storage tank, where it is stored until being transported to another location or being further processed. Each of the downstream uses for the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 may have one or more thresholds and/or standards that the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 must meet in order to be transported or further processed. For example, pipelines may generally have standards setting thresholds for fluids passing through the pipeline, such as thresholds on vapor pressure (e.g., expressed as a Reid vapor pressure standard), carbon dioxide content, acid gas content (e.g., hydrogen sulfide content), and water content (e.g., a dew point standard). In an embodiment, the fluid transported in the pipeline may have a Reid vapor pressure of no more than about 20, no more than about 15, or no more than about 10.
Accordingly, the composition and the flowrate of the heavy NGL stream 172 may be controlled so that the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 may meet the transportation and/or further processing standards and/or threshold downstream of the mixing point between the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 and the heavy NGL stream 172.
In an embodiment, the composition and/or flowrate of the heavy NGL stream 172 and the light NGL stream 174 may be controlled, at least in part, to allow the light NGL
stream 174 to satisfy one or more transportation thresholds. The light NGL
stream 174 may be transported using a variety of transportation means and/or methods including, but not limited to, a pipeline and a tanker truck. Each transportation method may have one or more thresholds that the light NGL stream 174 may need to satisfy prior to being accepted for transportation. For example, a pipeline may have a heating value standard of between about 1,000 British thermal units per cubic foot (Btu/ft3) and about 1,200 Btude, or alternatively between about 1,050 Btudt3 and about 1,100 Btu/ft3. In an embodiment, the light NGL
stream 174 also may be subject to a dew point standard. As another example, tanker truck transportation may have a vapor pressure requirement that the light NGL stream 174 not exceed a vapor pressure of about 250 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) at a temperature of 100 F. Based on the applicable thresholds, the composition and the flowrate of the heavy NGL stream 172 and the light NGL stream 174 may be controlled so that the light NGL stream 174 may meet the transportation thresholds, allowing the light NGL
stream 174 to be transported for further use.
FIG. 5 illustrates another embodiment of a carbon dioxide reinjection process 600.
The process shown in FIG. 5 and the process of FIG. 1 are similar, and those portions with similar numbering are described in more detail with respect to FIG. 1 above.
In the interest of brevity, only those portions that differ from FIG. 1 will be discussed with respect to FIG.
5.
As can be seen in FIG. 5, the dehydration of the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 may be integrated with the NGL recovery/dehydration process 610.
The compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 may enter a NGL
recovery/dehydration process 610. In an embodiment, the NGL recovery/dehydration process 610 may comprise a separator 102 that produces multiple streams and allow one or more phases of the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 to be dehydrated without dehydrating the entirety of the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158. This may allow for a reduction in the size of the dehydration unit and a reduction in the operating expense associated with the dehydrator. Further, the separate processing of the phases may allow the downstream processing units to receive each phase at a different location, which may further improve the process economics as described in more detail below with respect to FIG. 7.
The compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 may enter the NGL
recovery/dehydration process 610. The NGL recovery/dehydration process 610 may dehydrate, process, and separate the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 into a NGL rich stream 162 and a purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164. The NGL
rich stream 162 may only comprise a portion of the total NGLs from the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160. A specific example of a suitable NGL
recovery/dehydration process 610 is shown in FIG. 6 and described in further detail below.
As mentioned above, the NGL recovery/dehydration process 610 may produce a relatively high-quality NGL rich stream 162. The NGL rich stream 162 may have about the same composition as the NGL rich stream 162 in FIG. 1. The NGL rich stream 162 may be sent to a pipeline for transportation or a storage tank, where it is stored until transported to another location or further processed. In an embodiment, the NGL rich stream optionally may be processed in an NGL upgrade process 170, as described in more detail above. The NGL upgrade process 170 may produce a relatively heavy NGL stream 172 that may be combined with the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154. When combined, the heavy NGL
stream 172 and the heavy hydrocarbon stream 154 may meet or exceed the pipeline and/or transportation properties for a heavy hydrocarbon stream. A relatively light NGL stream 174 may be sent to a pipeline for transportation or a storage tank 104, where it may be stored until being transported to another location or being further processed. A
specific example of a suitable NGL upgrade process 170 is shown in FIG. 4 and described in further detail above.
As mentioned above, the NGL recovery/dehydration process 610 may produce a purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164. The purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 may have about the same composition as the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 in FIG. 1. The purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 may enter a compressor 112. The compressor 112 may comprise one or more compressors, such as the compressor described above. In some embodiments, a makeup stream 166 may be combined with either the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 or the carbon dioxide injection stream 168.

The resulting carbon dioxide injection stream 168 then may be injected into the subterranean hydrocarbon formation 114 or sent to a carbon dioxide pipeline.
FIG. 6 illustrates an embodiment of a NGL recovery/dehydration process 700.
The NGL recovery/dehydration process 700 may dehydrate and recover some of the NGLs from a carbon dioxide recycle stream. For example, the NGL recovery/dehydration process 700 may be implemented as part of the carbon dioxide reinjection process 600, e.g., by separating the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 into a NGL rich stream 162 and a purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164.
The NGL recovery process 700 may begin by cooling the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 in a heat exchanger 702. The heat exchanger 702 may be any equipment suitable for heating or cooling one stream using another stream.
Generally, the heat exchanger 702 is a relatively simple device that allows heat to be exchanged between two fluids without the fluids directly contacting each other. Examples of suitable heat exchangers 702 include shell and tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers, plate .
fin heat exchangers, bayonet heat exchangers, reboilers, condensers, evaporators, and air coolers. In the case of air coolers, one of the fluids comprises atmospheric air, which may be forced over tubes or coils using one or more fans. In a specific embodiment, the heat exchanger 702 is a shell and tube heat exchanger.
As shown in FIG. 6, the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 may be cooled using the cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 758.
Specifically, the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 is cooled to produce the cooled carbon dioxide recycle stream 752, and the cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 758 is heated to produce the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164. The efficiency of the heat exchange process depends on several factors, including the heat exchanger design, the i temperature, composition, and flowrate of the hot and cold streams, and/or the amount of thermal energy lost in the heat exchange process. In embodiments, the difference in energy levels between the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 and the cooled carbon dioxide recycle stream 752 is at least about 60 percent, at least about 70 percent, at least about 80, or at least about 90 percent of the difference in energy levels between the cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 758 and the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164.
The cooled carbon dioxide recycle stream 752 then enters a separator 718. The separator 718 may be similar to any of the separators described herein, such as separator 102. In a specific embodiment, the separator 718 is a three phase separator, which is a vessel that separates an inlet stream into three distinct phases such as a substantially vapor stream, a substantially first liquid stream (e.g., an organic liquid phase), and a substantially second liquid stream (e.g., an aqueous liquid phase). The first liquid stream may primarily comprise hydrocarbons and the second liquid stream may primarily comprise an aqueous fluid so that the first and second liquid streams are at least partially insoluble in each other and form two separable liquid phases. A three-phase separator may have some internal baffles and/or weirs, temperature control elements, and/or pressure control elements, but generally lacks any trays or other type of complex internal structure commonly found in columns. In an embodiment, the separator 718 may separate the cooled carbon dioxide recycle stream 752 into a vapor recycle stream 724, a liquid recycle stream 728, and an aqueous fluid stream 732. The aqueous fluid stream 732 exiting from the dehydrator 722 may be stored, used for other processes, or discarded. The aqueous fluid stream 732 may first be treated to remove a portion of any hydrocarbons in the stream prior to storage, further use or process, or being discarded.

The vapor recycle stream 724 optionally may enter a dehydrator 720. The dehydrator 720 may remove some or substantially all of the water from the vapor recycle stream 724. The dehydrator 720 may be any suitable dehydrator, such as a condenser, an absorber, or an adsorber.
Specific examples of suitable dehydrators 720 include refrigerators, molecular sieves, liquid desiccants such as glycol, solid desiccants such as silica gel or calcium chloride, and combinations thereof. The dehydrator 720 also may be any combination of the aforementioned dehydrators 720 and 722 arranged in series, in parallel, or combinations thereof In a specific embodiment, the dehydrator 720 is a glycol unit. Any water accumulated within or exiting from the dehydrator 720 may be stored, used for other processes, or discarded.
The dehydrator 720 may produce a dehydrated vapor recycle stream 726. The dehydrated vapor recycle stream 726 may contain little water, e.g., liquid water or water vapor. In embodiments, the dehydrated vapor recycle stream 726 may comprise no more than about 5 percent, no more than about 3 percent, no more than about 1 percent, or be substantially free of water.
The liquid recycle stream 728 from the separator 718 optionally may enter a dehydrator 722. The dehydrator 722 may remove some or substantially all of the water from the liquid recycle stream 728. The dehydrator 722 may be any suitable dehydrator, such as a condenser, an absorber, or an adsorber. Suitable liquid-liquid separators such as hydro-cyclones and heater treaters also may be used. In an embodiment, the water in the liquid recycle stream 728 may be in the form of hydrates (e.g., clathrate hydrates) and/or an emulsion. Suitable separators utilizing physical solvents, chemical solvents, and or heat may be used to break the hydrates and/or emulsion and separate the water from the remaining liquid recycle stream 728 components. Specific examples of suitable dehydrators 722 include hydro-cyclones, heater treaters, molecular sieves, liquid desiccants such as glycol, solid desiccants such as silica gel or calcium chloride, and combinations thereof.
The dehydrator 722 also may be any combination of the aforementioned dehydrators 722 arranged in series, in parallel, or combinations thereof. Any water accumulated within or exiting from the dehydrator 722 may be stored, used for other processes, or discarded.
The dehydrator 722 may produce a dehydrated liquid recycle stream 730. The dehydrated liquid recycle stream 730 may contain little water, e.g., liquid water or water vapor. In embodiments, the dehydrated liquid recycle stream 730 may comprise no more than about 5 percent, no more than about 3 percent, no more than about 1 percent, or be substantially free of water.
In an embodiment, only one of the dehydrators 720, 722 may be used. For example, any water contained in the cooled carbon dioxide recycle stream 752 may preferentially distribute to the vapor recycle stream 724 or the liquid recycle stream 728.
By only using one separator 720, 722 on the stream containing the majority of the water, the dehydration requirements may be reduced, thereby reducing both the installation and operating costs associated with operating the dehydration system. In an embodiment in which only one dehydrator is used, the remaining stream may pass directly from the separator 718 to the separator 706. In an embodiment, both dehydrators 720, 722 may be used, and dehydrators 720, 722 may comprise different types of dehydrators. For example, dehydrator 720 may comprise a gas dehydration system while dehydrator 722 may comprise a unit designed to primarily perform a liquid-liquid phase separation. In an embodiment, both dehydrators 720, 722 may be used and the separator 718 may be used to perform a first stage separation of any free water, thereby reducing the dehydration requirements. In still another embodiment, neither dehydrator 720, 722 may be used and rather separator 718 may be sufficient for removing any free water and thereby dehydrating the cooled carbon dioxide recycle stream 752 along with performing a first stage flash of the cooled carbon dioxide recycle stream 752 to allow the stream to be introduced to the NGL
fractionator 704 as separate streams. In yet another embodiment, the vapor recycle stream 724 and the liquid recycle stream 728 may be combined and passed to a single dehydrator.
The dehydrated vapor recycle stream 726 and the dehydrated liquid recycle stream 730 then may enter a NGL fractionator 704 as separate streams. In an embodiment, the dehydrated vapor recycle stream 726 and the dehydrated liquid recycle stream 730 may be fed to a separator 706 in the NGL fractionator 704 at separate input locations. The ability to feed the dehydrated vapor recycle stream 726 and the dehydrated liquid recycle stream 730 at separate locations in the separator 706 may aid in the separation of the various components into the overhead stream 754 and the bottoms stream 760. While the dehydrated vapor recycle stream 726 is illustrated as entering the separator 706 above the dehydrated liquid recycle stream 730, the dehydrated vapor recycle stream 726 may entering the separator 706 below the dehydrated liquid recycle stream 730, or enter at or near the same tray and/or location. In an embodiment, the dehydrated vapor recycle stream 726 and the dehydrated liquid recycle stream 730 may be combined prior to entering the NGL
fractionator 704.
The NGL fractionator 704 may comprise a separator 706, a condenser 708, and a reboiler 710. The separator 706 may be similar to any of the separators described herein, such as separator 102. In a specific embodiment, the separator 706 is a distillation column.
In an embodiment, dehydrated vapor recycle stream 726 may be introduced onto the tray and/or inlet location (e.g., when structured packing is used) with the closest matching vapor composition in the distillation column. Similarly, the dehydrated liquid recycle stream 730 may be introduced onto the tray and/or inlet location with the closest matching liquid composition. Actual compositional measurements and/or process models may be used to match the dehydrated vapor recycle stream 726 and the dehydrated liquid recycle stream 730 to the appropriate trays and/or inlet location in the distillation column.
The condenser 708 may receive an overhead stream 754 from the separator 706 and produce the cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 758 and a reflux stream 756, which is returned to the separator 706. The condenser 708 may be similar to any of the heat exchangers described herein, such as heat exchanger 702. In a specific embodiment, the condenser 708 is a shell and tube, kettle type condenser coupled to a refrigeration process, and contains a reflux accumulator. As such, the condenser 708 may remove some energy 782 from the reflux stream 756 and cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 758, typically by refrigeration. The cooled, purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 758 is substantially similar in composition to the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164 described above. Similarly, the reboiler 710 may receive a bottoms stream 760 from the separator 706 and produce a sour NGL rich stream 764 and a boil-up stream 762, which is returned to the separator 706. The reboiler 710 may be like any of the heat exchangers described herein, such as heat exchanger 702. In a specific embodiment, the reboiler 710 is a shell and tube heat exchanger coupled to a hot oil heater. As such, the reboiler 710 adds some energy 784 to the boil-up stream 762 and the sour NGL rich stream 764, typically by heating. The sour NGL rich stream 764 may be substantially similar in composition to the NGL rich stream 162, with the exception that the sour NGL rich stream 764 has some additional acid gases, e.g., acid gases 770 described below.
The sour NGL rich stream 764 then may be cooled in another heat exchanger 712.

The heat exchanger 712 may be like any of the heat exchangers described herein, such as heat exchanger 702. For example, the heat exchanger 712 may be an air cooler as described above. A cooled, sour NGL rich stream 766 exits the heat exchanger 712 and enters a throttling valve 714. The throttling valve 714 may be an actual valve such as a gate valve, globe valve, angle valve, ball valve, butterfly valve, needle valve, or any other suitable valve, or may be a restriction in the piping such as an orifice or a pipe coil, bend, or size reduction. The throttling valve 714 may reduce the pressure, temperature, or both of the cooled, sour NGL rich stream 766 and produce a low-pressure sour NGL rich stream 768.
The cooled, sour NGL rich stream 766 and the low-pressure sour NGL rich stream 768 have substantially the same composition as the sour NGL rich stream 764, albeit with lower energy levels.
The low-pressure sour NGL rich stream 768 then may be sweetened in a separator 716. The separator 716 may be similar to any of the separators described herein, such as separator 102. In an embodiment, the separator 716 may be one or more packed columns that use a sweetening process to remove acid gases 770 from the low-pressure sour NGL
rich stream 768. Suitable sweetening processes include amine solutions, physical solvents such as SELEXOL or RECTISOL, mixed amine solution and physical solvents, potassium carbonate solutions, direct oxidation, absorption, adsorption using, e.g., molecular sieves, or membrane filtration. The separator 716 may produce the NGL rich stream 162 described above. In addition, any acid gases 770 accumulated within or exiting from the separator 716 may be stored, used for other processes, or suitably disposed of. Finally, while FIGS. 5 and

6 are described in the context of carbon dioxide recovery and/or reinjection, it will be appreciated that the concepts described herein can be applied to other recovery and/or reinjection processes, for example those using nitrogen, air, or water.

As referenced above, FIG. 7 illustrates an embodiment of a NGL recovery optimization method 400. The NGL recovery optimization method 400 may be used to determine an improved or optimal project estimate for implementing the NGL
recovery process and recovering NGLs at a suitable rate. As such, the NGL recovery process may be configured using appropriate equipment design based on the NGL recovery rate.
Specifically, the NGL recovery optimization method 400 may design or configure the equipment size, quantity, or both based on an initial NGL recovery rate and required energy, and hence estimate the project feasibility and cost. The method 400 may upgrade or improve the project estimate by iteratively incrementing the initial NGL
recovery rate, re-estimating the project, and comparing the two estimates.
At block 402, the method 400 may select an initial NGL recovery rate. The initial NGL recovery rate may be relatively small, such as no more than about 20 percent recovery, no more than about 10 percent recovery, no more than about 5 percent recovery, or no more than about 1 percent recovery. Choosing the initial NGL recovery rate at a small percentage of the total NGL amount may result in a relatively low project estimate that may be increased gradually to reach improved estimates.
The method 400 then may proceed to block 404, where the project equipment size may be determined based on the initial NGL recovery rate. Specifically, the size of the equipment described in the NGL recovery process and any additional compressors as described above may be determined. In addition, the pressure and temperature ratings and material compositions of such equipment may be determined at block 404, if desired.
The method 400 then may proceed to block 406, where the project may be estimated. Project estimation may comprise an economic evaluation of the NGL
recovery process, and may include the cost of obtaining, fabricating, and/or field constructing the equipment sized in block 404. In addition, project estimation may include the cost of operating and maintaining the NGL process, as well as the revenue generated by the sale or use of the products obtained by implementing the NGL process. As such, the project estimate may comprise the total project benefits (including production, sales, etc.) minus the total project capital and operating costs (including cost, equipment, etc.).
In some embodiments, the project estimate may be based on an existing carbon dioxide reinjection plant that lacks the NGL recovery process.
The method 400 then may proceed to block 408, where the recovery rate is incremented. The NGL recovery rate may be incremented by a relatively small percentage, for example no more than about 10 percent, not more than about 5 percent, or no more than about 1 percent. The method 400 then may proceed to block 410, which is substantially similar to block 404. The method 400 then may proceed to block 412, which is substantially similar to block 406.
The method 400 then may proceed to block 414, where the method 400 may determine whether the project estimate has improved. For instance, the method 400 may compare the project estimate from block 412 with the previous project estimate (either block 406 or the previous iteration of block 412) and determine whether the revised estimate is more economically desirable. The method 400 may return to block 408 when the condition at block 414 is met. Otherwise, the method 400 may proceed to block 416.
At block 416, the method 400 may choose the previous project estimate as the final estimate. For example, the method 400 may select the previous NGL recovery rate (either block 406 or the previous iteration of block 412) instead of the estimate obtained at block 412. In some embodiments, the desired or optimum recovery rate selected at block 416 may represent a range of desirable or optimum points, as opposed to a single point. Accordingly, the method 400 may select the equipment sizing corresponding to the selected NGL
recovery rate. The selected project estimate and sizing then may be used for the NGL
recovery process. Of course, it will be appreciated that the method 400 may be revised to include a decremented, top-down estimation approach as opposed to an incremented, bottom-up estimation approach.
The method 400 may have several advantages over other project estimation methods. For example, process equipment of a specific size may be selected, and the corresponding recovery rate determined. Alternatively, a required recovery rate may be selected, and the equipment sized to achieve the recovery rate. However, it has been discovered that such approaches are inflexible and often yields suboptimal process economics. For example, relatively high NGL recovery rates will not lead to an improvement in process economics, e.g., because of the exponential increase in energy consumption. In contrast, the method 400 provides a flexible approach to determining a desirable or optimal project estimate.
In an embodiment, the equipment size may be configured to allow for variations in recovery rates to accommodate changes in economic conditions, such as C3+ or energy pricing. Specifically, the equipment described herein can be sized above or below the desired or optimum amount to allow the processes described herein to operate at recovery rates slightly greater than or slightly less than the desirable or optimum point obtained in method 400. As the process parameters and the energy requirements may be closely related, the ability of the process to continue to successfully operate under differing conditions may be reflected by constrained changes in the energy requirements of the process.
When operating in the first amount 304 or the second amount 306 on the curve 302 in FIG. 3, significant increases or decreases in NGL recovery rate may be obtained with little change in the energy requirements. Such is not the case when operating in the third amount 308 on the curve 302 in FIG. 3, where significant increases or decreases in energy requirements yield only incremental changes in NGL recovery rate.

In one example, a process simulation was performed using the NGL recovery process 200 shown in FIG. 2. The simulation was performed using the Hyprotech Ltd.
HYSYS Process v2.1.1 (Build 3198) software package. The NGL recovery process separated the dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160 into the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164, the NGL rich stream 162, and the acid gas stream 270. The specified values are indicated by an asterisk (*). The physical properties are provided in degrees Fahrenheit (F), psig, million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD), pounds per hour (lb/hr), U.S. gallons per minute (USGPM), and British thermal units per hour (Btu/hr). The material streams, their compositions, and the associated energy streams produced by the simulation are provided in tables 1, 2, and 3 below, respectively.
Dehydrated Cooled CO2 Cooled, Purified CO2 Name CO2 Recycle Recycle Recycle Stream 160 Stream 252 Stream 258 Vapor Fraction 0.9838 0.9392 1.0000 Temperature (F) 104.0* 45.00* 4.011 Pressure (psig) 340.0* 335.0 330.0 Molar Flow (MMSCFD) 17.00* 17.00 15.88 Mass Flow (lb/hr) 8.049e+04 8.049e+04

7.254e+04 Liquid Volume Flow (USGPM) 218.1 218.1 192.3 Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -2.639e+08 -2.658e+08 -2.577e+08 Table 1A: Material Streams Purified CO2 Sour NGL Cooled Sour Name Recycle Rich Stream NGL Rich Stream 164 264 Stream 266 Vapor Fraction 1.0000 0.00000 0.0000 _ Temperature (F) 97.39 202.6 120.0*
Pressure (psig) 325.0 340.0 635.3*
_ Molar Flow (MMSCFD) 15.88 1.119 1.119 Mass Flow (lb/hr) 7.254e+04 7947 7947 _ Liquid Volume Flow (USGPM) 192.3 25.84 25.84 Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -2.558e+08 -8.443e+06 -

8.862e+06 Table 1B: Material Streams Low-Pressure Sour NGL Acid Gas NGL Rich Name Rich Stream Stream 270 Stream 162 Vapor Fraction 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 _ Temperature (F) 120.9 100.0* 111.8 Pressure (psig) 200.3* 5.304* 185.3*
_ Molar Flow (MMSCFD) 1.119 0.1030 1.016 Mass Flow (lb/hr) 7947 446.4 7501 Liquid Volume Flow (USGPM) 25.84 1.100 24.74 . Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -8.862e+06 -1.083e+06 -7.779e+06 Table 1C: Material Streams Dehydrated Cooled CO2 Cooled, Purified CO2 Name CO2 Recycle Recycle Recycle Stream 160 Stream 252 Stream 258 Comp Mole Frac (H2S) 0.0333* 0.0333 0.0327 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0054* 0.0054 0.0058 Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.7842* 0.7842 0.8359 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.0521* 0.0521 0.0558 Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.0343* 0.0343 , 0.0348 Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.0406* 0.0406 0.0313 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) 0.0072* 0.0072 0.0022 _.
Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.0171* 0.0171, 0.0015 Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.0058* 0.0058 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.0057* 0.0057 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.0070* 0.0070 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) 0.0071* 0.0071 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (1-120) 0.0000* 0.0000 0.0000 Table 2A: Stream Compositions Purified CO2 Sour NGL Cooled Sour Name Recycle Rich Stream NGL Rich Stream 164 264 Stream 266 Comp Mole Frac (H2S) 0.0327 0.0421 0.0421 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0058 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.8359 0.0500 0.0500 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.0558 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.0348 0.0281 0.0281 Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.0313 0.1728 0.1728 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) 0.0022 0.0789 0.0789 Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.0015 0.2388 0.2388 Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.0000 0.0887 0.0887 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.0000 0.0866 0.0866 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.0000 0.1063 0.1063 Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) 0.0000 0.1077 0.1077 Comp Mole Frac (H20) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Table 2B: Stream Compositions Low-Pressure Sour NGL Acid Gas NGL Rich Name Rich Stream Stream 270 Stream 162 268 _ Comp Mole Frac (H2S) 0.0421 _ 0.4568 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 .
Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.0500 0.5432 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 .
Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.0281 0.0000 0.0309 Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.1728 0.0000 0.1903 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) 0.0789 0.0000 0.0869 _ Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.2388 0.0000 0.2630 _ Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.0887 0.0000 0.0977 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.0866 0.0000 0.0954 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.1063 0.0000 0.1171 Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) 0.1077 0.0000 0.1186 Comp Mole Frac (H20) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Table 2C: Stream Compositions Name Heat Flow (Btu/hr) Condenser Q Energy Stream 282 1.469e+06 Reboiler Q Energy Stream 284 1.152e+06 Table 3: Energy Streams In another example, the process simulation was repeated using a different dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160. The material streams, their compositions, and the associated energy streams produced by the simulation are provided in tables 4, 5, and 6 below, respectively.
Dehydrated Cooled CO2 Cooled,Purified Name CO2 Recycle Recycle Recycle Stream 160 Stream 252 Stream 258 Vapor Fraction 0.9874 0.9286 1.0000 Temperature (F) 104.0* 60.00* 22.77 Pressure (psig) 685.3* 680.3 590.0 Molar Flow (MMSCFD) 20.00* 20.00 18.86 Mass Flow (1b/hr) 8.535e+04 8.535e+04 7.780e+04 Liquid Volume Flow (USGPM) 258.0 258.0 232.2 Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -2.741e+08 -2.760e+08 -2.683e+08 Table 4A: Material Streams Purified CO2 Sour NGL Cooled Sour Name Recycle Rich Stream NGL
Rich Stream 164 264 Stream Vapor Fraction 1.0000 0.00000 0.0000 Temperature (F) 87.48 290.7 120.0*
Pressure (psig) 585.0 600.0 635.3*
Molar Flow (MMSCFD) 18.86 1.139 1.139 Mass Flow (lb/hr) 7.780e+04 7552 7552 Liquid Volume Flow (USGPM) 232.2 25.83 25.83 Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -2.663e+08 -7.411e+06 -8.371e+06 Table 4B: Material Streams Low-Pressure Sour NGL Acid Gas NGL
Rich Name Rich Stream Stream 270 Stream Vapor Fraction 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 Temperature (F) 120.5 100.0* 118.6 Pressure (psig) 200.3* 5.304* 185.3*
Molar Flow (MMSCFD) 1.139 0.02943 1.110 Mass Flow (1b/hr) 7552 141.2 7411 Liquid Volume Flow (USGPM) 25.83 0.3421 25.49 Low-Pressure Sour NGL Acid Gas NGL
Rich Name Rich Stream Stream 270 Stream Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -8.371e+06 -5.301e+05 -7.841e+06 Table 4C: Material Streams Cooled, Dehydrated Cooled CO2 Purified CO2 Name CO2 Recycle Recycle Recycle Stream 160 Stream 252 Stream 258 _ Comp Mole Frac (H2S) 0.0004* 0.0004 0.0004 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0153* 0.0153 0.0162 Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.6592* 0.6592 0.6975 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.1813* 0.1813 0.1922 Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.0620* 0.0620 0.0620 Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.0411* 0.0411 0.0275 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) 0.0064* 0.0064 0.0017 . Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.0179* 0.0179 0.0024 Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.0040* 0.0040 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.0049* 0.0049 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.0030* 0.0030 0.0000 _ Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) 0.0045* 0.0045 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (H20) 0.0000* 0.0000 0.0000 Table 5A: Stream Compositions Purified CO2 Sour NGL Cooled Sour Name Recycle Rich Stream NGL
Rich Stream 164 264 Stream Comp Mole Frac (H2S) 0.0004 0.0008 0.0008 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0162 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.6975 0.0250 0.0250 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.1922 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.0620 0.0613 0.0613 Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.0275 0.2670 0.2670 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) , 0.0017 0.0836 0.0836 Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.0024 0.2751 0.2751 Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.0000 0.0697 0.0697 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.0000 0.0858 0.0858 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.0000 0.0527 0.0527 Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) 0.0000 0.0790 0.0790 Comp Mole Frac (H20) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Table 5B: Stream Compositions Low-Pressure Sour NGL Acid Gas NGL Rich Name Rich Stream Stream 270 Stream 268 _ Comp Mole Frac (H2S) 0.0008 0.0315 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.0250 0.9685 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.0613 0.0000 0.0629 -Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.2670 0.0000 0.2740 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) 0.0836 0.0000 0.0858 Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.2751 0.0000 0.2824 Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.0697 0.0000 0.0716 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.0858 0.0000 0.0881 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.0527 0.0000 0.0541 Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) 0.0790 0.0000 0.0811 Comp Mole Frac (1-120) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Table 5C: Stream Compositions Name Heat Flow (Btu/hr) _ Condenser Q Energy Stream 282 1.884e+06 Reboiler Q Energy Stream 284 2.211e+06 Table 6: Energy Streams In a third example, the process simulation was repeated using a different dehydrated carbon dioxide recycle stream 160. The material streams, their compositions, and the associated energy streams produced by the simulation are provided in tables 7, 8, and 9 below, respectively.
Dehydrated Cooled CO2 Cooled, Purified CO2 Name CO2 Recycle Recycle Recycle Stream 160 Stream 252 Stream 258 _ Vapor Fraction 1.0000 0.9988 1.0000 _ Temperature (F) 104.0* 30.00* 4.617 _ _ Pressure (psig) 340.0* 335.0 330.0 Molar Flow (MMSCFD) 17.00* 17.00 16.82 Mass Flow (lb/hr) 8.083e+04 8.083e+04 7.968e+04 _ Liquid Volume Flow (USGPM) _ 203.4 203.4 199.5 Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -3.016e+08 -3.032e+08 -3.025e+08 Table 7A: Material Streams Purified CO2 Sour NGL Cooled Sour Name Recycle Rich Stream NGL Rich Stream 164 264 Stream Vapor Fraction 1.0000 0.00000 0.0000 Temperature (F) 76.45 199.4 120.0*
Pressure (psig) 325.0 340.0 635.3*
Molar Flow (MMSCFD) 16.82 0.1763 0.1763 Mass Flow (lb/hr) 7.968e+04 1153 Liquid Volume Flow (USGPM) 199.5 3.894 3.894 Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -3.009e+08 -1.278e+06 -1.340e+06 Table 7B: Material Streams Low-Pressure Sour NGL Acid Gas NGL Rich Name Rich Stream Stream 270 Stream Vapor Fraction 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 Temperature (F) 120.4 100.0* 115.4 Pressure (psig) 200.3* 5.304* 185.3*
Molar Flow (MMSCFD) 0.1763 0.01048 0.1659 Mass Flow (lb/hr) 1153 48.82 1105 Liquid Volume Flow (USGPM) 3.894 0.1188 3.776 Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -1.340e+06 -1.653e+05 -1.175e+06 Table 7C: Material Streams Dehydrated Cooled CO2 Cooled,Purified CO2 Name CO2 Recycle Recycle Recycle Stream 160 Stream 252 Stream 258 Comp Mole Frac (H2S) 0.0031* 0.0031 0.0030 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0008* 0.0008 0.0008 Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.9400* 0.9400 0.9493 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.0219* 0.0219 0.0222 Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.0156* 0.0156 0.0157 Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.0116* 0.0116 0.0088 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) 0.0015* 0.0015 0.0002 Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.0031* 0.0031 0.0001 Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.0007* 0.0007 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.0006* 0.0006 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.0005* 0.0005 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) 0.0006* 0.0006 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (H20) 0.0000* 0.0000 0.0000 Table 8A: Stream Compositions , Purified CO2 Sour NGL Cooled Sour Name Recycle Rich Stream NGL Rich Stream 164 264 Stream Comp Mole Frac (H2S) 0.0030 0.0094 0.0094 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0008 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.9493 0.0500 0.0500 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.0222 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.0157 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.0088 0.2794 0.2794 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) 0.0002 0.1265 0.1265 Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.0001 0.2985 0.2985 Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.0000 0.0713 0.0713 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.0000 0.0617 0.0617 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.0000 0.0482 0.0482 Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) 0.0000 0.0550 0.0550 Comp Mole Frac (H20) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Table 8B: Stream Compositions Low-Pressure Sour NGL Acid Gas NGL Rich Name Rich Stream Stream 270 Stream Comp Mole Frac (H2S) 0.0094 0.1584 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.0500 0.8416 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.2794 0.0000 0.2970 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) 0.1265 0.0000 0.1345 Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.2985 0.0000 0.3174 Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.0713 0.0000 0.0758 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.0617 0.0000 0.0656 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.0482 0.0000 0.0512 Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) 0.0550 0.0000 0.0584 Comp Mole Frac (H20) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Table 8C: Stream Compositions Name Heat Flow (Btu/hr) Condenser Q Energy Stream 282 6.236e+06 Reboiler Q Energy Stream 284 5.666e+06 Table 9: Energy Streams In a fourth example, a process simulation was performed using the NGL
recovery/dehydration process 700 shown in FIG. 6. The simulation was performed using the Bryan Research and Engineering ProMax software package. The NGL
recovery/dehydration process 700 separated the compressed carbon dioxide recycle stream 158 into the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream 164, the NGL rich stream 162, and the acid gas stream 770. The specified values are indicated by an asterisk (*).
The material streams, their compositions, and the associated energy streams produced by the simulation are provided in tables 10, 11, and 12 below, respectively.
Compressed Purified Cooled Carbon CarbonCarbon Dioxide Name Dioxide Dioxide Recycle Recycle Recycle Stream 752 Stream 158 Stream 164 Temperature ( F) 110 55 72.0898 Pressure (psig) 535 532 526.909 Mole Fraction Vapor (%) 100 97.1149 100 Mole Fraction Light Liquid (%) 0 2.63789 0 Mole Fraction Heavy Liquid (%) 0 0.247192 0 Molecular Weight (lb/lbmol) 34.5734 34.5734 33.2372 Molar Flow (lbmol/hr) 143.165 143.165 136.153 Vapor Volumetric Flow (ft3/hr) 1369.35 1144.29 1217.29 Liquid Volumetric Flow (gpm) 170.725 142.665 151.766 Std Vapor Volumetric Flow 1.30389 1.30389 1.24003 (MMSCFD) Std Liquid Volumetric Flow (sgpm) 16.1721 16.1721 14.7954 Enthalpy (Btu/hr) -1.54233E+07 -1.55479E+07 -1.49692E+07 Net Ideal Gas Heating Value 512.476 512.476 391.24 (Btu/ft3) Table 10A: Material Streams Cooled, Purified Dehydrated Carbon NGL
Rich NameVapor Recycle Dioxide Stream 162 Stream 726 Recycle Stream 758 Temperature ( F) -4.70484 54.9077 121.117 Pressure (psig) 529.909 531 438.3 Mole Fraction Vapor (%) 100 99.9993 0 Mole Fraction Light Liquid (%) 0 0.000671338 100 Mole Fraction Heavy Liquid (%) 0 0 0 Molecular Weight (lb/lbmol) 33.2372 33.941 65.1996 Molar Flow (lbmol/hr) 136.153 138.957 5.97957 Vapor Volumetric Flow (ft3/hr) 880.68 1140.73 10.8305 Liquid Volumetric Flow (gpm) 109.799 142.221 1.35029 Std Vapor Volumetric Flow 1.24003 1.26557 0.0544597 (MMSCFD) Std Liquid Volumetric Flow (sgpm) 14.7954 15.4591 1.2954 Enthalpy (Btu/hr) -1.50938E+07 -1.51048E+07 -405001 Net Ideal Gas Heating Value 391.24 463.982 3359.57 (Btu/ft3) Table 10B: Material Streams Sour NGL
Cooled, Sour Aqueous Fluid Name Rich Stream NGL Rich Stream 732 764 Stream Temperature ( F) 54.9077 262.193 120 Pressure (psig) 531 531.909 521.909 Mole Fraction Vapor (%) 0 0 0 Mole Fraction Light Liquid (%) 100 100 100 Mole Fraction Heavy Liquid (%) 0 0 0 Molecular Weight (lb/lbmol) 18.2988 63.2785 63.2785 Molar Flow (lbmol/hr) 0.354052 6.58207 6.58207 Vapor Volumetric Flow (ft3/hr) 0.103218 14.3659 11.2331 Liquid Volumetric Flow (gpm) 0.0128688 1.79107 1.40049 Std Vapor Volumetric Flow 0.00322458 0.0599471 0.0599471 (MMSCFD) Std Liquid Volumetric Flow (sgpm) 0.013039 1.36091 1.36091 Enthalpy (Btu/hr) -43829.7 -468892 -508612 Net Ideal Gas Heating Value 0.450311 3053.71 3053.71 (Btu/ft3) Table 10C: Material Streams Low-Pressure Sour NGL
NameAcid Gases 770 Rich Stream Temperature ( F) 120.145 120 Pressure (psig) 441.3 12.3041 Mole Fraction Vapor (%) 0 100 Mole Fraction Light Liquid (%) 100 0 Mole Fraction Heavy Liquid (%) 0 0 Molecular Weight (lb/lbmol) 63.2785 42.366 Molar Flow (lbmol/hr) 6.58207 0.645859 Vapor Volumetric Flow (ft3/hr) 11.2586 147.542 Liquid Volumetric Flow (gpm) 1.40367 18.3949 Std Vapor Volumetric Flow 0.0599471 0.00588224 (MMSCFD) Std Liquid Volumetric Flow (sgpm) 1.36091 0.0667719 Enthalpy (Btuihr) -508612 -106053 Net Ideal Gas Heating Value 3053.71 9.39946 (Btu/ft3) Table 10D: Material Streams Compressed Purified Cooled Carbon CarbonCarbon Dioxide Name Dioxide Dioxide Recycle Recycle Recycle Stream 752 Stream 158 Stream Comp Molar Flow H2S (lbmm/hr) 0 0 0 Comp Molar Flow Nitrogen 5.42488 5.42488 5.42487 (lbrom/hr) Comp Molar Flow CO2(lbmoi/hr) 78.374 78.374 77.7679 Comp Molar Flow Methane 46.8833 46.8833 46.8831 (113õ,m/hr) Comp Molar Flow Ethane (lbmoi/hr) 5.04264 5.04264 4.97376 Comp Molar Flow Propane (lbrom/hr) 2.60218 2.60218 1.06689 Comp Molar Flow i-Butane 0.632167 0.632167 0.0262049 (11),,,,j/hr) Comp Molar Flow n-Butane 1.01441 1.01441 0.0106494 (lbomi/hr) Comp Molar Flow i-Pentane 0.543958 0.543958 2.47836E-05 (lbrom/hr) Comp Molar Flow n-Pentane 0.27933 0.27933 6.5645E-06 (11)õ,m/hr) Comp Molar Flow n-Hexane 1.94061 1.94061 6.8325E-08 (lbrom/hr) Comp Molar Flow n-Heptane 0 0 0 Compressed Purified Cooled Carbon Carbon Carbon Dioxide Name Dioxide Dioxide Recycle Recycle Recycle Stream 752 Stream 158 Stream 164 (1b,,,,i/hr) Comp Molar Flow H20 (lbnahr) 0.427428 0.427428 1.88221E-05 Comp Molar Flow Diethyle Amine 0 0 0 (lbmoi/hr) Table 11A: Stream Compositions Cooled, Purified Dehydrated Carbon NGL
Rich Name Vapor Recycle Dioxide Stream 162 Stream 726 Recycle Stream 758 Comp Molar Flow H2S (lbmoi/hr) 0 0 0 Comp Molar Flow Nitrogen 5.42487 5.41324 5.81573E-(lbmoi/hr) _ Comp Molar Flow CO2(11).01/hr) 77.7679 77.1797 1.75658E-06 Comp Molar Flow Methane 46.8831 46.6143 2.21379E-(11),õõi/hr) Comp Molar Flow Ethane (lbmoi/hr) 4.97376 4.89657 0.068452 Comp Molar Flow Propane (lbmoi/hr) 1.06689 2.39516 1.53245 Comp Molar Flow i-Butane 0.0262049 0.529946 0.605608 (lbmoi/hr) Comp Molar Flow n-Butane 0.0106494 0.799268 1.00312 (lbmoi/hr) Comp Molar Flow i-Pentane 2.47836E-05 0.345064 0.543843 (lbniciihr) Comp Molar Flow n-Pentane 6.5645E-06 0.161123 0.279274 (11).01/hr) Comp Molar Flow n-Hexane 6.8325E-08 0.622204 1.9405 (lbmoi/hr) Comp Molar Flow n-Heptane 0 0 0 (lbmoi/hr) Comp Molar Flow H2O (lbmoi/hr) , 1.88221E-05 0.000761257 0.0062375 Comp Molar Flow Diethyle Amine 0 0 7.30571E-05 (lbahr) Table 11B: Stream Compositions , Sour NGL Cooled, Sour Aqueous Fluid NameRich Stream NGL
Rich Stream 732 Stream 766 Comp Molar Flow H2S (lbmoi/hr) 0 0 0 Sour NGL
Cooled, Sour Aqueous Fluid Name Rich Stream NGL Rich Stream 732 764 Stream Comp Molar Flow Nitrogen 7.93825E-06 5.94147E-09 5.94147E-09 (lbnahr) Comp Molar Flow CO2 (lbnahr) 0.00385078 0.602328 0.602328 Comp Molar Flow Methane 0.000125243 2.25954E-05 2.25954E-05 (lbrnol/hr) Comp Molar Flow Ethane (lbn,õ1/hr) 1.31496E-05 0.0688655 0.0688655 Comp Molar Flow Propane (lbmoi/hr) 6.92895E-06 1.53528 1.53528 Comp Molar Flow i-Butane 4.43906E-07 0.605962 0.605962 (lbmcd/hr) Comp Molar Flow n-Butane 1.35201E-06 1.00376 1.00376 (lbmot/hr) Comp Molar Flow i-Pentane 3.68843E-07 0.543932 0.543932 (lbnahr) Comp Molar Flow n-Pentane 1.57397E-07 0.279323 0.279323 (lbmcd/hr) Comp Molar Flow n-Hexane 1.94686E-07 1.9406 1.9406 (lbnahr) Comp Molar Flow n-Heptane 0 0 0 (lbrnoi/hr) Comp Molar Flow H2O (lbn,,,i/hr) 0.350046 0.00199881 0.00199881 Comp Molar Flow Diethyle Amine 0 0 0 (lbrnoiihr) Table 11C: Stream Compositions Low-Pressure Sour NGL
NameAcid Gases 770 Rich Stream Comp Molar Flow H2S (lbnahr) 0 0 Comp Molar Flow Nitrogen 5.94147E-09 0 (lbnahr) Comp Molar Flow CO2 (lbmoi/hr) 0.602328 0.602272 Comp Molar Flow Methane 2.25954E-05 2A258E-07 (lbniol/hr) Comp Molar Flow Ethane (lbn,01/hr) 0.0688655 0.000254578 Comp Molar Flow Propane (1b,,,õ1/hr) 1.53528 0.00159919 Comp Molar Flow i-Butane 0.605962 0.00016306 Comp Molar Flow n-Butane 1.00376 0.000353691 (lbmoihr) Comp Molar Flow i-Pentane 0.543932 3.41627E-05 (lbnahr) Low-Pressure Sour NGL
NameAcid Gases 770 Rich Stream Comp Molar Flow n-Pentane 0.279323 2.16905E-05 (1b,õ01/hr) Comp Molar Flow n-Hexane 1.9406 4.4341E-05 (lbmoi/hr) Comp Molar Flow n-Heptane 0 0 (1b,õõi/hr) Comp Molar Flow H20 (lbmolihr) 0.00199881 0.0411157 Comp Molar Flow Diethyle Amine 0 4.17895E-20 (lbmoiihr) Table 11D: Stream Compositions Name Heat Flow (Btu/hr) Condenser Energy Stream 782 320524 Reboiler Energy Stream 784 253961 Table 12: Energy Streams In a fifth example, the process simulation was continued for the NGL upgrade process 500 shown in FIG. 4. The simulation was performed using the Aspen Tech.
HYSYS Version 7.2 (previously Hyprotech Ltd. HYSYS) software package. The NGL
upgrade process 500 separates the NGL rich stream 162 into the heavy NGL
stream 172 and the light NGL stream 174. In the following tables and results, the low-pressure sour NGL
rich stream 268 has the composition as determined by the simulation model of the low-pressure sour NGL rich stream 768 from Example 4. Similarly, the acid gas stream 270 has the composition as determined by the simulation model of the acid gas stream 770 from Example 4. In addition, the NGL rich stream 162 has the composition as determined by the simulation model of the NGL rich stream 162 from Example 4. The material streams, their compositions, and the associated energy streams produced by the simulation are provided in tables 13, 14, and 15 below, respectively.

Low-Pressure Sour NGL Acid Gas NGL
Rich Name Rich Stream Stream 270 Stream , Vapor Fraction 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 Temperature (F) 120.145 120.0 94.16 Pressure (psig) 441.3 12.3041 250.0 Molar Flow (MMSCFD) , 0.321888 5.8822e-002 1.019 Mass Flow (lb/hr) . 416.5033 27.362473 7567 Standard Liquid Volume Flow 46.6598 2.2893 840.0 (barrel/day) .
Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -508612 -106053 -7.920e+006 Table 13A: Material Streams Overhead Heavy NGL Light NGL
Name Stream 524 Stream 514 Stream Vapor Fraction 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Temperature (F) 185.7 270.6 134.0 Pressure (psig) 160.0 165.0 155.0 Molar Flow (MMSCFD) 0.3687 0.6507 0.3687 Mass Flow (lb/hr) 2186 5381 2186 Standard Liquid Volume Flow 266.4 576.5 266.4 (barrel/day) Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -2.029e+006 -4.885e+006 -2.367e+006 Table 13B: Material Streams Cooled, Heavy Name NGL Stream Vapor Fraction 0.0000 Temperature (F) 100.0 Pressure (psig) 160.0 Molar Flow (MMSCFD) 0.6507 Mass Flow (lb/hr) 5381 Standard Liquid Volume Flow 576.5 (barrel/day) Heat Flow (Btu/hr) -5.478e+006 Table 13C: Material Streams Low-Pressure Sour NGL Acid Gas NGL
Rich Name Rich Stream Stream 270 Stream Comp Mole Frac (H25) 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0000 Low-Pressure Sour NGL Acid Gas NGL Rich Name Rich Stream Stream 270 Stream Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.09151 0.93251 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.00000 0.00000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.01046 0.00039 0.0027 Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.23325 0.00248 0.1653 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) 0.09206 0.00025 0.0756 Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.15250 0.00055 0.2423 Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.08264 0.00005 0.1092 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.04244 0.00003 0.0915 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.29483 0.00007 0.2943 Comp Mole Frac (n-Heptane) 0.00000 0.00000 0.0191 Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) -- -- 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (H20) 0.00030 0.06366 0.0000 Table 14A: Stream Compositions Overhead Heavy NGL Light NGL
Name Stream 524 Stream 514 Stream Comp Mole Frac (H2S) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.0075 0.0000 0.0075 Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.4547 0.0013 0.4547 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) 0.1330 0.0431 0.1330 Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.2751 0.2236 0.2751 Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.0486 0.1435 0.0486 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.0359 0.1230 0.0359 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.0437 0.4363 0.0437 Comp Mole Frac (n-Heptane) 0.0013 0.0292 0.0013 Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (H2O) 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Table 14B: Stream Compositions Cooled, Heavy Name NGL Stream Comp Mole Frac (H2S) 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Nitrogen) 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (CO2) 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Methane) 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (Ethane) 0.0000 Cooled, Heavy Name NGL Stream Comp Mole Frac (Propane) 0.0013 Comp Mole Frac (i-Butane) 0.0431 Comp Mole Frac (n-Butane) 0.2236 Comp Mole Frac (i-Pentane) 0.1435 Comp Mole Frac (n-Pentane) 0.1230 Comp Mole Frac (n-Hexane) 0.4363 Comp Mole Frac (n-Heptane) 0.0292 Comp Mole Frac (n-Octane) 0.0000 Comp Mole Frac (H20) 0.0000 Table 14C: Stream Compositions Name Heat Flow (Btu/hr) Reboiler Energy Stream 516 25.4 x 103 Cooling Fluid Stream 522 39.72 x 103 Table 15: Energy Streams At least one embodiment is disclosed and variations, combinations, and/or modifications of the embodiment(s) and/or features of the embodiment(s) made by a person having ordinary skill in the art are within the scope of the disclosure.
Alternative embodiments that result from combining, integrating, and/or omitting features of the embodiment(s) are also within the scope of the disclosure. Where numerical ranges or limitations are expressly stated, such express ranges or limitations should be understood to include iterative ranges or limitations of like magnitude falling within the expressly stated ranges or limitations (e.g., from about 1 to about 10 includes, 2, 3, 4, etc.;
greater than 0.10 includes 0.11, 0.12, 0.13, etc.). For example, whenever a numerical range with a lower limit, RI, and an upper limit, Ru, is disclosed, any number falling within the range is specifically disclosed. In particular, the following numbers within the range are specifically disclosed: R = R1 + k * (Ru - R1), wherein k is a variable ranging from 1 percent to 100 percent with a 1 percent increment, e.g., k is 1 percent, 2 percent, 3 percent, 4 percent, 5 percent, ..., 50 percent, 51 percent, 52 percent, ..., 95 percent, 96 percent, 97 percent, 98 percent, 99 percent, or 100 percent. Moreover, any numerical range defined by two R
numbers as defined in the above is also specifically disclosed. Use of the term "optionally"
with respect to any element of a claim means that the element is required, or alternatively, the element is not required, both alternatives being within the scope of the claim. Use of broader terms such as comprises, includes, and having should be understood to provide support for narrower terms such as consisting of, consisting essentially of, and comprised substantially of. Accordingly, the scope of protection is not limited by the description set out above but is defined by the claims that follow, that scope including all equivalents of the subject matter of the claims. Each and every claim is incorporated as further disclosure into the specification and the claims are embodiment(s) of the present disclosure.
The discussion of a reference in the disclosure is not an admission that it is prior art, especially any reference that has a publication date after the priority date of this application. The disclosure of all patents, patent applications, and publications cited in the disclosure are hereby incorporated by reference, to the extent that they provide exemplary, procedural, or other details supplementary to the disclosure.
While several embodiments have been provided in the present disclosure, it should be understood that the disclosed systems and methods might be embodied in many other specific forms without departing from the spirit or scope of the present disclosure. The present examples are to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive, and the intention is not to be limited to the details given herein. For example, the various elements or components may be combined or integrated in another system or certain features may be omitted, or not implemented.

In addition, techniques, systems, subsystems, and methods described and illustrated in the various embodiments as discrete or separate may be combined or integrated with other systems, modules, techniques, or methods without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.
Other items shown or discussed as coupled or directly coupled or communicating with each other may be indirectly coupled or communicating through some interface, device, or intermediate component whether electrically, mechanically, or otherwise. Other examples of changes, substitutions, and alterations arc ascertainable by one skilled in the art.

Claims (28)

CLAIMS:
1. A method comprising:
receiving a feed stream comprising hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide;
cooling the feed stream with a purified carbon dioxide-rich stream;
separating the cooled feed stream into a vapor stream, a liquid stream, and a water stream in a three-phase separator;
adding a dehydration solvent to the vapor stream;
subsequently removing the dehydration solvent from the vapor stream to produce a dry vapor stream, wherein the dry vapor stream is substantially free of water; and directing the dry vapor stream and the liquid stream to a column, wherein the column produces a natural gas liquids (NGL) rich stream and the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream, wherein the NGL rich stream comprises C3+ hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide, and wherein the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream comprises less than 5 molar percent C3 hydrocarbons and at least 90 molar percent carbon dioxide.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising sending the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream to a compressor that compresses the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream until the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream is suitable for injection into a subterranean formation, wherein the compressed purified carbon dioxide-rich stream is subsequently injected into the subterranean formation, and wherein the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream is not demethanized between being produced by the column and being injected into the subterranean formation.
3. The method of claim 1, further comprising sweetening the NGL rich stream by separating the NGL-rich stream into a sweet NGL rich stream and an acid gas stream.
4. The method of claim 3, further comprising:
cooling the NGL rich stream prior to sweetening the NGL rich stream;
throttling the NGL rich stream prior to sweetening the NGL rich stream, and wherein receiving the feed stream comprises receiving a plurality of the feed streams from a plurality of different natural gas liquid sources.
5. The method of claim 3, wherein the sweet NGL rich stream comprises no more than 5 molar percent hydrogen sulfide.
6. The method of claim 4, further comprising:
separating heavy hydrocarbons from the feed stream prior to cooling the feed stream, wherein the heavy hydrocarbons comprise C9+ hydrocarbons, branched hydrocarbons, and/or aromatic hydrocarbons;
separating the sweet NGL rich stream into a heavy NGL stream and a light NGL
stream;
and mixing the heavy NGL stream with the heavy hydrocarbons.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein the light NGL stream has a vapor pressure of less than 250 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) at a temperature of 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
8. The method of claim 6, further comprising combining a second NGL rich stream with the NGL
rich stream and/or the sweet NGL-rich stream prior to separating the sweet NGL
rich stream.
9. A plurality of process equipment configured to:
receive a feed stream comprising hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide;
cool the feed stream with a purified carbon dioxide-rich stream;
separate the cooled feed stream into a vapor stream, a liquid stream, and a water stream in a three-phase separator; and direct the vapor stream and the liquid stream to a column, wherein the column produces a natural gas liquids (NGL) rich stream and the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream, and wherein the NGL rich stream comprises C3+ hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide, wherein the process equipment is further configured to:
separate heavy hydrocarbons from the feed stream prior to cooling the feed stream, wherein the heavy hydrocarbons comprise C9+ hydrocarbons;
separate the NGL rich stream into a heavy NGL stream and a light NGL stream;
and mix at least a portion of the heavy NGL stream with the heavy hydrocarbons.
10. The process equipment of claim 9, wherein the process equipment is further configured to combine a second NGL rich stream with the NGL rich stream prior to separating the NGL rich stream.
11. The method of claim 1, wherein the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream is not subjected to any process steps other than reflux between being produced by the column and cooling the feed stream.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the feed stream, the cooled feed stream, the liquid stream, and the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream are not subjected to cryogenic conditions, membranes, and carbon dioxide recovery solvents.
13. A plurality of process equipment configured to:
receive a feed stream comprising hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide;
cool the feed stream with a purified carbon dioxide-rich stream;
separate the cooled feed stream into a vapor stream, a liquid stream, and a water stream in a three-phase separator; and direct the vapor stream and the liquid stream to a column, wherein the column produces a natural gas liquids (NGL) rich stream and the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream, and wherein the NGL rich stream comprises C3+ hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide.
14. The process equipment of claim 13, wherein the purified carbon dioxide recycle stream is not subjected to any process steps other than reflux between being produced by the column and cooling the feed stream.
15. The process equipment of claim 14, wherein the process equipment is further configured to send the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream to a compressor that compresses the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream until the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream is suitable for injection into a subterranean formation, wherein the compressed purified carbon dioxide-rich stream is subsequently injected into the subterranean formation, and wherein the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream is not demethanized between being produced by the column and being injected into the subterranean formation.
16. The process equipment of claim 15, wherein the process equipment is further configured to:
add a dehydration solvent to the vapor stream; and subsequently remove the dehydration solvent from the vapor stream to produce a dry vapor stream, wherein the dry vapor stream is substantially free of water, wherein the dry vapor stream is directed to the column.
17. The process equipment of claim 16, wherein the process equipment is further configured to sweeten the NGL rich stream, thereby producing a sweet NGL rich stream.
18. The process equipment of claim 17, wherein the process equipment is further configured to:
cool the NGL rich stream prior to sweetening the NGL rich stream; and throttle the NGL rich stream prior to sweetening the NGL rich stream.
19. The method of claim 1, wherein the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream comprises at least 99 molar percent of the methane from the feed stream.
20. The method of claim 2, wherein the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream is not subjected to any solvents, membranes, or cryogenic conditions between being produced by the column and being injected into the subterranean formation.
21. The process equipment of claim 17, wherein the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream comprises at least 99 molar percent of the methane from the feed stream.
22. The process equipment of claim 21, wherein the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream is not subjected to any solvents, membranes, or cryogenic conditions between being produced by the column and being injected into the subterranean formation.
23. The method of claim 1, further comprising dehydrating the liquid stream after separating the liquid phase in the three-phase separator and before directing the liquid stream to the column.
24. The method of claim 1, further comprising sending the NGL rich stream to a heat exchanger and a throttle valve to reduce a temperature and a pressure of the NGL rich stream and then separating the NGL rich stream into an acid gas stream and a sweet NGL rich stream, wherein the acid gas stream comprises substantially all of the hydrogen sulfide from the feed stream.
25. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
sending the NGL rich stream to a separator to separate the NGL rich stream into a light NGL rich stream and a heavy NGL rich stream; and blending the heavy NGL rich stream from the separator with a heavy hydrocarbon stream to produce an upgraded NGL rich stream.
26. The method of claim 25, wherein the separator comprises a stripping column and a reboiler, and wherein the reboiler comprises a shell and tube heat exchanger coupled to a hot oil heater.
27. The method of claim 25, wherein the heavy hydrocarbon stream is separated from the feed stream before the feed stream is cooled.
28. A plurality of process equipment configured to:
receive a feed stream comprising hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide;
cool the feed stream with a purified carbon dioxide-rich stream;
separate the cooled feed stream into a vapor stream, a liquid stream, and a water stream in a three-phase separator; and direct the vapor stream and the liquid stream to a column, wherein the column produces a natural gas liquids (NGL) rich stream and the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream, and wherein the NGL rich stream comprises C3+ hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide, wherein the purified carbon dioxide-rich stream comprises less than 5 molar percent C3 hydrocarbons and at least 90 molar percent carbon dioxide.
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